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# AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 1

## ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTRIC MACHINES (Part 1)

OBJECTIES
G!n!ra" O#\$!%ti&! : To analyze the basic principles of operation of an AC generator
and the differences between DC generator and AC generator by
using commutator and slip ring.
S'!%i(i% O#\$!%ti&!) : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
Utilize the left-hand rule for generators.
Eplain the concept of electromagnetic induction.
Draw the construction of DC generator and alternator.
Eplain the principle of operation of an AC generator.
Differentiate between DC generators and AC generators.
UNIT 6
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 2

6*0 INTRO+UCTION
An !"!%tri% ,!n!rat-r is a de!ice used to con!ert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
The generator is based on the principle of "electromagnetic induction" disco!ered in #\$%#
by &ichael 'araday( a )ritish scientist. 'araday disco!ered that if an electric conductor( li*e
a copper wire( is mo!ed through a magnetic field( electric current will flow +be induced, in
the conductor. -o the mechanical energy of the mo!ing wire is con!erted into the electric
energy of the current that flows in the wire.
The figure below shows a simple electric generator. .n the animation( the mechanical
energy needed to turn the generator comes from the brown hand cran* at the front of the
generator. .n a hydroelectric power plant( the mechanical energy to turn the generator comes
from the water turbine( which is turned by the force of falling water. The hand cran* in the
animation causes the red wire to spin inside a magnetic field +the blue lines,. As 'araday
learned( mo!ing the wire through the magnetic field causes electric current to flow in the
wire. The turning red wire is connected to a !olt meter( which shows the amount of electric
current that is produced. .n a hydroelectric plant( the generator is connected to transmission
.i,* 6*1 The simple electric generator
INPUT
INPUT
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 3
The AC generator +alternator, is a de!ice that con!erts mechanical energy into electrical
energy using the principle of electromagnetic induction. The amount of !oltage generated
depends on the following:
i. The strength of the magnetic field.
ii. The angle at which the conductor cuts the magnetic field.
iii. The speed at which the conductor is mo!ed
i!. The length of the conductor within the magnetic field.
The polarity of the !oltage depends on the direction of the magnetic lines of flu and the
direction of mo!ement of the conductor. To determine the direction of current flow in a
gi!en situation( the left-hand rule for generators is used.
The rule is eplained in the following manner. Etend the thumb( forefinger( and middle
finger of your left hand at right angles to one another( as shown in 'ig. /.0. 1oint your
thumb in the direction the conductor is being mo!ed. 1oint your forefinger in the direction
of the magnetic flu +from north to south,. The middle finger then points in the direction of
current flow in an eternal circuit to which the !oltage is applied.
-ource: .ntroduction to Electronics : DC2AC Circuits by -tephen C. 3arsany
.i, 6*2The left-hand rule for generator
6*1 PRINCIPLE O. OPERATION O. AC GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR)
An elementary AC generator +'ig. /.%, consists of a wire loop so that it can be rotated in a
stationary magnetic field. This produces an induced e.m.f. in the loop. -liding contacts
+brushes, connect the loop to an eternal circuit load in order to pic* up or use the induced
e.m.f.
The pole pieces +mar*ed 4 and -, pro!ide the magnetic field. The pole pieces are
shaped and positioned as shown to concentrate the magnetic field as close as possible to the
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ /
wire loop. The loop of wire that rotates through the field is called the armature. The ends of
the armature loop are connected to rings called slip rings. They rotate with the armature. The
brushes( usually made of carbon with leads attached to them( ride against the rings. The
generated !oltage appears across these brushes.
-ource: .ntroduction to Electronics : DC2AC Circuits by -tephen C. 3arsany
.i, 6*3 An elementary generator
A !oltage is produced in the following manner. The armature loop is rotated in a
cloc*wise manner +'ig. /.5,. .ts initial( or starting( position is shown in 'ig. /.5 +A,. At 6
the armature loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The blac*-and-white conductors are
mo!ing parallel to the magnetic field7 thus( they do not cut any lines of force. The induced
e.m.f. is zero( as the meter shows at A. As the armature loop rotates from position A to )( the
