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Technical Training 2007

Technical Training 2007


Technical Training 2007
5ACV30 CR
5ACV30 CR
5ACV55/75 CR
5ACV55/75 CR
5ACV100/135/210 CR
5ACV100/135/210 CR
Chilled Water System :
Air-Cooled Inverter Mini Chiller
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System Schematic Diagram System Schematic Diagram
Advantages of Chilled Water System Advantages of Chilled Water System
Product Lineup Product Lineup
Design & Application Design & Application
Content
Product Features Product Features
Schematic Diagram & Components Schematic Diagram & Components
Installation & Commissioning Installation & Commissioning
Self Diagnosis & Troubleshooting Self Diagnosis & Troubleshooting
Smart Manager Smart Manager
Selection Software Selection Software
Competitor Competitor s Products Comparison s Products Comparison
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System Schematic Diagram
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System Schematic Diagram
Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger(cooler)
Water
45
o
F
55
o
F
Refrigerant Cycle
Compressor
TXV
Liquid receiver
FCU
Storage
Tank
Pump
Chilled
water out
Chilled
water in
Water Circuit
Condenser
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Advantages of
Chilled Water
System
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Quiet Operation
Simple on Site
Installation
Versatility in
System Coupling
Flexible in Installation
And Commissioning
Low Cost of
Installation
Chilled Water Chilled Water
Advantages Advantages
Long Piping
Application
Centralized
Control
Multiple Zone
Temperature
Control
Advantages of Chilled Water System
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Offers flexibility
during installation
Advantages of Chilled Water System
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Advantages of Chilled Water System
No on-site refrigerant charge
No time consuming refrigerant balancing
and adjustment
Eliminate accident or malfunction
Light weight and compact size for ease of
handling
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Advantages of Chilled Water System
Quiet operation due to minimized
outdoor units and mini chiller can
be placed far away from room
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Advantages of Chilled Water System
One to One
One to many
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Advantages of Chilled Water System
versus
Chilled Water System
DX System
Water
PVC
Refrigerant
Copper
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Advantages of Chilled Water System
Year Round Comfort
Multiple Temperature Zone Control
Back To Content
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Product Lineup
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Product Lineup
Cooling Only/ Heat Pump Model Cooling Only/ Heat Pump Model
Cooling Only/ Heat Pump Model Cooling Only/ Heat Pump Model
Heat Pump
055
MAC- C
Series
M4AC-C
Series
120 100 150
M5AC- C
Series
080 060 050 040 030 025 020 000
Btu/h
055
MAC- C
Series
M4AC-C
Series
120 100 150
M5AC- C
Series
080 060 050 040 030 025 020 000
Btu/h
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Product Lineup
M5ACV- C
Series
210 135 100 075 055 030 000
Btu/h
M5ACV- C
Series
210 135 100 075 055 030 000
Btu/h
Heat Pump Model
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Design & Application
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Design & Application
Understand Clients requirement
Application - feasible
Installation/service-able
Budget
Inspection of job site
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Design & Application
Site survey
Building Load Calculation
- equipment size
Equipment Selection
- type of system & equipment
system design:
- piping; pump; controls; storage tank;
installation and service maintenance;
water treatment.
cost of equipment
operation cost
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Design & Application
Where to install the chiller and fan coil units
Determine the pipe route and installation / servicing /
maintenance consideration
Building Load estimation for both chiller and
Fan coil units (building orientation/size/application,
i.e. pub; restaurant; office.....)
Access to the building for delivery and maintenance
location of other building services
1. Site Survey
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Design & Application
OYL MANUFACTURING CO. SDN BHD
COOLING LOAD ESTIMATION
PROJECT NAME : SK Bungalow DATE: 28/2/2001
LOCATION : Penthouse
AREA = 2000 HEIGHT = 15 NO.OF PEOPLE = 4
CFM/PERSON= 15 VENT, CFM = 500 B.F. = 0.15
ROOM TEMP = 75 ROOM RH% =
TEMP DIFF. (ROOM & OUTDOOR) = 20 MOISTURE DIFF. = 80
GAIN/TD BTU/HR GAIN/TD BTU/HR
OUTDOOR TEMP CORRN= -2 0
NE GLASS 600 0.76 45 20,520 22 10,032
E GLASS 0.76 106 0 35 0
SE GLASS 0.76 97 0 32 0
S GLASS 0.76 10 0 8 0
SW GLASS 600 0.76 30 13,680 91 41,496
W GLASS 0.76 44 0 132 0
NW GLASS 0.76 28 0 75 0
N GLASS 0.76 11 0 11 0
SHADED GLASS 0.76 11 0 11 0
N WALL 0.49 1 0 13 0
NE WALL 200 0.49 53 5,194 17 1,666
E WALL 0.49 36 0 15 0
