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Oxford University Press Grammar Bank

Grammar Bank
Contents
Introduction: pages 104, 105
be: present simple affirmative, negative, interrogative, short answers
Demonstrative pronouns
Indefinite article: a/an
Unit 1: pages 106, 107
have got affirmative, negative, interrogative, short answers
Possessive s
Unit 2: pages 108, 109
Present simple affirmative
Spelling rules: 3rd person singular
Adverbs of frequency
Pronouns and possessive adjectives
Unit 3: pages 110, 111
Present simple negative, interrogative, short answers
Question words
Unit 4: pages 112, 113
Present continuous affirmative, negative, interrogative, short answers
Spelling rules: -ing form
Unit 5: pages 114, 115
theres / there are
Imperative
Unit 6: pages 116, 117
Countable and uncountable nouns
some and any
Indefinite pronouns
Present continuous with future meaning
Unit 7: pages 118, 119
be: past simple affirmative, negative, interrogative, short answers
Past expressions
there was / there were
Unit 8: pages 120, 121
Past simple affirmative (regular verbs)
Spelling rules: past simple affirmative (regular verbs)
Past simple affirmative (irregular verbs)
Unit 9: pages 122, 123
going to affirmative, negative, interrogative, short answers
Future expressions
must/mustnt
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Introduction
be: present simple
be: presente simple
Afirmativa Formas contractas
I am Im
you are youre
he is hes
she is shes
it is its
we are were
you are youre
they are theyre
Al hablar se suelen utilizar las formas contractas.
Negativa Formas contractas
I am not Im not
you are not you arent
he is not he isnt
she is not she isnt
it is not it isnt
we are not we arent
you are not you arent
they are not they arent
La negativa se forma colocando not detrs de am, are, is.
Las formas contractas (m not, isnt, arent) son ms
frecuentes.
Im not Spanish. (No soy espaola.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Am I ? Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Are you ? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Is he ? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.
Is she ? Yes, she is. No, she isnt.
Is it ? Yes, it is. No, it isnt.
Are we ? Yes, we are. No, we arent.
Are you ? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Are they ? Yes, they are. No, they arent.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Am, Are, Is delante del
sujeto. La interrogacin va al final de la frase.
Are you from Granada? (Eres de Granada?)
En las respuestas breves de la forma negativa se suelen
utilizar las formas contractas (m not, arent, isnt).
Are you good students? No, we arent. (Sois buenos
estudiantes? No.)
Usos
El verbo be se traduce por ser, estar y tener (con edades).
My friends are from Portugal. (Mis amigos son de Portugal.)
Oxford is in England. (Oxford est en Inglaterra.)
Tom is twelve years old. (Tom tiene doce aos.)
Ojo!
Con ciertas expresiones se utiliza be, y no have.
Imtwelve. (NO I have twelve.)
Imhungry. (NO I have hungry.)
Imhot. (NO I have hot.)
Demonstrative pronouns
Pronombres demostrativos
Singular Plural
this (este/esta/esto) these (estos/estas)
that (ese/esa/eso, those (esos/esas,
aquel/aquella/aquello) aquellos/aquellas)
En ingls, los pronombres demostrativos slo tienen
singular y plural. No muestran variacin de gnero.
This y these se refieren a algo o alguien que est cercano a
la persona que habla.
This is a chair. (Esto es una silla.)
These are my CDs. (Estos son mis CDs.)
That y those se refieren a personas y cosas que estn ms
lejos de la persona que habla.
Thats my sister. (Esa/Aquella es mi hermana.)
Those are her English books. (Esos/Aquellos son sus libros
de ingls.)
This se utiliza para presentar a la gente.
This is David. (Este es David.)
That se utiliza para confirmar que algo es correcto.
Are you Peter? Thats right. (NO Yes.)
(Eres Pedro? S.)
Indefinite article: a/an
Artculo indefinido: a/an
El artculo a/an significa un/una. La variante a se utiliza con
sustantivos contables o adjetivos que empiezan por
consonante.
a desk a book a good teacher
La variante an se utiliza con sustantivos contables o
adjetivos que empiezan por las vocales a, e, i, o, a veces
tambin por u, y por la consonante h cuando esta es muda.
an elephant an orange pen an umbrella a university
an hour
El artculo a/an se utiliza para definir algo o a alguien.
Im a student. (Soy estudiante.)
Bilbao is a big city. (Bilbao es una ciudad grande.)
My dad is an architect. (Mi padre es arquitecto.)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 1
have got
Afirmativa Formas contractas
I have got Ive got
you have got youve got
he has got hes got
she has got shes got
it has got its got
we have got weve got
you have got youve got
they have got theyve got
En la tercera persona del singular, have got se convierte
en has got.
Tom has got short hair. (Tom tiene el pelo corto.)
Al hablar se suelen utilizar las formas contractas.
Youve got blue hair! (Tienes el pelo azul!)
Negativa Formas contractas
I have not got I havent got
you have not got you havent got
he has not got he hasnt got
she has not got she hasnt got
it has not got it hasnt got
we have not got we havent got
you have not got you havent got
they have not got they havent got
La negativa se forma colocando not detrs de have y has.
Las formas contractas (havent got, hasnt got) son ms
frecuentes.
Laura hasnt got a sister. (Laura no tiene una hermana.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Have I got ? Yes, I have. No, I havent.
Have you got ? Yes, you have. No, you havent.
Has he got ? Yes, he has. No, he hasnt.
Has she got ? Yes, she has. No, she hasnt.
Has it got ? Yes, it has. No, it hasnt.
Have we got ? Yes, we have. No, we havent.
Have you got ? Yes, you have. No, you havent.
Have they got ? Yes, they have. No, they havent.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Have, Has delante del
sujeto. La interrogacin va al final de la frase.
Has Debbie got a brother? (Debbie tiene un hermano?)
En las respuestas breves no se utiliza got.
Have you got a pen? Yes, I have. (NO Yes, I have got.)
Usos
Have got se utiliza para expresar posesin. Significa
tener.
Ive got a brother. (Tengo un hermano.)
I havent got a bike. (No tengo bici.)
Have you got a dog? Yes, I have. (Tienes perro? S.)
Have got se utiliza para describir el aspecto fsico de las
personas.
Hes got blue eyes. (Tiene los ojos azules.)
She hasnt got long hair. (No tiene el pelo largo.)
Has he got brown eyes? No, he hasnt. (Tiene los ojos
marrones? No.)
Ojo!
En la forma interrogativa de have got no se utiliza
Do/Does.
Have you got a computer? (NO Do you have got a
computer?)
Possessive s
Posesivo s
Se aade s a sustantivos y nombres propios para expresar
posesin.
Toms dad (NO the dad of Tom) (el padre de Tom)
my brothers friend (NO the friend of my brother) (la amiga
de mi hermano)
Con sustantivos en plural acabados en s, slo se aade
el apstrofo ().
his parents house (la casa de sus padres)
Con nombres de lugares y cosas se utiliza la preposicin
of, y no la forma s.
The capital of Catalonia is Barcelona. (NO Catalonias
capital is Barcelona.) (La capital de Catalua es Barcelona.)
the title of the dictionary (NO the dictionarys title) (el ttulo
del diccionario)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 2
Present simple affirmative
Presente simple afirmativa
Afirmativa
I play
you play
he plays
she plays
it plays
we play
you play
they play
A excepcin de la 3 persona del singular (he/she/it), la
forma afirmativa coincide con la del infinitivo sin to del verbo.
Spelling rules: 3rd person singular
Reglas ortogrficas: 3 persona del singular
1 La forma de la 3 persona del singular (he/she/it) siempre
termina en -s.
She walks to school. My dog likes pizza.
He plays basketball.
2 Los verbos que terminan en consonante + -y cambian
la -y por -ies.
She studies English.
Si el verbo termina en vocal + -y, slo se aade -s.
play plays buy buys
3 Si el verbo termina en -ss, -ch, -sh, -x, -o, se aade -es.
He watches TV. She washes her hair.
This bus goes to London.
4 El verbo have es un verbo irregular, y tiene una forma
especial (has).
I have milk and toast for breakfast.
He has a shower at eight oclock.
Usos
1 Explicar cosas que suceden habitualmente y describir
rutinas de todos los das, todas las semanas, etc.
I watch TV every day. (Veo la tele todos los das.)
She leaves home at eight oclock. (Sale de casa a
las ocho.)
2 Expresar verdades generales y definiciones.
Las Fallas is a Spanish festival. (Las Fallas son una fiesta
espaola.)
Manchester is a city in England. (Manchester es una
ciudad de Inglaterra.)
3 Indicar gustos, opiniones y sentimientos.
I like David Beckham. (Me gusta David Beckham.)
Tracy thinks French is difficult. (Tracy cree que el francs
es difcil.)
She hates coffee. (Odia el caf.)
Consulta en la pgina 110 las formas interrogativa y
negativa del presente simple.
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbios de frecuencia
always usually often sometimes never
Los adverbios de frecuencia se suelen colocar delante
del verbo.
They never get up before nine oclock. (Nunca se levantan
antes de las nueve.)
En el caso del verbo be, se colocan detrs.
Shes never late. (Nunca llega tarde.)
