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Light Emitting Diode Source

Modeling for Optical Design


Co-Instructor:
Art Davis
Reflexite Display Optics
Phone: 585-647-1609x137
Email: Art.Davis@Reflexite.com
www.display-optics.com
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Introduction
Photometry Background
Understanding Optical Specifications for LEDs
Methods for Computations
Fresnel Lenses
Attendee Introductions and Interests?
Several Sample Problems Included
Interrupt with Questions Freely
in optics it is easy to do something roughly but very difficult to do it well.
--Rudolf Kingslake
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Table of Contents
1. Photometry
1.1 Photometry Spherical Coordinate System
1.2 Spherical Differential
1.3 Solid Angle Subtended by a Right Circular Cone
1.4 Point Source Illumination
1.5 Conservation of Luminance
1.6 Lambertian Emitter
1.7 Illuminance of Disk Lambertian Source
1.8 tendue

2. Optical Specifications of LEDs
2.1 Luminous Flux
2.2 Luminous Intensity
2.2.1 Understanding Intensity Plots
2.2.2 Polar Intensity Contour Plot
2.2.3 Polar Intensity Plot
2.2.4 Rectangular Intensity Plot
2.2.5 Rectangular/Polar Intensity Plot
2.2.6 Sllner Plot
2.2.7 Rectangular Intensity Contour Plot
2.2.8 3D Intensity Plot
2.3 Viewing Angle
2.4 Radiation Pattern
2.5 Color
2.6 Spectral Half-Width
2.7 Scaling Using K-factors
3. Source Modeling of LEDs
3.1 Importing Radiant Imaging Source

4. Optics for use with LEDs
4.1 Suitability of Optics
4.2 Design Methods
4.3 Flux Approximating Calculation
4.4 F/#, NA and Ray Angle
4.5 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency
4.6 Reflectors
4.7.1 Thin Lens Newtonian Real Image
4.7.2 Thin Lens Newtonian Virtual Image
4.7.3 Embedded Source Virtual Image
4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image Example

5. Fresnel Lens
5.1 Types of Fresnels
5.1.1 Refractive Fresnel Lens
5.1.2 TIR Fresnel Lens
5.1.3 TIR Fresnel Lens
5.1.4 Fresnel Lens Hybrid1
5.1.5 Fresnel Lens Hybrid2
5.1.6 Domed Fresnel Lens
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1. Photometry
Flux ()
Photometric Power
Lumen (lm)
Illuminance (E=d /dA)
Flux Density (or exitance)
Flux per Unit Area
lm/m
2
(lux)
Luminous Intensity (I=d /d)
Flux per Unit Solid Angle
lm/sr (candela or cd)
Luminance (L=d
2
/[dAd])
Flux Radiance
Flux per Unit Area per Unit Solid Angle
lm/sr/m
2
or cd/m
2
(nit)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.1 Photometry Right Handed Spherical
Coordinate System
Zenith is
Azimuth is
For the full sphere
For the hemisphere
In radians
For the full sphere
For the hemisphere
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.2 Spherical Differential
Differential Area and Solid Angle
For the full sphere
For the hemisphere
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.3 Solid Angle Subtended by a Right
Circular Cone
Use trig identity:
From previous slide:
Then:
Calculate Solid Angle by
precisely encompassing
the right cone by a
section of a sphere.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.4 Point Source Illumination
The projected area is
perpendicular to the
angle of observation
Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.5 Conservation of Luminance
Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.6 Lambertian Emitter
Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.7 Illuminance of Disk Lambertian Source
Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation,
R. W. Boyd, Wiley, 1983.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
1.8 tendue
Characterize the optical system independently of the flux content.
Start with:
Small Source
with wide angle
radiation pattern
Maps to:
Large Image
with narrow angle
radiation pattern
Reference: Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation, R. W. Boyd, 1983, Wiley.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2. Optical Specifications of LEDs
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol
Conditions
I
F
is Forward Current
Verify drive current
Take note of Pulse Width Modulation
T
a
is ambient temperature
Consider realistic operating temperatures
Current and temperature effects the optical specifications. Refer to the data charts for
the specified LED to see how.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.1 Luminous Flux
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol

October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.1 Luminous Flux
Flux measurement
integrates the
entirety of the flux
(lumens) from the
LED.
Result is a single
value =
v
References:
Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,
K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003
CIE publication 127-197
Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org
Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,
Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2 Luminous Intensity
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol

October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2 Luminous Intensity
CIE Standard condition for
the measurement of the
Averaged LED Intensity
Condition A: d=0.316 m
Condition B: d=0.100 m
Result is a single value = I
v
References:
Recent Activity in LED Measurement Standards with CIE and CORM,
K. Murray, INPHORA, Intertech LED 2003
CIE publication 127-197
Council for Optical Radiation Measurement: www.corm.org
Standardization of LED Measurements, C.C. Miller and Y. Ohno, NIST,
Sept. 2004, Photonics Spectra
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.1 Understanding Intensity Plots
3D Mesh of Intensity
Distribution
Magnitude of luminous
intensity is plotted in
three dimensional
coordinates
Distribution shown
here (batwing) is used
for the next several
figures
Reference: Lumileds Lighting, Dataset for LXHL-MW1A, www.lumileds.com
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.2 Polar Intensity Contour Plot
Contour colormap values assigned according to
magnitude of luminous intensity
Polar axis (spokes) of the plot are the azimuth angles
Radial axis (rings) of the plot are the zenith angles
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.3 Polar Intensity Plot
Slices through contour for
constant azimuth angle
Example:
0,22.5,45,67.5,90
Polar Intensity Plot polar
axis (spokes) equals
zenith angles
Polar Intensity Plot radial
axis (rings) equals
intensity magnitude
0
22.5
45
67.5
90
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.4 Rectangular Intensity Plot
The polar slices can
also be plotted on
rectangular axes
x-axis is zenith angles
y-axis is intensity
magnitude
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.5 Rectangular/Polar Intensity Plot
When symmetry is assumed, sometimes the rectangular
and polar plots are split in half and combined into a
single graph.
Also known as a Directivity Plot
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.6 Sllner Plot
Typically used for
Lighting Specifications
Usually plotted in
Luminance but intensity
is also possible
x-axis is photometric
magnitude
y-axis is zenith angles
Useful for quickly
determining adherence
to specification
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.7 Rectangular Intensity Contour Plot
Unroll a polar contour plot
x-axis is azimuth angles
y-axis is zenith angles
Colormap values assigned according to magnitude of luminous
intensity
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.2.8 3D Intensity Plot
Plot of the 3D surface for the Rectangular Intensity
Contour Plot
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.3 Viewing Angle
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol

October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.3 Viewing Angle
2

refers to cone of
luminous intensity
defined by

October 20, 2004


Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.4 Radiation Pattern
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol

October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.4 Radiation Patterns
______________
1.
______________
2.
______________
3.
______________
4.
NarrowAngle
Lambertian
Batwing
Side Emitter
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.5 Color
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol

October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.5 Color
Color coordinates of
LED define a range
within which lies the
dominant wavelength
Similar can be done
for white LEDs
defining a range in
which the CCT can lie
400nm
490nm
500nm
510nm
520nm
540nm
570nm
600nm
700nm
1
,
5
0
0
K
2
,
8
0
0
K
3
,
5
0
0
K
4
,
5
0
0
K
1
0
,
0
0
0
K
2
,
0
0
0
K
6
,
5
0
0
K
References:
Principles of Color Technology, 2
nd
ed., F.W. Billmeyer, M. Saltzman, 1981, Wiley.
efgs Computer Lab, www.efg2.com
Blackbody coordinates downloaded from: www.imagingscience.com
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.6 Spectral Half-Width
CIE Color
Coordinates
x=0.31
y=0.72
x=0.29
y=0.70
x=0.27
y=0.68
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
x, y Green Color
degrees (deg) 90 2
1/2
Viewing
Angle
millicandela
(mcd)
7680 6400 5120
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C
I
v
Luminous
Intensity
Lambertian
Radiation
Pattern
nanometers
(nm)
30
1/2
Spectral
Half-Width
Lumens (lm) 0.42 0.35 0.28
I
F
=50mA
T
a
=25C

v
Luminous
Flux
Unit Max. Typ. Min. Condition Symbol


October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.6 Spectral Half-Width

