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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014

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Calculation of Power Transfer Limit Considering Electro-Thermal Coupling of Overhead Transmission Line

Xiaoming Dong, Member, IEEE , Chengfu Wang, Jun Liang, Xueshan Han, Feng Zhang, Hua Sun, Mengxia Wang, and Jingguo Ren

Abstract— In this paper, new formulations of the power ow and continuation power ow that allow for electro-thermal coupling in transmission lines have been proposed. The new formulations capture the overhead lines’ electro-thermal coupling effects by treating their series resistances as temperature dependent vari- ables. They generate results that can differ from the results of conventional formulations markedly, particularly for problems centring on line impedances. T he paper demonstrates this by applying the new formulations to the power transfer limit cal- culation. Generally, power transfer limits are dened either by encountering a line’s thermal limit or detecting the onset of voltage collapse in the system. Studies based on 2-bus and 14-bus test systems are used to demonstrate the ef cacy of the new formula- tions for both situations. For these studies, speci c point-to-point power transfer limits are calculated with and without the lines’ electro-thermal coupling effects and the results are compared.

Index Terms— Continuation method, electro-thermal coupling, power ow, saddle-node bifurcation, thermal limit.

I. I NTRODUCTION

A central problem in electricity markets is establishing the maximum power that can be safely transferred between a

generating plant and a load center, known as the power transfer limit (PTL). In PTL formulation, the PTL is reached when the temperature, or alternatively the current, of a transmission line reaches its allowable level, called thermal limit (TL) [1]–[8]. Al- ternatively, with the rampant increase in voltage stability (VS) problems, the PTL could be de ned by encountering a system voltage collapse point, also known as the saddle-node bifurca- tion (SNB) point [9]–[13]. In either case, values of the PTLs are heavily in uenced by the characteristics of the lines forming the power network.

Manuscript received August 12, 2012; re vised December 19, 2012, April 24, 2013, August 18, 2013, and October 08, 2013; accepted December 17, 2013. Date of publication January 10, 2014; date of current version June 16, 2014. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51307101, 51177091, and 51077087), the Science-Technology Founda- tion for Middle-aged and Young Scientist of Shandong Province, China (No. BS2013NJ011). Paper no. TPWRS-00833-2012.

X. Dong and C. Wang are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Ts-

inghua University, Beijing 100084, China (e-mail: dong.xiaoming@126.com).

J. Liang, X. Han, F. Zhang, M. Wang, and J. Ren are with the School of

Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China (e-mail:

liangjun@sdu.edu.cn).

H. Sun is with the Department of Electrical Automation, Shandong Labour

Vocational and Technology College, Jinan 250022, China.

Digital Object Identi er 10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2296553

An effective method for PTL evaluation is the power ow (PF) simulation. It involves gradual increases in power demands at receiving buses, while maintain the power balance by ad- justing outputs of sending generators, until a device operating limit is encountered. In some cas es, before encountering an op- erating limit, the system state approaches an SNB point, ren- dering the PF Jacobian matrix ill-conditioned and the PF iter- ations non-convergent. An app roach that allows running PFs very close to an SNB point is the continuation power ow (CPF) [14]–[19], which is based on the principles of the Continuation Method (CM). In the conventional PF and CPF formulations, line series re- sistances are treated as xed, ignoring their variations with line currents. This approximation intr oduces an error in the resulting PTLs that, for certain class of power grids, could be signi cant. Therefore, an objective of this p aper is to indicate how large such errors can become and which power grids tend to mag- nify them. Note that, as the primary focus of this study is on the relationships among line curre nt, temperature, and series re- sistance, impacts of atmospheric/meteorological conditions on these quantities are ignored here. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II reveals that, even for a primitive power system, line resis- tance changes alter the SNB point. In Section III, steady-state electro-thermal coupling (ETC ) equations [2]–[8] are derived from dynamic heat balance relations of overhead transmission lines (OTL). Using the analyses of Sections II and III, in Section IV the ETC power ow (ETC-PF) model is proposed. Then, in Section V ow diagrams detailing the steps com- prising the ETC-PF and ETC-CPF procedures are presented. Section VI deploys two case s tudies to show the degree at which PTL values can be in uenced by the new formulations. In Section VII, the main results are summarized and key con- clusions are recapped.