SE WALL 600 0.49 16 4,704 16 4,704
S WALL 0.49 1 0 14 0
SW WALL 200 0.49 1 98 30 2,940
W WALL 0.49 2 0 39 0
NW WALL 600 0.49 1 294 33 9,702
ROOF 2,000 0.23 6 2,760 38 17,480
ALL GLS TRANSM 1,200 1.13 -2 (2,712) 0 0
PARTITION 0.45 -2 0 0 0
CEILING 0.3 0 0 0 0
FLOOR 0.49 -7 0 -5 0
PEOPLE,(S) 4 1 245 980 245 980
POWER,KW 4 1 3414 13,656 3414 13,656
LIGHTS,WATTS 2,000 1.25 3.414 8,535 3.414 8,535
MISC.HEAT (S) 1 1 0 1 0
SAFETY % (S) 5 3,385 5,560
DT.GN/LK/FAN% 8 0 0
OA HEAT(S)*BF 0 0
PEOPLE,(L) 4 1 205 820 205 820
MISC.HEAT (L) 1 1 0 1 0
SAFETY % (L) 10 82 82
DUCT LEAK% 8 0 0
OA HEAT(L)*BF 4,080 4,080
OA HEAT(S)1-BF 0 0
OA HEAT(L)1-BF 23,120 23,120
GRAND TOTAL HEAT = 99,196 144,853
COOLING TONS = 8.27 12.07
ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT = 71,094 116,751
TOTAL OA HEAT = 27,200 27,200
4.00PM SEP/MAR
AREA/QTY ITEM FACTORS
10.00 AM SEP/MAR
2. Building Load Estimation
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Design & Application
am 4.0 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.5 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 2.5 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 9.0 kW
pm 8.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
Room 9
Room 11
Room 10
Room 8
Room 7
Room 6
Room 5
Room 4
Room 3
Room 2
Room 1
U U
2. Building Load Estimation
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Design & Application
am 4.0 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.5 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 2.5 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 9.0 kW
pm 8.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
Room 9
Room 11
Room 10
Room 8
Room 7
Room 6
Room 5
Room 4
Room 3
Room 2
Room 1
am 4.0 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.5 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 2.5 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 4.5 kW
pm 3.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 9.0 kW
pm 8.0 kW
am 3.5 kW
pm 5.0 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
am 3.8 kW
pm 3.5 kW
Room 9
Room 11
Room 10
Room 8
Room 7
Room 6
Room 5
Room 4
Room 3
Room 2
Room 1
U
2. Building Load Estimation Diversity Factor
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Design & Application
Room a.m. p.m. DX
Room 1 4.0 2.5 4.0
Room 2 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 3 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 4 9.0 8.0 9.0
Room 5 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 6 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 7 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 8 3.5 4.5 4.5
Room 9 3.5 5.0 5.0
Room 10 3.5 5.5 5.5
Room 11 3.5 5.5 5.5
Total 47.4 47.5 53.9
Chiller Capacity : 45.7 kW
DX unit capacity(total) : 53.9 kW
Saving ~ 6.4 kW(11.9 % in this case)
Room a.m. p.m. DX
Room 1 4.0 2.5 4.0
Room 2 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 3 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 4 9.0 8.0 9.0
Room 5 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 6 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 7 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 8 3.5 4.5 4.5
Room 9 3.5 5.0 5.0
Room 10 3.5 5.5 5.5
Room 11 3.5 5.5 5.5
Total 47.4 47.5 53.9
Chiller Capacity : 45.7 kW
DX unit capacity(total) : 53.9 kW
Saving ~ 6.4 kW(11.9 % in this case)
2. Building Load Estimation Diversity Factor
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Criteria to select a mini chiller:
capacity required
water entering condition
water leaving condition
ambient condition
cooling/ heating mode required?
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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If the chiller is operate under non
standard condition, the capacity can
be calculated from the performance
characteristic, flow rate and pressure
drop then being determined.
S
a
m
p
l
e

o
f

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

c
h
a
r
t
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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Upon chiller units being selected, water flow
rate of chiller and pressure drop also need to
be determined.
Water flow rate,
Liters/Min = Total Capacity, W
70 x Temp. Diff.
O
C
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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From Water flow rate,
the pressure drop
across the chiller units
need to be
determined for pump
selection.
Find the pressure
drop from the data
table ->
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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Example 1
Please select a cooling only chiller operate at ambient
temperature 35
o
C, leaving water temperature 5
o
C.
Minimum capacity required is 25 kW. Determine the
required flow rate and the internal pressure loss.
Entering water temperature is 12
o
C.
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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From performance chart, AC100 C selected. The
capacity at 35
o
C at 5
o
C leaving water temperature
is 25.90 kW.
