Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

MEMORANDUM

TO: AHMED ASSEM


FROM: DEVON HILLMAN (9)
PETE 311 503
SUBJECT: LAB 8: POROSITY MEASUREMENT
DATE: OCTOBER 23, 2013

In this laboratory experiment, our main objective was to measure the porosity of different core samples
using volumetric methods and a helium porosimeter.




On my honor as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work.


[Signature of student]

Attachment(s): Lab report

Title: Lab 8: Porosity Measurement

For this experiment, we found the porosity of an austin chalk, limestone, and sandstone core sample using
volumetric methods and a porosimeter. To find the porosity of the core sample we need to find its bulk
and matrix volume. To find the bulk volume we measured each core samples length and diameter and
then used those values in Equation 1. The bulk volumes for each core sample are shown below in Table
1.

.... (1)

(2.54cm/in)
3
= 19.061 cm
3

Table 1 Bulk volumes
Rock Sample Bulk Volume (cm
3
)
Limestone 20.917
Austin Chalk 50.479
Sandstone 19.061

Now that we have the bulk volumes, we now need the matrix volumes. To find the matrix volumes we
used a porosimeter. Helium was used in our porosimeter because it has qualities that make it ideal to find
the matrix volume. Since temperature is constant between the two systems in the porosimeter, we can use
a modified version of the ideal gas law, P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
. The modified ideal gas equation can then be
adapted for our use in finding the matrix volumes of the samples (Equations 2, 3, and 4).

V
1
P
He
+ V
P1
P
atm
= P
1
(V
P1
+ V
1
)
V
P1
= [V
1
(P
He
P
1
)]/(P
1
P
atm
) ................................................................................................ (2)

(V
1
+ V
2
)

P
He
+ V
P1
P
atm
= P
12
(V
P1
+ V
1
+ V
2
)
V
P1
= [(V
1
+ V
2
)(P
He
P
12
)]/(P
12
P
atm
) .................................................................................. (3)

V
2
P
He
+ V
P1
P
atm
= P
2
(V
P1
+ V
2
)
V
P1
= [V
2
(P
He
P
2
)]/(P
2
P
atm
) ................................................................................................ (4)

To find V
P1
we need to find P
He
, P
1
, P
2
, and P
atm
. V
1
and V
2
are constant through the entire experiment
and are 10 cm
3
and 25 cm
3
respectively. We found the pressure using spacers and then re did the
experiment and found the pressures using the core samples. When measuring the pressures with the core
samples, the height of spacers taken out must be equal to the height of the core sample. Once the core
sample was in place, we vacuumed out the pressure and toggled the dials until pressure reading stabilized.
The pressure reading shown was P
atm1
. Then we opened valve 1 and toggled the dial until the pressure
reading stabilized, the pressure reading shown was P
1
. Then we opened valve 2, and the pressure reading
shown was P
12
. Then we closed both valves and let the sample get back to atmospheric pressure, the
pressure shown here was P
atm2
. After that we opened valve to and toggled that valve until it got stabilized,
the pressure shown here was P
2
. We did this method with the spacers and the core samples a total of six
times and found all the values above for all six times. These values are shown below in Table 2.

Table 2 Pressure values for the spacers and core samples.
Limestone Sandstone Austin Chalk

Spacers Core Spacers Core Spacers Core
P
atm1
(psi) 13.43 13.43 13.97 13.96 14.34 14.34
P
1
(psi) 58.28 50.37 60.48 51.63 58.63 37.36
P
12
(psi) 72.82 67.99 74.24 69.13 73.41 56.85
P
atm2
(psi) 13.46 13.45 13.99 13.98 14.35 14.32
P
2
(psi) 69.00 62.97 70.84 64.26 69.69 50.32
P
He
(psi) 83.46 83.45 84.02 84.02 84.25 84.19
Ave. V
P1
(cm
3
) 6.131 9.737 5.512 9.290 6.262 22.125
V
m
(cm
3
) 3.606 3.778 15.863

We then took the values in Table 2 and used them in Equations 2, 3, and 4 to find V
P1
. Once V
P1
was
found with each equation, we averaged them together to get the average volume using Equation 5. Then
to find the matrix volume we used Equation 6. The matrix volume values are shown above in Table 2.

V
P1
= [V
1
(P
He
P
1
)]/(P
1
P
atm1
) ............................................................................................... (2)
V
P1
= [(10 cm
3
)(83.46 58.28)psi]/(58.28 13.43)psi = 5.614 cm
3


V
P1
= [(V
1
+ V
2
)(P
He
P
12
)]/(P
12
P
atm1
) ................................................................................. (3)
V
P1
= [(10 + 25) cm
3
(83.46 72.82)psi]/(72.82 13.43)psi = 6.27 cm
3


V
P1
= [V
2
(P
He
P
2
)]/(P
2
P
atm2
) ............................................................................................... (4)
V
P1
= [25 cm
3
(83.46 69)psi]/(69 13.46)psi = 6.509 cm
3


Ave. V
P1
= (Eq.2 V
P1
+ Eq.3 V
P1
+ Eq.4 V
P1
)/3 . (5)
Ave. V
P1
= (5.614 + 6.27 + 6.509)cm
3
/3 = 6.131 cm
3


V
m
= Core Ave. V
P1
Spacer Ave. V
P1
....... (6)
V
m
= 9.737 6.131 = 3.606 cm
3


Once the matrix volumes were found we can now find the porosity of each core sample. To find the
porosity we used Equation 7. The porosity values for each sample are shown below in Table 3.

= (V
B
- V
m
)/V
B
.. (7)
= (20.917 3.606) cm
3
/20.917 cm
3
= .8276 = 82.76%

Table 3 Porosity of the core samples.
Core Sample Porosity
Limestone 82.76%
Sandstone 80.18%
Austin Chalk 68.58%

Conclusion
In summary, from this lab I learned how to use a porosimeter and how to find the matrix volume,
the bulk volume, and the porosity of a core sample. The core sample that had the highest
porosity in this experiment was limestone and the core sample with the lowest porosity was
austin chalk. Some factors that could affect the porosity of the core samples include compaction,
grain shape, clay content, degree of sorting, and mode of cementation