Pronouns and possessive adjectives
Pronombres y adjetivos posesivos
Pronombre Adjetivo posesivo
sujeto
I my (mi, mis)
you your (tu, tus, su, sus de usted)
he his (su, sus de l)
she her (su, sus de ella)
it its (su, sus de un objeto o animal)
we our (nuestro/a, nuestros/as)
you your (vuestro/a, vuestros/as, su, sus de ustedes)
they their (su, sus de ellos/as)
Los adjetivos posesivos acompaan a los sustantivos.
We like our teacher. (Nos gusta nuestra profesora.)
Wheres my pen? (Dnde est mi bolgrafo?)
Hay tres adjetivos posesivos de 3 persona del singular:
his, her, its.
David likes his food. (A David le gusta su comida la de l.)
Laura likes her food. (A Laura le gusta su comida la de ella.)
The dog likes its food. (Al perro le gusta su comida la de
un animal.)
Hay un solo adjetivo posesivo de 3 persona del plural: their.
They like their food. (Les gusta su comida la de ellos/ellas.)
Los adjetivos posesivos no tienen variacin de nmero. No
cambian dependiendo de si se posee una cosa o varias.
my book / my friends (mi libro / mis amigos)
your pencil / your shoes (tu lpiz / tus zapatos)
his football / her presents (su baln / sus regalos)
its food / its toys (su comida / sus juguetes)
our house / our cars (nuestra casa / nuestros coches)
your classroom / your books (vuestra aula / vuestros libros)
their breakfast / their gardens (su desayuno / sus jardines)
Ojo!
Ten cuidado al utilizar its e its.
its = adjetivo posesivo
My cat is black, but its eyes are green.
its = it is (es)
Whats this? Its a book.
100% 0%
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 3
Present simple (continued)
Presente simple (continuacin)
Negativa Formas contractas
I do not teach I dont teach
you do not teach you dont teach
he does not teach he doesnt teach
she does not teach she doesnt teach
it does not teach it doesnt teach
we do not teach we dont teach
you do not teach you dont teach
they do not teach they dont teach
La negativa se forma colocando do not / does not delante
del infinitivo sin to del verbo principal.
We dont speak French. (No hablamos francs.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Do I teach? Yes, I do. No, I dont.
Do you teach? Yes, you do. No, you dont.
Does he teach? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt.
Does she teach? Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.
Does it teach? Yes, it does. No, it doesnt.
Do we teach? Yes, we do. No, we dont.
Do you teach? Yes, you do. No, you dont.
Do they teach? Yes, they do. No, they dont.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Do, Does delante
del sujeto.
Does she like Deportivo? (Le gusta el Deportivo?)
En las respuestas breves se omite el verbo principal
(play, teach, etc.) y se utiliza nicamente el auxiliar do/does.
Do they go skiing? Yes, they do.
(Suelen ir a esquiar? S.)
En la forma negativa de las respuestas breves se suelen
utilizar las formas contractas (dont, doesnt).
Do you study Italian? No, I dont.
(Estudias italiano? No.)
Ojo!
El verbo principal no lleva s en la 3 persona del singular
de las formas negativa e interrogativa.
She doesnt live here. (NO She doesnt lives here.)
Does he play football? (NO Does he plays football?)
Consulta en la pgina 108 los usos del presente
simple.
Question words
Partculas interrogativas
Who (Quin?)
Who is your favourite football player? (Quin es tu
futbolista preferido?)
When (Cundo? / A qu hora?)
When is your birthday? (Cundo es tu cumpleaos?)
When do you get up? (A qu hora te sueles levantar?)
What (Qu / Cul?)
What sports do you watch on TV? (Qu deportes ves en
la tele?)
Whats your favourite colour? (Cul es tu color preferido?)
What music do you like? (Qu msica te gusta?)
How (Cmo?)
How are you? Fine, thanks. (Cmo / Qu tal ests?
Bien, gracias.)
How do you spell aerobics? (Cmo se deletrea
aerobic?)
Where (Dnde?)
Where is my pen? (Dnde est mi bolgrafo?)
Where do you live? (Dnde vives?)
Why (Por qu?)
Why do you like her? Because shes nice.
(Por qu te gusta? Porque es maja.)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 4
Present continuous
Presente continuo
Afirmativa Formas contractas
I am playing Im playing
you are playing youre playing
he is playing hes playing
she is playing shes playing
it is playing its playing
we are playing were playing
you are playing youre playing
they are playing theyre playing
El presente continuo se forma con el presente simple
del auxiliar be y la forma en -ing del verbo principal.
Were visiting Malaga. (Estamos de visita en Mlaga.)
Negativa Formas contractas
I amnot playing Im not playing
you are not playing you arent playing
he is not playing he isnt playing
she is not playing she isnt playing
it is not playing it isnt playing
we are not playing we arent playing
you are not playing you arent playing
they are not playing they arent playing
La negativa se forma colocando not detrs del verbo be.
Las formas contractas son ms frecuentes.
It isnt snowing. (No est nevando.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Am I playing? Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Are you playing? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Is he playing? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.
Is she playing? Yes, she is. No, she isnt.
Is it playing? Yes, it is. No, it isnt.
Are we playing? Yes, we are. No, we arent.
Are you playing? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Are they playing? Yes, they are. No, they arent.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Am, Are, Is delante
del sujeto.
Are they doing karate? (Estn haciendo krate?)
En las respuestas breves se omite el verbo principal
(playing, eating, etc.) y se utiliza nicamente el auxiliar be.
Are you writing? Yes, I am. (Ests escribiendo? S.)
En la forma negativa de las respuestas breves se suelen
utilizar las formas contractas (m not, arent, isnt).
Is he playing football? No, he isnt.
(Est jugando al ftbol? No.)
Spelling rules: -ing form
Reglas ortogrficas: forma en -ing del verbo
1 Con la mayora de los verbos, se aade -ing al infinitivo
sin to.
play playing speak speaking sing singing
2 Con verbos acabados en -e, la -e se pierde y se
aade -ing.
write writing dance dancing phone phoning
3 Con verbos acabados en una consonante precedida de
una sola vocal, la consonante se duplica y se aade -ing.
run running chat chatting get getting
Usos
El presente continuo se utiliza para describir acciones que
estn sucediendo mientras se habla. A menudo va
acompaado de expresiones como now (ahora), at the
moment (en este momento) y today (hoy).
Were having a lot of fun today. (Hoy nos estamos
divirtiendo mucho.)
Im doing my homework at the moment. (En este momento
estoy haciendo los deberes.)
Ojo!
Los verbos que expresan sentimientos y procesos
mentales no se suelen utilizar en la forma continua.
Son verbos como understand (entender), think (pensar),
know (saber), like (gustar), love (amar), hate (odiar) y
want (querer).
I like Shakira. (NO Im liking Shakira.)
I dont know. (NO Im not knowing.)
What do you want? (NO What are you wanting?)
Consulta en la pgina 116 el presente continuo con
valor de futuro.
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 5
theres / there are
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
y respuestas
breves
Singular There is / There is not / Is there ?
(Contraccin: (Contraccin: Yes, there is. /
Theres ) There isnt ) No, there isnt.
Plural There are There are not / Are there ?
(Contraccin: Yes, there are. /
There arent ) No, there arent.
En castellano, una sola palabra (hay) expresa tanto el
singular como el plural del verbo haber; en ingls, por el
contrario, hay una forma para el singular (there is, theres) y
otra para el plural (there are).
En afirmativa y negativa se suelen utilizar las formas
contractas (theres, there isnt, there arent).
Tambin se utilizan las formas contractas (there isnt, there
arent) en las respuestas breves negativas.
Is there a caf in this street? No, there isnt.
(Hay alguna cafetera en esta calle? No.)
Theres, There isnt, Is there se utilizan con sustantivos
en singular.
Theres a pencil on the desk. (Hay un lpiz encima de
la mesa.)
There isnt a cinema in this town. (En esta ciudad no hay
ningn cine.)
Is there a library in your school? (Hay una biblioteca en
tu escuela?)
There are, There arent, Are there se utilizan con
sustantivos en plural.
There are two supermarkets in my town. (En mi ciudad hay
dos supermercados.)
There arent any desks in the classroom. (No hay ningn
pupitre en el aula.)
Are there any CDs on the chair? (Hay algn CD encima
de silla?)
Ojo!
En las formas negativa e interrogativa se utiliza any con
los sustantivos que estn en plural.
There arent any pencils in my bag.
Are there any buses on Sunday?
Imperative
Imperativo
La afirmativa se forma con el infinitivo del verbo sin to. No
lleva sujeto y tiene una nica forma para el singular y para
el plural (t, vosotros/as, usted, ustedes). Expresa una
orden.
Sit down. (Sintate. / Sentaos. / Sintese. / Sintense.)
Close the door. (Cierra la puerta. / Cerrad la puerta. /
Cierre la puerta. / Cierren la puerta.)
La negativa se forma colocando Dont delante del verbo.
Expresa prohibicin.
Dont run in the classroom! (No corris dentro del aula!)
Dont eat my sandwich! (No te comas mi sndwich!)
En el imperativo, el verbo be tambin utiliza Dont.
