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GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002

CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1


6 Global Positioning System
( GPS) Sur vey Specifications
Su r vey specifica tion s descr ibe th e m eth ods a n d pr ocedu r es n eeded to a tta in a desir ed su r vey
a ccu r a cy sta n da r d. Th e specifica tion s for Post Pr ocessed GPS Su r veys descr ibed in Section
6A a r e ba sed on Feder a l Geodetic Con tr ol Su bcom m ittee ( FGCS) sta n da r ds a n d specifica -
tion s. Th e FGCS sta n da r ds a n d specifica tion s h a ve been m odified to m eet th e specific n eeds
a n d r equ ir em en ts for va r iou s types of fir st- , secon d- , th ir d- a n d gen er a l- or der GPS su r veys
typica lly per for m ed by Ca ltr a n s. Th e specifica tion s for Rea l Tim e Kin em a tic ( RTK) GPS
su r veys descr ibed in Section 6B a r e ba sed on a ccepted Ca lifor n ia Depa r tm en t of Tr a n spor ta -
tion sta n da r ds. For com plete deta ils r ega r din g a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds, r efer to Ch a pter 5,
Cla ssifica tion s a n d Accu r a cy Sta n da r ds.
Ca ltr a n s GPS su r vey specifica tion s a r e to be u sed for a ll Ca ltr a n s- in volved tr a n spor ta tion
im pr ovem en t pr ojects, in clu din g specia l- fu n ded pr ojects.
GPS su r veyin g is a n evolvin g tech n ology. As GPS h a r dwa r e a n d pr ocessin g softwa r e a r e
im pr oved, n ew specifica tion s will be developed a n d existin g specifica tion s will be ch a n ged.
Th e specifica tion s descr ibed in th is ch a pter a r e n ot in ten ded to discou r a ge th e developm en t
of n ew GPS pr ocedu r es a n d tech n iqu es.
Note: Newly developed GPS pr ocedu r es a n d tech n iqu es, wh ich do n ot con for m to th e
specifica tion s in th is ch a pter, m a y be em ployed for pr odu ction su r veys if a ppr oved
by th e Distr ict Su r veys En gin eer. Newly developed pr ocedu r es sh a ll be su bm itted to
th e Office of Geom etr on ics for distr ibu tion a n d r eview by oth er distr icts.
Note: Th e specifica tion s in Section 6A, Post Pr ocessed GPS Su r vey Specifica tion s, a r e
sepa r a te a n d distin ct fr om th e specifica tion s in Section 6B, Rea l- Tim e Kin em a tic
( RTK) GPS Su r vey Specifica tion s.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
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6 A Po s t Pr o ce s s e d GPS Su r ve y Spe ci f i ca t i o n s
6 A. 1 Me t h o ds
6A.1 -1 Static GPS Surveys
Sta tic GPS su r vey pr ocedu r es a llow va r iou s system a tic er r or s to be r esolved wh en h igh -
a ccu r a cy position in g is r equ ir ed. Sta tic pr ocedu r es a r e u sed to pr odu ce ba selin es between
sta tion a r y GPS u n its by r ecor din g da ta over a n exten ded per iod of tim e du r in g wh ich th e
sa tellite geom etr y ch a n ges.
6A.1 -2 Fast-static GPS Surveys
Fa st- sta tic GPS su r veys a r e sim ila r to sta tic GPS su r veys, bu t with sh or ter obser va tion
per iods ( a ppr oxim a tely 5 to 10 m in u tes) . Fa st- sta tic GPS su r vey pr ocedu r es r equ ir e m or e
a dva n ced equ ipm en t a n d da ta r edu ction tech n iqu es th a n sta tic GPS m eth ods. Typica lly,
th e fa st- sta tic GPS m eth od sh ou ld n ot be u sed for cor r idor con tr ol or oth er su r veys r equ ir-
in g h or izon ta l a ccu r a cy gr ea ter th a n 1:100,000.
6A.1 -3 Kinematic GPS Surveys
Kin em a tic GPS su r veys m a ke u se of two or m or e GPS u n its. At lea st on e GPS u n it is set u p
over a kn own ( r efer en ce) sta tion a n d r em a in s sta tion a r y, wh ile oth er ( r over ) GPS u n its a r e
m oved fr om sta tion to sta tion . All ba selin es a r e pr odu ced fr om th e GPS u n it occu pyin g a
r efer en ce sta tion to th e r over u n its. Kin em a tic GPS su r veys ca n be eith er con tin u ou s or
stop a n d go. Stop a n d go sta tion obser va tion per iods a r e of sh or t du r a tion , typica lly
u n der two m in u tes. Kin em a tic GPS su r veys a r e em ployed wh er e th ir d- or der or lower
a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds a r e a pplica ble.
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6 A. 2 Equ i pme n t
Post pr ocessed GPS su r veyin g equ ipm en t gen er a lly con sists of two m a jor com pon en ts: th e
r eceiver a n d th e a n ten n a .
6A.2-1 Receiver Requirements
Fir st- or der, secon d- or der, a n d th ir d- or der post pr ocessed GPS su r veys r equ ir e GPS r eceiver s
th a t a r e ca pa ble of r ecor din g da ta . Wh en per for m in g specific types of GPS su r veys ( i.e.
sta tic, fa st- sta tic, a n d kin em a tic) , r eceiver s a n d softwa r e sh a ll be su ita ble for th e specific
su r vey, a s specified by th e m a n u fa ctu r er. Du a l fr equ en cy r eceiver s sh a ll be u sed for obser v-
in g ba selin es over 15 km in len gth . Du r in g per iods of in ten se sola r a ctivity, du a l fr equ en cy
r eceiver s sh a ll be u sed for obser vin g ba selin es over 10 km in len gth .
6A.2-2 Antennas
Wh en ever fea sible, a ll a n ten n a s u sed for a pr oject sh ou ld be iden tica l. For ver tica l con tr ol
su r veys, iden tica l a n ten n a s sh a ll be u sed u n less softwa r e is a va ila ble to a ccom m oda te th e
u se of differ en t a n ten n a s. For fir st- or der a n d secon d- or der h or izon ta l su r veys, a n ten n a s
with a gr ou n d pla n e a tta ch ed sh a ll be u sed, a n d th e a n ten n a s sh a ll be m ou n ted on a tr ipod
or a sta ble su ppor tin g tower. Wh en tr ipods or tower s a r e u sed, optica l plu m m ets or colli-
m a tor s a r e r equ ir ed to en su r e a ccu r a te cen ter in g over m a r ks. Fixed- h eigh t tr ipods a r e
r equ ir ed for th ir d- or der or better ver tica l su r veys. Th e u se of r a n ge poles a n d/ or sta ke- ou t
poles to su ppor t GPS a n ten n a s sh ou ld on ly be em ployed for th ir d- or der h or izon ta l a n d
gen er a l- or der su r veys.
