Sei sulla pagina 1di 3

Larynx (grkljan) Pharynx (drijelo) a tube just above the larynx

, one part being the back of the mouth and the other being beginning of the
way through the nasal cavity.
Velum/ soft palate (meko nepce) It's in a position that allows air to pass
through the nose and mouth. In speech it is raised so that air cannot
escape through the nose. When we make sounds k and g the tongue is in
contact with the lower side of the velum.
Hard palate (tvrdo nepce) roof of the mouth.
Alveolar ridge (alveolarna brazda) between the top front teeth and the
hard palate.
Tongue tip, blade, front, back, root.
Teeth (upper/lower) Sounds made with the tongue touching the front
teeth are called dental.
Lips can be pressed together (p, b), brought into contact with the teeth
(f,v), or rounded (u: ).
Vowels - no obstruction , Consonants-obstruction
Phonetics gr. phone sound, voice. Production, combination,
description and written representation of speech sounds.
Phonology -Distribution and patterning of speech sounds
Accent pronounciation. Dialect vocabulary, grammar, word order



Speaker psychological stage (thinking about what we'll speak),
physiological stage (form utterances).
Transmission physical stage (sth happens in the air)
Listener physiological stage (reaches your ears), psychological stage
(you perceive, understan what you heard.)
Production of vowels:
* the vertical distance between the upper surface of the tongue and the
palate.
* the part of the tongue, between front and back, which is raised highest.
Lip rounding:
1. Rounded cardinal vowel, no. 8 u 2.
Spread cardinal vowel, no. 1 i
3. Neutral expressing hesitation ('er')
PLOSIVE P,T,K,D,B,G FRIC H,F,V,S,Z, AFF-
APROX- -PSYCHOLOGICAL,PSYSICAL,PHYSIOLOGICAL
-ROUNDED , o -NEUTRAL a:, : -SPREAD - i, , e, i:
-FRONT i:, , e -BACK u:, a:, -CENTAR - , u,
-TRIPHTHONGS - ei, ai, i, , a,
DIPTH- ie, e, ,ei, ai, i, a,





-COCKNEY realisation of final t = what, or middle t (button)
-GLOTTALISATION glottal stop occurs before p, t, k or t.
P,T,K followed by consonant or pause (ae?kt)
-ALVEOLAR FLOP- realisation of medial t and d (city, muddy)
-ALLOPHONES OF PHONEME L- dark l before con or pause/ clear l
before vowel/ devoiced- follows p or k
-PREFINALM,N,,L,S -POSTFINALS,Z,T,D, FINAL-ne h,w,j
-CONSONANT CLUSTER two or more consonants together (skin)
-THE INITIAL CONSONANT the post initial (on of the set l, r, j, w)
-MINIMUM SYLLABLE are /a:/ , err /:/
-SOME SYLLABLES HAVE AN ONSET bar /ba:/ , key /ki:/
-SYLLABLES MAY HAVE NO ONSET BUT HAVE A CODE
am /aem/ , ease /i:z/ -SYLLABLES HAVE BOTH ONSET AND CODA
run /rn/ , sat /seat/
-ALVEOLAR FLOP realisation of medial /t/ and /d/ (city,muddy)
-RHOTIC ACCENTS have R before consonant or pause
-NON RHOTIC R before vowels only (BBC)
-CONSONANT CLUUSTER two or more consonants together
s+p, t, k, f, m, n, l, w, j, r THREE CONSONANT CLUSTER-spray
The initial consonant the post initial (on of the set l, r, j, w).
Syllabic l the most obvious example. A word ending with one or
more consonant leters followed by le, e.g. :
1. Alveolar consonant preceeding cattle /kaetl,/, muddle /mdl,/
2. Non-alveolar consonant preceeding trouble /trbl/, struggle
/strgl/
SYLLABIC n after alveolar plosives(t, d) and fricatives
-SYLLABICS m, as a result of assimilation and elision
-SYLLABIC r rahotic accents, most American accents
e.g. particular /prtiklr/
-WEAK SYLLABLE: 1. the vowel 2. i: and I 3. u: and
-STRESS PLACEMENT DEPENDS ON:
1) Wheather the world is morphologically simple or complex
2) Grammatical category of the world
3) How many syllables the world has
4) Phonological structure of syllables



-SINGLE SYLLABLE WORDS:PRIMARY STRESS
Two syllable words-werb,adjecitives if the second syllable is
strong it's stressed
-IF THE FINAL IS WEAK,THEN THE FIRST SYLLABLE IS STRESSED
-THREE POSSIBLE EFECT ON WORD STREES:
1)the affix receives the primary stress. 2)the word is stressed
just as if the suffix were not there. 3)the stress ramains on the
stem but it is shifted to a different syllable
Complex words:
1) Basic word form (the stem) + an affic
2) Compound words (e.g. ice-cream, armchair)
Affix : Prefix (un + pleasant = unpleasant)
Suffix (good + ness = goodness)
Three possible effects on word stress:
1) The affix receives the primary stress (e.g. semi + circle /'s3:kl
'sem,s3:kl/).
2) The word is stressed just as if the suffix were not there. (e.g. pleasant
/'pleznt/, unpleasant /n'pleznt/.
3) The stress remains on the stem but it is shifted to a different syllable
(e.g. magnet /'maegnt/, magnetic /maeg'netk/.




