Design of Steel Structures
8.7. Design procedure for foundation
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
The design of any foundation consists of following two parts.
8.7.1 Stability analysis
Stability analysis aims at removing the possibility of failure of foundation by tilting, overturning, uprooting and sliding due to load intensity imposed on soil by foundation being in excess of the ultimate capacity of the soil. The most important aspect of the foundation design is the necessary check for the stability of foundation under various loads imposed on it by the tower, which it supports. The foundation should remain stable under all the possible combinations of loading, to which it is likely to be subjected under the most stringent conditions. The stability of foundations should be checked for the following aspects.
While calculating over weight of concrete for checking bearing capacity of soil, the position of water table should be considered at critical location i.e., which would give maximum over weight of concrete. In case of foundation with chimney battered along the slope of leg, the center line of chimney may not coincide with the center of gravity of base slabs/pyramid/block. Under such situation, axial load in the chimney can be resolved into vertical and horizontal components at the top of the base slabs/pyramid/block. The additional moments due to the above horizontal loads should be considered while checking the bearing capacity of soil.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Further even in cases where full horizontal shear is balanced try the passive pressure of soil, the horizontal shears would caused moment at the bas of footing as the line of action of side thrusts (horizontal shears) and resultant of passive pressure of soil are not in the same line. It may be noted that passive pressure of soil is reactive forces from heat soil for balancing the external horizontal forces and as much mobilized passive pressure in soil adjoining the footing cannot be more than the external horizontal shear.
Where 'W' is the total vertical down thrust including over weight of the footing, 'B' is the dimension of the footing base; M _{T} & M _{L} are moments at the base of footing about transverse and longitudinal axes of footing and Z _{T} & Z _{L} are the section module of footing which are equal to (1/6)B ^{3} for a square footing. The above equation is not valid when minimum pressure under the footing becomes negative. The maximum pressure on the soil so obtained should not exceed the limit bearing capacity of the soil.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Check for uplift resistance
In the case of spread foundations, the resistance to uplift is considered to be provide by the buoyant weight of the foundation and the weight of the soil volume contained in the inverted frustum of cone on the base of the footing with slides making an angle equal to the angle of earth frustum applicable for a particular type of the soil. Referring to the figure 8.8 the ultimate resistance to up lift is given by:
Figure 8.8
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Under-cut type of foundation offers greater resistance to uplift than an identical footing without under-cut. This is for the simple reason that the angle of earth frustum originates from the toe of the under-cut and there is perfect bond between concrete and the soil surrounding it and there is no need to depend on the behavior of back filled earth. Substantial additional uplift resistance is developed due to use of under-cut type of foundation. However, to reflect advantage of additional uplift resistance in the design the density of soil for under-cut foundation has been increased as given in Table of Annexure.
When acted upon by a lateral load, the chimney will act as a cantilever beam free at the top and fixed at the base and supported by the soil along its height. Analysis of such foundations and design of the chimney for bending moments combined with down thrust uplift is very important. Stability of a footing under a lateral load depends on the amount of passive pressure mobilized in the
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
adjoining soil as well as the structural strength of the footing in transmitting the load to the soil. (Refer figure 8.9)
Stability of the foundation against overturning under the combined action of uplift and horizontal shears may be checked by the following criteria as shown in Figure 8.10. i The foundation over-turns at the toe ii The weight of the footing acts at the center of the base and iii Mainly that part of the earth cone which stands over the heel causes the stabilizing moment. However, for design purposes this may be taken equal to the
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
half of the cone of earth acting on the base. It is assumed to act through the tip of the heel.
For stability of foundation against overturning, factor of safety shall not be less than 1.5 (DL + LL + WL) (IS: 1904-1986)
Check for sliding
In the foundation of towers, the horizontal shear is comparatively small and possibility of sliding is generally negligible. However, resistance to sliding is evaluated assuming that passive earth pressure conditions are developed on
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
vertical projections above the toe of foundations. The friction between bottom of the footing and soil also resist the sliding of footing and can be considered in the stability of foundation against sliding. The coefficient of friction between concrete and soil can be considered between 0.2 and 0.3. However, the frictional force is directly proportional to vertical downward load and as such may not exist under uplift condition. For cohesive soil the following formula can be applied for calculating the passive pressure to resist sliding.