Dont be late! (No lleguis tarde!)
Usos
El imperativo se utiliza para dar rdenes e instrucciones.
Se puede aadir la palabra please (por favor) para
suavizar la orden.
Stand up, please. (Levntate, por favor.)
Please repeat after me. (Por favor, repetid conmigo.)
Cuando se quiere pedir algo con educacin no se debe
utilizar el imperativo. La frmula adecuada es Can you ?
Can you open the window, please? (NO Open the window!)
(Puedes abrir la ventana, por favor?)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 6
Countable and uncountable nouns
Sustantivos contables e incontables
Los sustantivos contables tienen formas de singular y
plural. El verbo de la frase concuerda con ellos en nmero.
carrot carrots sandwich sandwiches
The carrot is on the table. (La zanahoria est sobre la mesa.)
The sandwiches are for lunch. (Los sndwiches son para la
hora de comer.)
Delante de los sustantivos contables se utiliza el artculo
indefinido a/an o un numeral.
an apple (una manzana) two apples (dos manzanas)
Los sustantivos incontables no tienen forma de plural.
El verbo de la frase siempre va en singular.
The rice is delicious. (NO The rices are delicious.) (El arroz
est delicioso.)
Los sustantivos incontables no pueden ir acompaados
del artculo indefinido a/an, ni tampoco de un numeral.
milk (NO a milk) water (NO one water)
Los sustantivos incontables suelen describir conceptos
inmateriales como la vida (life) y el amor (love), y tambin
cosas que no se puede contar por unidades, por ejemplo,
el agua (water), el pan (bread), el arroz (rice) o la leche (milk).
Por eso se cuentan los vasos o litros de agua, las barras de
pan, los granos de arroz, las cajas o botellas de leche, etc.
Siempre se utiliza There is (hay) con los sustantivos
incontables.
Theres some lemonade in the bag. (Hay limonada en
la bolsa.)
some and any
some y any
Some y any se utilizan con sustantivos contables e
incontables.
There are some biscuits but there isnt any cheese.
(Hay algunas galletas, pero no hay nada de queso.)
Some se utiliza en frases afirmativas. Significa unos/as,
algunos/as con los sustantivos en plural, y un poco de,
algo de con los sustantivos incontables.
Ive got some carrots. (Tengo unas zanahorias.)
Shes got some pasta. (Tiene un poco de pasta.)
Any se utiliza en frases negativas o interrogativas.
En las frases negativas, any significa ningn/ninguna,
nada de.
I havent got any sandwiches, and I havent got any bread.
(No tengo ningn sndwich y tampoco tengo nada de pan.)
En las frases interrogativas, any significa unos/as,
algunos/as, algo de.
Have you got any sandwiches and have you got any bread?
(Tienes unos sndwiches? Y algo de pan?)
Ojo!
En las frases interrogativas se suele utilizar any, pero
cuando se ofrece o se pide algo, tambin se puede
utilizar some.
Do you want some sandwiches? (Queris
sndwiches?)
Would you like some coffee? (Le apetece un caf?)
Can I have some bread, please? (Quisiera un poco de
pan, por favor.)
Indefinite pronouns
Pronombres indefinidos
someone y anyone
Los pronombres indefinidos someone y anyone se utilizan
para referirse a las personas.
En las frases afirmativas se utiliza someone, que significa
alguien.
Theres someone in the kitchen. (Hay alguien en la cocina.)
En las frases interrogativas se utiliza anyone. Tambin
significa alguien.
Is there anyone at home? (Hay alguien en casa?)
En las frases negativas anyone se traduce por nadie.
There isnt anyone in the classroom. (No hay nadie en clase.)
something y anything
Los pronombres indefinidos something y anything se
utilizan para referirse a las cosas.
En las frases afirmativas se utiliza something, que significa
algo.
I want something to drink. (Quiero beber algo.)
En las frases interrogativas se utiliza anything. Tambin
significa algo.
Is there anything to do? (Hay algo que hacer?)
En las frases negativas anything se traduce por nada.
Adam hasnt got anything to eat. (Adam no tiene nada
para comer.)
some/someone/something y any/anyone/anything
Some/someone/something se utilizan en las frases
afirmativas.
Any/anyone/anything se utilizan en las frases negativas
e interrogativas.
Present continuous with
future meaning
Presente continuo con valor de futuro
El presente continuo se puede utilizar para describir planes
de futuro. Este tipo de frases suele incluir expresiones
temporales, por ejemplo, tomorrow.
What are they doing tomorrow? (Qu van a hacer
maana?)
Im visiting my uncle on Saturday. (El sbado voy a visitar
a mi to.)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 7
be: past simple
be: pasado simple
Afirmativa
I was
you were
he was
she was
it was
we were
you were
they were
Was se utiliza con la 1 ( I ) y la 3 (he/she/it) persona del
singular, y were con las dems personas del verbo
(you/we/they).
I was in the library. (Estaba en la biblioteca.)
The exam was difficult. (El examen fue difcil.)
We were at home last night. (Anoche estuvimos en casa.)
Negativa Formas contractas
I was not I wasnt
you were not you werent
he was not he wasnt
she was not she wasnt
it was not it wasnt
we were not we werent
you were not you werent
they were not they werent
Para formar la negativa se coloca not detrs de was, were.
Las formas contractas (wasnt, werent) son ms
frecuentes.
The exam wasnt easy. (El examen no fue fcil.)
They werent at school yesterday. (Ayer no estaban en
el colegio.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Was I ? Yes, I was. No, I wasnt.
Were you ? Yes, you were. No, you werent.
Was he ? Yes, he was. No, he wasnt.
Was she ? Yes, she was. No, she wasnt.
Was it ? Yes, it was. No, it wasnt.
Were we ? Yes, we were. No, we werent.
Were you ? Yes, you were. No, you werent.
Were they ? Yes, they were. No, they werent.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Was, Were delante
del sujeto.
Were you at home yesterday? (Ayer estabas en casa?)
En la forma negativa de las respuestas breves se suelen
utilizar las formas contractas (wasnt, werent).
Was Lucy at the cinema last Friday? No, she wasnt.
(Estuvo Lucy en el cine el viernes pasado? No.)
Past expressions
Expresiones de pasado
Al hablar del pasado se suelen utilizar expresiones con last.
last night (anoche)
last Friday (el viernes pasado)
last week (la semana pasada)
last weekend (el fin de semana pasado)
last month (el mes pasado)
last May (el pasado mes de mayo)
last year (el ao pasado)
last summer (el verano pasado)
Tambin se utilizan otras expresiones para hablar del pasado.
yesterday (ayer)
yesterday morning (ayer por la maana)
yesterday afternoon (ayer por la tarde)
the day before yesterday (anteayer)
there was / there were
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
y respuestas
breves
Singular There was There was not / Was there ?
(Contraccin: Yes, there was. /
There wasnt ) No, there wasnt.
Plural There were There were not / Were there ?
(Contraccin: Yes, there were. /
There werent ) No, there werent.
There was y there were (haba/hubo) siguen las mismas
reglas ortogrficas que there is / theres y there are.
Consulta en la pgina 114 el uso de theres y there are.
En las frases negativas se suelen utilizar las formas
contractas (there wasnt, there werent).
En la forma negativa de las respuestas breves tambin se
suelen usar las formas contractas (there wasnt,
there werent).
Was there an exam yesterday? No, there wasnt.
(Ayer hubo examen? No.)
There was, There wasnt y Was there se utilizan con
sustantivos en singular.
There was some water on the floor. (Haba un poco de
agua en el suelo.)
There wasnt a teacher in the classroom. (No haba ningn
profesor en clase.)
Was there any milk in the fridge? (Haba leche en
el frigorfico?)
There were, There werent y Were there se utilizan con
sustantivos en plural.
There were some pens on the desk. (Haba algunos
bolgrafos encima del escritorio.)
There werent any students at school. (No haba ningn
alumno en la escuela.)
Were there any books in your bag? (Haba algn libro en
tu bolsa?)
Consulta en la pgina 116 los sustantivos contables
e incontables, y tambin el uso de some y any.
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 8
Past simple affirmative (regular verbs)
Pasado simple afirmativa (verbos regulares)
Afirmativa
I watched
you watched
he watched
she watched
it watched
we watched
you watched
they watched
La forma del pasado de los verbos regulares es la misma
para todas las personas del verbo.
Spelling rules: past simple
affirmative (regular verbs)
Reglas ortogrficas: pasado simple afirmativa
(verbos regulares)
1 Con la mayora de los verbos, se aade -ed al infinitivo
del verbo sin to.
start started visit visited watch watched
2 Con verbos acabados en -e, se aade -d.
dance danced like liked arrive arrived
3 Con verbos acabados en -y, la -y se sustituye por -ied.
carry carried study studied
Excepcin: play played
4 Con verbos acabados en una consonante precedida de
una sola vocal, la consonante se duplica y se aade -ed.
stop stopped chat chatted
Past simple affirmative
(irregular verbs)
Pasado simple afirmativa (verbos irregulares)
Hay verbos que son irregulares y no forman el pasado
aadiendo -ed al infinitivo sin to. La forma es la misma
para todas las personas del verbo.
go (ir) went (I went, you went, he went, we went, etc.)