0.5
Full Width at Half
Maximum (FWHM)

0.1
Full Width at 10%
height

0.5m
Center Wavelength
of Half Intensity Bandwidth

c
Centroid Wavelength
Reference: CIE publication 127-197
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
2.7 Scaling Using K-factors
Optical data is reported at
fixed average forward
current
Scale Luminous Flux by
the k-factor of the actual
drive current to be used
The k-factor at specified
driving current is equal to
1.0
Example 2:
Say drive current is 30mA and source distribution was recorded
at 80 mA. Find the appropriate scaling factor to apply.
Answer:
The K-factor reads at 1.5 for 80mA. Normalize the source distribution
by dividing by this factor. Then multiply by 0.64 to scale it to 30mA
Scale Factor =0.64/1.5 =0.43
Example 1:
Say drive current is 30mA (instead of 50mA).
Find the typical luminous intensity.
Answer:
The K-factor reads at 0.64.
Typical luminous intensity will be =0.64 x 6400 mcd =4096 mcd
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
3. Source Modeling of LEDs
Eight types described in D. Kreysars presentation
Geometric Model
Accurate CAD model of source
Optical properties need to be precisely characterized and included (refractive index,
scattering, absorption, etc.)
Perturbable for tolerance analysis
Difficult to get real world convergence
Angularly/Spatially Measured Model
Radiant Imaging
Very close to real world performance
Does not account for variation between sources
Easy to use for inclusion in raytrace software
Combined Geometric/Measured Model
Most accurate
Most difficult
Especially useful for return light incident on the geometry (detailed in D. Kreysars
presentation)
References:
Light Source Modeling, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004, SPIE SC345
Optical Modeling of UHP Lamps, H. Moench, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 36-45.
Advanced Topics in Source Modeling, M.S. Kaminski et al,Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 46-57.
Accurate Illumination System Predictions Using Measured Spatial Luminance Distributions, W.J.
Cassarly, D.R. Jenkins, H. Mnch, Jul. 2002, SPIE Vol. 4775, pp. 78-85.
Radiant Imaging: www.radimg.com
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Import absorbing LED geometry
Trace Rays again
Reverse Vectors
Remove spurious rays of choice
Incremental Propagation
Export to Rayfile
Optionally import accurate LED model
Raytrace system
Generate Rays
Scale the Flux
Align Origins
Import Rays
Remove LED
Encompass with absorbing shell
Trace Rays
Reverse vectors
Reference: Microstructured Optics for LED Applications, A. Davis, Reflexite Display
Optics, Intertech LED 2002, http://www.display-optics.com/pdf/tech_papers_oct2002.pdf
3.1 Importing Radiant Imaging Source
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4. Optics for use with LEDs
Refractive
Continuous Surface
Conventional lens
Microstructured
Linear Prism
Fresnel Lens
Reflective
Continuous
Parabolic Reflector
Facetted
Headlamp reflector
Diffractive
Surface Relief Diffuser
Diffraction Grating
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.1 Suitability of Optics
Conventional Lens
Ubiquitously available
Outperformed by tailored nonimaging optics
Fresnel Lens
Small volume of space with short conjugates
Drafts can incur transmission loss
Reflectors
Full spherical area flux collection possible
Consumes large area of space
Diffractive
Small volume of space
Color separation
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.2 Design Methods
Manual Calculation
Photometry Integrals
Efficiency Approximations
Newtonian Lens Equations
Computer Program
Extension of manual calculation
Well suited to iterative solution searching
Preliminary design solution
Full design optimization
Sequential Raytracer
Handy built in optimizer
Fast raytraces
Does not account for non-sequential ray paths
Built in imaging tolerance analysis
Nonsequential Raytracer
Most accurate optical simulation
Compatibility with CAD models
Tolerancing/Optimization possible, requires manual detuning and merit definitions and is
much slower
Prototyping
Test the design output from any of the previously listed methods by making a custom optic
Get any and every optic you can and just try it to see if it works for you: Plug and Pray
Reference: Using Computers to Design Nonimaging Illumination Systems, D. Jenkins,
M. Kaminski, Jul. 1997, SPIE Vol. 3130 pp. 196-203
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.3.1 Flux Approximating Calculation (Lorentzian)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.3.2 Flux Approximating Calculation (Lorentzian)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.3.3 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.3.4 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.3.5 Flux Approximating Calculation (Cosine)
For flux integration of Lambertian emitter and
application of Simpsons rule to arbitrary intensity
profile, refer to: Secondary Optics Design
Considerations For SuperFlux LEDs, Lumileds
Application Brief: AB20-5.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.4 F-number, Numerical Aperture and
Ray Angle
Lens f/# defined by the
extent of the lens and
its focal length
Ray f/# is on a per-ray
basis and defined by
that rays angle
Speed of a lens refers