Hence the flow rate, liters/min : 25900
70 x 5
= 74 liters/min
= 1.23 liters/s
= 4.44 m3/hr
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Solution:
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From 4.44 m
3
/hr and the table above, the pressure drop for
AC100C is 47.5 kPa
3. Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Solution:
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From the total cooling capacity shown in the Table 1,
calculate the water flow rate by using the following
formula:
Liters/Min = Total Cooling Capacity, W
70 x Temperature Rise
o
C
USGPM = Total Cooling Capacity, Btu/H
500 x Temperature Rise
o
F
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
Example 2:
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Table 1: Total Cooling Capacity
Room am Load, kW pm Load , kW Fan Coil Unit, kW
Room 1 4.0 2.5 4.0
Room 2 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 3 4.5 3.0 4.5
Room 4 9.0 8.0 9.0
Room 5 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 6 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 7 3.8 3.5 3.8
Room 8 3.5 4.5 4.5
Room 9 3.5 5.0 5.0
Room 10 3.5 5.5 5.5
Room 11 3.5 5.5 5.5
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
Fan Coil units Capacity can be determined by Cooling
Capacity Performance Chart as below:
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Line A
Line D
Line C
Line B
Point 1
Point 4
Point 3
Point 2
Water temperature rise
o
C
E
n
t
e
r
i
n
g

W
a
t
e
r

o
C
Total Cooling & Sensible Capacity, kW
Entering Air WB
o
C
Entering Air DB
o
C
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
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Line A
Line D
Line C
Line B
Point 1
Point 4
Point 3
Point 2
Water temperature rise
o
C
E
n
t
e
r
i
n
g

W
a
t
e
r

o
C
Total Cooling & Sensible Capacity, kW
Entering Air WB
o
C
Entering Air DB
o
C
Point 1 - Temperature Rise in
o
C Line A - Determine the temperature rise
Point 2 - Entering water temperature
o
C and entering water temperature
Point 3 - Entering air temperature (WB)
o
C Line B - To cross on coil condition, I.e.
Point 4 - Entering air temperature (DB)
o
C WB and DB
Point 5 - Total Cooling Capacity Line C- Intersection point at WB
Point 6 - Sensible Capacity determine the total cooling capacity
Line D- Intersection point at DB determine
Sensible Capacity
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
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Assumption, if cooling capacity of 8.4 kW and
entering water at 5
o
C, leaving water at 10
o
C,
then :
Liters/Min = Total Cooling Capacity, W
70 x Temperature Rise
o
C
= 8,400 = 24 liters/ min
70 x 5
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
Solution:
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4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
Find pressure drop at this flow rate fromTable of
pressure drop
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With pre-determine flow rate, pressure drop of
the fan coil can be determined interpolation method
using data given in the pressure drop table :
Assumption: Pressure Drop for CC30 CW at flow rate of
24 liters/Min = X
X - 7,72 = 24.00 - 20.14
11.55 - 7,72 25.21 - 20.14
Water pressure drop, X = 7.83kPa
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
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With pre-determine flow rate, Heating Capacity can be
estimated from the heating Capacity Performance Chart
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
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Standard heating capacity is based on EWT at 60
o
C and EAT at
21.1
o
C, if operating temperature different from the standard, then
correction factor need to apply based on table below:
37.8 43.3 45.0 48.8 54.4 60.0 65.5 71.1 76.7 82.2 87.7
4.4 0.838 0.980 1.021 1.122 1.265 1.406 1.552 1.698 1.845 1.988 2.134
7.2 0.771 0.913 0.954 1.055 1.198 1.379 1.485 1.631 1.778 1.920 2.067
10.0 0.700 0.843 0.885 0.986 0.130 1.272 1.417 1.563 1.710 1.853 2.000
12.7 0.631 0.773 0.817 0.918 1.062 1.205 1.349 1.495 1.639 1.786 1.931
15.5 0.562 0.705 0.748 0.848 0.992 1.137 1.281 1.427 1.572 1.719 1.865
18.3 0.493 0.636 0.679 0.779 0.923 1.070 1.212 1.358 1.504 1.650 1.799
21.1 0.424 0.567 0.610 0.711 0.855 1.000 1.146 1.290 1.438 1.583 1.730
23.9 0.354 0.498 0.541 0.642 0.786 0.932 1.078 1.222 1.369 1.515 1.664
26.7 0.284 0.428 0.471 0.573 0.717 0.863 1.008 1.155 1.302 1.449 1.597
WATER ENTERING TEMPERATURE , C
HEATING CAPACITY CORRECTION FACTORS
EAT
o
C
Adjusted heating capacity, W ( @ Nominal air Flow ) =base heating capacity ( @ nominal. 60C EWT, 21.1C EAT) x Heating Capacity Correction Factor
Example at 54.4
o
C water entering temperature and 23.9
o
C air entering
temperature, the correction factor is o.786
4. FCU Selection
Design & Application
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2 basic categories of water pipe work
systems, i.e.
Close System
Open System
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Close System
Pipe installation forms a close circuit minimum
water loss in these type of system. Expansion
tank / make up water tank is sufficient to top up
the loss water
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Mini chiller is designed with application
of a close water piping system.
Possible to use the unit with an open
system by adding a buffer / intermediate
tank and pump.
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Open System
Pipe works form an open loop. Usually
use for cooling tower, formation of alga /
bacteria is normal. Water treatment required
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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If buffer tank being used,
Baffle plate install to prevent return water mixing with
chilled water
Suitable to use for multiple chiller operation
Water tank can be sized accordingly as storage to allow
longer cycled off period for chiller, hence saving energy
Care to ensure no air leakage along pump suction line
to prevent air trap - automatic air vent
Take care of the water quality, water treatment
required
Use only when necessary, i.e. total water volume is
insufficient and need buffer storage to take care of
actual requirement / multiple chiller / standard built in
pump head insufficient
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Open System
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Water out
Water in
Mini Chiller Unit
Return water from fan coil units
Supply water to
fan coil units
Secondary pump
Tank
Air vent
Baffle plate
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Type of piping system
Series
Diverting
Parallel direct return
Parallel reverse return
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Type of piping system - Series
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
FCU 1
FCU 2
FCU 4
FCU 3
Water out
Water in
Mini Chiller Unit
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Advantages
Low pipe cost
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Disadvantages
Each fan coil cannot be control individually
High pressure drop
Type of piping system - Series
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Type of piping system - Diverting
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Mini Chiller Unit
Water out
Water in
FCU 4
FCU 3
FCU 2
FCU 1
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Advantages
Individual control of each fan coils
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Disadvantages
Only fan coil units with low pressure drops suitable
Low water velocity, air vent required
Entering water temperature to fan coil units different.