Estos verbos no siguen reglas ortogrficas especficas.
Hay que aprendrselos de memoria.
Ejemplos: see (ver) saw drink (beber) drank
have (tener) had
Consulta en la pgina 128 la lista de verbos
irregulares.
Usos
Utilizamos el pasado simple para hablar de acciones que
tuvieron lugar en un momento determinado del pasado,
por ejemplo, anoche (last night), ayer (yesterday), el ao
pasado (last year), etc.
I played football last Saturday. (El sbado pasado jugu
al ftbol.)
We went to the beach last summer. (El verano pasado
fuimos a la playa.)
Oxford University Press Grammar Bank
Unit 9
going to
Afirmativa Formas contractas
I am going to eat Im going to eat
you are going to eat youre going to eat
he is going to eat hes going to eat
she is going to eat shes going to eat
it is going to eat its going to eat
we are going to eat were going to eat
you are going to eat youre going to eat
they are going to eat theyre going to eat
El futuro con going to se forma con el presente simple del
auxiliar be con going to y el infinitivo sin to del verbo
principal. Significa ir a hacer algo.
Imgoing to watch TV tonight. (Esta noche voy a ver la tele.)
Negativa Formas contractas
I am not going to eat Im not going to eat
you are not going to eat you arent going to eat
he is not going to eat he isnt going to eat
she is not going to eat she isnt going to eat
it is not going to eat it isnt going to eat
we are not going to eat we arent going to eat
you are not going to eat you arent going to eat
they are not going to eat they arent going to eat
La negativa se forma colocando not detrs del auxiliar be.
Las formas contractas son ms frecuentes.
We arent going to stay in a hotel. (No nos vamos a quedar
en un hotel.)
Interrogativa Respuestas breves
Afirmativa Negativa
Am I going to eat? Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Are you going to eat? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Is he going to eat? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.
Is she going to eat? Yes, she is. No, she isnt.
Is it going to eat? Yes, it is. No, it isnt.
Are we going to eat? Yes, we are. No, we arent.
Are you going to eat? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
Are they going to eat? Yes, they are. No, they arent.
La interrogativa se forma colocando Am, Are, Is delante
del sujeto.
Are you going to visit us next summer? (Nos vais a visitar
el verano que viene?)
En las respuestas breves, el verbo principal (playing, eating,
etc.) se omite, y se utiliza nicamente el auxiliar be.
Is he going to buy a CD? Yes, he is. (Va a comprar
un CD? S.)
En las respuestas breves negativas se suelen utilizar las
formas contractas (m not, arent, isnt).
Are they going to stay with you? No, they arent.
(Se van a quedar con vosotros? No.)
Usos
going to se utiliza para hablar de planes y de cosas que
hemos decidido hacer.
Next summer were going to visit Paris. (El prximo verano
vamos a visitar Pars.)
Im not going to watch television this evening. (Esta noche
no voy a ver la televisin.)
Are you going to play football on Saturday? (Vas a jugar al
ftbol el sbado?)
Future expressions
Expresiones de futuro
Para hablar del futuro se suelen utilizar expresiones con next.
next Friday (el viernes que viene)
next week (la semana que viene)
next weekend (el prximo fin de semana)
next month (el mes que viene)
next year (el ao que viene)
next May (el prximo mes de mayo)
next summer (el prximo verano)
Tambin se utilizan otras expresiones para hablar del futuro.
tomorrow (maana)
tomorrow morning (maana por la maana)
tomorrow afternoon (maana por la tarde)
the day after tomorrow (pasado maana)
must/mustnt
La forma must es la misma para todas las personas
del verbo.
I must, you must, he/she/it must, we must, you must,
they must
Must y mustnt se utilizan con el infinitivo sin to del verbo
principal.
We must hurry up. (NO We must to hurry up.) (Tenemos que
darnos prisa.)
La negativa se forma colocando not detrs de must. La forma
contracta (mustnt) es ms frecuente. Las formas must not y
mustnt son las mismas para todas las personas del verbo.
You mustnt shout. (No debes gritar.)
Usos
1 Must expresa la obligacin o la necesidad de hacer algo.
Mustnt expresa prohibicin.
You must be quiet in the library. (Debes guardar silencio
en la biblioteca.)
We mustnt eat in class. (No debemos comer en clase.)
2 Must y mustnt se pueden utilizar para dar un consejo o
hacer una recomendacin seria.
Its a fantastic book! You must read it! (Es un libro
fantstico! Debes leerlo!)
You mustnt smoke. Its bad for you. (No debes fumar.
Es muy malo para la salud.)
3 Must tambin se utiliza para expresar que nos sentimos
obligados a hacer una cosa.
I must go home now. Its very late. (Debo irme a casa.
Es muy tarde.)
I must do my homework before dinner. (Tengo que hacer
los deberes antes de cenar.)
Irregular verbs
base form past simple past participle
be was / were been
become became become
begin began begun
bite bit bitten
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burned, burnt burned, burnt
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
ght fought fought
nd found found
y ew own
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went been / gone
grow grew grown
have had had
hear heard heard
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
base form past simple past participle
know knew known
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shine shone shone
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written
Oxford University Press Irregular verbs

Oxford University Press Word Bank
Word Bank
A
a lot of /@ "lQt @v/ un montn de
acrobat /"&kr@b&t/ acrbata
activity (activities) /&k"tIv@ti (-tIz)/ actividad (actividades)
addictive /@"dIktIv/ adictivo
address /@"dres/ direccin
adult /"&dVlt/ adulto, adulta
aerobics /e@"r@UbIks/ aerobic
after /"Af:t@(r)/ despus (de)
afternoon /A:ft@"nu:n/ tarde
again /@"gen/ otra vez
against /@"genst/ contra
all the time /O:l D@ "taIm/ todo el tiempo, muy a menudo
almighty /O:l"maIti/ todopoderoso
alone /@"l@Un/ solo
alphabet /"&lf@bet/ alfabeto
also /"O:ls@U/ tambin
always /"O:lweIz/ siempre
amazing /@"meIzIN/ increble
American /@"merIk@n/ americano
Ancient Egyptian /eInS@nt I"IpSn/ ciudadano, ciudadana
del antiguo Egipto
and /&nd, @nd/ y
angry /"&Ngri/ enfadado
animal /"&nIml/ animal
answer /"A:ns@(r)/ responder
anyone /"eniwVn/ alguien, cualquiera
apple /"&pl/ manzana
April /"eIpr@l/ abril
archaeologist /A:ki"Ql@Ist/ arquelogo, arqueloga
arm /A:m/ brazo
arrive /@"raIv/ llegar
art /A:t/ arte, dibujo
ask /A:sk/ preguntar
at /@t/ en
at home /@t "h@Um/ en casa
at night /@t "naIt/ por la noche, de noche
at the moment /@t D@ "m@Um@nt/ en este momento
athletics /&T"letIks/ atletismo
August /"O:g@st/ agosto
aunt /A:nt/ ta
Australian /Q"streIli@n/ australiano
average /"&v@rI/ medio, normal
B
baby whale /beIbi "weIl/ cra de ballena
bad /b&d/ malo
bag /b&g/ bolsa
barbecue /"bA:b@kju:/ barbacoa
basketball /"bA:skItbO:l/ baloncesto
bath /bA:T/ baera
bathroom /"bA:Tru:m/ cuarto de bao
