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Fuels o Fuel is a substance containing major ingredient as carbon which gives large amount
Fuels
o
Fuel is a substance containing major ingredient as carbon which
gives large amount of heat when combusted.
o
During the process of combustion of a fuel, carbon, hydrogen etc.
will combine with oxygen to liberate heat at a rapid rate.
Fuel + O 2
Products + heat
o
Fuels are divided as
a) Primary fuels (or) Natural fuels
b) Secondary fuels (or) artificial fuels
o Further these are classified as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
Fuels Chemical Fuels Primary fuels Or Natural fuels Secondary fuels Or Artificial fuels Solid fuels
Fuels
Chemical Fuels
Primary fuels
Or
Natural fuels
Secondary fuels
Or
Artificial fuels
Solid fuels
Liquid fuels
Wood, coal
Petroleum
Gaseous fuels
Natural gas
Solid fuels
Coke
Liquid fuels
Petrol, diesel,
kerosene
Gaseous fuels
Bio gas,
Water gas,
Producer gas
Characteristics of a good fuel AA goodgood fuelfuel shouldshould havehave thethe followingfollowing
Characteristics of a good fuel
AA goodgood fuelfuel shouldshould havehave thethe followingfollowing characteristics:characteristics:
oo HighHigh calorificcalorific valuevalue
oo ModerateModerate ignitionignition temperaturetemperature
oo LowLow moisturemoisture contentcontent
oo LowLow nonnon--combustiblecombustible mattermatter
oo ModerateModerate velocityvelocity ofof combustioncombustion
oo PollutionPollution freefree combustioncombustion productsproducts
oo LowLow costcost
oo EasyEasy toto transporttransport
oo ControllableControllable combustioncombustion
oo ShouldShould notnot undergoundergo spontaneousspontaneous combustioncombustion
oo StorageStorage shouldshould bebe cheapcheap andand easyeasy
oo ShouldShould burnburn inin airair easilyeasily withoutwithout muchmuch smokesmoke
Solid fuels Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels 1 Slow combustion and not easy to control it
Solid fuels
Liquid fuels
Gaseous fuels
1
Slow combustion and
not easy to control it
Quick combustion and it
can be controlled
Combustion is rapid and
burning can
controlled
be
2
Transportation
is
Transportation
is
easy
Transportation
is
easy
difficult
through
pipelines
and
through
pipelines
and
containers
containers
3
Storage is safe
Risk involved in storage
High
risk
involved
in
storage
4
Calorific
value
is
Calorific
value
is
relatively low
relatively high
Calorific value is higher
that liquid fuels
5
Cannot be used
engines
in
IC
Can
be
used
in
IC
Can
be
used
in
IC
engines
engines but to a lesser
extent
6
Ash
and
smoke
are
No ash is produced but
No ash
and no smoke
produced during the
some
flue
gases
are
are produced
process of combustion
produced
CalorificCalorific valuevalue ofof aa fuelfuel HigherHigher oror GrossGross CalorificCalorific ValueValue (HCV(HCV oror
CalorificCalorific valuevalue ofof aa fuelfuel
HigherHigher oror GrossGross CalorificCalorific ValueValue (HCV(HCV oror GCV):GCV):
“ The amount of heat liberated when one unit weight or
volume of a fuel is completely burnt and the products
of combustion are cooled to room temperature”
NetNet oror LowerLower CalorificCalorific ValueValue (LCV(LCV oror NCV):NCV):
““ TheThe amountamount ofof heatheat liberatedliberated whenwhen oneone unitunit weightweight oror
volumevolume ofof aa fuelfuel isis completelycompletely burntburnt andand thethe productsproducts
ofof combustioncombustion areare allowedallowed toto escapeescape intointo thethe
atmosphereatmosphere””
o Units of heat are Calories, k.calories and B.Th.U (British
thermal unit) or C.H.U (Centrigrade heat unit)
1 B.Th.U = 252 cal = 0.252 k.Cal
1 k.Cal = 3.968 B.Th.U
= 2.2 C.H.U
DeterminationDetermination ofof CalorificCalorific ValueValue BombBomb calorimetercalorimeter
DeterminationDetermination ofof CalorificCalorific ValueValue
BombBomb calorimetercalorimeter
CalculationCalculation mm == massmass ofof fuelfuel pelletpellet (g)(g) WW == massmass ofof waterwater inin thethe
CalculationCalculation
mm == massmass ofof fuelfuel pelletpellet (g)(g)
WW == massmass ofof waterwater inin thethe calorimetercalorimeter (g)(g)
ww == waterwater equivalentequivalent ofof calorimetercalorimeter (g)(g)
tt 11 == initialinitial temperaturetemperature ofof calorimeter.calorimeter.
tt 22 == finalfinal temperaturetemperature ofof calorimeter.calorimeter.