6A.2-3 Miscellaneous Equipment Requirements
All equ ipm en t m u st be pr oper ly m a in ta in ed a n d r egu la r ly ch ecked for a ccu r a cy. Er r or s du e
to poor ly m a in ta in ed equ ipm en t m u st be elim in a ted to en su r e va lid su r vey r esu lts. Level
via ls, optica l plu m m ets, a n d collim a tor s sh a ll be ca libr a ted a t th e begin n in g a n d en d of
ea ch GPS su r vey. I f th e su r vey du r a tion exceeds a week, th ese ca libr a tion s sh a ll be r epea ted
weekly for th e du r a tion of th e su r vey. For deta ils r ega r din g equ ipm en t r epa ir, a dju stm en t,
a n d m a in ten a n ce r efer to Ch a pter 3, Su r vey Equ ipm en t.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
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6 A. 3 Ge n e r a l Po s t Pr o ce s s e d GPS Su r ve y Spe ci f i ca t i o n s
6A.3-1 Network Design
Baselines (Vectors)
Ba selin es a r e developed by pr ocessin g da ta collected sim u lta n eou sly by GPS u n its a t ea ch
en d of a lin e. For ea ch obser va tion session , th er e is on e less in depen den t ( n on - tr ivia l)
ba selin e th a n th e n u m ber of r eceiver s collectin g da ta sim u lta n eou sly du r in g th e session .
Notice in Figu r e 6A- 1 th a t th r ee r eceiver s pla ced on sta tion s 1, 2, a n d 3 for Session A yield
two in depen den t ba selin es a n d on e depen den t ( tr ivia l) ba selin e. Ma gn itu de ( dista n ce) a n d
dir ection for depen den t ba selin es a r e obta in ed by sepa r a te pr ocessin g, bu t u se th e sa m e
da ta u sed to com pu te th e in depen den t ba selin es. Th er efor e, th e er r or s a r e cor r ela ted.
Depen den t ba selin es sh a ll n ot be u sed to com pu te or a dju st th e position of sta tion s.
Independent Baseline (Session A)
Independent Baseline (Session B)
Dependent Baseline
Session
A
B
Stations
1, 2, 3
2, 3, 4
OBSERVATION SCHEDULE
Station 3
Station 1
Station 4
Station 2
Figure 6A-1
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-5
Loops
A loop is defin ed a s a ser ies of a t lea st th r ee in depen den t, con n ectin g ba selin es, wh ich sta r t
a n d en d a t th e sa m e sta tion . Ea ch loop sh a ll h a ve a t lea st on e ba selin e in com m on with
a n oth er loop. Ea ch loop sh a ll con ta in ba selin es collected fr om a m in im u m of two ses-
sion s.
Networks
Networ ks sh a ll on ly con ta in closed loops. Ea ch sta tion in a n etwor k sh a ll be con n ected
with a t lea st two differ en t in depen den t ba selin es. Avoid con n ectin g sta tion s to a n etwor k by
m u ltiple ba selin es to on ly on e oth er n etwor k sta tion . Fir st- or der a n d secon d- or der GPS
con tr ol n etwor ks sh a ll con sist of a ser ies of in ter con n ectin g closed- loop, geom etr ic figu r es.
Redundancy
Fir st- or der, secon d- or der, a n d th ir d- or der GPS con tr ol n etwor ks sh a ll be design ed with
su fficien t r edu n da n cy to detect a n d isola te blu n der s a n d/ or system a tic er r or s. Redu n da n cy
of n etwor k design is a ch ieved by:
Con n ectin g ea ch n etwor k sta tion with a t lea st two in depen den t ba selin es
Ser ies of in ter con n ectin g, closed loops
Repea t ba selin e m ea su r em en ts
Refer to ta bles 6A- 1 th r ou gh 6A- 5 for th e m a xim u m n u m ber of ba selin es per loop, th e
n u m ber of r equ ir ed r epea t in depen den t ba selin e m ea su r em en ts, a n d lea st squ a r es n etwor k
a dju stm en t specifica tion s. An y Post- Pr ocessed GPS su r vey wh ich la cks su fficien t n etwor k or
sta tion r edu n da n cy to detect m isclosu r es in a n u n con str a in ed ( fr ee) lea st squ a r es n etwor k
a dju stm en t will be con sider ed a gen er a l- or der GPS su r vey.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
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Figure 6A-2
Reference Stations
Th e r efer en ce ( con tr ollin g) sta tion s for a GPS Su r vey sh a ll m eet th e followin g r equ ir e-
m en ts:
Sa m e or h igh er or der of a ccu r a cy a s th a t in ten ded for th e pr oject
All on th e NAD83 da tu m . See Ch a pter 4, Su r vey Da tu m s
All in clu ded in , or a dju sted to, th e Ca lifor n ia High Pr ecision Geodetic Networ k ( HPGN)
with coor din a te va lu es th a t a r e cu r r en t a n d m eet r efer en ce n etwor k a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds
All of th e sa m e epoch , or a dju sted to th e sa m e epoch u sin g Na tion a l Geodetic Su r vey
( NGS) pr ocedu r es
Even ly spa ced th r ou gh ou t th e su r vey pr oject a n d in a m a n n er th a t n o pr oject sta tion
is ou tside th e a r ea en com pa ssed by th e exter ior r efer en ce sta tion s
Refer to ta bles 6A- 1 th r ou gh 6A- 5 for th e n u m ber a n d type of r efer en ce sta tion s, a n d
dista n ces between sta tion s.
Adjacent Station Rule (20 Percent Rule)
For fir st- or der a n d secon d- or der GPS su r veys, a n in depen den t ba selin e sh a ll be pr odu ced
between sta tion s th a t a r e closer th a n 20 per cen t of th e tota l dista n ce between th ose sta tion s
tr a ced a lon g existin g or n ew con n ection s. For exa m ple, in Figu r e 6A- 2, if th e dista n ce
between Sta tion 5 a n d Sta tion 1 is less th a n 20 per cen t of th e dista n ce between Sta tion 1
a n d Sta tion 3 plu s th e dista n ce between Sta tion 3 a n d Sta tion 5, a n in depen den t ba selin e
sh ou ld be pr odu ced between Sta tion 1 a n d Sta tion 5. I f th e a pplica tion of th e a dja cen t
sta tion r u le is n ot pr a ctica l, a n expla n a tion sh a ll be in clu ded in th e su r vey n otes a n d/ or
pr oject r epor t.
Dir ect con n ection s sh a ll a lso be m a de between a dja cen t in ter visible sta tion s.
Station 2
Station 1
Station 3
Station 5
Station 4
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6A.3-2 Satellite Geometry
Sa tellite geom etr y fa ctor s to be con sider ed wh en pla n n in g a GPS su r vey a r e:
Nu m ber of sa tellites a va ila ble
Min im u m eleva tion a n gle for sa tellites ( eleva tion m a sk)
Obstr u ction s lim itin g sa tellite visibility
Position a l Dilu tion of Pr ecision ( PDOP)
Ver tica l Dilu tion of Pr ecision ( VDOP) wh en per for m in g ver tica l GPS su r veys
Refer to ta bles 6A- 1 th r ou gh 6A- 5 for specific r equ ir em en ts.
6A.3-3 Field Procedures
Reconnaissance
Pr oper field r econ n a issa n ce is essen tia l to th e execu tion of efficien t, effective GPS su r veys.
Recon n a issa n ce sh ou ld in clu de:
Sta tion settin g or r ecover y
Ch ecks for obstr u ction s a n d m u ltipa th poten tia l
Pr epa r a tion of sta tion descr iption s ( m on u m en t descr iption , to- r ea ch descr iption s, etc.)
Developm en t of a r ea listic obser va tion sch edu le
Station Site Selection
Th e m ost im por ta n t fa ctor for deter m in in g GPS sta tion loca tion is th e pr ojects r equ ir e-
m en ts ( n eeds) . After pr oject r equ ir em en ts, con sider a tion m u st be given to th e followin g
lim ita tion s of GPS:
Sta tion s sh ou ld be situ a ted in loca tion s, wh ich a r e r ela tively fr ee fr om h or izon obstr u c-
tion s. I n gen er a l, a clea r view of th e sky is r equ ir ed. Sa tellite sign a ls do n ot pen etr a te
m eta l, bu ildin gs, or tr ees a n d a r e su sceptible to sign a l dela y er r or s wh en pa ssin g
th r ou gh lea ves, gla ss, pla stic a n d oth er m a ter ia ls.
