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SEMANTIC NETS

Semantic networks are knowledge representation schemes involving nodes and links (arcs or
arrows) between nodes. The nodes represent objects or concepts and the links represent
relations between nodes. The links are directed and labeled; thus, a semantic network is a
directed graph

This network contains example of both isa and instance relations, as well as domain specific
relations like team and uniform-color. In this network, we could use inheritance to derive the
additional relation -

has-part(pee-Wee-Reese, Nose)

1. Intersection Search: Semantics nets were used to find relationships among objects
by spreading activation out from each of the two nodes and seeing where the
activation met. This process is called Intersection Search. Using this process, it is
possible to use the network of above figure to answer questions such as “What is the
connection between Brooklyn-Dodgers and blue?

2. Representing Non-binary Predicates: Semantic nets are a natural way to represent


relationships that would appear as ground instances of binary predicates. Some of the
arcs from the figure could be represented in logic as

isa(Person,Mammal)
instance(Pee-Wee-Reese, Person)
team(Pee-Wee-Reese,Brooklyn-Dodgers)
uniform-color(Pee-Wee-Reese, Blue)

LIMITATIONS
1. Binary relations are usually easy to represent, but some times is difficult.E.g. try to
represent the sentence:"John caused trouble to the party".

2. Quantified statements are very hard for semantic nets. E.g.:

 "Every dog has bitten a postman"

 "Every dog has bitten every postman"

Solution: Partitioned semantic networks can represent quantified statements.

Partitioned semantic networks

Hendrix developed the so-called partitioned semantic network to represent the difference
between the description of an individual object or process and the description of a set of
objects. The set description involves quantification.

The central idea of partitioning is to allow groups, nodes and arcs to be bundled together into
units called spaces Every node and every arc of a network belongs to (or lies in/on) one or
more spaces. Some spaces are used to encode 'background information' or generic relations;
others are used to deal with specifics called 'scratch' space.

Suppose that we wish to make a specific statement about a dog, Danny, who has bitten a
postman, Peter: "Danny the dog bit Peter the postman"

Hendrix’s Partitioned network would express this statement as an ordinary semantic network:

The partitioning of a semantic network renders them more

 logically adequate, in that one can distinguish between individuals and sets of
individuals, and

 indirectly more heuristically adequate by way of controlling the search space


by delineating semantic networks.

Hendrix's partitioned semantic networks-oriented formalism has been used in building natural
language front-ends for data bases and for programs to deduct information from databases.
"John believes that pizza is tasty"

Every student loves to party"