Type of piping system - Diverting
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Horizontal Installation
Type of piping system - Parallel Direct Return
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Mini Chiller Unit
Water out
Water in
Fan Coil Unit
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of piping system - Parallel Direct Return
Mini Chiller Unit
Water out
Water in
Fan Coil Units
Vertical Installation
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1
st
in 1
st
out
Supply and return pipe length uneven
Proper balancing of water flow required
More economical compare to reverse return type
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of piping system - Parallel Direct Return
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Horizontal Installation
Type of piping system - Parallel Reverse Return
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Mini Chiller Unit
Water out
Water in
Fan Coil Units
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of piping system - Parallel Reverse Return
Vertical Installation
Mini Chiller Unit
Water out
Water in
Fan Coil Units
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1
st
in - Last out concept
Supply and return pipes equal length simple balancing
Use for fan coil units that have same or nearly the
same pressure drop
High rise building required extra length and weight of
pipe - not economical
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of piping system - Parallel Reverse Return
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Type of pipes and fittings
There are several types of pipe that normally use in for
water piping
Black carbon steel pipe
Copper pipe
PVC pipe
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Black carbon steel pipe
J oint by arc welding; thread; flange with gasket
Most commonly used in chiller installation
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Copper pipe
High resistance to corrosion and ease installation
High cost
Can be joint by brazing; soldering; flare joint
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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PVC pipes
Light weight
Corrosion resistance
Not suitable for high temperature application
Installed with more support(shorter span)
UPVC generally up to 60
o
C usage
CPVC higher temperature application
Method to joint : solvent cementing / welding; thread
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Galvanized iron(GI) is not recommended as Zinc coating on
the GI pipe will have an electrolytic reaction with the copper
components in the system, i.e. BPHE; fan coil heat
exchanger. The zinc will be sacrificial metal and deposit itself
on the copper surface
Zinc surface slowly eroded
Zinc deposit on the copper surface will retard heat transfer
process
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Fitting for steel pipe, treaded
90
o
elbow
tee joint
reducer
connector
union
nipple
flange
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Fitting for Copper pipes - expanded end for brazing or
threaded end
90
o
elbow
Reducer
Tee joint
Connector
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Fitting for PVC pipes (with treaded end-can joint to
steel pipe of fitting
90 o elbow
Tee joint
Connector
Adapter
Socket
Union
Reducer
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and fittings
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Type of pipes and valves
Valves
- One of the important component in a water piping
system with the following functions:
To isolate a component from the system - enable
easy servicing/maintenance
To regulate water flow rate
To divert / mix flow direction
To prevent back flow
To relieve / regulate pressure
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Gate valve - to be fully open / fully close; not suitable for
regulate or control flow; for isolation / shutoff purposes
Isolation is important for maintenance purposes. The minimum
requirement is : Chiller supply and return connection; pump
suction and discharge connection; fan coil unit supply and
return connection; cooling coil bypass( if 3-way motorized valve
is fitted at the coil
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Globe valves - for throttling duty where positive shutoff is
required
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Ball valve - for throttling duty, used with smaller pipe diameter
Butterfly valve - has low pressure drops; easy and fast
operation; can be used for throttling duty
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Balancing valve - for throttling duty to regulate water flow
rate for balancing purposes. Pressure tapping port provided for
pressure drop measurement
Check valve - prevent back flush
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Actuators
- Automatic valves operate for automatic controller to
control the fluid flow. Common actuators are :
Solenoid valve
electric motorized valve
pneumatic valve
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Solenoid valve - allows wither totally open or close
position. A magnetic coil will lifts or drops a plunger to open or
close the flow of water
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Electric motorized valve - usually this actuator has
a built in 24V motor to produce a rotary motion to open or
close the valve. Flexible in opening position(depends on
external signal); high cost
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Pneumatic valve - valve has a flexible diaphragm -
operate by injecting air pressure in to the valve to position the
valve open / close. High cost
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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In the chilled water pipe system, automatic control valves used
may be either 2-way or 3-way. All three types of actuator
above may be used.
2-way valve - water flows into the inlet port and exits from
the outlet port. Actuator used to vary the flow rate
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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3-way valves - 3 ports are available
1. Mixing valve
B
A
A + B
2 stream of water blends into 1 stream
2. Diverting valve
A + B
A
B
Split 1 stream into 2 different streams
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Type of pipes and valves
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Installation sample of 2-way valves
FCU
Supply Return
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Installation sample of 3-way valves
FCU
FCU
Supply Return
Diverting
Mixing
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Wrong Installation sample of 2-way valves
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
FCU
Mini Chiller Unit
FCU
Problem : both FCU off, solenoid valve off, no water flow.
