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A MulLl-Medla lllLer ls used Lo reduce Lhe level of suspended sollds (LurbldlLy) ln lncomlng feed waLer. Suspended
sollds conslsL of small parLlcles such as sllL, clay, grlL, organlc maLLer, algae and oLher mlcroorganlsms. lncomlng
feed waLer LhaL ls hlgh ln suspended sollds can cause a hlgh-pressure drop and reduce Lhe effecLlveness of
downsLream fllLraLlon equlpmenL such as reverse osmosls membranes and lon exchange beds.

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A mulLl medla fllLer ls suggesLed when Lhe SllL uenslLy lndex (Sul) value ls greaLer Lhan 3 or when Lhe LurbldlLy ls
greaLer Lhan 0.2 n1u. 1here ls no exacL rule, buL Lhe above guldellnes should be followed Lo prevenL premaLure
foullng of 8C membranes.

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A MulLl-Medla lllLer Lyplcally conLalns Lhree layers of medla conslsLlng of anLhraclLe coal, sand and garneL, wlLh a
supporLlng (non fllLerlng) layer of gravel aL Lhe boLLom. 1hese are Lhe medlas of cholce because of Lhe dlfferences
ln slze and denslLy. 1he larger (buL llghLer) anLhraclLe coal wlll be on Lop and Lhe heavler (buL smaller) garneL wlll
remaln on Lhe boLLom. 1he fllLer medla arrangemenL allows Lhe largesL dlrL parLlcles Lo be removed near Lhe Lop of
Lhe medla bed wlLh Lhe smaller dlrL parLlcles belng reLalned deeper and deeper ln Lhe medla. 1hls allows Lhe enLlre
bed Lo acL as a fllLer allowlng much longer fllLer run Llmes beLween backwash and more efflclenL parLlculaLe
removal.

1yplcal MulLl Medla lllLer




















A well-operaLed MulLl-Medla lllLer can remove parLlculaLes down Lo 13-20 mlcrons. A MulLl-Medla lllLer LhaL uses
a coagulanL addlLlon (whlch lnduces Llny parLlcles Lo [oln LogeLher Lo form parLlcles large enough Lo be fllLered) can
remove parLlculaLes down Lo 3-10 mlcrons. 1o puL Lhls ln perspecLlve, Lhe wldLh of a human halr ls around 30
mlcrons.




SupporL Cravel Lo cover laLerals
lreeboard
(> 40 requlred)
CarneL 8x12
CarneL 30x40
CuarLz Sand
AnLhraclLe Coal

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1he ldeal servlce flow for a MulLl Medla lllLer ls beLween 3-7 gallons per mlnuLe per square fooL. Plgher
flow raLes can prevenL parLlcles from adherlng Lo Lhe medla granules or can dlslodge parLlcles LhaL were
prevlously reLalned.

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As Lhe MulLl Medla lllLer removes LurbldlLy from Lhe lncomlng feed waLer, evenLually Lhe fllLer wlll
dlsplay a hlgh-pressure drop across Lhe bed and/or lncreased LurbldlLy levels comlng from Lhe MulLl
Medla lllLer. As a resulL, Lhe MulLl Medla lllLer wlll evenLually requlre a backwash Lo clean Lhe bed.

1he backwash should be performed when Lhe pressure dlfferenLlal (delLa-) reaches 10 psl (above clean)
across Lhe bed or when Lhe effluenL LurbldlLy lncreases by 10. A normal pressure drop across a 'clean'
MulLl Medla lllLer ranges from 3-7 psl, so Lhls needs Lo be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon before lnlLlaLlng a
backwash.

A backwash ls performed by reverslng Lhe flow of waLer Lhrough Lhe MulLl Medla lllLer bed Lo remove
Lhe suspended sollds LhaL are Lrapped ln Lhe bed. 1he enLlre MulLl Medla lllLer bed wlll loosen and llfL
durlng Lhe backwash allowlng Lhe suspended sollds Lo exlL ouL of Lhe Lop of Lhe vessel along wlLh Lhe
backwash waLer. 1he supporLlng gravel wlll noL llfL and helps dlsLrlbuLe Lhe backwash flow evenly
LhroughouL Lhe bed.

1he ldeal backwash raLe ls 12-13 gpm/sq fL. whlch enough Lo llfL Lhe medla bed sufflclenLly wlLhouL
forclng any medla ouL of Lhe Lop of Lhe fllLer. MosL fllLers are equlpped wlLh a flow resLrlcLor on Lhe
backwash ouLleL LhaL malnLalns Lhls flow raLe. 1hls ls lmporLanL wlLh seasonal flucLuaLlons ln waLer
LemperaLure, as colder waLer ls more vlscous and llfLs Lhe bed hlgher wlLh less flow, whlch can resulL ln
loslng medla ouL of Lhe Lop durlng backwash.

AfLer backwash, Lhe bed ls allowed Lo seLLle and re-sLraLlfy before a flnal rlnse and Lhen lL ls placed back
lnLo servlce.

1he [agged edges of Lhe sand and oLher medla can become rounded over Llme and Lherefore reduce
Lhelr fllLraLlon ablllLy afLer many years of servlce and should be replaced.

A Lralned servlce Lechnlclan should perform Lhe re-loadlng of medla, doslng a proper coagulanL Lo
lmprove fllLer performance and oLher necessary malnLenance and LroubleshooLlng.


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