Structural design of chimney The chimney should be designed for maximum bending moments due to side thrust in both transverse and longitudinal direction combined with direct pull (Tension)/ direct down thrust (compression).
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Usually, combined uplift and bending will determine the requirement of
longitudinal reinforcement in the chimney. When the stub angle is embedded in
the chimney to its full depth and anchored to the bottom slab/pyramid/block the
chimney is designed considering passive resistance of soil leaving 500mm from
ground level. This is applicable for all soils - cohesive, non-cohesive and mixture
of cohesive and non-cohesive soils. In hilly areas and for fissured rock, passive
periphery.
M
f
ck
B
2
1
=
P
u
f
ck
B
2
1
=+ 0.36k
∑
⎡
⎣
(
P /100
i
)(
f
si
−
(
0.36k 0.5
⎡
⎣
−+
0.416k
)(
∑
P /100
i
)(
f
f
ci
)
si
−
⎤
⎦
/ f
ck
f
ci
)
⎤
⎦
/ f
ck
(8.1)
(
Y / D
i
)
(8.2)
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
K =
m σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
+σ
st
Where
A |
_{s}_{i} = cross sectional area of reinforcement in it row |
P |
_{i} = 100 A _{s}_{i} / B _{1} ^{2} |
When stub is provided in chimney only for its development length, chimney has to be designed for and reinforcement provided for combined stresses due to direct puit (tension) thrust (compression) and bending moments. The requirement of longitudinal reinforcement should be calculated in accordance with IS: 456-1978 and SP: 16 as an independent concrete column.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
In this case, from the equilibrium of internal and external forces on the
chimney section and using stress and strains of concrete and steel as per
IS:456-1978 the following equations are given in SP:16 are applicable.
P
u
f
ck
B
1
=
(
0.36k 0.5
−
0.416k
)(
+
∑
⎡
⎣
P /100
i
)(
f
si
−+
ci
f
)
(
p /100
s
)(
f
ss
−
f
ci
)
⎤
⎦
/ f
ck
(8.3)
M _{T} and M _{L} are the moments about transverse and longitudinal axis of the
chimney
M _{u}_{t} and M _{u}_{l} are the respective moment of resistance with axial loads of P _{u}
about transverse and longitudinal axis of chimney which would be equal in case
of square chimney with uniform distribution of reinforcement on all four faces.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
N is an exponent whose value would be 1.0 when axial force is tensile and depends on the value of P _{u} / P _{u}_{z} when axial force is compressive where:
P _{u}_{z} = 0.45 f _{c}_{k} A _{c} + 0.75 f _{y}_{s} A _{s} + 0.75 f _{y}_{s} A _{s}_{s} In the above equation A _{c} is the area of concrete A _{s} is the area of reinforcement steel A _{s}_{s} is the cross sectional area on stub to be taken as zero f _{y} is the yield stress of reinforcement steel and f _{y}_{s} is the yield stress of stub steel to be taken as zero.
In any chimney that has a larger cross sectional area than that required to support the load the minimum percentage of steel shall be based on the area of concrete required to resist the direct stress and not on the actual area.
(b) |
The minimum number longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in square chimney and six in a circular chimney. |
(c) |
The bars shall not be less than 12mm in diameter. |
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
(d) |
In case of a chimney in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not required in strength calculation, nominal longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.15% of the cross sectional area shall be provided. |
(e) |
The spacing of stirrups/ lateral ties shall be not more than the least of the following distances: |
i. The least lateral dimension of the chimney ii. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied. iii. Forty-eight times the diameter of the transverse stirrups / lateral ties.