SUFFIXES CARRYING PRIMARY STRESS: -ee, -eer, -ese
-WORD-CLASS PAIRS
-VERB-the stress is placed on the second syllable
-NOUN, ADJECTIVE-the stress is placed on first syllable
THE
The strong form is used : THE, A, AN, AND, BUT, THAT, THAN,HIS,
HER, YOUR,SHE, HE, WE, YOU, HIM. HER. THEM. US . AT . FOR.
FROM. OF. TO . AS. SOME. THERE. CAN, COULD. HAVE, HAD,
HAS. SHALL, SHOULD,MUST. DO, DOES. AM, ARE, WAS, WERE

-STRESS-TIMED RHYTHM. STRESSED SYKKABLES OCCUR AT -
RELATIVITY REGULAR INTERVALS.
-SYLLABLE-TIMED RHYTHM IT THESE LANGUAGES, ALL
SYLLABLE...
-FOOT-AN UNIT OF RHYTHM. BEGINS WITH A STRESSED
SYLLABLE
-UP TO THE FOLLOWING STRESSED SYLLABLE
-Regressive assimilation cons. Final changes to become like cons.
Initial.
-Progressive assimilation cons. Initial changes to become like cons.
Final.
- Assimilation of place C
f
with alveolar place of articulation is
followed by a C
i
with a place of articulation that is not alveolar. T P
(before a bilabial consonant), that person /aep p3:sn/
-T T (before a dental consonant) that thing /aet O/
get those /get z/
-T K (before a velar consonant) that case /aek kes/
quite good /kwak gd/




-Assimilation of manner - A final plosive becomes a fricative or nasal
-Regressive assimilation: gppd night /gn nat/
-Progressive assimilation a plosive or a nasal + = c with a dental
place of articulation. in there /in e/ - inne
-Assimilation of voice progressive assimilation with the suffixes s
and z. cats /kaets/, dogs /do:gz/
-Coalescent assimilation two adjacent sounds combine to form a
new one.
s + j = s e.g. He's coming this year.
z + j = 3 e.g. Does your mother know?
t + j = tS e.g. Is that your dog?
d + j = d3 e.g. Would you mind moving?
Elision-sounds disappear. A phoneme is realised as zero, it is deleted.
1. Loss of weak vowel after p, t, k
The aspiration of the initial plosive.
2. Weak vowel + n, l or r becomes syllabic, police /pli:s/.
3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters
Three plosives or two plosives + a fricative the middle plosive may
disappear. acts /aeks/,
4. Loss of final v in 'of' before consonants: waste of money
Linking words are linked together in real connected speech.
-linking r: here /h/ but here are /hr /
-Intrusive r: Formula S /fo:mjlr e/, media event /mdr vent/
Segmental phonology the description of phonemes
Suprasegmental phonology stress and intonation
Utterance a contionuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a
pause. One syllable utterances yes, no



Tone the overall behaviour of speech. In level or moving tone.
Tone languag Tonic syllable a syllable which carries a tone.
Tonic stress a type of stress which tonic syllable carries.
Two tone-units: John is it /you (John tonic syllable)es the tone
can determine the meaning of a word
The pre-head: all the unstressed syllables in a tone-unit preceeding the
first stressed syllable.
The tail any syllables between the tonic syllable and the end of the
tone-unit.
Tone-unit structure pre head (PH), head (H), tonic syllable (TS), tail
(T).
High head the stressed syllable is high in pitch (')
Low head the stressed syllable is low in pitch. (,)
Pitch the degree of height of our voice in speech. Normal speaking
pitch is at midlevel.
Attitudinal functions allow us to express emotions: finality,
confidence, surprise, doubt, joy, pain, irony etc.
Grammatical functions A: the placement of boundaries between
phrases, clauses and sentences.
B: the difference between questions and statements
Accentual functions the placing of tonic stress on a particular
syllable marks out the word to which it belongs as the most imporant in
the tone-unit.
Discourse functions intonation can signal to the listener what is to be
taken as new