be /bi:/ ser, estar, tener (edad)
beach /bi:/ playa
be called /bI "kO:ld/ llamarse
because /bI"kQz, bI"k@z/ porque
bed /bed/ cama
bedroom /"bedru:m/ dormitorio
beer /bI@(r)/ cerveza
before /bI"fO:(r)/ antes (de)
behind /bI"haInd/ detrs (de)
be in trouble /bi: In "trVbl/ tener problemas
best /best/ (el) mejor
between /bI"twi:n/ entre
big /bIg/ grande
bike /baIk/ bici
billion /"bIlj@n/ mil millones
birthday /"b3:TdeI/ cumpleaos
birthday party /"b3:TdeI pA:ti/ fiesta de cumpleaos
biscuit /"bIskIt/ galleta
black /bl&k/ negro
blue /blu:/ azul
board /bO:d/ pizarra
boat /b@Ut/ barca
bonfire /"bQnfaI@(r)/ hoguera
book /bUk/ libro
boring /"bO:rIN/ aburrido, que aburre
both /b@UT/ ambos
bottle /"bQtl/ botella
bottom /"bQt@m/ fondo
boy /bOI/ chico
Brazilian /br@"zIli@n/ brasileo
bread /bred/ pan
break /breIk/ pausa, recreo
breakfast /"brekf@st/ desayuno
bridge /brI/ puente
bring /brIN/ traer, llevar
British /"brItIS/ britnico
brother /"brVD@(r)/ hermano
brown /braUn/ marrn
building /"bIldIN/ edificio
burn /b3:n/ quemar(se)
bus station /"bVs steISn/ estacin de autobuses
bus stop /"bVs stQp/ parada de autobs
bus (buses) /bVs (-sIz)/ autobs (autobuses)
but /bVt, b@t/ pero
buy /baI/ comprar
by (bus) /baI ("bVs)/ en (autobs)
C
caf /"k&feI/ cafetera
camera /"k&m@r@/ cmara
can /k&n, k@n/ poder
Canadian /k@"neIdi@n/ canadiense
candle /"k&ndl/ vela
canteen /k&n"ti:n/ bar (del colegio)
cap /k&p/ gorra, sombrero
capital /"k&pItl/ capital
car /kA:(r)/ coche
carrot /"k&r@t/ zanahoria
carry /"k&ri/ llevar
castle /"kA:sl/ castillo
cat /k&t/ gato
catch /k&/ coger
CD /si: "di:/ CD
CD player /si: "di: pleI@(r)/ reproductor de CD
centigrade /"sentIgreId/ centgrado(s)
centre /"sent@(r)/ centro
cereal /"sI@ri@l/ cereal(es)
certainly /"s3:tnli/ desde luego
Vowels
Consonants
/i/ happy /I/ it /i:/ he /&/ cat /A:/ art /e/ egg /3:/ girl /Q/ not /O:/ four /U/ look /u:/ you /@/ sugar /V/ mum
/eI/ day /aI/ why /OI/ boy /aU/ how /@U/ go /I@/ ear /e@/ wear /U@/ tourist
/p/ pen /b/ big /t/ two /d/ dog /k/ can /g/ good // cheap // job /f/ food /v/ very /T/ think /D/ then
/s/ speak /z/ zoo /S/ she /Z/ television /h/ hat /m/ meat /n/ now /N/ sing /l/ late /r/ red /j/ yes /w/ we
Oxford University Press Word Bank
chair /e@(r)/ silla
change /eIn/ cambio
chat /&t/ charlar
cheap /i:p/ barato
cheese /i:z/ queso
chicken /"IkIn/ pollo
child (children) /aIld ("Ildr@n)/ nio, nia (nios, nias)
Chinese /aI"ni:z/ chino
chocolate /"Qkl@t/ chocolate
Christmas /"krIsm@s/ Navidad
cinema /"sIn@m@/ cine
city (cities) /"sIti (-tIz)/ ciudad (ciudades)
class /klA:s/ clase
classroom /"klA:sru:m/ aula
clothes /kl@UDz/ ropa
cloudy /"klaUdi/ nublado
club /klVb/ club
coast /k@Ust/ costa
cold /k@Uld/ fro
colour /"kVl@(r)/ color
come /kVm/ venir, ir
come home /kVm "h@Um/ volver a casa
competitor /k@m"petIt@(r)/ participante
computer /k@m"pju:t@(r)/ ordenador
computer studies /k@m"pju:t@ stVdIz/ informtica
cook /kUk/ cocinar
cooker /"kUk@(r)/ cocina (aparato)
country /"kVntri/ pas
countryside /"kVntrisaId/ campo
cousin /"kVzn/ primo, prima
crisps /krIsps/ patatas fritas (de bolsa)
curry /"kVri/ curry
cute /kju:t/ rico, mono
cycle /"saIkl/ andar en bici
cycling /"saIklIN/ ciclismo
D
dad /d&d/ pap
daily routine /deIli ru:"ti:n/ costumbres de todos los das
dairy /"de@rI/ lcteo
dance /dA:ns/ bailar
dance music /"dA:ns mju:zIk/ msica de baile
dancer /"dA:ns@(r)/ bailarn, bailarina
date /deIt/ fecha
daughter /"dO:t@(r)/ hija
day /deI/ da
December /dI"semb@(r)/ diciembre
decide /dI"saId/ decidir
decorate /"dek@reIt/ decorar
degree /dI"gri:/ grado
describe /dI"skraIb/ describir
description /dI"skrIpSn/ descripcin
desk /desk/ mesa, escritorio
dictionary (dictionaries) /"dIkS@nri (-rIz)/ diccionario
(diccionarios)
die /daI/ morir(se)
difference /"dIfr@ns/ diferencia
different /"dIfr@nt/ diferente
difficult /"dIfIk@lt/ difcil
dining room /"daInIN ru:m/ comedor
dinner /"dIn@(r)/ cena
discover /dI"skVv@(r)/ descubrir
DJ /"di: eI/ DJ, pinchadiscos
do /du:/ hacer
doctor /"dQkt@(r)/ doctor, doctora
dog /dQg/ perro
dolphin /"dQlfIn/ delfn
door /dO:(r)/ puerta
drink /drINk/ beber
duck /dVk/ pato
during /"djU@rIN/ durante
DVD /di: vi: "di:/ DVD
DVD player /di: vi: "di: pleI@(r)/ reproductor de DVD
E
ear /I@(r)/ oreja, odo
early /"3:li/ temprano
east /i:st/ este
Easter /"i:st@(r)/ Semana Santa, Pascua
easy /"i:zi/ fcil
eat /i:t/ comer
ecology /I"kQl@i/ ecologa
egg /eg/ huevo
eight /eIt/ ocho
eighteen /eI"ti:n/ dieciocho
eighteenth /eI"ti:nT/ decimoctavo
eighth /eItT/ octavo
either or /"aID@(r), "i:D@(r) ... O:(r)/ bien o bien
elephant /"elIf@nt/ elefante
eleven /I"levn/ once
eleventh /I"levnT/ undcimo
email /"i:meIl/ e-mail
end /end/ final
English /"INglIS/ ingls
enormous /I"nO:m@s/ enorme
euro /"jU@r@U/ euro
evening /"i:vnIN/ tarde-noche
every /"evri/ cada
every day /evri "deI/ todos los das
exam /Ig"z&m/ examen
excellent /"eks@l@nt/ excelente
exciting /Ik"saItIN/ emocionante
exercise /"eks@saIz/ ejercicio
expensive /Ik"spensIv/ caro
experiment /Ik"sperIm@nt/ experimento
explain /Ik"spleIn/ explicar
eye /aI/ ojo
F
fair /fe@(r)/ claro, rubio
false /fO:ls/ falso
family (families) /"f&m@li (-lIz)/ familia (familias)
famous /"feIm@s/ famoso
fantastic /f&n"t&stIk/ fantstico
fast /fA:st/ rpido
fast food /fA:st "fu:d/ comida rpida
fat /f&t/ grasa
favourite /"feIv@rIt/ favorito, preferido
feast /fi:st/ banquete
February /"febrU@ri/ febrero
festival /"festIvl/ fiesta
fifteen /fIf"ti:n/ quince
fifteenth /fIf"ti:nT/ decimoquinto
fifth /fIfT/ quinto
fifty /"fIfti/ cincuenta
film /fIlm/ pelcula
film /fIlm/ carrete de fotos
finally /"faIn@li/ al final
find /faInd/ encontrar
finger /"fINg@(r)/ dedo
finish /"fInIS/ terminar
fire /"faI@(r)/ fuego
fireworks /"faI@w3:ks/ fuegos artificiales
first /f3:st/ primero
fish /fIS/ pescado
five /faIv/ cinco
Vowels
/i/ happy /I/ it /i:/ he /&/ cat /A:/ art /e/ egg /3:/ girl /Q/ not /O:/ four /U/ look /u:/ you /@/ sugar /V/ mum
/eI/ day /aI/ why /OI/ boy /aU/ how /@U/ go /I@/ ear /e@/ wear /U@/ tourist
Oxford University Press Word Bank
flag /fl&g/ bandera
floor /flO:(r)/ suelo
food /fu:d/ alimento, comida
foot (feet) /fUt (fi:t)/ pie (pies)
football /"fUtbO:l/ baln
football /"fUtbO:l/ ftbol
football team /"fUtbO:l ti:m/ equipo de ftbol
footballer /"fUtbO:l@(r)/ futbolista
foreign language /fQr@n "l&NgwI/ lengua extranjera
fortunately /"fO:@n@tli/ afortunadamente
forty /"fO:ti/ cuarenta
four /fO:(r)/ cuatro
fourteenth /fO:"ti:nT/ decimocuarto
fourth /fO:T/ cuarto
French /fren/ francs
Friday /"fraIdeI/ viernes
fried chicken /fraId "IkIn/ pollo frito
friend /frend/ amigo, amiga
from /frQm, fr@m/ de, desde
fruit /fru:t/ fruta
fun /fVn/ divertido
funny /"fVni/ gracioso
G
game /geIm/ juego
garden /"gA:dn/ jardn
geography /i"Qgr@fi/ geografa
German /"3:m@n/ alemn
get there /"get De@(r)/ llegar hasta all
get up /get "Vp/ levantarse
ghost /g@Ust/ fantasma
giraffe /@"rA:f/ jirafa
girl /g3:l/ chica
give /gIv/ dar
go /g@U/ ir(se)
go abroad /g@U @"brO:d/ ir al extranjero
go home /g@U "h@Um/ irse a casa
go out /g@U "aUt/ salir