Loca tion s n ea r str on g r a dio tr a n sm ission s sh ou ld be a voided beca u se r a dio fr equ en cy
tr a n sm itter s, in clu din g cellu la r ph on e equ ipm en t, m a y distu r b sa tellite sign a l r ecep-
tion .
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Avoid loca tin g sta tion s n ea r la r ge fla t su r fa ces su ch a s bu ildin gs, la r ge sign s, fen ces,
etc., a s sa tellite sign a ls m a y be r eflected off th ese su r fa ces ca u sin g m u ltipa th er r or s.
With pr oper pla n n in g, som e obstr u ction s n ea r a GPS sta tion m a y be a ccepta ble. For
exa m ple, sta tion occu pa tion tim es m a y be exten ded to com pen sa te for obstr u ction s.
Weather Conditions
Gen er a lly, wea th er con dition s do n ot a ffect GPS su r vey pr ocedu r es with th e followin g
exception s:
GPS obser va tion s sh ou ld n ever be con du cted du r in g electr ica l stor m s.
Sign ifica n t ch a n ges in wea th er or u n u su a l wea th er con dition s sh ou ld be n oted in th e
obser va tion log ( field n otes) . Hor izon ta l GPS su r veys sh ou ld gen er a lly be a voided
du r in g per iods of sign ifica n t wea th er ch a n ges. Ver tica l GPS su r veys sh ou ld n ot be
a ttem pted du r in g th ese per iods.
Antenna Height Measurements
Blu n der s in a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e a com m on sou r ce of er r or in GPS su r veys
beca u se a ll GPS su r veys a r e th r ee dim en sion a l wh eth er th e ver tica l com pon en t will be u sed
or n ot. An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts deter m in e th e h eigh t fr om th e su r vey m on u m en t
m a r k to th e ph a se cen ter of th e GPS a n ten n a . With th e exception of fixed- h eigh t tr ipods
a n d per m a n en tly m ou n ted GPS a n ten n a s, in depen den t a n ten n a h eigh ts sh a ll be m ea su r ed
in both feet a n d m eter s a t th e begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch obser va tion session . A h eigh t
h ook or sla n t r od sh a ll be u sed to m a ke th ese m ea su r em en ts. All a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r e-
m en ts sh a ll be r ecor ded on th e obser va tion log sh eet a n d en ter ed in th e r eceiver da ta file.
An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts in both feet a n d m eter s sh a ll ch eck to with in 3 m m .
Wh en a sta tion is occu pied du r in g two or m or e obser va tion session s ba ck to ba ck, th e
a n ten n a / tr ipod sh a ll be br oken down , r eset, a n d r eplu m bed between session s. Wh en
a dju sta ble a n ten n a sta ffs a r e u sed ( e.g., kin em a tic su r veys) , th ey sh ou ld be a dju sted so th a t
th e body of th e per son h oldin g th e sta ff does n ot a ct a s a n obstr u ction . Th e a n ten n a h eigh t
for sta ffs in exten ded position s sh a ll be ch ecked con tin u a lly th r ou gh ou t ea ch da y. Wh en
fixed- h eigh t tr ipods a r e u sed, ver ify th e h eigh t of th e tr ipod a n d com pon en ts ( a n ten n a ) a t
th e begin n in g of th e pr oject.
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Documentation
Th e fin a l GPS Su r vey pr oject file sh ou ld in clu de th e followin g in for m a tion :
Pr oject r epor t
Pr oject sketch or m a p sh owin g in depen den t ba selin es u sed to cr ea te th e n etwor k
Sta tion descr iption s
Sta tion obstr u ction dia gr a m s
Obser va tion logs
Ra w GPS obser va tion ( tr a ckin g) da ta files
Ba selin e pr ocessin g r esu lts
Loop closu r es
Repea t ba selin e a n a lysis
Lea st squ a r es u n con str a in ed a dju stm en t r esu lts
Lea st squ a r es con str a in ed a dju stm en t r esu lts
Fin a l coor din a te list
For deta ils r ega r din g field n otes a n d oth er su r vey r ecor ds, see Ch a pter 14, Su r vey
Recor ds.
6A.3-4 Office Procedures
General
For fir st- or der, secon d- or der, a n d som e th ir d- or der Post- Pr ocessed GPS su r veys, r a w GPS
obser va tion ( tr a ckin g) da ta sh a ll be collected a n d post pr ocessed for r esu lts a n d a n a lysis.
Post pr ocessin g a n d a n a lysis a r e r equ ir ed for fir st- or der a n d secon d- or der GPS su r veys. Th e
pr im a r y post- pr ocessed r esu lts th a t a r e a n a lyzed a r e:
Ba selin e pr ocessin g r esu lts
Loop closu r es
Repea t ba selin e differ en ces
Resu lts fr om lea st- squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en ts
Post- pr ocessin g softwa r e sh a ll be ca pa ble of pr odu cin g r ela tive- position coor din a tes a n d
cor r espon din g sta tistics wh ich ca n be u sed in a th r ee- dim en sion a l lea st squ a r es n etwor k
a dju stm en t. Th is softwa r e sh a ll a lso a llow a n a lysis of loop closu r es a n d r epea t ba selin e
obser va tion s.
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Loop Closure and Repeat Baseline Analysis
Loop closu r es a n d differ en ces in r epea t ba selin es a r e com pu ted to ch eck for blu n der s a n d to
obta in in itia l estim a tes of th e in ter n a l con sisten cy of th e GPS n etwor k. Ta bu la te a n d
in clu de loop closu r es a n d differ en ces in r epea t ba selin es in th e pr oject docu m en ta tion .
Fa ilu r e of a ba selin e in a loop closu r e does n ot a u tom a tica lly m ea n th a t th e ba selin e in
qu estion sh ou ld be r ejected bu t is a n in dica tion th a t a por tion of th e n etwor k r equ ir es
a ddition a l a n a lysis.
Least Squares Network Adjustment
An u n con str a in ed ( fr ee) a dju stm en t is per for m ed, a fter blu n der s a r e r em oved fr om th e
n etwor k, to ver ify th e ba selin es of th e n etwor k. After a sa tisfa ctor y sta n da r d devia tion of
u n it weigh t ( n etwor k r efer en ce fa ctor ) is a ch ieved u sin g r ea listic a priori er r or estim a tes, a
con str a in ed a dju stm en t is per for m ed. Th e con str a in ed n etwor k a dju stm en t fixes th e
coor din a tes of th e kn own r efer en ce sta tion s, th er eby a dju stin g th e n etwor k to th e da tu m
a n d epoch of th e r efer en ce sta tion s. A con sisten t con tr ol r efer en ce n etwor k ( da tu m ) a n d
epoch sh a ll be u sed for th e con str a in ed a dju stm en t. Th e NGS Hor izon ta l Tim e Depen den t
Position in g ( HTDP) pr ogr a m m a y be u sed to tr a n sla te geodetic position s fr om on e epoch
to a n oth er. For deta ils on epoch s see Section 4.1- 3, NAD83 Epoch s. For deta ils r ega r din g
lea st squ a r es a dju stm en ts, r efer to Section 5.4, Lea st Squ a r es Adju stm en t.