II. SNB A NALYSIS W ITH C HANGING R ESISTANCE

In Fig. 1,

SNB A NALYSIS W ITH C HANGING R ESISTANCE In Fig. 1, is the voltage source

is the voltage source magnitude;

R ESISTANCE In Fig. 1, is the voltage source magnitude; is the branch series impedance; and

is the branch series impedance; andR ESISTANCE In Fig. 1, is the voltage source magnitude; is the load impedance. As shown

is the load impedance. As shown in (1), the critical value of

the power demand

determined by

, and .
, and
.

, de ning the SNB, is solely

determined by , and . , de fi ning the SNB, is solely (1) 0885-8950 ©
determined by , and . , de fi ning the SNB, is solely (1) 0885-8950 ©

(1)

0885-8950 © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publi cations/rights/index.ht ml for more information.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014 Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a simple radial power system. Fig. 2. Relationship between and
Fig. 1.
Schematic diagram of a simple radial power system.
Fig. 2.
Relationship between
and
.
Fig. 3.
Relationship between
and
.

III. S TEADY -S TATE ETC

It is assumed that all overhead conductors (OCs) of a three- phase OTL operate nearly under the same atmospheric/mete- orological conditions and have the same physical properties, counting the thermal ones. The dynamic heat balance equations for each OC are the same and are expressed as follows:

(4) (5) (6) (7) In the above relations, is the length of the OC; is
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
In the above relations,
is the length of the OC;
is its unit
weight;
,
and
represent the manufacturer-supplied ref-

erence values for resistance, temperature, and temperature co-

efcient, respectively;

resistance, temperature and current, respectively;

is the heat capacity of its material, whileresistance, temperature and current, respectively; and is is its radiation rate. For systems with slow varying

andrespectively; is the heat capacity of its material, while is is its radiation rate. For systems

is

is its

radiation rate. For systems with slow varying demands, one can assume

. That is, the OTLs heat balance dynamics can berate. For systems with slow varying demands, one can assume ignored, as they are generally slow,

ignored, as they are generally slow, long-term, processes. That

its absorbed heat rate;

cients, respectively. For each per unit length of the OC,

are its convective and radiation heat transfer coef-cients, respectively. For each per unit length of the OC, is its am- are the OC

is its am-

are the OC actual series

, andheat transfer coef- is its am- are the OC actual series bient temperature; is its convective

transfer coef- is its am- are the OC actual series , and bient temperature; is its
transfer coef- is its am- are the OC actual series , and bient temperature; is its

bient temperature;

is its am- are the OC actual series , and bient temperature; is its convective heat
is its am- are the OC actual series , and bient temperature; is its convective heat

is its convective heat rate and

removes time, , from the equations, allowing (4) to be restated as (8) Since and
removes time,
, from the equations, allowing (4) to be restated
as
(8)
Since
and
of the
th OTL are per-unit quantities, it fol-
lows that

with

(9)

th OTL are per-unit quantities, it fol- lows that with (9) ” refers to the ,
th OTL are per-unit quantities, it fol- lows that with (9) ” refers to the ,

” refers to the

,
,

th OTL and

(10)

(11)

(12)

with

with (9) ” refers to the , th OTL and (10) (11) (12) with (2) The

(2)

The sensitivity of

to changes in
to changes in
and (10) (11) (12) with (2) The sensitivity of to changes in is given by where

is given by

where index “

line’s per-unit values for

system base MVA;

, , and , respectively; th OTL; and
, , and
, respectively;
th OTL; and

are

is the

th

represents

(3), and , respectively; th OTL; and are is the th represents , and is the

, and

is the phase base impedance of the

With the assumption that

is the phase base impedance of the With the assumption that per unit (p.u.) and and

per unit (p.u.) and

and

OTL;of the With the assumption that per unit (p.u.) and and is the base voltage of

of the With the assumption that per unit (p.u.) and and OTL; is the base voltage

is the base voltage of the

is shown inthat per unit (p.u.) and and OTL; is the base voltage of the Fig. 2. When