go to bed /g@U t@ "bed/ acostarse
gold /g@Uld/ oro
good /gUd/ bueno
goodbye /gUd"baI/ adis
grandad /"gr&nd&d/ abuelo
grandma /"gr&nmA:/ abuela
grandparents /"gr&npe@r@nts/ abuelos
gravy /"greIvi/ salsa para la carne
great /greIt/ estupendo
Greek /gri:k/ griego
green /gri:n/ verde
grey /greI/ gris
guidebook /"gaIdbUk/ gua (libro)
guitar /gI"tA:(r)/ guitarra
gymnastics /Im"n&stIks/ gimnasia
H
habitat /"h&bIt&t/ hbitat
hair /he@(r)/ pelo
hall /hO:l/ sala
hamburger /"h&mb3:g@(r)/ hamburguesa
hand /h&nd/ mano
happy /"h&pi/ contento, feliz
hate /heIt/ odiar
have a great time /h&v @ "greIt taIm/ pasarlo estupendamente
have a picnic /h&v @ "pIknIk/ ir de picnic
have a shower /h&v @ "SaU@(r)/ darse una ducha
have breakfast /h&v "brekf@st/ desayunar
have dinner /h&v "dIn@(r)/ cenar
have fun /h&v "fVn/ pasarlo bien
have got /h&v "gQt/ tener
have lunch /h&v "lVn/ comer (a medioda)
head /hed/ cabeza
health /helT/ salud
healthy /"helTi/ saludable, sano
here /hI@(r)/ aqu
hip-hop /"hIp hQp/ hip hop
holiday /"hQl@deI/ vacaciones
home /h@Um/ casa, hogar
homework /"h@Umw3:k/ deberes
horoscope /"hQr@sk@Up/ horscopo
horrible /"hQr@bl/ horrible
horse /hO:s/ caballo
hot /hQt/ caliente
hot dog /"hQt dQg/ perrito caliente
hotel /h@U"tel/ hotel
hour /"aU@(r)/ hora
house /haUs/ casa
hundred /"hVndr@d/ cien
hurry /"hVri/ darse prisa
husband /"hVzb@nd/ marido
I
ice /aIs/ hielo
ice cream /aIs "kri:m/ helado
ideal /aI"di:@l/ ideal
ill /Il/ enfermo
impatient /Im"peISnt/ impaciente
impolite /Imp@"laIt/ maleducado
important /Im"pO:t@nt/ importante
impossible /Im"pQs@bl/ imposible
in bed /In "bed/ en la cama
in the (morning) /In D@ ("mO:nIN)/ por la (maana)
in total /In "t@Utl/ en total
Indian /"Indi@n/ indio
Internet caf /"Int@net k&feI/ cibercaf
invent /In"vent/ inventar
island /"aIl@nd/ isla
Italian /I"t&lj@n/ italiano
J
jacket /"&kIt/ chaqueta, cazadora
jaguar /"&gjU@(r)/ jaguar
January /"&njU@ri/ enero
Japanese /&p@"ni:z/ japons
jeans /i:nz/ vaqueros
job /Qb/ trabajo
join /OIn/ apuntarse a
July /u:"laI/ julio
jump /Vmp/ saltar
June /u:n/ junio
K
karate /k@"rA:ti/ krate
kilo /"ki:l@U/ kilo
kilometre /"kIl@mi:t@(r), kI"lQmIt@(r)/ kilmetro
kind /kaInd/ tipo, clase
kitchen /"kIIn/ cocina (habitacin)
know /n@U/ saber
L
last /lA:st/ ltimo
late /leIt/ tarde
later /"leIt@(r)/ ms tarde
leave /li:v/ dejar
leave home /li:v "h@Um/ salir de casa
leg /leg/ pierna
lemonade /lem@"neId/ limonada
Consonants
/p/ pen /b/ big /t/ two /d/ dog /k/ can /g/ good // cheap // job /f/ food /v/ very /T/ think /D/ then
/s/ speak /z/ zoo /S/ she /Z/ television /h/ hat /m/ meat /n/ now /N/ sing /l/ late /r/ red /j/ yes /w/ we
Oxford University Press Word Bank
lesson /"lesn/ leccin, clase
library /"laIbr@ri/ biblioteca
like /laIk/ como
like /laIk/ gustar
lion /"laI@n/ len
listen to /"lIsn tu:, t@/ escuchar
litre /"li:t@(r)/ litro
live /lIv/ vivir
living room /"lIVIN ru:m/ saln
long /lQN/ largo
look at /"lUk &t, @t/ mirar (a)
look for /"lUk fO:(r), f@(r)/ buscar
lots of /"lQts @v/ un montn de
love /lVv/ amor
love /lVv/ encantar
lunch /lVn/ comida (a medioda)
M
man (men) /m&n (men)/ hombre (hombres)
many people /"meni pi:pl/ mucha gente
map /m&p/ plano
March /mA:/ marzo
match /m&/ partido
mathematician /m&T@m@"tISn/ matemtico, matemtica
maths /m&Ts/ matemticas
May /meI/ mayo
maybe /"meIbi/ quiz
meal /mi:l/ comida
meet /mi:t/ conocer(se)
membership card /"memb@SIp kA:d/ carnet de socio
message /"mesI/ mensaje
milk /mIlk/ leche
minus /"maIn@s/ bajo cero
minute /"mInIt/ minuto
mobile phone /m@UbaIl "f@Un/ telfono mvil
model /"mQdl/ figura
Monday /"mVndeI/ lunes
money /"mVni/ dinero
monster /"mQnst@(r)/ monstruo
month /mVnT/ mes
morning /"mO:nIN/ maana
most /m@Ust/ la mayora (de)
mouth /maUT/ boca
move /mu:v/ moverse
mum /mVm/ mam
museum /mju:"zi:@m/ museo
music /"mju:zIk/ msica
must /mVst, m@st/ deber
N
nationality /n&S@"n&l@ti/ nacionalidad
near /nI@(r)/ cerca (de)
never /"nev@(r)/ nunca
new /nju:/ nuevo
newspaper /"nju:speIp@(r)/ peridico
next /nekst/ siguiente, prximo
next to /"nekst tu:, t@/ junto a
Nigerian /naI"I@ri@n/ nigeriano
night /naIt/ noche
nightclub /"naItklVb/ discoteca
nine /naIn/ nueve
nineteenth /naIn"ti:nT/ decimonoveno
ninth /naInT/ noveno
no /n@U/ no
noise /nOIz/ ruido
normal /"nO:ml/ normal
nose /n@Uz/ nariz
notebook /"n@UtbUk/ cuaderno
November /n@U"vemb@(r)/ noviembre
now /naU/ ahora
number /"nVmb@(r)/ nmero
nurse /n3:s/ enfermero, enfermera
O
ocean /"@USn/ ocano
October /Qk"t@Ub@(r)/ octubre
octopus /"Qkt@p@s/ pulpo
of course /Qv "kO:s/ por supuesto
often /"Qfn, "Qft@n/ a menudo
old /@Uld/ viejo, antiguo
old man /@Uld "m&n/ seor mayor
old woman /@Uld "wUm@n/ seora mayor
Olympic Games /@lImpIk "geImz/ Juegos Olmpicos
Olympic torch /@lImpIk "tO:/ antorcha olmpica
on holiday /Qn "hQl@deI/ de vacaciones
one /wVn/ uno
only /"@Unli/ slo
open /"@Up@n/ abrir
opposite /"Qp@zIt/ enfrente (de)
orange /"QrIn/ naranja
orange juice /"QrIn u:s/ zumo de naranja
orang-utan /O:r&Nu:"t&n, @"r&N@t&n/ orangutn
original /@"rI@nl/ original
over there /@Uv@ "De@(r)/ ah, all
P
page /peI/ pgina
palace /"p&l@s/ palacio
panda /"p&nd@/ panda
parent /"pe@r@nt/ padre, madre
park /pA:k/ parque
part /pA:t/ parte
participate /pA:"tIsIpeIt/ participar
party (parties) /"pA:ti (-tIz)/ fiesta (fiestas)
pass /pA:s/ pasar
past /pA:st/ pasado
pasta /"p&st@/ pasta
patient /"peISnt/ paciente
P.E. /pi: "i:/ educacin fsica
pen /pen/ bolgrafo
pencil /"pensl/ lpiz
penpal /"penp&l/ amigo, amiga por correspondencia
people /"pi:pl/ gente
per cent /p@ "sent/ por ciento
per hour /p@r "aU@(r)/ por hora
person /"p3:sn/ persona
Peruvian /p@"ru:vi@n/ peruano
pet /pet/ mascota, animal de compaa
phone /f@Un/ telfono
phone /f@Un/ llamar por telfono
photo /"f@Ut@U/ foto
picnic /"pIknIk/ picnic
picture /"pIk@(r)/ dibujo, ilustracin
pink /pINk/ rosa
pizza /"pi:ts@/ pizza
place /pleIs/ lugar
plant /plA:nt/ planta
play /pleI/ jugar (a)
player /"pleI@(r)/ jugador, jugadora
please /pli:z/ por favor
police officer /p@"li:s QfIs@(r)/ (agente de) polica
police station /p@"li:s steISn/ comisara
polite /p@"laIt/ educado
pop star /"pQp stA:(r)/ estrella del pop
popular /"pQpj@l@(r)/ famoso, popular
portion /"pO:Sn/ racin
Vowels
/i/ happy /I/ it /i:/ he /&/ cat /A:/ art /e/ egg /3:/ girl /Q/ not /O:/ four /U/ look /u:/ you /@/ sugar /V/ mum
/eI/ day /aI/ why /OI/ boy /aU/ how /@U/ go /I@/ ear /e@/ wear /U@/ tourist
Oxford University Press Word Bank
possible /"pQs@bl/ posible
post office /"p@Ust QfIs/ (oficina de) correos
postcard /"p@UstkA:d/ postal
poster /"p@Ust@(r)/ pster
potato (potatoes) /p@"teIt@U (-t@Uz)/ patata (patatas)
pound /paUnd/ libra (esterlina)
practice /"pr&ktIs/ entrenamiento
practise /"pr&ktIs/ practicar
prefer /prI"f3:(r)/ preferir
present /"prez@nt/ regalo
presenter /prI"zent@(r)/ presentador, presentadora
primary school /"praIm@ri sku:l/ escuela primaria
prime minister /praIm "mInIst@(r)/ primer ministro,
primera ministra
prince /prIns/ prncipe
prison /"prIzn/ crcel, prisin
prisoner /"prIzn@(r)/ prisionero, prisionera