6 A. 4 Or de r B ( Ca l t r a n s ) GPS Su r ve ys
6A.4-1 Applications
High Precision Geodetic Network (HPGN) Surveys
HPGN su r veys esta blish h igh - a ccu r a cy geodetic con tr ol sta tion s a lon g tr a n spor ta tion
cor r idor s. HPGN a n d r ela ted sta tion s a r e pa r t of th e Ca lifor n ia Spa tia l Refer en ce System -
Hor izon ta l ( CSRS- H) a n d th e NGS Na tion a l Spa tia l Refer en ce System ( NSRS) .
6A.4-2 Specifications
HPGN su r veys a r e per for m ed u sin g Or der B specifica tion s pu blish ed by th e FGCS. All
HPGN su r veys a r e pla n n ed a n d coor din a ted th r ou gh th e Office of Geom etr on ics a n d
su bm itted to NGS.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1 1
6 A. 5 Fi r s t - o r de r ( Ho r i zo n t a l ) GPS Su r ve ys
6A.5-1 Applications
Horizontal Corridor Control (HPGN-D) Surveys
Fir st- or der Hor izon ta l Cor r idor Con tr ol Su r veys sh a ll be su bm itted to NGS for in clu sion in
th e NSRS a t th e discr etion of th e Distr ict Su r veys En gin eer. Hor izon ta l Cor r idor Con tr ol
Su r veys su bm itted to NGS a r e per for m ed to FGCS fir st- or der specifica tion s with a 1:500,000
lin ea r a ccu r a cy sta n da r d. For deta ils, see Section 9.4- 2, Hor izon ta l Cor r idor Con tr ol
( HPGN- D) Su r veys.
Project Control Surveys
Fir st- or der a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds a r e pr efer r ed for h or izon ta l Pr oject Con tr ol Su r veys. See
Section 9.4- 3, Hor izon ta l Pr oject Con tr ol Su r veys.
6A.5-2 Specifications
Methods
Sta tic
Fa st- sta tic
Gen er a lly, sta tic GPS su r vey m eth ods a r e em ployed wh en ba selin e len gth s a r e gr ea ter th a n
20 km . Du a l- fr equ en cy r eceiver s a r e r equ ir ed for obser vin g ba selin es over 15 km in len gth .
Du r in g per iods of in ten se sola r a ctivity, du a l fr equ en cy r eceiver s sh a ll be u sed for obser vin g
ba selin es over 10 km in len gth . Ta ble 6A- 1 lists th e specifica tion s for fir st- or der a ccu r a cy
u sin g sta tic a n d fa st- sta tic GPS pr ocedu r es.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-1 2 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Specification Static Fast-static
General Network Design
Min im u m n u m ber of r efer en ce sta tion s to con tr ol 3 fir st- or der 3 fir st- or der
th e pr oject ( 1) ( h or z.) or better ( h or z.) or better
Ma xim u m dista n ce between th e su r vey pr oject bou n da r y 50 km 50 km
a n d n etwor k r efer en ce con tr ol sta tion s
Loca tion of r efer en ce n etwor k con tr ol ( r ela tive to cen ter of 3 3
pr oject) ; m in im u m n u m ber of qu a dr a n ts, n ot less th a n
Min im u m per cen ta ge of a ll ba selin es con ta in ed in a loop 100% 100%
Dir ect con n ection between su r vey sta tion s wh ich a r e closer Yes Yes
th a n 20 per cen t of th e dista n ce between th ose sta tion s tr a ced
a lon g existin g or n ew con n ection s ( a dja cen t sta tion r u le)
Min im u m per cen ta ge of r epea t in depen den t ba selin es 5% of tota l 5% of tota l
Min im u m n u m ber of in depen den t occu pa tion s per sta tion 100% ( 2 tim es) 100% ( 2 tim es)
10% 10%
( 3 or m ore tim es) ( 3 or m ore tim es)
Dir ect con n ection between in ter visible a zim u th pa ir s Yes Yes
Field
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion occu pa tion 5 ( 75% of tim e) 5
Min im u m obser va tion tim e on sta tion 30 m in u tes 15 m in u tes
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved sim u lta n eou sly 5 ( 75% of tim e) 5
a t a ll sta tion s
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 15 secon ds 10 secon ds
Min im u m tim e between r epea t sta tion obser va tion s 60 m in u tes 60 m in u tes
An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts in feet a n d m eter s a t Yes Yes
begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch session ( 2)
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a n gle a bove th e h or izon ( 3) 10 degr ees 10 degr ees
Continued
Table 6A-1 First-order (Horizontal) GPS Survey Specifications
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1 3
Specification Static Fast-static
Office
Fixed in teger solu tion r equ ir ed for a ll ba selin es Yes Yes
Eph em er is Pr ecise Pr ecise
I n itia l position : m a xim u m 3- d position er r or for th e in itia l 10m 10m
sta tion in a n y ba selin e solu tion
Loop closu r e a n a lyses, m a xim u m n u m ber of ba selin es 6 6
per loop
Ma xim u m loop len gth 100 km 100 km
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop, in ter m s of loop len gth 10 ppm 10 ppm
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop in a n y on e com pon en t 5 cm 5 cm
( x, y, z) n ot to exceed
Repea t ba selin e len gth n ot to exceed 50 km 50 km
Repea t ba selin e differ en ce in a n y on e com pon en t ( x, y, z) 10 ppm 10 ppm
n ot to exceed
Ma xim u m len gth m isclosu r e a llowed for a ba selin e in a 10 ppm 10 ppm
pr oper ly- weigh ted, lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Ma xim u m a llowa ble r esidu a l in a n y on e com pon en t ( x, y, z) 3 cm 3 cm
in a pr oper ly- weigh ted, lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Notes: 1. Networ k in depen den t ba selin es a r e r equ ir ed to a ll existin g fir st- or der ( or better ) GPS-
esta blish ed NSRS sta tion s loca ted with in 10 km of th e pr oject exter ior bou n da r y.
2. An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e n ot r equ ir ed wh en u sin g fixed- h eigh t a n ten n a poles.
3. Du r in g office pr ocessin g, sta r t with a 15- degr ee m a sk. I f n ecessa r y, th e a n gle m a y be lower ed
to 10 degr ees.
Table 6A-1, Continued
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-1 4 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
6 A. 6 Se co n d- o r de r ( Ho r i zo n t a l ) GPS Su r ve ys
6A.6-1 Applications
Project Control Surveys
Secon d- or der a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds a r e a ccepta ble for h or izon ta l Pr oject Con tr ol Su r veys,
a lth ou gh fir st- or der a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds a r e pr efer r ed. See Section 9.4- 3, Hor izon ta l
Pr oject Con tr ol Su r veys.