The important provisions applicable for concrete foundations which are necessary and should be considered in the design are explained below:
(a) Footings shall be designed to sustain the applied loads moments and forces and the included reactions and to ensure that any settlement which may occur shall be as nearly uniform possible and the bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
(b) Thickness at the edge of footing in reinforced concrete footing shall not
be less than 15cm (5cm lean concrete plus 10cm structural concrete). In case of
plain concrete footing thickness at the edge shall not be less than 5cm.
(c) Bending moment
i. The bending moment at any section shall be determined by passing through the section of a vertical plane which extends completely across the footing and computing the moment of the forces acting over the entire area of the footing on the side of the said plane.
i. The footing acting essentially as a wide beam with a potential diagonal crack extending in a place across the entire width; the critical section for this condition should be assumed as a vertical section located from the face of the chimney at a distance equal to the effective depth of the footing in case of footings on soils.
ii. Two-way action of the following with potential diagonal cracking along the surface of truncated cone or pyramid around the concentrated load.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
(e) Critical section The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall be assumed at the same plane as those described for bending moment in para (c) above and also at all other vertical planes where abrupt changes of section occurs.
Properties of concrete The grade of the structural concrete used for tower foundations should not be leaner than M15 having a 28-day cube strength of not less than 15 N/mm ^{2} and concrete shall conform to IS: 456, for special foundations like pile foundations richer concrete of grade of M20 having a 28-day cube strength of not less than 20 N/mm ^{2} should be used. M15 grade concrete shall have the nominal strength of not less than 15 N/mm ^{2} at the end of 28 days as ascertained from the cube test. Such strength at the end of 7 days shall not be less than 10 N/mm ^{2} . The density of the concrete will be 2300 kg/m ^{3} for plain concrete and 2400 kg/m ^{3} . For R.C.C other properties of concrete shall be as given in IS: 456-2000.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Properties of steel The high yield stress cold deformed reinforcement bars used in the R.C.C shall conform to IS: 1786-1979 and shall have yield stress of not less than 415 N/mm ^{2} . When mild steel reinforcement bars are used in R.C.C., they shall conform to IS:432 (part-I) and shall have yield stress of not less than 26 N/mm ^{2} for bars of size up to 20mm diameter and 24 N/mm ^{2} for bars above 20mm diameter.
Selection of site Trial pits of size 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 meter are made and the strata of the soil are observed. It is ascertained that the strata available at the location is one in which we are interested (i.e., a particular type of soil or combination of soils is available). csoil samples are taken from and around the site and subjected to various rests. Particularly relating to the density of soil, bearing capacity of soil, cohesion and angle of internal friction etc.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Design of foundation for pull-out test
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Based on the actual tower foundation loadings (down thrust, uplift and side thrust) and the soil parameters obtained from the tests, a foundation design is developed. The design has a central rod running from the bottom of the footing up to a height of about 1.5m to 2.0m above ground, depending on the jacking requirements. The central rod is surrounded by a cage of reinforcement bars.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
A typical design development for the pull-out test is shown in Figure 8.11.
Casting of foundation The pits are excavated accurately. The concrete mix, reinforcement, from boxes etc. are exactly as per the design. The pouring of the concrete is done such that voids are minimized. The back filling of the soil should be carried out using sufficient water to eliminate voids and loose pockets. The foundation should be cured for 14 days (minimum) and thereafter left undisturbed for a period not less than 30 days.
After the investigation is over and corrective measures have been chalked out it is advisable to backfill the excavating mixing earth with fight cement slurry, particularly when the soil is non-cohesive such as soft murrum / hard murrum, softrock / hard rock etc., (say one cement bag for every three to four cubic meter of earth). This will ensure good bond and safeguard the foundation against uplift forces, even if corrective repairs of the foundations are delayed.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Repair of foundation of a tower After it is established that the foundation is unhealthy, it is better to take the corrective steps as early as possible. The methods would be different for rectifying isolated location/locations (one to two) and for rectifying complete line/line sections including a number of towers. These are discussed below.