Fig. 2. When the load power factor is xed, an increase in

causes

increases

with higher power factors. To reduce power loss and provide voltage support, shunt capacito rs are deployed extensively at buses serving large loads. Hence, load buses are usually oper-

to have

ated at high power factors, causing the increases in

higher impacts on

p.u., the relationship between

in higher impacts on p.u., the relationship between to decline. both the line base current and

to decline.

both the line base current and the phase base current of the

OTL under the assumption that the three-phase OTL is star con- nected. Then, (9) is expressed in its compact form by

th

As shown in Fig. 3, the sensitivity of

to
to

(13)compact form by th As shown in Fig. 3, the sensitivity of to The assumption that

The assumption that all OTL conductors are constructed from the same material implies their thermal characteristics are the

same and a single set of parameters can be used to de ne them.

implies their thermal characteristics are the same and a single set of parameters can be used
implies their thermal characteristics are the same and a single set of parameters can be used

and

.
.

DONG et al. : CALCULATION OF POWER TRANSFER LIMIT CONSID ERING ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE

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TABLE I

L INE T HERMAL B EHAVIOR C OEFFICIENT

1505 TABLE I L INE T HERMAL B EHAVIOR C OEFFICIENT TABLE II L INE P

TABLE II

L INE P ARAMETERS

B EHAVIOR C OEFFICIENT TABLE II L INE P ARAMETERS Fig. 4. Diagram of the relationship
B EHAVIOR C OEFFICIENT TABLE II L INE P ARAMETERS Fig. 4. Diagram of the relationship

Fig. 4. Diagram of the relationship among

,
,

, and

.
.

Table I contains the parameters used in Section VI to analyze case studies. The line parameters are set as shown in Table II.

increase approximately linearly

As shown in Fig. 4, with increases in .
As shown in Fig. 4,
with increases in
.

and

linearly As shown in Fig. 4, with increases in . and IV. ETC P OWER F

IV. ETC P OWER F LOW

With all of line parameters expressed as per-unit values, the conventional PF equations are expressed as

(14) where is the total number of network buses; and are the active power and
(14)
where
is the total number of network buses;
and
are the
active power and reactive power injected into network at bus
,
respectively;
is the voltage magnitude at bus
;
is the phase angle between complex bus voltages
and
; and
are the self-conductance and self-suscep-
tance at bus
, respectively; and
and
are the mutual

conductance and mutual susceptance, respectively, between bus

and where
and
where

. In its compact form, (14) is expressed as follows:

where . In its compact form, (14) is expressed as follows: (15) (16) (17) When conductance
where . In its compact form, (14) is expressed as follows: (15) (16) (17) When conductance

(15)

(16)

(17)

When conductance and susceptance are expressed in terms of resistance and reactance (18) (19) where
When conductance and susceptance are expressed in terms of
resistance and reactance
(18)
(19)
where
and
are the resistance and reactance, respec-
tively, between bus
and bus
. Under the assumption that the
th OTL is star connected, the phase current is equal to the line
current and is expressed as follows:
(20)

(20)

where

indicates that bus

and bus

are the terminal

are the terminal

buses of the following equations ar e derived from (20): th OTL and is expressed

buses of the

following equations ar e derived from (20):

th OTL and

buses of the following equations ar e derived from (20): th OTL and is expressed in

is expressed in form of

buses of the following equations ar e derived from (20): th OTL and is expressed in

. The

(21)

(21)

Equation (18) is abbreviated as follows:

 
  (22)
 

(22)

Equation (23) is derived from (13) and (22):

 
(23)

(23)

The equations in (24), which treat OTL series resistances as PF variables, represent the ETC-PF model:

. . . (24) . . . where is the number of OTLs. Vector represents
.
.
.
(24)
.
.
.
where
is the number of OTLs. Vector
represents the series
resistances:
number of OTLs. Vector represents the series resistances: (25) The ETC-PF solution vector, vectors , and

(25)

The ETC-PF solution vector,

vectors

,
,

and

the series resistances: (25) The ETC-PF solution vector, vectors , and ; that is , is

; that is

, is comprised of the unknownnumber of OTLs. Vector represents the series resistances: (25) The ETC-PF solution vector, vectors , and

