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Section 6 Secondary Drainage Channels

Figure 3.04 and 3.05 demonstrates there is a considerable amount of runoff


draining around the border crossing plaza site due to the pre existing
drainage pattern discussed in Section 2.3. By official standards and law, new
construction cannot interfere with the natural flow pattern of neighboring
sites. Although runoff must pass through the border crossing site, the runoff
does not need to be processed and meet provincial quality standards.

This design section will consider all runoff predicted to enter the site from
Secondary Drainage Areas B and C, refer to Figure 2.05. Figure 6.01 is an
illustrative diagram of the secondary drainage channels and swales of the
site which will route the runoff for up to a 100 year storm directly into the
Detroit River.

There will be 4 secondary drainage channel designs:

1. The Minor Drainage Swale represented by P6-P5-P4-P3-P2 will route runoff


from Secondary Drainage Area B into Major and Minor Drainage Swale
MMDS.

2. The Major Drainage Swale represented by P6-P7-P8-P9-P10-P11 will route


runoff from Secondary Drainage Area C into the Major Drainage Culvert
MajDC.

3. The Major Drainage Culvert represented by P2-P7 will route runoff from
MajDS into the Major and Minor Drainage Swale MMDS. The culvert will be
placed under ground such that it does not mix with the runoff expected to
land on the main border crossing plaza site. The culvert will be underground
and incased with cement with a 25 cm thickness.

4. The Major and Minor Drainage Swale represented by P1-P2 will route
runoff from MajDC and MinDS into the Detroit River.
Figure 6.01 Secondary Drainage Channels Layout

Figure 6.02 Outline the Secondary drainage pattern more clearly


Figure 6.02: Secondary Drainage Channel Outline

6.2 Existing Profiles of Secondary Channels


1. Minor Drainage Swale MinDS:

The line representing P6-P5-P4-P3-P2 will collect the water from Secondary
Drainage Area B and route it to point P2. Figure 6.23 is pre existing elevation
profile of Line P6-P5-P4-P3-P2. This line will represent the Minor Drainage
Swale MinDS
Figure 6.23 Pre existing elevation profile of Line P6-P5-P4-P3-P2, MinDS

2. Major Drainage Swale MajDS:

The line representing P6-P7 will collect the water from Secondary Drainage
Area C and route it to point P7 which is the entrance of the major drainage
culvert MajDC. In addition to that, the line representing P7-P8-P9-P10-P11 will
collect the water from Secondary Drainage Area B and route it to point P7
which is the entrance of the major drainage culvert MajDC as well. Figure
6.24 the pre existing elevation profile of Line P6-P7-P8-P9-P10-P11 which will
represent the Major Drainage Swale MajDS.

Figure 6.24: Pre existing elevation profile of Line P6-P7-P8-P9-P10-P11, MajD

3. Major Drainage Culvert MajDC:

The line representing P2-P7 will collect the water from MajDS and route it to
point P2 which is the entrance of the Major and Minor Drainage Swale MMDS.
Figure 3.12 is the pre existing elevation profile of Line P2-P7 which will
represent the Major Drainage Culvert MajDC.
Figure 6.25: Pre existing elevation profile of Line P2-P7, MajDC

4. Major and Minor Drainage Swale MMDS:

The line representing P1-P2 will collect the water from MinDS and MajDC and
route it directly into the Detroit River. Figure 6.26 is the pre existing
elevation profile of Line P1-P2 which will represent the Major and Minor
Drainage Swale MMDS.

Figure 6.26: Pre existing elevation profile of Line P1-P2, MMDS

Section6.3 Secondary Drainage Channels Design


Constraints:
As described in the Main Channel Design, the Border crossing plaza area is
very flat. Elevation is a primary design consideration. In the main channel
design section 5.2.1 the Ground Water Table was the elevation constraint,
however for the secondary drainage channels, the Detroit River water level is
the design constraint. The channel floor must be higher than the highest
Detroit water elevation. The highest water level report of the Detroit River is
175.00m. Thus the channel floor cannot be lower than 175.00m.

The manning equation parameters will be determined based the River Water
Level and slope elevation difference. The design begins by looking at the
longest path runoff will have to travel before reaching the river. By
investigating Figure 3.09 that path is obviously P11-P10-P9-P8-P7-P2-P1. By
combining the elevation profile of MMDS, MajDC and MajDS. Figure 6.31
Displays the P11-P10-P9-P8-P7-P2-P1 elevation profile.