However pump still running, pressure built up, pump
problem
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Add bypass pipe to relief pressure
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Mini Chiller Unit
F
C
U
F
C
U
F
C
U
P
Differential pressure transmitter to monitor the
amount of water used. If pressure goes higher
than preset value, will activate relief valve and
bypass water
Installation sample of 2-way valves pre-cautions
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Installation sample of 2-way valves pre-cautions
Mini Chiller Unit
F
C
U
F
C
U
F
C
U
P
INV
When differential pressure become higher, the Inverter will
slow down the water pump to maintain the heap pressure.
If no demand, water pump stop running
Use a variable speed drive for secondary pump
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Modify control wiring for chiller and fan coil unit
The above method of 2-way valves installation incur high cost due to
extra piping, fittings, pressure transmitter...... There is possible to
change the control wiring of the system. Normally when the fan coil
unit thermostat cut-off, the power supply to control the 2-way valve
will be off. It is possible to run a line from the thermostat to the chiller
remote switch whereby when the thermostat cut-off, the chiller and
pump will also cut-off.
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Installation sample of 2-way valves pre-cautions
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Installation sample of 3-way valves
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Mini Chiller Unit
F
C
U
F
C
U
F
C
U
3-Way valve gives constant flow rate, when no demand,
the water bypass through the valve. Energy wastage is
the disadvantage.
Use 3-way diverting valves
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Other type of valves and fittings
Thermometer - glass thermometers are installed on the inlet
and outlet pipes of either the chiller unit or fan coil units. This
is to measure the water temperature differential to determine
the capacity performance.
Thermometer bulb
measuring correct
water flow
temperature
Thermometer
too high up,
stagnant
water
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure gauge cock - Used to isolate pressure gauges
along the water pipe line. When not in use, the valve is closed to
prevent prolonged pressurizing to the gauge, and damage the gauge
Pressure gauge
Impulse tubing loop
Gauge cock (ball valve)
Main pipe line
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Other type of valves and fittings
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Pressure gauge and thermometer as the previous 2 slides
should be included in the design stage - consideration for
commissioning. The measuring devices should be installed
at the following location :
Main supply and return pipe
Main branch supply/return pipe
Cooling coils
Heating coils
Chiller (chilled water side)
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Other type of valves and fittings
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Safety relief valve - valve will open when pressure exceed set
value to prevent over pressuring the system. Normally used in
hot water system. Should be installed near an expansion tank or
pump discharge line.
Air vent valve - OYL mini chiller has an automatic air vent
located on top of the buffer tank. Air vent valve used to release
any trapped air in the tank. Additional air vent should be
installed at the highest position of the piping network
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Other type of valves and fittings
Pipe
Pipe
Air vent
Air vent
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Water outlet
Water inlet
Strainer
Strainer - Strainer are a type of filter for water pipe systems. At least
one strainer should be installed at the location just before the pump.
Strainer should be fitted in the return water connection to chiller prior
to brazed plate heat exchanger to prevent dirt/particle trapped within
the heat exchanger.
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Other type of valves and fittings
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Flow switch - to switch off the chiller unit when low water
flow rate is detected in the piping, possible due to :
pump failure
blocked BPHE
accidental closing of valve
failure of control valves
Water outlet
Water inlet
BPHE
Flow switch
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Other type of valves and fittings
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Fan coil pressure loss
Chiller pressure loss
Pipe pressure loss - pipe, fittings & component
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
System Pressure Loss
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Pipe friction looses are dependent on the following factors :
Water velocity
Pipe internal diameter
Pipe length
Type of material - affect the internal wall roughness
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Pipe and Fitting Sizing
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Water velocity limits are set to take care of noise; erosion and
installation cost. Recommended guidelines :
Pipe friction loss should be between 1 to 4 ft / 100 ft of
equivalent pipe length (100 Pa/m to 400 Pa/m)
Water velocity range for different services
Service Velocity
fps m/s
Pump discharge 8-12 2.4-3.6
Pump suction 4-7 1.2-2.1
Drain line 4-7 1.2-2.1
Header 4-15 1.2-4.6
Riser 3-10 0.9-3.0
City water 3-7 0.9-2.1
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Calculation of System Loss Step by Step Guide
Step 1 - Draw up a schematic layout, c/w chiller; fan coil units and
accurately reflect the length of pipe work
Step 2 - Decide the position and numbers of valves, control valves,
balancing valves; measuring stations; strainers and mark them on the
sketch.
Step 3 - Label each section of the pipe with an identifying letter.
Carefully select the pipe route that gives the highest resistance to
water flow.
Step 4 - Fill in the water volume flow rate and pipe length for the first
section on the pipe sizing chart. Use the pressure loss factor from
Friction Loss Chart and equivalent length by using the equivalent
length factors from all types of fitting
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Calculation of System Loss Step by Step Guide
Step 5 - Enter type of fitting and their quantity, multiply the quantity
be the velocity pressure loss factor by the equivalent length for each
type of fitting to get the total fitting equivalent length,
Step 6 - Add the total fitting equivalent length to the straight pipe
length to give total pipe length. Multiply the total pipe length by the
pipe pressure drop per meter length to obtain a total pressure loss of
the pipe section
Step 7 - Repeat step 5 - 7 for other section of pipes. Summarize the
total pressure drop for all the section. Take into consideration a
minimum of 10% safety factor.