(26)represents the series resistances: (25) The ETC-PF solution vector, vectors , and ; that is ,

1506

To solve the nonlinear, algebraic, equations in (24), the iter- ative scheme of (27) is deployed:

(27) where and represent the steps of the iterations. The following inequality is used as
(27)
where
and
represent the steps of the iterations.
The following inequality is used as the convergence standard
of the Newton iteration process:

(28)the convergence standard of the Newton iteration process: where is a small positive number that is

where

standard of the Newton iteration process: (28) where is a small positive number that is given

is a small positive number that is given in advance.

represents the extended Jacobian matrix, which is

In (27),

expressed as follows:

Jacobian matrix, which is In (27), expressed as follows: (29) where is the conventional Jacobian matrix.

(29)

where is the conventional Jacobian matrix. The elements of the matrix are given by the
where
is the conventional Jacobian matrix. The elements of
the matrix
are given by the following relations:
(30)

with

the matrix are given by the following relations: (30) with (31) The elements of the matrix

(31)

The elements of the matrix lowing relations:

are given by the fol-(30) with (31) The elements of the matrix lowing relations: (32) with (33) The elements of

of the matrix lowing relations: are given by the fol- (32) with (33) The elements of

(32)

with

the matrix lowing relations: are given by the fol- (32) with (33) The elements of the

(33)

The elements of the matrix relations:

are given by the followingfol- (32) with (33) The elements of the matrix relations: (34) with The elements of the

(34) with
(34)
with

The elements of the matrix relations:

(35)

are given by the following(34) with The elements of the matrix relations: (35) (36) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL.

of the matrix relations: (35) are given by the following (36) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS,

(36)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014

with

ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014 with (37) V. ETC-PF AND ETC-CPF P
ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014 with (37) V. ETC-PF AND ETC-CPF P

(37)

V. ETC-PF AND ETC-CPF P ROCEDURES

To avoid ill-conditioning problems at and near the SNB, the ETC-CPF model is derived (see the Appendix). Then, a com- puter program consisting of th e ETC-PF and ETC-CPF models is designed, and its ow diagram is given in Fig. 5. At the begin- ning of ETC-PF, an initial point must be given for the iteration process. Variables representing line series resistances are initial- ized to their rated values. Voltage magnitudes and voltage angles are initialized for a “ at start”. Through iter ative calculation, the numerical solutions of the ETC-PF equations and the base point

of ETC-CPF

are obtained. This ba se point is generally

in accordance with typical syst em operating co nditions such as winter peak or summer peak. Once the base point is given, with alternating predictor and corrector steps, the ETC-CPF model

traces the solutions of the parametric load ow equation as

changes (

electric power demand and gener ation are increased gradually

). It simulates the process where the

increased gradually ). It simulates the process where the , until the SNB is reached .
increased gradually ). It simulates the process where the , until the SNB is reached .
,
,

until the SNB is reached

.
.

VI. C ASE S TUDIES

In this section the new formulations are applied to two case studies to show how ETC can in uence power grid’s transfer limits. For each test system a speci c point-to-point power transfer limit is calculated with and without the ETC effect and the results are compared. Case 1 is a simple two-bus power system, comprised of a gen- erator and a load, connected by an OTL. The simplicity of this case allows one to explore the impacts of various system pa- rameters on PTL in the presence of ETC, including load power factor and line length. Case 2 is the IEEE 14-bus system, which consists of 5 gener- ation buses and 11 load points, interconnected by 17 lines and transformers. In this system, po wer generation and distribution are performed at 34.5 kV, while power transmission is accom- plished via 138-kV lines. As shown in Fig. 10, here the power transfer limit of interest is point-to-point, between the generator bus 1 and the load at bus 10. Case 1: Table I species the thermal characteristics of the line in the test system of Fig. 6. The values for other parameters describing the system are provided in Tables III and IV.

at the beginning

are respectively the load’s ac-

tive and reactive power components.

of ETC-PF simulation;

the load’s ac- tive and reactive power components. of ETC-PF simulation; , which is set to

, which is set to

, denotes the value of

the load’s ac- tive and reactive power components. of ETC-PF simulation; , which is set to

and

the load’s ac- tive and reactive power components. of ETC-PF simulation; , which is set to
the load’s ac- tive and reactive power components. of ETC-PF simulation; , which is set to

DONG et al. : CALCULATION OF POWER TRANSFER LIMIT CONSID ERING ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE

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ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE 1507 Fig. 5. Flow diagram of ETC-CPF. Fig. 6. Simple
Fig. 5. Flow diagram of ETC-CPF. Fig. 6. Simple test power system.
Fig. 5.
Flow diagram of ETC-CPF.
Fig. 6.
Simple test power system.

