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LM3911 Temperature Controller

June 1994 LM3911 Temperature Controller General Description The LM3911 is a highly accurate temperature measurement

June 1994

LM3911 Temperature Controller

General Description

The LM3911 is a highly accurate temperature measurement and or control system for use over a b 25 C to a 85 C tem- perature range Fabricated on a single monolithic chip it includes a temperature sensor a stable voltage reference and an operational amplifier

The output voltage of the LM3911 is directly proportional to temperature in degrees Kelvin at 10 mV K Using the inter- nal op amp with external resistors any temperature scale factor is easily obtained By connecting the op amp as a comparator the output will switch as the temperature trans- verses the set-point making the device useful as an on-off temperature controller

An active shunt regulator is connected across the power leads of the LM3911 to provide a stable 6 8V voltage refer- ence for the sensing system This allows the use of any power supply voltage with suitable external resistors

The input bias current is low and relatively constant with temperature ensuring high accuracy when high source im- pedance is used Further the output collector can be re- turned to a voltage higher than 6 8V allowing the LM3911 to drive lamps and relays up to a 35V supply

The LM3911 uses the difference in emitter-base voltage of transistors operating at different current densities as the ba- sic temperature sensitive element Since this output de- pends only on transistor matching the same reliability and stability as present op amps can be expected

The LM3911 is available in two package styles a metal can TO-46 and an 8-lead epoxy mini-DIP In the epoxy package all electrical connections are made on one side of the de- vice allowing the other 4 leads to be used for attaching the LM3911 to the temperature souce The LM3911 is rated for operation over a b 25 C to a 85 C temperature range

Features

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Uncalibrated accuracy g10 C

Internal op amp with frequency compensation

Linear output of 10 mV K (10 mV C)

Can be calibrated in degrees Kelvin Celsius or Fahrenheit

Output can drive loads up to 35V

Internal stable voltage reference

Low cost

Block Diagram

Ground Referred Centigrade Thermometer Proportioning Temperature Controller Basic Temperature Controller
Ground Referred
Centigrade Thermometer
Proportioning Temperature
Controller
Basic Temperature Controller

Typical Applications

Output goes negative on temperature increase

TL H 5701–1

Trims out initial zener tolerance Set output to read C

R S e (V a b 6 8V) kX

Note 1 C1 determines proportioning frequency f

Note 2

R10 e l V a l a l V b l b 7V

0 0015A

1

2R4 C1

Note 3 Either V b or V a can be ground

C 1995 National Semiconductor Corporation

TL H 5701

RRD-B30M115 Printed in U S A

Absolute Maximum Ratings

If Military Aerospace specified devices are required please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office Distributors for availability and specifications

Indefinite

Operating Temperature Range b 25 C to a 85 C

Storage Temperature Range b 65 C to a 150 C

Output Short Circuit Duration

Supply Current (Externally Set) 10 mA

Lead Temperature (Soldering 10 seconds)

 

Output Collector Voltage V aa 36V

 

260 C

Feedback Input Voltage Range

0V to a 7 0V

Electrical Characteristics (Note 1)

 

Parameter

 

Conditions

Min

Typ

Max

Units

SENSOR

Output Voltage

T A eb 25 C (Note 2)

2

36

2

48

2

60

 

V

Output Voltage

T A ea 25 C (Note 2)

2

88

2

98

3

08

 

V

Output Voltage

T A ea 85 C (Note 2)

3

46

3

58

3

70

 

V

Linearity

DT e 100 C

 

0

5

 

2

 

%

Long-Term Stability

   

0

3

   

%

Repeatability

   

0

3

   

%

VOLTAGE REFERENCE

Reverse Breakdown Voltage

1 mA s I z s 5 mA

6

55

6

85

7

25

 

V

Reverse Breakdown Voltage Change With Current

1 mA s I z s 5 mA

 

10

 

35

mV

Temperature Stability

   

20

 

85

mV

Dynamic Impedance

I z e 1 mA

 

3

0

   

X

RMS Noise Voltage

10

Hz s f s 10 kHz

 

30

 

mV

Long Term Stability

T A ea 85 C

 

6

0

 

mV

OP AMP

Input Bias Current

T A ea 25 C

 

35

150

nA

Input Bias Current

   

45

250

nA

Voltage Gain

R L e 36k V aa e 36V

2500

15000

 

V

V

Output Leakage Current

T A e 25 C (Note 3)

 

0

2

 

2

mA

Output Leakage Current

(Note 3)