6A.6-2 Specifications
Methods
Sta tic
Fa st- sta tic
Du a l- fr equ en cy r eceiver s a r e r equ ir ed for obser vin g ba selin es over 15 km in len gth . Du r in g
per iods of in ten se sola r a ctivity, du a l fr equ en cy r eceiver s sh a ll be u sed for obser vin g
ba selin es over 10 km in len gth . Ta ble 6A- 2 lists th e specifica tion s for secon d- or der a ccu r a cy
u sin g sta tic a n d fa st- sta tic GPS pr ocedu r es.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1 5
Specification Static Fast-static
General
Min im u m n u m ber of r efer en ce sta tion s to con tr ol th e 3 secon d- or der 3 secon d- or der
pr oject ( 1) ( h or z.) or better ( h or z.) or better
Ma xim u m dista n ce between th e su r vey pr oject bou n da r y 50 km 50 km
a n d n etwor k r efer en ce con tr ol sta tion s
Loca tion of r efer en ce n etwor k con tr ol ( r ela tive to cen ter of 3 3
pr oject) ; m in im u m n u m ber of qu a dr a n ts, n ot less th a n
Min im u m per cen ta ge of a ll ba selin es con ta in ed in a loop 100% 100%
Dir ect con n ection between su r vey sta tion s wh ich a r e closer Yes Yes
th a n 20 per cen t of th e dista n ce between th ose sta tion s tr a ced
a lon g existin g or n ew con n ection s ( a dja cen t sta tion r u le)
Min im u m per cen ta ge of r epea t in depen den t ba selin es 5% of tota l 5% of tota l
Min im u m n u m ber of in depen den t occu pa tion s per sta tion 100% ( 2 tim es) 100% ( 2 tim es)
10% 10%
( 3 or m ore tim es) ( 3 or m ore tim es)
Dir ect con n ection between in ter visible a zim u th pa ir s: Yes Yes
Field
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion occu pa tion 5 ( 75% of tim e) 5
Min im u m obser va tion tim e on sta tion 20 m in u tes 10 m in u tes
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved sim u lta n eou sly 5 ( 75% of tim e) 5
a t a ll sta tion s
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 15 secon ds 10 secon ds
Tim e between r epea t sta tion obser va tion s 45 m in u tes 45 m in u tes
An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts in feet a n d m eter s a t Yes Yes
begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch session ( 2)
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a n gle a bove th e h or izon ( 3) 10 degr ees 10 degr ees
Continued
Table 6A-2 Second-order (Horizontal) GPS Survey Specifications
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-1 6 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Table 6A-2, Continued
Specification Static Fast-static
Office
Fixed in teger solu tion r equ ir ed for a ll ba selin es Yes Yes
Eph em er is ( 4) Br oa dca st Br oa dca st
I n itia l position : m a xim u m 3- d position er r or for th e in itia l 20 m 20 m
sta tion in a n y ba selin e solu tion
Loop closu r e a n a lyses, m a xim u m n u m ber of ba selin es 8 8
per loop
Ma xim u m loop len gth 75 km 75 km
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop, in ter m s of loop len gth 50 ppm 50 ppm
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop in a n y on e com pon en t 8 cm 8 cm
( x, y, z) n ot to exceed
Repea t ba selin e len gth n ot to exceed 50 km 50 km
Repea t ba selin e differ en ce in a n y on e com pon en t ( x, y, z) 50 ppm 50 ppm
n ot to exceed
Ma xim u m len gth m isclosu r e a llowed for a ba selin e in a 50 ppm 50 ppm
pr oper ly- weigh ted, lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Ma xim u m a llowa ble r esidu a l in a n y on e com pon en t ( x, y, z) 8 cm 8 cm
in a pr oper ly- weigh ted, lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Notes: 1. Networ k in depen den t ba selin es a r e r equ ir ed to a ll existin g fir st- or der ( or better ) GPS-
esta blish ed NSRS sta tion s loca ted with in 10 km of th e pr oject exter ior bou n da r y.
2. An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e n ot r equ ir ed wh en u sin g fixed- h eigh t a n ten n a poles.
3. Du r in g office pr ocessin g, sta r t with a 15- degr ee m a sk. I f n ecessa r y, th e a n gle m a y be lower ed
to 10 degr ees.
4. Pr ecise eph em er is m a y be u sed.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1 7
6 A. 7 Th i r d- o r de r ( Ho r i zo n t a l ) GPS Su r ve ys
6A.7-1 Applications
Th ir d- or der h or izon ta l a ccu r a cy is a ccepta ble for th e followin g typica l Ca ltr a n s su r vey
oper a tion s:
Su pplem en ta l con tr ol for en gin eer in g a n d con str u ction su r veys
Ph otogr a m m etr y con tr ol
Con tr ollin g la n d n et poin ts
Con str u ction su r vey setu p poin ts for r a dia l sta keou t
Setu p poin ts for en gin eer in g a n d topogr a ph ic su r vey da ta collection
Con tr ollin g sta kes for m a jor str u ctu r es
Mon u m en ta tion su r veys
6A.7-2 Specifications
Methods
Sta tic
Fa st- sta tic
Kin em a tic
Ta ble 6A- 3 lists th e specifica tion s for th ir d- or der a ccu r a cy u sin g sta tic, fa st- sta tic a n d
kin em a tic GPS pr ocedu r es.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-1 8 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Specification Static Fast-static Kinematic
General
Min im u m n u m ber of r efer en ce sta tion s to 3 th ir d- or der 3 th ir d- or der 3 th ir d- or der
con tr ol th e pr oject ( 1) ( h orz.) or better ( h orz.) or better ( h orz.) or better
Ma xim u m dista n ce between th e su r vey pr o- 50 km 50 km 50 km
ject bou n da r y a n d n etwor k con tr ol sta tion s
Loca tion of r efer en ce n etwor k con tr ol 2 2 2
( r ela tive to cen ter of pr oject) ; m in im u m
n u m ber of qu a dr a n ts, n ot less th a n
Min im u m per cen ta ge of a ll ba selin es 50% 50% 50%
con ta in ed in a loop
Dir ect con n ection between su r vey sta tion s No No No
wh ich a r e less th a n 20 per cen t of th e dista n ce
between th ose sta tion s tr a ced a lon g existin g or
n ew con n ection s ( a dja cen t sta tion r u le)
Min im u m per cen ta ge of r epea t in depen den t 5% 5% 5%
ba selin es
Per cen t of sta tion s occu pied 2 or m or e tim es 75% 75% 100%
Dir ect con n ection between in ter visible No No No
a zim u th pa ir s
Field
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion occu pa tion 5 ( 75% of tim e) 5 5
Min im u m obser va tion tim e on sta tion 30 m in u tes 5 m in u tes 5 Epoch s
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved 4 5 5
sim u lta n eou sly a t a ll sta tion s ( 75% of tim e) ( 100% of tim e)
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 15 secon ds 10 secon ds 1 - 15 secon ds
Min im u m tim e between r epea t sta tion 20 m in u tes 20 m in u tes 20 m in u tes
obser va tion s
An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts in feet a n d Yes Yes Yes
m eter s a t begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch session ( 2)
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a n gle a bove th e 10 degr ees 10 degr ees 10 degr ees
h or izon ( 3)
Continued
Table 6A-3 Third-order (Horizontal) GPS Survey Specifications
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-1 9
Table 6A-3, Continued
Specification Static Fast-static Kinematic
Office
Fixed in teger solu tion r equ ir ed for a ll ba selin es No No No
Eph em er is ( 4) Br oa dca st Br oa dca st Br oa dca st
I n itia l position : m a x. 3- d position er r or for th e 100 m 100 m 100 m
in itia l sta tion in a n y ba selin e solu tion
Loop closu r e a n a lyses, m a xim u m n u m ber of 12 12 12
ba selin es per loop
Ma xim u m loop len gth 50 km 50 km 50 km
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop, in ter m s 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm
of loop len gth
Ma xim u m m isclosu r e per loop in a n y on e 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm
com pon en t ( x, y, z) n ot to exceed
Repea t ba selin e len gth n ot to exceed 10 km 10 km 10 km
Repea t ba selin e differ en ce in a n y on e 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm
com pon en t ( x, y, z) n ot to exceed
Ma xim u m len gth m isclosu r e a llowed for a 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm
ba selin e in a a pr oper ly- weigh ted,
lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Ma xim u m a llowa ble r esidu a l in a n y on e 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm
com pon en t ( x, y, z) in a pr oper ly- weigh ted,
lea st squ a r es n etwor k a dju stm en t
Notes: 1. Networ k in depen den t ba selin es a r e r equ ir ed to existin g fir st- or der ( or better ) GPS- esta blish ed
NSRS sta tion s with in 5 km of th e pr oject exter ior bou n da r y.