TABLE III

O VERHEAD T RANSMISSION L INE P ARAMETERS

TABLE III O VERHEAD T RANSMISSION L INE P ARAMETERS TABLE IV C P F C

TABLE IV

CPF C ALCULATING P ARAMETERS

ARAMETERS TABLE IV C P F C ALCULATING P ARAMETERS Fig. 7. PV curves and the
ARAMETERS TABLE IV C P F C ALCULATING P ARAMETERS Fig. 7. PV curves and the

Fig. 7. PV curves and the line resistance curve.

TABLE V

R ESULTS C ALCULATED BY THE T WO M ETHODS

TABLE V R ESULTS C ALCULATED BY THE T WO M ETHODS are the result of

are the result of ignoring the ETC. Some speci c data are given in Table V for comparison.

is the critical active power at the SNB

is the critical series resistance at the SNB point;

denotes the solution of thethe SNB is the critical series resistance at the SNB point; ETC-PF model as well as

ETC-PF model as well as the base point of ETC-CPF. As shown in Table V, when using conventional CPF,

and

when ETC is taken into account, there exists a 6.25% margin

of error between

reaches

In Fig. 7,

the critical powers

are calculated by the con-of error between reaches In Fig. 7, the critical powers respectively. At the cri tical point

respectively. At the cri tical point in ETC-CPF, 0.1142, with a 24% margin of error compared to

In Table V, point;
In Table V,
point;

is the initial value; and

compared to In Table V, point; is the initial value; and are all equal to and

are all equal to

Table V, point; is the initial value; and are all equal to and , due to

and

V, point; is the initial value; and are all equal to and , due to ignore
,
,

due to ignore the ETC. However,V, point; is the initial value; and are all equal to and , , which are

, which are 0.0880 and 0.0935,and are all equal to and , due to ignore the ETC. However, and . ventional

and

.
.

ventional method and the ETC-CPF model, respectively. To quantitatively express the er ror between the two methods, the

following parameter is dened:

the two methods, the following parameter is de fi ned: (38) In Fig. 7, is approximately

(38)

In Fig. 7,

the following parameter is de fi ned: (38) In Fig. 7, is approximately 6.9%; however, its

is approximately 6.9%; however, its value varies

with various trajectories (representing the scaling up of

and

Q). In Fig. 8, the OB trajectory represents the growth path of the load power; point O denotes the base point; point A and point B denote the SNB points obtained by the two methods,

respectively; and point C represents the value of

B, and C are all related to the trajectory OB. As shown in Fig. 8,

C are all related to the trajectory OB. As shown in Fig. 8, Points A, is

Points A,C are all related to the trajectory OB. As shown in Fig. 8, is larger with

is larger with greater proportions of active power. Because the line series impedan ce is highly correlated with

Because the line series impedan ce is highly correlated with In Fig. 7, PV (1) is

In Fig. 7, PV (1) is obtained using the conventional CPF model; PV (2) and the resistance curves are obtained using the

the line length

changes in

to different

, the results of ETC-CPF will vary due to , corresponding , introduced . Critical

, the results of ETC-CPF will vary due to

, the results of ETC-CPF will vary due to , corresponding , introduced . Critical line

, corresponding

, introduced

. Critical line temperature

, can be produced by ETC-CPF.