(a) Under sizing of foundation due to wrong classification of soil; for example, the soil may be dry black cotton but the foundation cast may be that for normal dry soil, if the corrective measures are not taken, the foundation can fail. An R.C.C collar in designed for the type of soil and tower loadings to remedy such a defect. (b) Improper foundation of pyramid/chimney etc., due to improper concrete laying:
If the concrete is simply poured from the top of the form box, without taking care to fill the voids (using crow bar, vibrator etc.) the concrete does not reach to the corners of the form and thus the foundation is not completely formed.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Foundation for roof top communication towers In urban areas where the land is very costly communications towers are placed on the rooftops of the buildings with the added advantage of the altitude. For placing the tower on the buildings, the stability of the building for the additional loads envisaged on the building due to the placing of his tower etc., shall be checked and certified.
Figure 8.12
The foundation for the tower shall be designed in such a way that the loads are directly transferred on to the columns only, following ways attains this.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
(a) |
The column rods of the building are exposed and the reinforcement required for the tower pedestal is welded to the exposed rods. |
(b) |
Where the exposing of the rods is not possible the pedestal rods can be anchored by drilling holes vertically on top of the columns and grouting them with the chemical grouts. |
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Spacing of the columns in the existing building governs the economy of the foundation design. The size of base plate governs the width of the beam, width of the beam has to be at least 50mm more than the base plate and the depth governed by the anchor bolt, the depth of the beam shall be more than the anchor bolt length. For the proper distribution of the concentrated force coming from the tower leg in the beam, it is suggested to place the base plate on the pedestal on the beam minimum 250mm height limiting to 400mm.
Example 1 Design forces on tower leg
Ultimate compression: 81,400 kg
: 58,250 kg
Ultimate uplift
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Ultimate shear
Tower data
Base width = 4m
: 2,250 kg
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
2. From
conventional
cohesionless soils,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
method
(IS: 4091
- 1979)
for 20 ^{o}
dispersion in
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
T _{u} = 44.39 t (weight of frudtum of earth + weight of concrete as
show Figure)
(2)
3. From equation (9.13), uplift resistance along the shearing plane
Q
φ
r
2
=π
(
C
+
K
φ
γ
tan j
)
Adding equation 2 and 3, the total uplift resistance,
T _{u} = 44.39 + 15.06 = 59.45 t
Design uplift resistance = 58.32 t (Least of equation 1 and 4)
Design uplift force = 58.25 t, hence, safe.
Check for bearing capacity
(4)
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
From equation 9.1,
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Where values of s, d and i are chosen from Table 9.9.
From Table 9.5, η _{n} = 1.5
Therefore
T
=
⎛
⎜
⎝
EI
η
n
⎞
⎟
⎠
1 5
=
89.8
Z _{m}_{a}_{x} = L/T = 2.78
Z = x / T at x = 0, Z = 0;
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
From Figure, A _{y} = +3, B _{y} = 2.0, A _{m} = 0.66, B _{m} = 0.64 H = H _{u} / 2 = 1,125 kg M _{t} = 1,125 x 15 = 16,875 kg cm
A HT
3
M _{m}_{a}_{x} at ultimate load = 154,856 kg cm. Structural design Deflection at ultimate load = 2 x 0.31 = 0.62cm. Check for compression and bending Moment due to eccentricity = 81,400 x 0.62 = 50,468 kg cm Design moment = 154,856 + 50,468 = 205,324 kg cm Design compressive load = 81,400 kg Use M 150 concrete and Fe 415 steel. f _{c}_{k} = 150 kg/cm ^{2} , f _{y} = 4,150 kg/cm ^{2} Let d ^{'} / D = 0.1 Use chart 56 of IS SP: 16 (S and T) - 1980,
B
M T
2
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures
M
u
f ck
= 0.0467
= 0.6
== 0.15, p
0.15 x15
A
c
=
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
=
2.25percent
15.9cm
2
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.