2. An ten n a h eigh t m ea su rem en ts a re n ot requ ired if fixed-h eigh t a n ten n a tripods or poles a re u sed.
3. Du r in g office pr ocessin g, sta r t with a 15- degr ee m a sk. I f n ecessa r y, th e a n gle m a y be lower ed
to 10 degr ees.
4. Pr ecise eph em er is m a y be u sed.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-20 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
6 A. 8 Ca l t r a n s Ge n e r a l - Or de r ( Ho r i zo n t a l a n d Ve r t i ca l ) Po s t Pr o ce s s e d
GPS Su r ve y Spe ci f i ca t i o n s
6A.8-1 Applications
Gen er a l- or der h or izon ta l a ccu r a cy is a ccepta ble for th e followin g typica l Ca ltr a n s su r vey
oper a tion s:
Collection of topogr a ph ic a n d pla n im etr ic da ta
Su pplem en ta l design da ta su r veys; e.g., bor r ow pits, u tility, dr a in a ge, etc.
Con str u ction sta kin g
En vir on m en ta l su r veys
Geogr a ph ic I n for m a tion System ( GI S) su r veys.
6A.8-2 Specifications
Method
Kin em a tic
Ta bl e 6A- 4 l i st s t h e speci fi ca t i on s for gen er a l - or der a ccu r a cy u si n g ki n em a t i c GP S
pr ocedu r es.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-21
Table 6A-4 General-order (Horizontal) GPS Survey Specifications
Specification Kinematic
Min im u m n u m ber of r efer en ce sta tion s to con tr ol 3
th e pr oject th ir d- or der
or better
Min im u m n u m ber of ch eck sta tion s 2
Ma xim u m dista n ce between th e su r vey pr oject 10 km
bou n da r y a n d th e n etwor k r efer en ce con tr ol sta tion s
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion occu pa tion 5
Min im u m obser va tion tim e on sta tion 5 epoch s
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved 5
sim u lta n eou sly a t a ll sta tion s ( 100% of tim e)
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 1 15 secon ds
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a n gle a bove th e h or izon 10 degr ees ( 1)
Note: 1. Du r in g office pr ocessin g, sta r t with a 15- degr ee m a sk. I f n ecessa r y, th e
a n gle m a y be lower ed to 10 degr ees.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-22 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
6 A. 9 Ve r t i ca l GPS Su r ve ys
6A.9-1 General
Th e followin g gu idelin es a r e in ten ded for u se on loca l tr a n spor ta tion pr ojects, a n d a r e n ot
a pplica ble to la r ger a r ea n etwor ks.
I ntroduction
Beca u se ver tica l position in g tech n iqu es u sin g GPS a r e still u n der developm en t, th e gu ide-
lin es descr ibed in th is section a r e pr elim in a r y a n d will be u pda ted a s im pr oved tech n iqu es
a n d pr ocedu r es a r e developed. GPS- der ived or th om etr ic h eigh ts ( eleva tion s) a r e com piled
fr om ellipsoid h eigh ts ( deter m in ed by GPS obser va tion s) a n d m odeled geoid h eigh ts ( u sin g
a n a ccepta ble geoid h eigh t m odel for th e a r ea ) . See Figu r e 6A- 3. ( For m or e deta il see
Section 4.2, Ver tica l Da tu m . )
Earth Surface
E
llip
s
o
id
G
e
o
id
h
N
H
h= N + H
wh er e:
h = ellipsoida l h eigh t
N= geoid h eigh t ( geoid h eigh ts in U.S. a r e n ega tive)
H= or th om etr ic h eigh t ( eleva tion )
Figure 6A-3
Beca u se of distor tion s in ver tica l con tr ol n etwor ks a n d system a tic er r or s in geoid h eigh t
m odels, r esu lts ca n be difficu lt to va lida te; h owever , r esu lts com pa r a ble to th ose obta in ed
u sin g differ en tia l levelin g tech n iqu es a r e obta in a ble.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-23
Geoid Height Modeling Methods
Two ba sic geoid m odelin g m eth ods a r e u sed to develop th e geoid h eigh ts:
Published National and Regional Geoid Models: For r ela tively la r ge a r ea s
( a r ea s exceedin g 10 km by 10 km ) , geoid h eigh ts sh a ll be deter m in ed u sin g th e
a pplica ble n a tion a l or r egion a l geoid m odel pu blish ed by NGS. Gen er a lly, th e la test
pu blish ed m odel sh ou ld be u sed. I f th er e a r e in dica tion s th a t th e existin g pu blish ed
geoid m odel does n ot pr ovide a dequ a te geoid h eigh ts, th e pr ocedu r es listed in th e
followin g pa r a gr a ph m a y be su bstitu ted.
Local Geoid Models Based on Existing Vertical Control: For sm a ller a r ea s,
wh er e th e pu blish ed geoid m odel pr oves in a dequ a te a n d wh ich con ta in su fficien t
existin g ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s, a loca l geoid m odel a pplica ble to th e specific su r vey
ca n be developed ba sed on th e a va ila ble ver tica l con tr ol. With th is m eth od, geoid
h eigh ts a r e deter m in ed a t n ew sta tion s by in ter pola tin g between th e geoid h eigh ts a t
th e kn own ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s. Th e in ter pola tion ca n be a ccom plish ed a u tom a ti-
ca lly du r in g th e lea st squ a r es a dju stm en t pr ocess by en ter in g th e kn own or th om etr ic
h eigh ts a s ellipsoid h eigh ts for ea ch ver tica l con tr ol sta tion in th e a dju stm en t softwa r e.
Th e h or izon ta l position s m a y ch a n ge sligh tly. Th e a m ou n t of ch a n ge sh ou ld be
eva lu a ted befor e decidin g if sepa r a te a dju stm en ts n eed to be per for m ed a n d docu -
m en ted. I f a n in depen den t ver tica l a dju stm en t is per for m ed, it sh ou ld in clu de a
m in im u m of con str a in ts ( on e position ) in th e h or izon ta l dim en sion .
Accuracy Standards
Wh en per for m in g ver tica l con tr ol wor k u sin g con ven tion a l m eth ods, a ccu r a cy is expr essed
a s a pr opor tion a l a ccu r a cy sta n da r d ba sed on th e loop or section len gth ( See Ch a pter 5,
Accu r a cy Cla ssifica tion s a n d Sta n da r ds. ) . GPS su r vey a ccu r a cies, both h or izon ta l a n d
ver tica l, a r e expr essed in th e for m of a llowa ble sta tion position a l va r ia n ce. Th is va r ia n ce is
ba sica lly in depen den t of th e ba selin e len gth s, a lth ou gh ba selin e len gth s do a ffect pr oce-
du r es a n d th e a ccu r a cies a tta in a ble. For h or izon ta l GPS su r veys, ba selin e pr opor tion a l
a ccu r a cies a r e com pu ted du r in g th e a dju stm en t pr ocess, so a com pa r ison of position a l a n d
pr opor tion a l a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds is pr ovided; bu t, for GPS ver tica l su r veys, on ly sta tion
position a l a ccu r a cies a r e obta in a ble. A com pa r a ble r ela tive m ea su r e of a ccu r a cy ba sed on
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
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ba selin e len gth is n ot r ea dily a va ila ble du r in g th e a dju stm en t pr ocess. Th e GPS gu idelin es
in clu ded in th is section a r e design ed to a ch ieve a n or th om etr ic h eigh t a ccu r a cy sta n da r d of
20 m m or 50 m m a t th e 95 per cen t con fiden ce level r ela tive to th e ver tica l con tr ol u sed for
th e su r vey. Th is m ea n s th a t 95 per cen t of th e or th om etr ic h eigh t deter m in a tion s will be
with in plu s or m in u s 20 m m or 50 m m ( wh ich ever is a pplica ble) of th e tr u e r ela tive
va lu e, pr ovided th e n etwor k is design ed with su fficien t r edu n da n cy a n d va lida tion ch ecks.