ETC-CPF model. The differences between PV (1) and PV (2)

as TL, is set to 70

. Then, as shown in Fig. 9, the relationship

1508

1508 Fig. 8. SNB boundary comparison and error analysis. Fig. 9. Relationship among , SNB, and
Fig. 8. SNB boundary comparison and error analysis. Fig. 9. Relationship among , SNB, and
Fig. 8.
SNB boundary comparison and error analysis.
Fig. 9.
Relationship among
, SNB, and TL.

among SNB, TL, and

9. Relationship among , SNB, and TL. among SNB, TL, and . When is revealed by

. When

among , SNB, and TL. among SNB, TL, and . When is revealed by comparing and

is revealed by comparingamong , SNB, and TL. among SNB, TL, and . When and . is longer than

and TL. among SNB, TL, and . When is revealed by comparing and . is longer
and .
and
.

is longer than 119 km,

is lower than

It implies that the SNB is the major limitation for long-distance power transmission; on the other hand, more attention must be paid to TL for short-distance power transmission. Case 2: In this case, an IEEE 14-bus test system (see Fig. 10) is analyzed using both the conventional method and the new

method. The

is

is set to 100 MW. Some line parametersboth the conventional method and the new method. The is are modi fi ed and supplemented

are modi ed and supplemented as shown in Table VI.

the line charging capacitance. In traditional system studies, line overloads are decided by comparing line currents against their

maximum allowable currents,

, also known ; that is shown

as its TL, is obtained using (9) with in (39) at the bottom of the page.

values given in Table VI are obtained using (39)

with

calculations are those given in Table I. It is assumed that power consumption at bus 10 will be in- creased to meet the energy demands of new factories, planned to be constructed in that vicinity. To satisfy the future demands at bus 10, one option is to transfer power from bus 1 to bus 10.

10, one option is to transfer power from bus 1 to bus 10. . A line’s
. A line’s
. A line’s

The

is to transfer power from bus 1 to bus 10. . A line’s The . The

. The lines thermal coefcients used in

A line’s The . The lines thermal coef fi cients used in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014 Fig. 10. IEEE 14-bus test system.

Fig. 10. IEEE 14-bus test system.

TABLE VI

L INE P ARAMETERS OF THE IEEE 14-B US T EST S YSTEM

L INE P ARAMETERS OF THE IEEE 14-B US T EST S YSTEM Establishing the feasibility

Establishing the feasibility of this option, that is whether bus 1 can in fact supply sufcient power to bus 10, requires a PTL analysis. This analysis entails increasing the active power at

DONG et al. : CALCULATION OF POWER TRANSFER LIMIT CONSID ERING ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE

1509

ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE 1509 Fig. 11. Analysis with conventional CPF. bus 10 in

Fig. 11. Analysis with conventional CPF.

bus 10 in steps and supplying from bus 1 the resulting system power imbalance. Below the results of applying to this problem the conventional CPF, as well as ETC-CPF, are discussed. The trend lines in Fig. 11 are o btained using conventional CPF. They show increases in the OTL currents, as the active

power demand at bus 10 is increased. Parameter

power demand at bus 10 is increased. Parameter , de fi ned by

, de ned by

(40)

(40)

has been introduced here to indicate the available loading ca-

pacity of each line at each demand level. When for a line

that line is fully loaded and any further increase in the demand at bus 10 leads to its overload. As observed in Fig. 11, using the conventional CPF steps,

the rst over-current

followed by bus9–bus10, bus7–bus9, bus10–bus11, and bus6–bus13. Therefore, based on CPF analysis, the maximum

active power that can be served at bus 10 (that is,

) is 0.627maximum active power that can be served at bus 10 (that is, p.u., while obtained by

p.u., while

obtained by ETC-CPF

are shown in Fig. 12. The rst over-temperature

OTL is bus6–bus11, followed by bus7–bus9, bus9–bus10 and so

on.

which are signi cantly different from the results of the conven- tional method. The differences between these values and their CPF counterparts are simply du e to OTL resistances changing with their line temperatures. The results of the ETC-CPF are expected to be more accurate b ecause it is based on a more pre- cise representation of the OTL operation. The PTL values pro- duced by CPF are consistently larger than those generated by ETC-CPF. As such, using CPF without a large safety margin could lead to transmission system expansion plans that may fall short of their stipulated power transfer goals. Discussion: The IEEE 14-bus system, which is used in con- structing Case 2, is a special low voltage network. As shown in

are 0.544 p.u. and 1.506 p.u., respectively,

,
,
As shown in are 0.544 p.u. and 1.506 p.u., respectively, , OTL is bus6–bus11, is 2.340