HCVHCV == grossgross calorificcalorific valuevalue ofof fuel.fuel.
CorrectionsCorrections ►► FuseFuse wirewire correctioncorrection HeatHeat liberatedliberated duringduring
CorrectionsCorrections
►► FuseFuse wirewire correctioncorrection
HeatHeat liberatedliberated duringduring sparkingsparking shouldshould bebe
subtractedsubtracted fromfrom heatheat liberated.liberated.
►► AcidAcid correctioncorrection FuelsFuels containingcontaining SulphurSulphur andand NitrogenNitrogen ifif oxidized,oxidized,
thethe heatsheats ofof formationformation ofof HH 22 SOSO 44 andand HNOHNO 33 shouldshould bebe subtractedsubtracted (as(as
thethe acidacid formationsformations areare exothermicexothermic reactions).reactions).
►► CoolingCooling correctioncorrection TheThe raterate ofof coolingcooling ofof thethe calorimetercalorimeter fromfrom
maximummaximum temperaturetemperature toto roomroom temperaturetemperature isis noted.noted. FromFrom thisthis raterate ofof
coolingcooling (i.e.,(i.e., dtdt°°/min)/min) andand thethe actualactual timetime takentaken forfor coolingcooling (t(t min)min) thenthen
correctioncorrection ((dtdt ×× t)t) isis calledcalled coolingcooling correctioncorrection andand isis addedadded toto thethe (t2(t2
t1)t1) term.term.
CorrectionsCorrections
CorrectionsCorrections
DulongDulong’’ss FormulaFormula The approximate calorific value of a fuel can be determined by knowing the
DulongDulong’’ss FormulaFormula
The approximate calorific value of a fuel can be determined by knowing the
amount of constituents present:
Gross or higher calorific value (HCV) from elemental constituents of a fuel.
H = 34500 kcal/kg; C = 8080 kcal/kg; S = 2240 kcal/kg
Oxygen present in the fuel is assumed to be present as water (fixed
hydrogen).
Available Hydrogen = Total hydrogen - Fixed hydrogen
= Total hydrogen - 1/8 mass of oxygen in fuel.
Dulongs formula for calorific value from the chemical composition of fuel
is,
KnockingKnocking ►► KnockingKnocking characteristicscharacteristics ofof aa fuelfuel dependsdepends onon thethe
KnockingKnocking
►► KnockingKnocking characteristicscharacteristics ofof aa fuelfuel dependsdepends onon thethe chemicalchemical
structurestructure
►► MaximumMaximum powerpower –– GasolineGasoline whenwhen burntburnt uniformly,uniformly, silentlysilently inin
anan ICEICE
►► PresencePresence ofof certaincertain constituentsconstituents inin gasoline,gasoline, raterate ofof oxidationoxidation
becomesbecomes soso greatgreat thatthat thethe unburntunburnt fuelfuel maymay rapidlyrapidly reactreact withwith
thethe formationformation ofof explosiveexplosive violence.violence. ThisThis isis calledcalled KnockingKnocking
►► KnockingKnocking resultsresults inin lossloss ofof efficiencyefficiency ofof thethe engineengine
►► KnockingKnocking tendency:tendency:
►► StraightStraight chainchain paraffinsparaffins >> BranchedBranched chainchain paraffinsparaffins >>
CycloparaffinsCycloparaffins >> OlefinsOlefins >> AromaticsAromatics
►► KnockingKnocking characteristicscharacteristics ofof aa combustioncombustion engineengine fuelfuel –– octaneoctane
numbernumber
OctaneOctane numbernumber ►► AntiknockAntiknock qualityquality ofof aa fuelfuel isis expressedexpressed asas itsits
OctaneOctane numbernumber
►► AntiknockAntiknock qualityquality ofof aa fuelfuel isis expressedexpressed asas itsits octaneoctane numbernumber
►► PercentagePercentage ofof isoiso--octaneoctane (2,2,4(2,2,4--trimethyltrimethyl pentane).pentane). inin nn--heptaneheptane--isoiso--octaneoctane
blendblend –– octaneoctane numbernumber
►► IsooctaneIsooctane –– bestbest antiknockingantiknocking propertiesproperties andand assignedassigned O.NO.N ofof 100100