Figure 6.31 Elevation Profile For P11-P10-P9-P8-P7-P2-P1.

Figure 3.31 clearly outlines there is a 3.30 meter difference between the
highest and the lowest point of the Secondary Drainage Channels. In design
it is important to consider that any swale design must have a minimum of a
30.5cm clearance. We will also use a 0.125% slope as the Main Channel
Design used this slope. The elevation difference due to the slope at 0.125%
is 2.16m. Thus the remaining elevation availability for the 100 year storm
water level in the swales and culvert is 83.25cm. The 0.125% slope was
obtained by optimization using the manning equation excel worksheet
displayed in the appendix.

Section 6.4 Secondary Drainage


Channels design using Manning’s
equation

The following section will explain the inputs of the Manning’s equation

Minor Drainage Swale (MinDS):

The MinDS will route all the excess rainwater from Minor Secondary Drainage
area to MMDS at point P2. The Minor Secondary drainage area was
determined to be 77642m2, with 15695m2 paved with concrete (C=0.95) and
619500m2 with grass (C=0.47). The intensity of a 100 year storm is 75mm/h
for 35 minutes. By using Rational method (Q=CiA) the resulting flow is
2.3107m3/s. by using approached outlined in Section 4 inputs in the
Manning’s equation are as follows: Q=2.3107m3/s, n=0.03,
S=0.125%,Z=2.5m, B=6m. After applying Manning’s formula, we solve for
y=0.50m

Figure 3.41 outlines the MinDS cross section

Figure 3.41: MinDS cross section


Figure 3.42 is the Post Development MinDS Elevation Profile

Figure 3.42 Post Development MinDS Elevation Profile


Major Drainage Swale (MajDS):

The MajDS will route all the excess rainwater from Major Secondary Drainage
area to MMDS, P7. The Major Secondary drainage area was determined to be
434983m2, with 109285m2 paved with concrete (C=0.95) and 325698m2 with
grass (C=0.47). The intensity of a 100 year storm is 75mm/h for 35 minutes.
By using Rational method (Q=CiA) the resulting flow is 5.3521m3/s. by using
approached outlined in Section 4 inputs in the Manning’s equation are as
follows: Q=5.3521m3/s, n=0.03, S=0.125%,Z=2.5m, B=6m. After applying
Manning’s formula, we solve for y=0.79m

Figure 6.43 outlines the MajDS cross section:

Figure 6.43: MajDS cross section

Figure 6.44 Outlines the Post Development MajDS Elevation Profile


Figure 6.44 Post Development MajDS Elevation Profile

Major Drainage Culvert (MajDC)

The Culvert will route all the excess rainwater from MajDS to the MMDS. The
culvert will be designed to go underneath the border crossing plaza’s roads
and buildings it will be incased in reinforced concrete with strength able to
sustain the weight of the largest truck multiplied by a safety factor of 3. The
culvert will be trapezoidal as all of our other channels are trapezoidal: The
inputs of the Manning’s equation are as follows: Q=5.3521m3/s, n=0.017 (for
Sewer Concrete), S=0.125%, Z=2.5m, B=6m. After applying Manning’s
formula, we solve for y=0.52m

Figure 6.45 outlines the MajDC cross section

Figure 6.45 : MajDC cross section


Figure 6.46 Outlines the Post Development MajDC Elevation Profile

Figure 6.46 Post Development MajDC Elevation Profile

Major and Minor Drainage Swale (MMDS)

The Swale will route all the excess rainwater from surrounding sites, P2, to
the Detroit River. The flow value is simply the sum of the 100 peak flow for
MinDS and the MajDS which is Q=7.6628m3/s. The culvert will be trapezoidal
as all of our other channels are trapezoidal: The rest of the inputs of the
Manning’s equation are as follows: n=0.03 (for Grass), =0.125%,Z=2.5m,
B=8.5m (minimum width given elevation constraints). After applying
Manning’s formula, we solve for y=0.68m

Figure 6.47 outlines the MMDS cross section

Figure 6.47: MMDS cross section

Figure 6.48 Outlines the Post Development MMDS Elevation Profile


Figure 6.48 Post Development MMDS Elevation Profile

Section 6.5 Secondary Drainage Conclusion


In conclusion, according design section 6, The secondary storm water
channels system has a 100 years rainfall capacity. All excess rain rater from
surrounding areas B and C will be routed into the Detroit River by natural
slope gravity. According to profile drawings: Figure 6.42, Figure 6.44, Figure
6.46, Figure 6.48 earth filling is minimized.