OTL is bus6–bus11,

p.u. and 1.506 p.u., respectively, , OTL is bus6–bus11, is 2.340 p.u The trends of line

is 2.340 p.u

The trends of line temperatures

bus6–bus11, is 2.340 p.u The trends of line temperatures and Table VI, the majority of the

and

is 2.340 p.u The trends of line temperatures and Table VI, the majority of the lines
is 2.340 p.u The trends of line temperatures and Table VI, the majority of the lines
is 2.340 p.u The trends of line temperatures and Table VI, the majority of the lines

Table VI, the majority of the lines in this system have values that are above 1/4 and a good many of the lines have

values that are approximately 1/2. In this case, the in- uence of electro-thermal coupling is considerable. However,

uence of electro-thermal coupling is considerable. However, Fig. 12. Analysis with ETC-CPF. values are typically much
uence of electro-thermal coupling is considerable. However, Fig. 12. Analysis with ETC-CPF. values are typically much
uence of electro-thermal coupling is considerable. However, Fig. 12. Analysis with ETC-CPF. values are typically much

Fig. 12. Analysis with ETC-CPF.

values are typically

much smaller. Therefore, it is r easonable to expect that the in u- ence of electro-thermal coupling on high voltage power grids to be much smaller than those indicated by Case 2. In other words,

, produced by

CPF and ETC-CPF, would be markedly smaller.

for high voltage networks, the lines’

be markedly smaller. for high voltage networks, the lines’ and the differences in the values of

and

the differences in the values of

networks, the lines’ and the differences in the values of VII. C ONCLUSIONS Traditional calculation of
networks, the lines’ and the differences in the values of VII. C ONCLUSIONS Traditional calculation of

VII. C ONCLUSIONS

Traditional calculation of powe r transfer limits neglects the electro-thermal coup ling in overhead transmission lines. This results in overestimating the power transfer limits, the extent of which can be signicant for certain systems. In this paper, a new power ow formulation that takes into account the electro- thermal couplings of overhead transmission lines is introduced. Then, using the Continuation M ethod framework, it has been used to calculate the power transfer limits for two study cases. The results obtained for Cas e 2, which uses the IEEE 14-bus test system, indicate 13.45% error in the value of a power transfer limit, when it is calculated using the conventional method and de ned by the lines’ thermal limits. This error increases to 34% when the power transfer is limited by the onset of voltage collapse in the power grid. For low voltage networks, the errors in the values of power transfer limits can be substantial. These errors are not typical of high voltage networks, where ratios of line resistances to their reactances are generally very small. Compared with traditional models of transmission lines, the proposed method uses a more detailed representation for the overhead transmission lines. The refore, with accurate model pa- rameters, it is capable of consis tently producing more precise, and therefore more reliable, va lues for power transfer limits.

A PPENDIX

ETC-CPF M ODEL

The ETC-CPF model consists of four parts:

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014

is introduced intoTRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, JULY 2014 the ETC-PF equations to represent the

the ETC-PF equations to represent the power increment, (A1) is derived:

1) Parameterization: When parameter

The following inequality is used to judge the convergence of

(A8):

inequality is used to judge the convergence of (A8): (A1) where (A9) is a small positive

(A1)

where

is used to judge the convergence of (A8): (A1) where (A9) is a small positive number
is used to judge the convergence of (A8): (A1) where (A9) is a small positive number

(A9)

is a small positive number that is given in advance.

where

is a small positive number that is given in advance. where denotes the original active power

denotes the original active power at bus

;
;

denotes

the original reactive power at bus ; denotes the rate of ac- tive power change
the original reactive power at bus
;
denotes the rate of ac-
tive power change at bus
as
changes; and
denotes the
rate of reactive power change at bus
as
changes. Speci fi cally,
and
should be given in advance to determine the pro-

portion of incremental power. With (A1), the ETC-PF equation becomes a parametric equation, the solutions of which are de-

termined by the parameter as follows for brevity:

. The ETC-CPF equation is written

as follows for brevity: . The ETC-CPF equation is written (A2) 2) Predictor: The predictor process
as follows for brevity: . The ETC-CPF equation is written (A2) 2) Predictor: The predictor process

(A2)

2) Predictor: The predictor process aims to give an approx- imate solution (predicted point) that is the initial value of the corrector iterative processes. The predicted point is computed by (A3) in the predictor process:

point is computed by (A3) in the predictor process: (A3) where predictor-corrector step, solutions of ETC-PF);

(A3)

where

predictor-corrector step, solutions of ETC-PF);

is calculated by the corrector of the last step (at the fi rst rst

is initialized in accordance with the

is the step size controlling coefcient;

with the is the step size controlling coef fi cient; and is the tangent vector, which
and is the tangent vector, which can be calculated according to (A4). (the last element
and
is the tangent vector, which can be calculated according
to (A4).
(the last element of vector
) denotes the SNB:
(A4)

with

(the last element of vector ) denotes the SNB: (A4) with (A5) Equation (A5) represents a

(A5)

Equation (A5) represents a set in which the

is 1 and the others are zer o. The local parameter

which the is 1 and the others are zer o. The local parameter th component is

th component

is calculated

according to (A6). For the fi rst predictor-corrector step, is initialized to to provide an
according to (A6). For the fi rst predictor-corrector step,
is
initialized to
to provide an initial direction:

(A6)

3) Corrector: In the corrector process, the predicted point is used as the initial value to solve (A7):

predicted point is used as the initial value to solve (A7): (A7) To solve (A7), Newton

(A7)

To solve (A7), Newton iterative formats are established as shown here:

where

and represent the step of the iterations.
and
represent the step of the iterations.

(A8)

4) Step-Size Control: In the calculation cases, the coefcient

in (A3) is set to a constant and is a sufciently small value.

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DONG et al. : CALCULATION OF POWER TRANSFER LIMIT CONSID ERING ELECTRO-THERMAL COUPLING OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE

1511

[18] D. A. Alves, L. C. P. Da Silva, and C. A. Castro et al., “Continuation fast decoupled power ow with secant predictor,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst. , vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1078–1085, Aug. 2003. [19] S. H. Li and H. D. Chiang, “Continuation power ow with nonlinear power injection variations,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1637–1643, Nov. 2008.

Power Syst. , vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1637–1643, Nov. 2008. Jun Liang received the Ph.D.

Jun Liang received the Ph.D. degree from the School of Electrical Engineering at Shandong University, Jinan, China. He is currently a Professor at Shandong Univer- sity. His research interests include power system au- tomation, power system operation, and power system control.

tomation, power system operation, and power system control. Xiaoming Dong (M’10) received the Ph.D. degree from
tomation, power system operation, and power system control. Xiaoming Dong (M’10) received the Ph.D. degree from

Xiaoming Dong (M’10) received the Ph.D. degree from the School of Electrical Engineering at Shan- dong University, Jinan, China, in 2013. He is currently a Research Associate at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. His research interests in- clude power system stability, power system control, and power system operation.

stability, power system control, and power system operation. Xueshan Han received the Ph.D. degree from the

Xueshan Han received the Ph.D. degree from the

School of Electrical Engineering and Automation at Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, in

1994.

He is currently a Professor at Shandong Univer- sity, Jinan, China. His research interests include power system generation, power system operation, power system economics and optimization, and electric power economics.

Feng Zhang is a Lecturer at Shandong University, Jinan, China. His major is power system operation.

Hua Sun is a Lecturer at Shandong Labour Vo cational and Technology College. His major is power system operation.

Chengfu Wang received the Ph.D. degre e from the School of Electrical Engineering at S handong Uni- versity, Jinan, China, in 2012. He is currently a Res earch Associate a t Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. His rese arch interests in- clude and power system operation and renewable op- eration and control.

Mengxia Wang is a Lecturer at Shandong University, Jinan, China. His major is electrical-thermal coupling approach.

Jingguo Ren is a Doctoral Student at Shandong University, Jinan, China. His research interests include voltage source converter based dc transmission and multi-terminal dc transmission.