Step 8 - Use the result of step 8 to select the pump
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Example 3
Determine the pressure loss of the pipe system below c/w chiller and FCU.
If the standard built in pump has external head of 20m, is the pump
able to handle the pressure loss?
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure loss for copper pipe
- close / open system
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure loss for steel pipe
- close system
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure loss for steel pipe
- open system
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Definition :
The equivalent pipe length of a component in the pipe
system is the length of a straight pipe which will give the
same friction losses as the components itself.
The concept of equivalent pipe length is used in
calculating friction losses along the water pipe system,
equivalent pipe length can be obtained from tables.
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Equivalent pipe length
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Fitting : 10 x 90 elbow; 4 tee joint; 2x gate valve; 1 strainer - 1 1/4 steel pipe
2 gate valve; 2 tee joint; 1 glove valve 1 1/8 copper
Pressure loss pipe system
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Fitting : 10 x 90

elbow; 4 tee joint; 2x gate valve; 1 strainer - 1 1/4 steel pipe


2 gate valve; 2 tee joint; 1 glove valve 1 1/8 copper
10
10
15
15
3
5
Copper pipe
1 1/8
1 1/4 steel pipe
AC80C
SB75BW
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure loss - OYL fan coil unit data
Model Nominal Water flow rate Unit Friction loss at nominal flow rate
L/min USGPM PSI (unit internal components)
SB75BW 57.00 15.08 6.08
SB100BW 73.48 19.44 1.83
SB125BW 97.49 25.79 2.46
Please refer to relevant technical manual AFCU-2004, page 70
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pressure loss - OYL mini chiller data
Note : Unit internal losses take care of friction loss through Brazed plate
heat exchanger (BPHE); internal pipe work; pump fittings, flow switch, etc.
Please refer to relevant technical manual
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Steel pipe 1 1/ 4diameter :
Flow rate : 15.08 usgpm (57.00 Liters/min)
Straight pipe length : 55 x 2 = 110
Equivalent length for fittings : 10 x 3.3 = 33 (elbow)
4 x 2.3 = 9.2 (tee joint)
2 x 1.5 = 3.0 (gate valve)
1 x 9.0 = 9.0 (strainer)
Total equivalent pipe length = 164.2
From Friction loss for closed piping system, at 15.08 usgpm, for
steel pipe, the friction loss is 3.8 / 100 of pipe, hence friction lo
steel pipe = 3.8 x 164.2/100 = 6.24
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
Total external pipe and fitting loose = 11.87
Copper pipe 1 1/ 8diameter :
Flow rate : 15.08 usgpm
Straight pipe : 3x2 = 6
Equivalent pipe length for fitting : 2 x 1.4 = 2.8(gate valve)
2 x 0.9 = 1.8 (tee joint)
1 x 22 = 22 (globe valve)
1 x 1 = 1
1 x 1.5 = 1.5
Total equivalent pipe length copper : 33.1
friction loss for copper pipe(1 1/8 at 15.08 usgpm) = 17/100
hence 33.1 gives : 17 x 33.1/100 = 5.63
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Fan coil loose : 6.08
mini chiller internal loose : 8.7
Total external pipe and fitting loose = 11.87
Total system friction loose : 6.08+8.7+11.87 = 26.65
= 8.125m
5. Water Piping Design
Design & Application
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Pump is one of the fundamental component in the system. It
circulates water through all the components in the system.
Pump is a built in component in OYL mini chiller. Basic
understanding about the pump characteristic is important.
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
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Primary - secondary pump
If the built in pump in the mini chiller is not able to deliver the
head pressure required to the load even in a close loop system :
Change the existing pump to a higher head pump
Install a booster pump - primary - secondary pump system
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
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Primary - secondary pump
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Water out
Water
in
Mini Chiller Unit
Booster pump (secondary)
Bypass
loop
A
B
Fan Coil Units
Built in pump(primary)
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Disadvantages of this system
Extra cost for pump
Unused bypass chilled water - wastage
Cautions
Bypass loop short(but sufficient to prevent turbulence) to
minimize pressure loss between the entry and exit point of
loop
Do not use any valve in the bypass loop
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump
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Case 1: Capacity of Primary Pump = secondary pump
no flow in the by pass loop, water temperature entering the
load(FCU) is equal to water temperature leaving the chiller
Case 2: Capacity of primary pump > secondary pump
a net flow down the loop and return to chiller unused. A become
diverting T joint and B become mixing T: Water temperature
entering FCU = water temperature leaving chiller, however water
entering chiller will be colder due to unused chilled water bypass back
through B
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump
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Case 3: Capacity of primary pump < secondary pump
a net flow up the loop from B. A become a mixing point and B
become diverting T. Water temperature entering FCU will be in
between the water temperature leaving the chiller and the water
temperature entering Chiller
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump
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Primary - secondary pump in series
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Water out
Water in
Mini Chiller Unit
FCU
Built in pump(primary)
Booster pump (secondary)
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This installation is not recommended :
risky - wrong pump sizing can caused damage to pump
if this design need to be used, primary pump capacity
must be equal to the secondary pump, otherwise :
cavitations problem to the smaller pump
pressure drop across pump
high head loss - harmful to the chiller
6. Pump Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump in series
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7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump in series
In the cases of multiple chiller need to be used,
there are few possible installation method :
Common supply and return headers
Primary - secondary system
Common tank system
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Common supply and return headers
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Check Valve
Supply Header
Return Header
Chilled water supply
Chilled water return
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7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Check Valve
Chilled water supply to FCU
Chilled water return from FCU
Common supply and return headers
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Most common and preferred
Low installation cost
Chiller set at different return water temperature - load staging
Check valve to prevent back flush of water
Drawbacks
proper balancing of water flow rate through each chiller is
crucial
Any chiller off, water flow rate to the FCU will be affected.