6A.9-2 Applications
Ver tica l GPS su r vey m eth ods a r e a n em er gin g tech n ology. Th is is pa r ticu la r ly tr u e wh er e
or th om etr ic h eigh ts ( eleva tion s) r a th er th a n ellipsoid h eigh ts a r e r equ ir ed, a s is th e ca se
for m ost Ca ltr a n s su r veys. Fa ctor s to con sider wh en eva lu a tin g th e u se of ver tica l GPS
su r vey m eth ods a r e:
Accu r a cy r equ ir em en ts for th e su r vey
Equ ipm en t a va ila bility
Dista n ce between su r vey sta tion s
Su r vey sta tion loca tion s ( sky view obstr u ction s, etc.)
Specifica tion s to be em ployed for th e ver tica l GPS su r vey
Wh eth er eleva tion s r equ ir ed or on ly r ela tive differ en ces ( over tim e) r equ ir ed
Tim e a n d r esou r ces r equ ir ed in com pa r ison to con ven tion a l su r veys
Ava ila bility a n d den sity of su ita ble r efer en ce con tr ol
Fu tu r e su r vey effor ts in th e vicin ity
Vertical Project Control Surveys
GPS su r veys m a y be a n effective m ea n s to esta blish ver tica l con tr ol ( e.g., NAVD88) for a
Ver tica l Pr oject Con tr ol Su r vey, pr ovidin g th e r equ ir ed th ir d- or der a ccu r a cy sta n da r d is
a ch ieved. Th e a ch ieva ble a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds will depen d on th e gu idelin es em ployed a n d
th e dista n ce to th e ver tica l r efer en ce con tr ol n etwor k. See Section 6A.9- 3, Gu idelin es.
Con ven tion a l levelin g pr ocedu r es a r e to be u sed for th ir d- or der a ccu r a cy ties of less th a n
5.5 km . Wh en GPS m eth ods a r e u sed to esta blish ver tica l con tr ol for a Ver tica l Pr oject
Con tr ol Su r vey, th e GPS- deter m in ed ben ch m a r ks th r ou gh ou t th e pr oject m u st be a
m in im u m of 5.5 km a pa r t. Den sifica tion of th e Ver tica l Pr oject Con tr ol Su r vey will
gen er a lly be per for m ed by con ven tion a l levelin g tech n iqu es beca u se of th e r ela tively sh or t
dista n ce ( less th a n 5.5 km ) between th ese sta tion s.
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Other Surveys
See list of possible a pplica tion s u n der Section 6A.8- 1, Ca ltr a n s Gen er a l- Or der ( Hor izon ta l
a n d Ver tica l) Post Pr ocessed GPS Su r vey Specifica tion s.
6A.9-3 Guidelines
Gu idelin es for ver tica l con tr ol su r veys u sin g GPS a r e sim ila r to th ose for fir st- or der GPS
h or izon ta l con tr ol su r veys with a ddition a l r equ ir em en ts to lim it th e er r or s in GPS ellipsoid
h eigh t deter m in a tion . Gu idelin es for GPS ver tica l con tr ol su r veys to a ch ieve 20 m m a n d 50
m m a ccu r a cy sta n da r ds, r ela tive to existin g ver tica l con tr ol a r e sh own in Ta ble 6A- 5. I n
a ddition to th e ta bu la r specifica tion s, th e followin g gu idelin es a r e a pplica ble for a ll GPS
ver tica l con tr ol su r veys. For com plex a r ea s ( m ou n ta in ou s, la ck of con tr ol, n eed for gr ea ter
pr ecision , a n d lon ger dista n ces to good con tr ol) , th e NGS Sta te Geodetic Advisor sh ou ld be
con ta cted to obta in th e la test in for m a tion a n d specifica tion s for ver tica l GPS su r veys.
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Table 6A-5 Vertical GPS Survey Guidelines (local projects)
Positional Accuracy Standard 20 mm and 50 mm*
Specification 20 mm 50 mm
General
Min im u m n u m ber of h or izon ta l con tr ol sta tion s for th e 3 fir st- or der 3 fir st- or der
pr oject ( la titu de, lon gitu de, ellipsoid h eigh t) ( HPGN- D) or better ( HPGN- D) or better
Loca tion of h or izon ta l con tr ol sta tion s ( r ela tive to cen ter of 3 3
pr oject) ; m in im u m n u m ber of qu a dr a n ts, n ot less th a n
Min im u m n u m ber of ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s ( ben ch m a r ks) 4 4
for th e pr oject see Gen er a l Notes see Gen er a l Notes
Loca tion of ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s ( r ela tive to cen ter of 4 4
pr oject) ; m in im u m n u m ber of qu a dr a n ts, n ot less th a n
Ma xim u m dista n ce between pr oject su r vey sta tion s 10 km 20 km
( a vg. 7 km ) ( a vg. 12 km )
Min im u m per cen ta ge of a ll ba selin es con ta in ed in a loop 100% 100%
Min im u m per cen ta ge of r epea t in depen den t ba selin es
( a dja cen t sta tion r u le) 100% of tota l 100% of tota l
Field
Du a l fr equ en cy GPS r eceiver s r equ ir ed Yes Yes
Ma xim u m VDOP du r in g sta tion occu pa tion 4 4
Min im u m obser va tion tim e per a dja cen t sta tion ba selin e 30 m in u tes ( 1)
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved sim u lta n eou sly 5 5
a t a ll sta tion s
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 15 secon ds 5 secon ds
Tim e between r epea t sta tion obser va tion s see Gen er a l Notes see Gen er a l Notes
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a n gle a bove th e h or izon 15 degr ees 15 degr ees
Fixed h eigh t a n ten n a tr ipod r equ ir ed Yes Option a l
Requ ir ed n u m ber of r eceiver s 3 3
Continued
* Relative to the existingvertical control
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Table 6A-5, Continued
Specification 20 mm 50 mm
Office
An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts in feet a n d m eter s a t N/ A Yes ( 2)
begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch session
Fixed in teger solu tion r equ ir ed for a ll ba selin es Yes Yes
Eph em er is Pr ecise Pr ecise
I n itia l position : m a xim u m 3- d position er r or for th e in itia l 10 m 10 m
sta tion in a n y ba selin e solu tion . See n ote 3 below.