►► nn--heptaneheptane –– poorpoor antiknockingantiknocking propertyproperty andand assignedassigned O.N.O.N. ofof 00
►► MostMost effectiveeffective antiknockantiknock agentagent isis tetraethyltetraethyl leadlead (TEL)(TEL) alongalong wiwithth ethyleneethylene
dibromidedibromide whichwhich preventsprevents depositiondeposition ofof leadlead byby formingforming volatilevolatile leadlead
halideshalides
►► OthersOthers areare tetramethyltetramethyl lead,lead, tertiarytertiary butylbutyl acetate,acetate, diethyldiethyl teltellurideluride
►► GreaterGreater
thethe
octaneoctane
number,number,
greatergreater
isis
thethe
resistanceresistance
ofof
knockingknocking
DieselDiesel knockknock ►► LongLong ignitionignition delaysdelays leadlead toto accumulationaccumulation ofof
DieselDiesel knockknock
►► LongLong ignitionignition delaysdelays leadlead toto accumulationaccumulation ofof moremore vapoursvapours inin
thethe engineengine andand whenwhen ignitedignited anan explosionexplosion resultsresults asas thethe
combinedcombined effecteffect ofof temperaturetemperature andand pressure.pressure. ThisThis isis
responsibleresponsible forfor dieseldiesel knock.knock.
►► DieselDiesel Index:Index: SpecificSpecific gravitygravity (API)(API) XX AnilineAniline pointpoint (( oo F)/100F)/100
►► APIAPI –– AmericanAmerican PetroleumPetroleum InstitutionInstitution
CetaneCetane numbernumber ►► LongLong ignitionignition delaysdelays leadlead toto accumulationaccumulation ofof
CetaneCetane numbernumber
►► LongLong ignitionignition delaysdelays leadlead toto accumulationaccumulation ofof moremore vapoursvapours inin
thethe engineengine andand whenwhen ignitedignited anan explosionexplosion resultsresults asas thethe
combinedcombined effecteffect ofof temperaturetemperature andand pressure.pressure. ThisThis isis
responsibleresponsible forfor dieseldiesel knock.knock.
►► ThereThere isis aa delaydelay periodperiod betweenbetween injectioninjection ofof dieseldiesel fuelfuel
CetaneCetane numbernumber ►► ThereThere isis aa delaydelay periodperiod betweenbetween thethe injectioninjection ofof
CetaneCetane numbernumber
►► ThereThere isis aa delaydelay periodperiod betweenbetween thethe injectioninjection ofof dieseldiesel fuelfuel andand itsits ignition.ignition.
IfIf thisthis delaydelay periodperiod isis large,large, tootoo muchmuch fuelfuel accumulatesaccumulates inin thethe cylindercylinder andand
burnburn veryvery rapidlyrapidly andand causescauses dieseldiesel knock.knock.
►► IncreasingIncreasing delaydelay periodperiod occursoccurs inin thethe seriesseries :: nn--paraffinparaffin << OlefinsOlefins <<
naphthenesnaphthenes << isoparaffinsisoparaffins << aromatics.aromatics.
►► OrderOrder isis thethe reversereverse forfor gasolinegasoline antiknockantiknock quality.quality.
►► nn--hexadecanehexadecane ;; CetaneCetane numbernumber 100100
►► αα –– methylmethyl naphthalenenaphthalene ;; cetanecetane numbernumber 00
►► AA givengiven fuelfuel matchesmatches inin qualityquality withwith
thethe blendblend havinghaving 40/6040/60 bleblendnd ofof
cetanecetane andand methylmethyl naphthalene,naphthalene, itit isis assignedassigned aa cetanecetane numbernumber 4040
►► CetaneCetane numbernumber ofof dieseldiesel cancan bebe improvedimproved byby addingadding amyl/butylamyl/butyl nitnitrite,rite,
carbamates,carbamates, ditertiaryditertiary butylbutyl peroxideperoxide andand metalmetal organicorganic compoundcompounds.s.
GaseousGaseous FuelsFuels ►► NaturalNatural gas:gas: ►► FoundFound inin oiloil wells.wells. ►► CanCan bebe
GaseousGaseous FuelsFuels
►► NaturalNatural gas:gas:
►► FoundFound inin oiloil wells.wells.