conductors cut through more and more lines of force at continually increasing angle. At 86
+position ),( they are cutting through a maimum number of lines of force and at a
maimum angle. The result is that between 6 and 86( the induced e.m.f. in the conductors
builds up from zero to maimum !alue. 9bser!e that from 6 to 86 the blac* conductor
cuts down through the field. At the same time the white conductor cuts up through the field.
The induced e.m.f. in the conductors are series-aiding( the result of the same relati!e motion
between the armature and the field causing more flu lines to be cut. The meter at position )
As the armature loop continues rotating from position ) +86, to position C +#\$6,(
the conductors that were cutting through a maimum number of lines of force at position )
now cut through fewer lines. At position C( they are again mo!ing parallel to the magnetic
field . Thus( from 86 to #\$6( the induced !oltage decreases to zero. 3owe!er( the polarity
of the induced !oltage has remained the same. This is shown by A through C on the graph.
As the loop starts rotating beyond #\$6( from position C through D( and bac* to position A(
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 0
the !oltage is in the direction opposite to that shown from A( )( and C. The magnitude of the
!oltage is the same as it was from A to C ecept for its re!ersed polarity +as shown by meter
deflection in D,. The !oltage output wa!eform for one complete re!olution of the loop is
shown on the graph in 'ig /.5 and is a single-phase !oltage.
-ource: .ntroduction to Electronics : DC2AC Circuits by -tephen C. 3arsany
.i, 6*/ 9utput !oltage of an elementary generator during one re!olution.
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 6
A%ti&it1 6A
TEST 2OUR UN+ERSTAN+ING )E'9:E ;9U C94T.4UE <.T3 T3E 4E=T
.41UT>?
/.# AC generator is also called >>>>>..
/.0 The generator con!erts >>>>energy into>>>>.energy.
/.% The ends of the armature loop are called >>>> >>>>>
/.5 <hat is the difference between a rotor and a stator@
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 3
.!!4#a%5 t- t6! A%ti&it1 6A
/.# alternator
/.0 mechanical( electrical
/.% slip rings
/.5 rotor A rotating part of the machine
stator A stationary part of the machine
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 7
6*2 THE +I..ERENCES BET8EEN AC GENERATOR AN+ +C GENERATOR
The difference between AC and DC generator is that the DC generator results when you
replace the slip rings of an elementary generator with two-piece commutator( changing the
output from AC to pulsating DC as shown in 'ig. /.B.
-ource: .ntroduction to Electronics : DC2AC Circuits by -tephen C. 3arsany
.i,* 6*0 A )asic DC generator
The maCor difference is that the alternator has se!eral design differences that compensate for
the problems that are common in the DC generator. The first difference is that the part of the
alternator that produces the large current is located in the stationary part of the machine
called the stator( so that the brushes are needed to transfer the large amount of electrical
energy that is produced. This means that the part of the alternator that uses a small amount
of current to produce the magnetic field must be located in the rotating part of the machine(
called the rotor. -ince the motor needs a small amount of constant DC !oltage( this !oltage
can be supplied through slip rings and two brushes rather than commutator segments. 'ig.
/./ shows the basic parts of the AC alternator. ;ou should notice that slip rings are mounted
on the rotor and they run completely around the armature shaft li*e a collar( instead of the
commutator segments in the DC generator.
INPUT
INPUT
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 9
-ource: .ndustrial Electronics Application for 1rogrammable Controllers( .nstrumentation and 1rocess
Control( and Electrical &achines and &otor Controls by Thomas E. Dissel
.i,* 6*6 )asic parts of an alternator
'ig. /.E shows the general construction of DC generator. .t has fi!e principal components
i.e. +i, field systems +ii, armature core +iii, armature windings +i!, commutator +!, brushes.
<hile 'ig. /.\$ shows the alternator +ac generator or synchronous generator,. .t has %-phase
winding on the stator and dc field winding on the rotor.
-ource: 1rinciples of Electrical Engineering and Electronics by F.D. &ehta
.i, 6*3 DC Generator
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 10
-ource: 1rinciples of Electrical Engineering and Electronics by F.D. &ehta
.i, 6*7 Alternator
6*3 E*M*.* !:;ati-n -( an A"t!rnat-r
Het Z I 4o. of conductors or coil sides in series per phase
I 'lu per pole in webers
P I 4umber of rotor poles
N I :otor speed in r.p.m
.n one re!olution +i.e.( /624 second,( each stator conductor is cut by 1 webers(i.e.(
d I P 7 dt I /624
A!erage e.m.f. induced in one stator conductor
I
dt
d
I
N
P
2 /6