to its f/#
Fast = Low f/#
Slow = High f/#
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.5.1 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Reference: Optics, 2
nd
ed., E. Hecht, 1990, Addison Wesley
4.5.2 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.5.3 Calculation of Transmission Efficiency
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.5.4 Refractive Transmission Efficiency
Correct orientation
directs the plano side of
the lens face towards the
short conjugate
Example chart is for
Acrylic: n=1.494
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.5.5 Total Transmission Efficiency
Average value of total
efficiency of correct
orientation on previous
slide
Data is idealized, real
world factors will
decrease the efficiency
Precision
Fidelity
Scatter/Absorption
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.6 Reflectors
Parabolic
Source at focus point, far field collimated
Elliptic
Source at first focal point, image at second focal point
Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)
All light from designated source plane is redirected into defined
output half angle
Dielectric design possible
Facetted
One to one mapping
Superposition
Die cup
References:
Design of Efficient Illumination Systems, W. Cassarly, ORA, Aug. 2004 SPIE SC011
Selected Papers on Nonimaging Optics, R. Winston ed., SPIE Vol. MS 106
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.7.1 Thin Lens Newtonian Real
Image
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.7.2 Thin Lens Newtonian Virtual
Image
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
4.7.3 Embedded Source Virtual Image
Typical application is in air so n=1
The focal point f is defined as the
value of s
1
when s
2
goes to infinity
s in radians
Reference: Modern Optical Engineering, 2
nd
ed., W.J. Smith, 1990, McGraw Hill.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
An LED die is encapsulated by a 5mm diameter dome of
epoxy with an index of refraction of 1.5 and a radius of
curvature of 4mm. The die to dome distance is 8mm. Find the
virtual image location, the magnification and the effective
focal length of the dome lens.
R=4.0mm, n=1.5 and s
1
=8.0mm.
s
2
=16.0mm, m=3.0 and f =12.0mm
4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image
Example
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Knowing the die to dome distance (s
1
) and the LED diameter (d), calculate
the output cone half-angle (
2
).
From the geometry:
d=5.0mm, s
1
=8.0mm
1
=17.35
Recalling that:
n=1.5, m=3.0
2
=8.88
Output beam half-angle is 9
4.7.4 Embedded Source Virtual Image
Example (continued)
Using Radians:
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Collapse out the
unused volume
Optionally, flatten out
the curved facets
Reference: Use of Fresnel Lenses in Optical Systems: Some Advantages and
Limitations, J.R. Egger, Aug. 1979, SPIE Vol. 193, pp. 63-68.
5. Fresnel Lens
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
5.1 Types of Fresnels
Refractive
Total Internal Reflective
Hybrid
Domed
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
References:
Thin Sheet Plastic Fresnel Lenses of High Aperture, O.E. Miller, J.H.
McLeod, W.T. Sherwood, Nov. 1951, JOSA v.41 n.11, pp.807-815.
Manufacturing Methods for Large Microstructured Optical
Components for Non-imaging Applications, J.R. Egger, Oct. 1995,
SPIE Vol. 2600, pp. 28-33.
5.1.1 Refractive Fresnel Lens
Refraction at plano interface
followed by refraction at Slope
facet.
Short LED to lens conjugate
distance.
Orientation: Facets face long
conjugate (improved
transmission and minimized
draft loss)
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Reference: The Converging TIR Lens for Non-Imaging Concentration of Light from Compact
Incoherent Sources, W.A. Parkyn, P. Gleckman, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1993, SPIE Vol. 2016, pp. 78-86.
5.1.2 TIR Fresnel Lens
Refraction at Draft facet,
followed by TIR at Slope
facet, followed by
refraction at plano
interface.
Orientation: Facets face
source (design
requirement)
Rays behaving
Refracted ray
misses
TIR surface
Ray incident
on Slope
(wrong) facet
Rays misbehaving
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
5.1.3 TIR Fresnel Lens
Extremely short LED to lens
conjugate distance.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
5.1.4 Fresnel Lens Hybrid1
Central region refractive
facets, outer region TIR
design
Improved efficiency for
low angle and high angle
light zones
Reference: Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays, V. Medvedev, D. Pelka, B.
Parkyn, Jul. 1998, SPIE Vol. 3428, pp. 142-153.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
5.1.5 Fresnel Lens Hybrid2
Further improved
transmission efficiency at
refractive surface
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
5.1.6 Domed Fresnel Lens
Any of the previous outlined Fresnel types can be bent
into a dome shape.
Improved hemispherical light collection.
References:
Nonimaging Fresnel Lenses, R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, 2001, Springer.
TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps, W.A. Parkyn, D.G. Pelka, Jul. 1995,
SPIE Vol. 2538, pp. 93-103.
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics

Closing Remarks

If its too hard to design and


or make a Fresnel lens for
yourself, hire an expert.
*
* For example, Reflexite Display Optics. (585) 647-1609, www.display-optics.com
October 20, 2004
Arthur Davis, Reflexite Display Optics
Glossary
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Azimuth: Angle around polar axis ( ). Also called the polar angle
or Longitude.
BotE: Back of the Envelope. A quick (or not-so-quick) manual
calculation.
BSOD: The windows Blue Screen of Death indicating your
computer has crashed hard. This is a highly dreadful event if it
occurs during a presentation.
CA: Clear Aperture or diameter of a lens.
Conjugate: A source or an image location relative to an optical
surface. An infinite conjugate implies the source or image is rather
far away.
Drafts: The typically unused components of Fresnel Lens facets
which returns the optical surface (slopes) back to a plane.
f: Focal length of a lens. Essentially the distance from the lens to the
point at which collimated rays intercept the optical axis.
f/#: F-number f /CA
Far Field: The condition where the distance from the source is
relatively large with respect to the source size so the source may be
treated as a point emitter.
GI GO: Garbage In equals Garbage Out.
Lambertian Emitter: A source whose luminance is independent of
the view angle.
LED SMOD: The title of this talk, Light Emitting Diode Source
Modeling for Optical Design.
Near Field: The condition under which the distance from the source
is relatively short compared to the extent of the source so the source
must be treated as an extended area and not a point.
NA: Numerical Aperture 1/2f/#
Paraxial approximation: Small angle approximation in which
Sin Tan ( in radians).
PlugnPray: Drop any old optic in to your system, cross your
fingers and test it. (chance of success) (1/importance)
Radians: A measure of angle. To convert radians to degrees
multiply by (180/ )
Slopes: The optical power components of Fresnel Lens facets which
approximate the aspheric surface of a conventional lens.
TIR: Total Internal Reflection. The reflection of light within a
media which occurs because the angle of incidence exceeds the
critical angle.
Virtual Prototyping: Making an accurate optical simulation in
order that the Pray component of PlugnPray is mitigated.
Zenith: Angle from polar axis (). Also called Latitude.