►► CanCan bebe liquifiedliquified byby compressioncompression andand coolingcooling
►► MethaneMethane :: 7070--90%;90%; EthaneEthane :5:5--10%10% andand otherother gasesgases likelike COCO 22 --NN 22
etcetc areare foundfound inin tracestraces
►► CalorificCalorific valuevalue :: 12,00012,000--14,000Kcal/m14,000Kcal/m 33
►► DryDry gasgas –– NaturalNatural gasgas ++ crudecrude oiloil
►► WetWet gasgas –– NaturalNatural gasgas ++ petroleumpetroleum
ApplicationsApplications ►► DomesticDomestic fuelfuel ►► RawRaw materialmaterial forfor thethe
ApplicationsApplications
►► DomesticDomestic fuelfuel
►► RawRaw materialmaterial forfor thethe manufacturemanufacture ofof carboncarbon blackblack (filler(filler forfor
rubber)rubber) andand hydrogenhydrogen (used(used inin ammoniaammonia synthesis)synthesis)
►► MicrobiologicalMicrobiological fermentationfermentation ofof methanemethane yieldsyields syntheticsynthetic
proteinprotein usedused asas animalanimal feed.feed.
CompressedCompressed NaturalNatural GasGas (CNG)(CNG) ►► NaturalNatural gasgas compressedcompressed toto highhigh
CompressedCompressed NaturalNatural GasGas (CNG)(CNG)
►► NaturalNatural gasgas compressedcompressed toto highhigh pressurepressure ofof 10001000 atm.atm. –– substitutesubstitute forfor petrolpetrol
andand dieseldiesel
►► LessLess pollutingpolluting asas duringduring combustioncombustion asas itit doesndoesn ’’ tt evolveevolve nitrogen,nitrogen, carboncarbon
andand sulphursulphur
►► InitialInitial costcost ofof engineengine designingdesigning -- highhigh
AdvantagesAdvantages overover LPG:LPG:
IgnitesIgnites atat higherhigher temperaturetemperature
CheaperCheaper
LesserLesser COCO emissionemission thanthan gasolinegasoline
MixesMixes wellwell withwith airair thanthan liquidliquid fuelsfuels
NoNo emissionemission ofof smoke,smoke, SOSO 2,2, SOSO 3,3, etc.,etc.,
LPGLPG ►► ObtainedObtained asas aa byproductbyproduct duringduring crackingcracking processprocess oror fromfrom
LPGLPG
►► ObtainedObtained asas aa byproductbyproduct duringduring crackingcracking processprocess oror fromfrom
naturalnatural gasgas
►► ConsistsConsists ofof hydrocarbonshydrocarbons ofof suchsuch volatilityvolatility thatthat theythey cancan existexist
asas gasgas atat atmosphericatmospheric pressurepressure butbut cancan bebe liquifiedliquified underunder
pressure.pressure.
►► Dehydrated,Dehydrated, desulphuriseddesulphurised andand tracestraces ofof organicorganic sulphidessulphides
mercaptansmercaptans areare addedadded –– warningwarning ofof leakleak andand compressedcompressed underunder
pressurepressure
►► CalorificCalorific valuevalue 27,800Kcal/m27,800Kcal/m 33
►► ConstituentsConstituents areare nn--butane,butane, isoiso--butane,butane, butylenebutylene andand
propanepropane withwith tracetrace amountsamounts ofof propylenepropylene andand ethaneethane
►► Domestic,Domestic, industrialindustrial andand automobileautomobile fuel.fuel.