To overcome this, it is necessary to wire the chiller
controls for continuos pump running as long as one fan
coil is in operation
One supply line, less flexibility in water distribution
control, i.e. the highest pressure losses zone might be
affected
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Common supply and return headers
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Balancing valves must be installed a each supply branch to
ensure the proper flow rate through each chiller and header
design is important
Header
Header
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Common supply and return headers
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Common supply and return line
No common header used, higher pressure drop
along common pipe lines - can use larger pipe size
at this common line to reduce pressure lost.
Proper balancing is crucial
1st in last out arrangement at the supply and return
lines is useful to reduce the problem of distribution
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
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Primary - secondary pump system
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Check Valve
Chilled water supply
Chilled water return
Bypass Loop
Secondary Pumps
Primary Pump
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Chiller of different capacities can be installed together
without much balancing
Balancing valve required
Secondary pump alone handle the flow and pressure
requirements of FCU - if one of the primary pump off,
the water supply to FCU not affected
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump system
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7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Primary - secondary pump system
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Check Valve
Chilled water supply
Chilled water return
Secondary Pumps
Auxiliary tank
Primary Pump
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Common tank system - Open System
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Chilled water to FCU
Secondary Pumps
Primary Pump
Tank
Return from FCU
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Each chiller and secondary pump forms own pipe circuit
Common tank act as buffer storage tank
No check valve required, normal globe valve is sufficient
to ensure proper water flow
Tank at higher level - to allow gravity feed of water to
the chillers and pumps
Refer to earlier slide for open system for all cautions
during installation and operation
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Common tank system - Open System
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Multiple chiller-single fan coil load with
multiple circuits - common header
7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Check Valve
Supply Header
Return Header
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
Circuit 3
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7. Multiple Chiller Selection
Design & Application
Multiple chiller-single fan coil load with
multiple circuits - common header
Chiller 1
Chiller 2
Chiller 3
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
Circuit 3
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Minimum compressor run time : 3 minutes(PCB design)
Minimum off time of compressor : 4 minutes(PCB design)
~ compressor possible cycle on/off 8 times/hour.
Total volume of water in the system must be able to pull-
down by 5

C temperature within 3 minutes


Total volume of water = volume of storage tank +
volume of pipe length +
volume of expansion tank
Water Volume = Time * flow rate for 5

C Temp. Diff.
Water Volume = 3* flow rate (liters/min)
8. Water Storage Tank and Expansion Tank
Design & Application
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Volume = Time * flow rate for 5
o
C Temp. Diff.
Volume = 3* flow rate (liters/min)
Example : A mini chiller has a cooling capacity of 40,000
Btu/hr (11.72 kW)
Flow rate USGPM = Capacity, Btu/hr
500 * 9
or Flow rate Liters/min = Capacity, W
70 * 5
Flow rate = 11720/350 = 33.6 liters/min
Volume of system = 3 * 33.6 = 100.8 liters
Assuming the storage tank capacity is 1/3 of the total system water
volume, storage tank capacity = 100.8/3 = 33.6 liters
8. Water Storage Tank and Expansion Tank
Design & Application
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For simple calculation, the following tables can be used to estimate the volume of water in
a system by simply multiply the length of pipes with the factor:
Pipe type Pipe Size Water Volume, liters/min
Steel, SCH. 40(ST) 1/2 0.196
3/4 0.344
1 0.558
1 1/4 0.965
1 1/2 1.313
2 2.165
2 1/2 3.098
Copper, type L 1/2 0.094
5/8 0.151
3/4 0.225
7/8 0.312
1 18 0.532
1 3/8 0.811
1 5/8 1.148
2 1/8 1.997
2 5/8 3.079
PVC, DIN 8062 20mm 0.227
25mm 0.353
32mm 0.581
40mm 0.908
50mm 1.425
Design & Application
8. Water Storage Tank and Expansion Tank
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Expansion tank
Expansion tank provide a space into which water can expand or
from which it can contract as the water go under volumetric
changes with respect to temperature change. This device is
compulsory in heat pump units.
Air
Water
Tank
Diaphragm
Threaded end
Tee J oint
Pump suction line
Water Flow from Mini Chiller
8. Water Storage Tank and Expansion Tank
Design & Application
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Spacing between the plates is small, no debris, fouling or
scaling in the system is important to ensure no restrict in
water flow and thus performance not affected.
Strainer along water suction line will remove debris like
sand, metal debris, etc..