 

1

0

 

8

mA

Output Source Current

V OUT s 3 70

 

10

   

mA

Output Sink Current

1V s V OUT s 36V

 

2

0

   

mA

Note 1 These specifications apply for b 25 C s T A sa 85 C and 0 9 mA s I SUPPLY s 1 1 mA unless otherwise specified C L s 50 pF

Note 2 The output voltage applies to the basic thermometer configuration with the output and input terminals shorted and a load resistance of t 1 0 MX This is the feedback sense voltage and includes errors in both the sensor and op amp This voltage is specified for the sensor in a rapidly stirred oil bath The output is referred to V a

Note 3 The output leakage current is specified with t 100 mV overdrive Since this voltage changes with temperature the voltage drive for turn-off changes and is defined as V OUT (with output and input shorted) b 100 mV This specification applies for V OUT e 36V

Application Hints

Although the LM3911 is designed to be totally trouble-free certain precautions should be taken to insure the best pos- sible performance

As with any temperature sensor internal power dissipation will raise the sensor’s temperature above ambient Nominal suggested operating current for the shunt regulator is 1 0 mA and causes 7 0 mW of power dissipation In free still air this raises the package temperature by about 1 2 K Al- though the regulator will operate at higher reverse currents and the output will drive loads up to 5 0 mA these higher currents will raise the sensor temperature to about 19 K above ambient-degrading accuracy Therefore the sensor should be operated at the lowest possible power level

With moving air liquid or surface temperature sensing self- heating is not as great a problem since the measured

media will conduct the heat from the sensor Also there are many small heat sinks designed for transistors which will improve heat transfer to the sensor from the surrounding medium A small finned clip-on heat sink is quite effective in free-air It should be mentioned that the LM3911 die is on the base of the package and therefore coupling to the base is preferable

The internal reference regulator provides a temperature sta- ble voltage for offsetting the output or setting a comparison point in temperature controllers However since this refer- ence is at the same temperature as the sensor temperature changes will also cause reference drift For application where maximum accuracy is needed an external reference should be used Of course for fixed temperature controllers the internal reference is adequate

2

Typical Performance Characteristics

Temperature

Op Amp Input Current

Power Supply Current

Conversion T CENTIGRADE e T C T FAHRENHEIT e T F T KELVIN e T
Conversion
T CENTIGRADE e T C
T FAHRENHEIT e T F
T KELVIN e T K
T K e T C a 273 16
5
T C e (40 a T F )
b 40
9
9
T F e (40 a T C )
b 40
5
Output Saturation
Voltage
Thermal Time Constant
in Stirred Oil Bath
Thermal Time Constant in
Still Air
Supply Sensitivity
Device Temperature Rise
Device Temperature Rise
Reference Regulation
Turn ‘‘ON’’ Response

Amplifier Output Impedance

TL H 5701–2

3

Schematic Diagram

Basic Thermometer for Positive Supply Increasing Output Drive Note Load current to GND is supplied
Basic Thermometer
for Positive Supply
Increasing Output Drive
Note Load current to GND
is supplied through R S
R S e (V b b 6 8V) c 10 3 X
R S e (V b b 6 8V) c 10 3 X
R S e (V a b 6 8V) c 10 3 X
Operating With External Zener for
Lower Power Dissipation
Depends on Zener current
Set temperature

Temperature Controller With Hysteresis

Output goes positive on temperature increase

TL H 57013

Typical Applications (Continued)

Basic Thermometer for Negative Supply

External Frequency Compensation for Greater Stability when Driving Capacitive Loads

4

Typical Applications (Continued)