Advantages/DisadvantagesAdvantages/Disadvantages ►► Advantages:Advantages: ►► CheaperCheaper thanthan
Advantages/DisadvantagesAdvantages/Disadvantages
►► Advantages:Advantages:
►► CheaperCheaper thanthan gasolinegasoline
►► HighHigh efficiencyefficiency andand heatingheating raterate
►► CompleteComplete combustioncombustion withwith nono smokesmoke
►► CanCan easilyeasily mixmix withwith airair
►► HighHigh knockknock--resistantresistant
►► DisadvantagesDisadvantages
►► DifficultDifficult toto handlehandle asas fuelfuel
►► LimitedLimited toto onlyonly toto certaincertain classesclasses ofof vehiclesvehicles
►► PoorPoor blendingblending characteristicscharacteristics
BioBio--gasgas Raw materials : Animal dung, poultry wastes, vegetable wastes, waste paper and cotton clothes,
BioBio--gasgas
Raw materials : Animal dung, poultry wastes, vegetable wastes,
waste paper and cotton clothes, plant wastes,
human excreta, bird’s excreta etc.,
FormsForms ofof biogasbiogas ►► NaturalNatural gasgas –– biogasbiogas obtainedobtained longlong periodperiod
FormsForms ofof biogasbiogas
►► NaturalNatural gasgas –– biogasbiogas obtainedobtained longlong periodperiod decaydecay ofof animalanimal andand vegetablevegetable
mattersmatters insideinside thethe earthearth
►► GobarGobar gasgas –– anaerobicanaerobic fermentationfermentation ofof cattlecattle dungdung
►► CanCan alsoalso bebe producedproduced byby sewagesewage wasteswastes andand organicorganic wasteswastes
►► ConstituentsConstituents ofof biogasbiogas::
MethaneMethane == 5050--60%60% -- makesmakes itit anan excellentexcellent fuelfuel
COCO 22
HH 22 SS
==
3030--40%40%
== tracestraces
HH 22 == 55--10%10%
== 22--6%6%
NN 22
CalorificCalorific valuevalue :: 1200Kcal/m1200Kcal/m 33
GobarGobar gasgas ►► DungDung ++ waterwater slurryslurry –– fedfed inin toto digesterdigester tanktank ––
GobarGobar gasgas
►► DungDung ++ waterwater slurryslurry –– fedfed inin toto digesterdigester tanktank –– undergoesundergoes
fermentationfermentation –– anaerobicanaerobic bacteriabacteria –– evolutionevolution ofof biobio gasgas –– freshfresh
feedfeed toto letlet insideinside thethe wellwell (Refer(Refer bookbook forfor figure)figure)
UsesUses // Advantages:Advantages:
►► AsAs aa domesticdomestic fuel,fuel, runrun engines,engines, illuminantilluminant inin villagesvillages
►► BurnsBurns withoutwithout smokesmoke andand harmfulharmful gasesgases
►► WasteWaste fromfrom biogasbiogas plantplant –– manuremanure
►► EconomicalEconomical
Limitation:Limitation:
►► NeedNeed toto havehave gasgas lamplamp oror burnerburner withinwithin 10metres10metres ofof thethe plant.plant.
BiodieselBiodiesel ►►DieselDiesel equivalentequivalent biofuelbiofuel fromfrom renewablerenewable
BiodieselBiodiesel
►►DieselDiesel equivalentequivalent biofuelbiofuel fromfrom renewablerenewable
biologicalbiological materialsmaterials suchsuch asas vegetablevegetable oilsoils oror
animalanimal fatsfats –– usuallyusually aa transesterifiedtransesterified oiloil
►►UsedUsed alonealone oror cancan bebe blendedblended withwith petrodieselpetrodiesel
►►BB factorfactor toto statestate thethe amountamount ofof biodieselbiodiesel inin anyany
fuelfuel mix.mix. PurePure biodieselbiodiesel B100;B100; FuelFuel containingcontaining
30%30% biodieselbiodiesel isis labelledlabelled B30B30
►►AlsoAlso derivedderived fromfrom triglyceridestriglycerides ofof plantplant
(BOTADIESEL)(BOTADIESEL) oror animalsanimals (ZOODIESEL)(ZOODIESEL)
BiodieselBiodiesel fromfrom plantplant andand animalanimal sourcessources ►► PlantPlant oilsoils areare fromfrom
BiodieselBiodiesel fromfrom plantplant andand animalanimal sourcessources
►► PlantPlant oilsoils areare fromfrom sunflower,sunflower, soyabeans,soyabeans, jatropha,jatropha, corn,corn, canolacanola,,
safflowersafflower andand rapeseedrapeseed oiloil
►► FromFrom animalanimal source,source, itit isis lessless prevalentprevalent –– thoughthough thethe processprocess isis
comparativelycomparatively cheapercheaper thanthan extractionextraction fromfrom plantplant sourcesource
►► PROCESSPROCESS
MadeMade byby transesterificationtransesterification wherewhere organicallyorganically derivedderived oilsoils
(vegetable(vegetable oils,oils, animalanimal fats)fats) areare combinedcombined withwith alcoholalcohol
(methanol)(methanol) andand chemicallychemically alteredaltered toto formform fattyfatty estersesters suchsuch asas
methylmethyl ester.ester. TheThe processprocess resultsresults inin twotwo productsproducts
-- methylestersmethylesters –– chemicalchemical namename forfor biodieselbiodiesel
-- GlycerineGlycerine –– valuablevaluable byby--productproduct soldsold forfor useuse inin productionproduction ofof
soapsoap
Bomb calorimeter
Bomb calorimeter
Bomb calorimeter
Bomb calorimeter