It is good practice to install filter at the make up water
supply line.
Filter elements required periodical service to remove
trapped particles.
Flushing the pipe with water during initial start up and
commissioning of the min chiller is necessary
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
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Fouling refers to the tendency of water form a film on
the heat transfer surfaces. Fouling can be organic or
inorganic surface fouling.
Organic fouling includes microbiological growth. Algae
may also form on these surfaces. This is more
significant in open system
Scaling is inorganic fouling. It is normally caused by
deposit inorganic salts
Symptoms: sudden increase in pressure drop and
gradual drop in heat transfer performance
Remedy : Chemical cleaning
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
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Organic fouling can be removed by use of alkaline cleaning
agent like sodium hydroxide at 5% concentration. Refer to
chemical manufacturer for more details instruction. Make
sure the excess chemical is fully clean up from the system
Inorganic fouling most commonly need acidic based cleaning
agent. Mineral acids has strong ability to dissolve scales, but
attack/corrode stainless steel and copper parts, hence is not
recommended. Organic acids at 2 - 5% concentration is
more ideal when used to clean BPHE.
Refer to chemical manufacturer recommendation on the
dosage requirement. Upon completion, flush with clean water
to remove excess acids.
It is recommended that the water to be replaced at least
once a year to prevent fouling on the BPHE
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
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Glycol Solutions
Entering water temperature - operating range
EWT
0
C EWT
0
C Max EWT
0
C
Factory Setting Minimum maximum
Cooling Mode 12 3 15
Heating Mode 40 35 50
Antifreeze 2 -4 3
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
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SW2 Setting(for cool mode)
SET TEMP. SW2
0
C SW2-3 SW2-2 SW2-1
Set by VR3 off off off
3 off off on
4 off on off
5 off on on
6 on off off
7 on off on
8 on on off
9 on on on
If DIP switch is set to (off,off,off), the set temperature is determine
by VR3 setting, otherwise setting above will override the VR3 setting
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
Glycol Solutions
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For Commissioning, it is recommended to observe
and adjust the setting if necessary :
For cooling mode, press SW1 once in PCB
Green LED will blinks for few seconds
Adjust VR3 to the required water entering temperature by using
suitable tools
If glycol added, the entering water temperature (3
0
C-9
0
C) can
be set by adjusting DIP switch (SW2)
For heating mode, press SW1 twice, red LED will blinks for few
seconds
Adjust VR1 to set the required water temperature for heating
mode
VR2 is adjusted to set antifreeze temperature
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
Glycol Solutions
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If sensor setting has been adjust for process cooling - to operate
at lower temperature, precaution must be taken to prevent water
freeze up. For sub zero application, the water must mix with anti
freeze glycol solution.
2 commonly used glycol : ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.
Ensure the quantity mixed with water is sufficient to cater for the
operating temperature requirement. The more glycol added, the
capacity loss is higher.
Make sure water pump is on all the time to ensure continuous
water flow through BPHE to prevent formation of ice.
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
Glycol Solutions
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Correction factors with Glycol added to water
Glycol % Capacity Water flow Pressure drop
10 0.990 1.015 1.06
20 0.980 1.040 1.12
30 0.970 1.080 1.18
40 0.965 1.135 1.24
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
Glycol Solutions
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
9. Water Treatment
Design & Application
Glycol Solutions
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Pipe being insulated for the following purposes :
Prevent heat gain / loss from the water in the pipe
Prevent condensation when chilled water flow in the pipe
Prevent injury due to hot water flow in the pipe
To do a calculation of insulation thickness, one must know :
Insulation material thermal conductivity coefficient (K)
Pipe size
Air condition at the site of installation (Dry bulb and humidity)
Convective heat transfer coefficient (H)
A simplify spread sheet is provided to estimate the insulation
thickness
10. Pipe Insulation Requirement
Design & Application
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
PIPING INSULATION THICKNESS CALCULATION:
Ai r condi ti on:
DB/C 25 Dew point
RH/% 75 DP/C 20.26
Pi pe speci fi cati on:
Pipe dia. 1.25 in 31.8 mm
Radius, r1 15.879 mm
Pipe surface temperature/C 7
Insul ati on materi al :
Material: Armarflex
Thermal conductivity, k 0.0374 W/mK
Surface convective heat transfer 9 W/m
2
K
coefficient, h
Insul ati on sel ecti on:
Calculated insulation size
r2 25.181 mm
Insulation thickness 9.3 mm
(Mi ni mum) 0.4 in
USE THE NEXT SIZE THICKNESS
AVAILABLE OR THICKER FOR
SAFETY FACTOR
10. Pipe Insulation Requirement
Design & Application
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Technical Training 2007
Few application samples will be provided, however with the
following considerations:
The option Alarm LED from terminal AL1 and AL2 in mini
chiller is meant to be installed into the external control switch
board - to indicate if an abnormal operation has occur. The
PCB will give out a signal to light up the LED when any of the
protection devices trip.
The option Remote Switch may be located at a convenient
place for easy access to the user. It may be placed inside the
switchboard. It can also act as an emergency switch to stop
the chiller
The power supply for the fan coil units are separated from the
mini chiller
10. Pipe Insulation Requirement
Design & Application
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