private school /"praIv@t sku:l/ escuela privada
project /"prQekt/ proyecto
protein /"pr@Uti:n/ protena(s)
Q
queen /kwi:n/ reina
question /"kwes@n/ pregunta
R
rain /reIn/ llover
read /ri:d/ leer
ready /"redi/ preparado, listo
really /"ri:@li/ realmente
receptionist /rI"sepS@nIst/ recepcionista
red /red/ rojo
restaurant /"restrQnt/ restaurante
rice /raIs/ arroz
rich /rI/ rico
ring /rIN/ sonar
road /r@Ud/ calle, carretera
roast meat /r@Ust "mi:t/ carne asada
Roman /"r@Um@n/ romano
room /ru:m/ habitacin
run /rVn/ correr
Russian /"rVSn/ ruso
S
salt /sO:lt, sQlt/ sal
same /seIm/ mismo
sandwich (sandwiches) /"s&nwI (-Iz), "s&nwI (-Iz)/
sndwich (sndwiches)
Saturday /"s&t@deI/ sbado
say /seI/ decir
school /sku:l/ escuela, colegio
school uniform /sku:l "ju:nIfO:m/ uniforme del colegio
science /"saI@ns/ ciencia(s)
scientist /"saI@ntIst/ cientfico, cientfica
Scottish /"skQtIS/ escocs
sea /si:/ mar
second /"sek@nd/ segundo
secondary school /"sek@ndri sku:l/ educacin secundaria
see /si:/ ver
sell /sel/ vender
send /send/ enviar
September /sep"temb@(r)/ septiembre
servant /"s3:v@nt/ criado, criada
seven /"sevn/ siete
seventeenth /sevn"ti:nT/ decimosptimo
seventh /"sevnT/ sptimo
shop /SQp/ tienda
shop /SQp/ hacer compras
shopping centre /"SQpIN sent@(r)/ centro comercial
short /SO:t/ corto
shorts /SO:ts/ pantalones cortos
shout /SaUt/ gritar
show /S@U/ espectculo
similar /"sIm@l@(r)/ parecido, similar
simple /"sImpl/ simple
singer /"sIN@(r)/ cantante
sister /"sIst@(r)/ hermana
sit /sIt/ sentarse
six /sIks/ seis
sixteen /sIks"ti:n/ diecisis
sixteenth /sIks"ti:nT/ decimosexto
sixth /sIksT/ sexto
skateboard /"skeItbO:d/ monopatn
skiing /"ski:IN/ esqu
sleep /sli:p/ dormir
small /smO:l/ pequeo
snack /sn&k/ algo para picar
snow /sn@U/ nieve
sock /sQk/ calcetn
sofa /"s@Uf@/ sof
some /sVm, s@m/ algunos, algunas
somebody /"sVmb@di/ alguien
sometimes /"sVmtaImz/ a veces
son /sVn/ hijo
song /sQN/ cancin
sound /saUnd/ sonar
south /saUT/ sur
Spanish /"sp&nIS/ espaol
speak /spi:k/ hablar
special /"speSl/ especial
spell /spel/ deletrear
sport /spO:t/ deporte
sports bag /"spO:ts b&g/ bolsa de deporte
sports centre /"spO:ts sent@(r)/ polideportivo
sports shop /"spO:ts SQp/ tienda de deportes
stadium /"steIdi@m/ estadio
stairs /ste@z/ escaleras
stand up /st&nd "Vp/ ponerse de pie
start /stA:t/ empezar
state school /"steIt sku:l/ escuela pblica
still /stIl/ todava
stop /stQp/ parada
story (stories) /"stO:ri (-rIz)/ narracin (narraciones)
straight on /streIt "Qn/ recto
strange /streIn/ extrao, raro
street /stri:t/ calle
strong /strQN/ fuerte
student /"stju:d@nt/ estudiante
study /"stVdi/ estudiar
subject /"sVbIkt, (-ekt)/ asignatura
sugar /"SUg@(r)/ azcar
suitcase /"su:tkeIs/ maleta
summer /"sVm@(r)/ verano
summer holiday /sVm@ "hQl@deI/ vacaciones de verano
sumo wrestler /"su:m@U resl@(r)/ luchador, luchadora
de sumo
sun /sVn/ sol
sunbathe /"sVnbeID/ tomar el sol
Sunday /"sVndeI/ domingo
supermarket /"su:p@mA:kIt/ supermercado
support /s@"pO:t/ ser seguidor, seguidora de
sure /SU@(r)/ seguro
surfing /"s3:fIN/ surf
swim /swIm/ nadar
swimming /"swImIN/ natacin
swimming costume /"swImIN kQstju:m/ baador
Consonants
/p/ pen /b/ big /t/ two /d/ dog /k/ can /g/ good // cheap // job /f/ food /v/ very /T/ think /D/ then
/s/ speak /z/ zoo /S/ she /Z/ television /h/ hat /m/ meat /n/ now /N/ sing /l/ late /r/ red /j/ yes /w/ we
Oxford University Press Word Bank
T
table /"teIbl/ mesa
taekwondo /taIk"wQnd@U/ taekwondo
take photos /teIk "f@Ut@Uz/ hacer fotos
take place /teIk "pleIs/ celebrarse
taxi /"t&ksi/ taxi
teach /ti:/ ensear
teacher /"ti:@(r)/ profesor, profesora
team /ti:m/ equipo
telephone number /"telIf@Un nVmb@(r)/ nmero de telfono
tell /tel/ decir, contar
temperature /"tempr@@(r)/ temperatura
ten /ten/ diez
tennis /"tenIs/ tenis
tenth /tenT/ dcimo
terrible /"ter@bl/ horrible
thanks /T&Nks/ gracias
then /Den/ entonces, despus
there /De@(r)/ ah, all
third /T3:d/ tercero
thirteen /T3:"ti:n/ trece
thirteenth /T3:"ti:nT/ decimotercero
thirty /"T3:ti/ treinta
thousand /"TaUznd/ mil
three /Tri:/ tres
Thursday /"T3:zdeI/ jueves
ticket /"tIkIt/ entrada
tidy /"taIdi/ ordenado
tiger /"taIg@(r)/ tigre
time /taIm/ tiempo
time /taIm/ vez
tired /"taI@d/ cansado
today /t@"deI/ hoy
toe /t@U/ dedo del pie
toilet /"tOIl@t/ bao, servicio
tomb /tu:m/ tumba
tomorrow /t@"mQr@U/ maana
too /tu:/ tambin
too /tu:/ demasiado
top /tQp/ top
tourist /"tU@rIst/ turista
town /taUn/ ciudad
town centre /taUn "sent@(r)/ centro de la ciudad
town hall /taUn "hO:l/ ayuntamiento
tracksuit bottoms /tr&ksu:t "bQt@mz/ pantaln de chndal
traditionally /tr@"dIS@n@li/ tradicionalmente
train station /"treIn steISn/ estacin de trenes
train /treIn/ tren
trainers /"treIn@z/ zapatillas de deporte
transport /"tr&nspO:t/ transporte
travel /"tr&vl/ viajar
tree /tri:/ rbol
triathlon /traI"&Tl@n/ triatln
tropical /"trQpIkl/ tropical
trousers /"traUz@z/ pantaln, pantalones
true /tru:/ cierto, verdadero
T-shirt /"ti: S3:t/ camiseta de manga corta
Tuesday /"tju:zdeI/ martes
turn left /t3:n "left/ girar a la izquierda
turn right /t3:n "raIt/ girar a la derecha
TV /ti: "vi:/ tele
twelfth /twelfT/ duodcimo
twelve /twelv/ doce
twentieth /"twenti@T/ vigsimo
twenty /"twenti/ veinte
twenty-five /twenti "faIv/ veinticinco
twin /twIn/ mellizo, melliza
two /tu:/ dos
typical /"tIpIkl/ tpico, normal
U
uncle /"VNkl/ to
under /"Vnd@(r)/ debajo de
underground /"Vnd@graUnd/ metro
understand /Vnd@"st&nd/ entender
unhappy /Vn"h&pi/ desgraciado
unhealthy /Vn"helTi/ poco saludable
unpopular /Vn"pQpj@l@(r)/ impopular, que no gusta
untidy /Vn"taIdi/ desordenado
use /ju:z/ utilizar
usually /"ju:ZU@li/ normalmente
V
vegetable /"vet@bl/ verdura
very /"veri/ muy
very much /veri "mV/ mucho
visit /"vIzIt/ visita
visit /"vIzIt/ visitar
voice /vOIs/ voz
volleyball /"vQlibO:l/ voleibol
W
wait /weIt/ esperar
walk /wO:k/ andar, caminar
wall /wO:l/ pared
want /wQnt/ querer
warm /wO:m/ templado, caliente
wash /wQS/ lavar(se)
watch TV /wQ ti: "vi:/ ver la tele
water /"wO:t@(r)/ agua
wear /we@(r)/ vestir, llevar puesto
weather /"weD@(r)/ tiempo (meteorolgico)
Web /web/ web, red
website /"websaIt/ pgina, sitio web
Wednesday /"wenzdeI/ mircoles
week /wi:k/ semana
weekend /wi:k"end/ fin de semana
weight-training /"weIt treInIN/ musculacin, pesas
welcome /"welk@m/ bienvenido
when /wen/ cundo
white /waIt/ blanco
wide /waId/ ancho
wife /waIf/ mujer, esposa
win /wIn/ ganar
wine /waIn/ vino
winner /"wIn@(r)/ ganador, ganadora
with /wID/ con
woman (women) /"wUm@n ("wImIn)/ mujer (mujeres)
word /w3:d/ palabra
work /w3:k/ trabajo
work /w3:k/ trabajar
world /w3:ld/ mundo
wrestling /"reslIN/ lucha
write /raIt/ escribir
Y
year /jI@(r)/ ao
yellow /"jel@U/ amarillo
yes /jes/ s
yesterday /"jest@deI/ ayer
young /jVN/ joven
Vowels
/i/ happy /I/ it /i:/ he /&/ cat /A:/ art /e/ egg /3:/ girl /Q/ not /O:/ four /U/ look /u:/ you /@/ sugar /V/ mum
/eI/ day /aI/ why /OI/ boy /aU/ how /@U/ go /I@/ ear /e@/ wear /U@/ tourist
Oxford University Press Expression Bank
Expression Bank
Are you OK? /A: ju: @U"keI/ Ests bien?