Meter Thermometer With Trimmed Output Thermometer With Meter Output (V Z ) 0 01DT R1
Meter Thermometer With Trimmed Output
Thermometer With Meter Output
(V Z ) 0 01DT
R1 e
I M (V Z b 0 01 T O )
Select I Q s 2V
R1
R2 e 0 01 T O b I Q R1
I Q
R3 e V Z
b R1 b R2
I Q
I Q s 2V
J
R1
e
V z
DT
e
e
I M
e
T O
e
I Q
Shunt regulator voltage (use 6 85)
Meter temperature span ( K)
Meter full scale current (A)
Meter zero temperature ( K)
Current through R1 R2 R3 at zero
meter current (10 mA to 1 0 mA) (A)
Values shown for
T O e 300 K DT e 100 K
Selected as for meter thermometer except T O should
be 5 K more than desired and I Q e 100 mA
I M e 1 0 mA I Q e 100 mA
Calibrates T O
The 0 01 in the above and following equations is in units of V K or V C
and is a result of the basic 0 01V K sensitivity of the transducer
Ground Referred Thermometer
(V Z )(10mV)(DT)
R1 e
Ground Referred Centigrade Thermometer
(V Z b 0 01 T O )
V O
R L
R2 e 0 01 T O b I Q R1
I Q
R3 e V Z
b R1 b R2
e
V z
DT
e
T
e
O
V
e
O
e
I Q
I Q
Shunt regulator voltage
Temperature span ( K)
Temperature for zero output ( K)
Full scale output voltage s 10V
Current through R1 R2 R3
at zero output voltage
(typically 100 mA to 1 0 mA)
Set zero
I H b 0 01 T H J
0 01 T L
V Z b 0 01 T L J
a
V Z b 0 01 T H J
R1
R1
R2 (X) e
0 01
R3 T H (V Z b 0 01 T L ) b T L (V Z b 0 01 T H ) (
R1
Two Terminal Temperature to Current Transducer
b 1 J
T
L
R3(X) t V Z T H
I H b I L T H
T
L
a V Z b 0 01 T L
b I L J
1
1
R2
1
e
b
R4
(V Z b 0 01 T L )(R2) % (R2)(0 01 T L )
R1
1 1
R2
R2 a
R3
T
e
L
T
e
H
V
e
Z
I
e
L
I
e
Temperature for I L ( K)
Temperature for I H ( K)
Zener voltage (V)
Low temperature output current (A)
High temperature output current (A)
H
Values shown for I OUT e 1 mA to 10 mA for 10 F to 100 F
Set temperature

b I L J

TL H 5701–4

The 0 01 in the above and following equations is in units of V K or V C and is a result of the basic 0 01V K sensitivity of the transducer

5

Typical Applications (Continued)

Over Temperature Detectors With Common Output

R S e
R S e

Trip Point e V Z

R1

R1 a R2

(V a b 6 8V)

6 8V

0 001 A a

R1 a R2

TL H 5701–5

Two-Wire Remote A C Electronic Thermostat (Gas or Oil Furnace Control)

A C Electronic Thermostat (Gas or Oil Furnace Control) TL H 5701–8 Solenoid or 6 b

TL H 5701–8

Solenoid or 6 b 15W heater

Pot will provide about a 50 F to 90 F setting range The trim resistor (100k) is selected to bring 70 F near the middle of the pot rotation

SCR heating by proper positioning can preheat the sensor giving control anticipa- tion as is presently used in many home thermostats

Electronic Thermostat

Set temperature
Set temperature

SENSITIVE GATE TRIAC

IG T es 5 mA

RCA T2300 40529

OR SIMILAR

SCR turns on power to fan or cooler when temperature in- creases

TL H 5701–9

6

Typical Applications (Continued)

Three-Wire Electronic Thermostat

Divider is set for a nominal 0 C b 125 C range Wire wound resistors
Divider is set for a nominal 0 C b 125 C range
Wire wound resistors will provide maximum
temperature stability
Almost any TRIAC rated 1 to 35 amperes
usable with appropriate load
Differential Thermometer
V OUT e 0 01 R 1 a R 2 J (T 2 b T 1 )
R
2
1
Output can swing g3V at g50 mA
with low output impedance
The 0 01 in the above equation is in units of V K or V C and is a result
of the basic 0 01 V K sensitivity of the transducer
TO-46 Package
Dual-In-Line Package
TL H 5701–6

R S e V S a b 6 8V c 10 3 X

Kelvin Thermometer With Ground Referred Output

Connection Diagrams

TL H 5701–7

Order Number LM3911N See NS Package N08E

Order Number LM3911H-46 See NS Package H04A

7

LM3911 Temperature Controller

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters)

Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N) Order Number LM3911N NS Package N08E LIFE

Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N) Order Number LM3911N NS Package N08E

Package (N) Order Number LM3911N NS Package N08E LIFE SUPPORT POLICY TO-46 Package (H) Order Number

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY

TO-46 Package (H) Order Number LM3911H-46 NS Package H04A

NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION As used herein

1 Life support devices or systems are devices or 2 A critical component is any component of a life

support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system or to affect its safety or effectiveness

systems which (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body or (b) support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user

expected to result in a significant injury to the user National Semiconductor National Semiconductor National

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National Semiconductor

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Hong Kong Ltd

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