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# Performance-based design

Lars Abrahamczyk

Bauhaus-Universitt Weimar, Earthquake Damage Analysis Center
Natural Hazards and Risks in Structural Engineering
Lecture 2
nd
Course: Earthquake Engineering
Bauhaus-University
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Performance based design:
- Generation of the capacity
curve by using push over
analysis
Capacity Demand Performance
- Estimation of the maximum
expected response of the
building during the ground
motion

- Determination of the
Performance point
- Something like a check!

- Verifies the structural
components beyond the
acceptable limits!
Capacity
Principles
- similar in all guidelines

- structural capacity depends on:

- strength and deformation capacities of each individual elements

- the capacity curve approximates how structures behave after exceeding their
elastic limit
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Recapitulation: The iterative step-by-step procedure to determine Capacity!
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Moment-Rotation relationship (ETABS)
nonlinear material law for RC- frame
elements
3D-model of Toyota office building
flower boxes, infills and stairs = masses
1. Generation of a model
2. Definition of nonlinear hinge properties (e.g. moment-rotation or force-
deformation relationship) for yielding elements
Capacity
Step by step:
Capacity
Details to step 2:
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Moment-Rotation relationship (ETABS)
nonlinear material law for RC- frame
elements
2. Definition of nonlinear hinge properties (e.g. moment-rotation or force-
deformation relationship) for yielding elements
Discussion:
- problems
- limits
- ductility depends on gravity (column)
- plastic length
Capacity
Details to step 2:
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Procedure in ETABS for PMM:
C / NC confirming and non-confirming details
Confirming:
- closed hoops are spaced at smaller d/3
- strength provided by the stirrups is at least three-fourths of the design shear
Capacity
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Moment-Rotation relationship (ETABS)
nonlinear material law for RC- frame
elements
3. Assignment of nonlinear hinges (in ETABS) is only possible for frame elements
(e.g. beams, columns or struts)
Nonlinear hinge location of frame B

Step by step:
Capacity
to step 3:
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Nonlinear hinge location of frame B
Is it effective to assign the nonlinear hinges to the ends of frame elements?
Capacity
to step 3:
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Is it effective to assign the nonlinear hinges to the ends of frame elements?
Yes, it is. Because of the inertial force distribution! But,
Moments in columns due to vertical and
Moments in beams due to vertical and
Capacity
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4. Preparing of modal deformations for the mode shape that contributes most to
the dynamic behaviour (e.g. by using modal analysis)
5. Assignment of a static Pushover - load pattern generally according to the 1st
Step by step:
Deformed mode shape of 3D-model
1st mode shape (transverse)
1st mode shape incl.
modal deformations

1,1
2,1

3,1
4,1
=0,0314
=0,0254
=0,0194
=0,0092
acc. to 1st mode
shape
Capacity
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5. Assignment of a static Pushover - load pattern generally according to the 1st
mode shape
Details to step 5:
Discussion:
- torsion mode shapes
- modal participating mass ratios
Capacity
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6. Calculation of base shear vs. roof displacement relationship (base shear = sum
of shear forces of all columns at ground floor level and roof displacement =
cumulated displacement from ground floor to roof)
Step by step:
Capacity curve
Toyota office building
Demand
Principles
- ground motions produce complex horizontal displacement patterns in structures
that may vary in time judged impractical

- easier and more direct is to use a set of lateral displacements as a design
condition

- displacement demand is an estimate of the maximum expected response

- a displacement along the capacity curve that is consistent with the seismic
demand
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- capacity spectrum method ATC 40
- three different procedures based on the same concept
- vary in their dependence on analytical versus graphical techniques
- procedure A, B and C

- displacement coefficient method FEMA 273 and EC 8
Methods
- capacity spectrum method ATC 40
- three different procedures based on the same concept
- vary in their dependence on analytical versus graphical techniques
- procedure A, B and C
- potential to assist development of retrofit strategies

- RECAPITULATION!
Conclusion
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- Performance based design:

- calculation of the structural capacity
- determination of the performance point
- checking of the structural behavior under defined seismic action
with your setting limits (e.g Life safety)

- only one time calculation of the capacity
- possibility to compare the capacity with different seismic excitations
(demand)
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Capacity-Spectrum Method
FEMA 440 presents improved equivalent linearization procedure of ATC-40.
Acceleration-displacement response spectrum (ADRS) showing effective period and
damping parameters of equivalent linear system, along with a capacity curve.
ATC 40 FEMA 440
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Inelastic Behavior
Types of inelastic behavior considered.

Ref.: FEMA 440
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Effective Damping
any capacity curve, independent of hysteretic
model type or alpha value
all hysteretic model types
and alpha values
Ref.: FEMA 440
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Coefficients Effective Damping
Ref.: FEMA 440
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Coefficients Effective Period
Ref.: FEMA 440
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Effective Period
any capacity curve, independent of hysteretic
model type or alpha value
all hysteretic model types
and alpha values
Ref.: FEMA 440
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for use with secant period, Tsec
Ref.: FEMA 440
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Procedure
Step 1: Selection of a spectral representation of the ground
motion with an initial damping, i (normally 5%)

Step 2: Conversion into ADRS - Format
a
d
S
S
2 T
Ref.: ATC-40
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Procedure
Step 3: Generation of a capacity curve

Step 4: Conversion into ADRS - Format
a
d
S
S
2 T
Ref.: ATC-40
1 , roof 1
roof
d
d
S

1
a
W / V
S

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Procedure
Step 5: Initial Performance Point Step 6: Bilinear representation
Step 7: Calculation of post-elastic stiffness and ductility
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Procedure
Step 8: Calculation of corresponding effective damping and period

Step 9: Determination of estimated maximum displacement
Procedure A
Direct iteration
Procedure B
Intersection of capacity spectrum with MADRS