I
/6
N P
!olts
-ince there are J conductors in series per phase(
A!erage e.m.f. per phase I
/6
N P
J
I
/6
N P

P
f #06
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 11
I 0fZ !olts

=
p
f
N
#06
:.&.- !alue of e.m.f.2 phase I A!erage !alue2 phaseform factor
I0fZ#.## I 0.00 f Z
Er.m.s 2 phase I 0.00 f Z !olts.
E<a='"! 6*1
A %-phase( B6 3z star-connected alternator has #\$6 conductors per phase and flu per pole is
6.6B5% wb. 'ind
+i, e.m.f. generated per phase
+ii, e.m.f. between line terminals. Assume the winding to be full pitched and
distribution factor to be 6.8/
S-";ti-n t- E<a='"! 6*1
(i) Generated e.m.f.2phase( Eph I 0.00 DpDdJf
I 0.00 K#K6.8/K#\$6KB6K6.6B5%
I 10/1*0
(ii) Hine !oltage ph
E %
I B . #65# % I 1703*19
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 12
A%ti&it1 6B
TEST 2OUR UN+ERSTAN+ING )E'9:E ;9U C94T.4UE <.T3 T3E 4E=T
.41UT>?
/.B -tate the differences between an AC generator and a DC generator.
/./ Draw the output that is produced by a DC generator and an AC generator.
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 13
.!!4#a%5 t- t6! A%ti&it1 6B
/.B components used( output wa!eform
/./
+AC wa!eform, +DC wa!eform,
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 1/
>E2 .ACTS
#. )asically the generator is the opposite of the motor.
0. An alternator is a de!ice that con!erts mechanical energy to electrical energy using
the principle of electromagnetic induction.
%. An alternator uses slip rings to pro!ide a means for the generated !oltage to be ta*en
from the de!ice.
5. To form a basic DC generator( the slip rings are replaced with a commutator.
B. The output of the commutator is a pulsating DC wa!eform.
/. .n this case the rotation of the coil produces a current.
E. The current produced is an alternating one.
\$. The split rings are replaced with two slip rings.
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 10
SEL.?ASSESSMENT 6
;ou are approaching success. Tr1 a"" t6! :;!)ti-n) in this self-assessment section and
chec* your answers with those gi!en in the 'eedbac* on -elf-Assessment / gi!en on the
net page. .f you face any problems( discuss it with your lecturer. Good luc*.
@;!)ti-n 6?1
a. Describe the components of an elementary AC generator.
b. <hat component is used to con!ert an alternator to a DC generator@
c. -ynchronous generator or alternator is the other name for >>>.>>>.
d. AC systems ha!e a number of ad!antages o!er DC systems. +;es24o,
e. A rectifier is used to con!ert AC to DC. +;es24o,
f. The operation of an alternator is not based on the concept of electromagnetism.
+;es24o,.
g. 'or an alternator operation( the direction of induced e.m.f. can be determined by
'lemingLs right hand rule. +;es24o,
h. 'ind the number of armature conductors in series per phase reMuired for the
armature of a %-phase( B63z( #6-pole alternator. The winding is star-connected to
gi!e a line !oltage of ##666. The flu per pole is 6.#/ wb. Assume Dp I # and
Dd I 6.8/.
@;!)ti-n 6?2
a. A %-phase( B6 3z star-connected alternator has #66 conductors per phase and
flu per pole is 6.6Bwb. 'ind
+i, e.m.f. generated per phase
+ii, e.m.f. between line terminals. Assume the winding to be full pitched and
distribution factor to be 6.8/
AC MACHINE (Part 1) E2063/ Unit 6/ 16
.EE+BAC> TO SEL.?ASSESSMENT 6
S-";ti-n -( @;!)ti-n 6?1
a. pole pieces( brush( slip rings( armature loop
b. commutator
c. AC generator.
d. ;es
e. ;es
f. 4o
g. ;es
h. J I %E0.B
S-";ti-n -( @;!)ti-n 6?2
a. +i, B%0.\$ F
+ii, 800.\$5 F
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!
..May success be with
you always.