Be careful! /bI "ke@fl/ Ten cuidado!
Boring! /"bO:rIN/ Qu aburrido!
Bye. /baI/ Adis.
Bye for now. /baI f@ "naU/ Hasta luego.
Can I help you? /k@n aI "help ju:/ Necesitas ayuda?
Certainly /"s3:tnli/ Claro (que s).
Come on! /kVm "Qn/ Venga!
Dont worry. /d@Unt "wVri/ No te preocupes.
Excuse me. /Ik"skju:z mi:/ Perdn.
Fantastic shot! /f&n"t&stIk SQt/ Qu buen lanzamiento!
Follow me. /fQl@U "mi:/ Sgueme.
Go on. /g@U "Qn/ Venga!
Good afternoon. /gUd A:ft@"nu:n/ Buenas tardes.
Good idea. /gUd aI"di:@/ Qu buena idea!
Good morning. /gUd "mO:nIN/ Buenos das.
Goodnight. /gUd"naIt/ Buenas noches.
Have a nice day! /h&v @ naIs "deI/ Que pases un buen da.
Hello! /he"l@U/ Hola.
Here you are. /"hI@ ju: A:/ Aqu tienes.
Hes cute. /hi:z "kju:t/ Es muy rico/guapo.
Hi! /haI/ Hola.
How ? /haU .../ Cmo ?
How are you? /haU @ "ju:/ Qu tal ests?
How do you spell ? /haU d@ j@ spel ".../ Cmo se
deletrea ?
How old are you? /haU "@Uld A: ju:/ Cuntos aos tienes?
How long ? /"haU lQN .../ Cunto tiempo ?
Hurray! /h@"reI/ Viva!
Hurry up! /hVri "Vp/ Date prisa.
I dont believe it! /aI d@Unt bI"li:v It/ No me lo puedo creer!
I dont understand. /aI d@Unt Vnd@"st&nd/ No entiendo.
Im /aIm .../ Soy
Im fine, thanks. /aIm "faIn T&Nks/ Estoy bien, gracias.
Im going. /aIm "g@UIN/ Me voy.
Im hungry. /aIm "hVNgri/ Tengo hambre.
Im (thirteen) years old. /aIm ("T3:ti:n) jI@z "@Uld/
Tengo (trece) aos.
Im thirsty. /aIm "T3:sti/ Tengo sed.
I think so. /aI "TINk s@U/ Creo que s.
I dont think so. /aI d@Unt "TINk s@U/ No creo.
Its /Its .../ Es
Its OK. /Its @U"keI/ Est bien.
Its cloudy. /Its "klaUdi/ Est nublado.
Its cold. /Its k@Uld/ Hace fro.
Its foggy. /Its "fQgi/ Hay niebla.
Its half past (six). /Its hA:f pA:st ("sIks)/ Son las (seis)
y media.
Its hot. /Its "hQt/ Hace calor.
Its quarter past (six). /Its kwO:t@ pA:st ("sIks)/ Son las (seis)
y cuarto.
Its quarter to (seven). /Its kwO:t@ t@ ("sevn)/ Son las (siete)
menos cuarto.
Its raining. /Its "reInIN/ Est lloviendo.
Its (six) oclock. /Its (sIks) @"klQk/ Son las (seis) en punto.
Its snowing. /Its "sn@UIN/ Est nevando.
Its sunny. /Its "sVni/ Hace sol.
Its time for /Its "taIm f@ .../ Es hora de
Its warm. /Its wO:m/ Hace calor.
Its windy. /Its "wIndi/ Hace viento.
Lets /lets ".../ Por qu no ?
Look! /lUk/ Mira!
Love from /lVv fr@m ".../ Con cario
My names /maI neImz ".../ Me llamo
Nice to meet you. /naIs t@ "mi:t ju:/ Me alegro de conocerte.
No way! /n@U "weI/ Ni hablar!
Of course. /@v "kO:s/ Por supuesto.
Oh no! /@U "n@U/ Oh, no!
OK. /@U"keI/ Vale.
OK. Great. /@UkeI "greIt/ Vale, genial.
Over here! /@Uv@ "hI@(r)/ Aqu!
Really? /"ri:@li/ De verdad?
See you on Saturday. /si: ju: Qn "s&t@deI/ Hasta el sbado.
See you there. /si: ju: "De@(r)/ Nos vemos all.
Sorry! /"sQri/ Perdn.
Stop him! /"stQp hIm/ Pralo!
Stop it. /"stQp It/ Para ya!
Thanks. /T&Nks/ Gracias.
Thanks a lot! /T&Nks @ "lQt/ Muchsimas gracias.
Thank you. /"T&Nk ju:/ Gracias.
Thank you very much. /T&Nk ju: veri "mV/ Muchas gracias.
That isnt funny. /D&t Iznt "fVni/ Eso no tiene gracia.
Thats /D&ts ".../ Ese es
Thats a good idea. /D&ts @ gUd aI"di:@/ Qu buena idea!
That sounds fun! /D&t saUndz "fVn/ Suena divertido!
Thats right. /D&ts "raIt/ Eso es.
There are /De@r @ .../ Hay (ms de uno)
Theres /De@z .../ Hay (una cosa, o algo incontable)
There you are! /"De@ ju: A:/ Mira dnde estabas!
This is /DIs Iz ".../ Este es
Wait! /weIt/ Espera!
Wait a minute. /"weIt @ mInIt/ Espera un momento.
Well, /wel .../ Bueno,
What about you? /wQt @baUt "ju:/ Y t, qu?
What do you mean? /wQt d@ ju: "mi:n/ Qu quieres decir
(con eso)?
Whats the weather like? /wQts D@ "weD@ laIk/ Qu tiempo
hace?
Whats your address? /wQts jO:r @"dres/ Cul es tu
direccin?
Whats your name? /wQts jO: "neIm/ Cmo te llamas?
What time ? /wQt taIm .../ A qu hora ?
What time is it? /wQt "taIm Iz It/ Qu hora es?
Where ? /we@(r) .../ Dnde ?
Where are you from? /we@r @ ju: "frQm/ De dnde eres?
Which ? /wI/ Qu/Cul ?
Who ? /hu:/ Quin ?
Whos that? /hu:z "D&t/ Quin es ese?
Why ? /waI/ Por qu ?
Why dont we ? /"waI d@Unt wi: .../ Por qu no ?
Wow! /waU/ Caramba!
Write soon! /raIt "su:n/ Escribe pronto!
Yes, of course. /jes @v "kO:s/ Por supuesto que s.
Youre welcome. /jO: "welk@m/ No hay de qu.
Consonants
/p/ pen /b/ big /t/ two /d/ dog /k/ can /g/ good // cheap // job /f/ food /v/ very /T/ think /D/ then
/s/ speak /z/ zoo /S/ she /Z/ television /h/ hat /m/ meat /n/ now /N/ sing /l/ late /r/ red /j/ yes /w/ we