Loop closu r e a n a lysis, m a xim u m n u m ber of ba selin es 6 6
per loop
Ma xim u m ellipsoid h eigh t differ en ce for r epea t ba selin es 20 m m 50 m m
Apply NGS geoid h eigh t m odel for a r ea s gr ea ter th a n 10 x 10 km 10 x 10 km
Ma xim u m RMS va lu es of pr ocessed ba selin es ( 2) 15 m m 15 m m
( typica lly < 10 m m ) ( typica lly < 10 m m )
Notes: 1. Min im u m tim e on a dja cen t sta tion ba selin es sh a ll en su r e th a t a ll in teger s ca n be r esolved a n d
th e r oot m ea n squ a r e er r or sh a ll n ot exceed 15 m m .
2. An ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e r equ ir ed a t th e begin n in g a n d en d of ea ch obser va tion
per iod a n d sh a ll be m a de in both feet a n d m eter s if fixed- h eigh t tr ipods a r e n ot u sed.
3. Sta r t with HPGN- D sta tion s.
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6A.9-4 General Notes
Observations: Da ta sh a ll be collected a t th e ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s con tin u ou sly a n d
sim u lta n eou sly with th e n ew pr oject su r vey sta tion obser va tion s. Adja cen t su r vey sta tion s
sh a ll be obser ved sim u lta n eou sly. Obser va tion s a t th e n ew pr oject su r vey sta tion s sh a ll be
con tin u ou s for th e tim es specified a n d m u st be r epea ted on a differ en t da y a n d a t a differ-
en t tim e. Th e r epea ted obser va tion s on differ en t da ys sh a ll be com pleted eith er fou r h ou r s
befor e th e sta r tin g tim e of th e fir st da ys obser va tion s or be com pleted fou r h ou r s a fter th e
en din g tim e of th e fir st da ys obser va tion s. See Ta ble 6A- 5.
Datums/Network/Epoch: Refer en ce sta tion s sh a ll be th e sa m e da tu m , in clu ded in ( or
a dju sted to) on e con sisten t geodetic n etwor k, a n d of th e sa m e epoch ( or a dju sted to th e
la test epoch ) , especia lly in a r ea s of kn own or su spected su bsiden ce. Refer en ce sta tion s
sh a ll h a ve th e m ost r ecen t epoch NAD83 la titu de, lon gitu de a n d ellipsoida l h eigh t. Ver tica l
con tr ol su r veys in su bsiden ce a r ea s m a y r equ ir e specia l pr ocedu r es.
Vertical Control Stations: Th r ee ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s ( ben ch m a r ks) deter m in e
th e pla n e of th e geoid bu t pr ovide n o r edu n da n cy. At lea st on e a ddition a l ver tica l con tr ol
sta tion sh a ll be in clu ded in th e pr oject to pr ovide th is r edu n da n cy. I f possible, th r ee
a ddition a l ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s sh a ll be con sider ed, especia lly in a r ea s wh er e th er e a r e
ch a n ges in th e slope of th e geoid a s sh own on gr a vity a n om a ly m a ps or wh er e th er e a r e
sign ifica n t ch a n ges in th e slope of th e ter r a in . Note th a t r efer en ce sta tion s with pu blish ed
or th om etr ic h eigh ts ( eleva tion s) m a y be con sider ed a s m eetin g th e r equ ir em en t for ver tica l
con tr ol sta tion s.
I n a ddition to th e r equ ir em en t th a t th e ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s be loca ted in th r ee qu a d-
r a n ts of th e su r vey ( see Ta ble 6A- 5) , th e ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s a n d pr oject su r vey sta tion s
sh a ll be loca ted, if possible, in a r ea s wh er e th e gr a vity is ch a n gin g th e lea st; i.e., loca tion s
wh er e th e gr a vity m a ps h a ve th e widest sepa r a tion between con tou r s. ( Gr a vity a n om a ly
m a ps a r e a va ila ble fr om th e Ca lifor n ia Division of Min es a n d Geology.) Also, th e ver tica l
con tr ol sta tion s sh a ll be loca ted so th a t th e pr oject su r vey sta tion s a r e br a cketed by th e
ver tica l con tr ol sta tion s. Deter m in in g eleva tion s th r ou gh extr a pola tion ou tside th e a r ea
en com pa ssed by th e r efer en ce sta tion s sh ou ld n ot be a ttem pted.
Checks: Th e eleva tion differ en ce between a dja cen t su r vey sta tion s sh ou ld be ch ecked by
con ven tion a l levelin g ( differ en tia l or tr igon om etr ic) m eth ods for 10 per cen t or two section s
( wh ich ever is gr ea ter ) of th e pr oject su r vey ba selin es ( i.e., pa ir s of a dja cen t su r vey sta -
tion s) . Th e pr ocedu r es em ployed a n d qu a lity of obser va tion s/ m ea su r em en ts sh a ll pr odu ce
r esu lts th a t m eet th ir d- or der sta n da r ds.
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6 B Re a l Ti me Ki n e ma t i c ( RTK) GPS Su r ve y Spe ci f i ca t i o n s
6 B. 1 Me t h o d
6B.1 -1 RTK GPS Surveys
RTK GPS su r veys a r e kin em a tic GPS su r veys ( Section 6A.1- 3) th a t a r e per for m ed with a
da ta tr a n sfer lin k between a r efer en ce GPS u n it ( ba se sta tion ) a n d r over u n its. Th e field
su r vey is con du cted like a kin em a tic su r vey, except da ta fr om th e ba se sta tion is tr a n sm itted
to th e r over u n its, en a blin g th e r over u n it to com pu te its position in r ea l tim e.
6 B. 2 Equ i pme n t
An RTK system con sists of a ba se sta tion , on e or m or e r over u n its, a n d a da ta tr a n sfer lin k
between th e ba se sta tion a n d th e r over u n it( s) .
6B.2-1 Base Station Requirements
A ba se sta tion is com pr ised of a GPS r eceiver, a n a n ten n a , a n d a tr ipod. Th e GPS r eceiver
a n d th e a n ten n a sh a ll be su ita ble for th e specific su r vey a s deter m in ed fr om th e
m a n u fa ctu r er s specifica tion s. Tr ipod r equ ir em en ts a r e specified in Section 6B.3- 3.
6B.2-2 Rover Unit Requirements
Th e r over u n its a r e com pr ised of a GPS r eceiver, a n a n ten n a , a n d a r over pole. Th e GPS
r eceiver a n d th e a n ten n a sh a ll be su ita ble for th e specific su r vey a s deter m in ed fr om th e
m a n u fa ctu r er s specifica tion s.
A r over a n ten n a sh a ll be iden tica l ( n ot in clu din g a gr ou n d pla n e, if u sed a t th e ba se
sta tion ) to th e ba se sta tion a n ten n a u n less th e fir m wa r e/ softwa r e is a ble to a ccom m oda te
a n ten n a m odelin g of differ en t a n ten n a types.
Rover pole r equ ir em en ts a r e specified in Section 6B.3- 3.
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6B.2-3 Data Transfer Link
Th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k ca n be eith er a UHF/ VHF r a dio lin k or a cellu la r teleph on e lin k. Th e
da ta tr a n sfer lin k sh a ll be ca pa ble of sen din g th e ba se sta tion s position a l da ta , ca r r ier
ph a se in for m a tion , a n d pseu do- r a n ge in for m a tion fr om th e ba se sta tion to th e r over u n it.
Th is in for m a tion sh a ll be su fficien t to cor r ect th e r over u n its position to a n a ccu r a cy th a t
is a ppr opr ia te for th e type of su r vey bein g con du cted.
I f th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k u tilizes a UHF/ VHF r a dio lin k with a n ou tpu t of gr ea ter th a n 1
wa tt, a Feder a l Com m u n ica tion s Com m ission ( FCC) licen se is r equ ir ed.
All FCC r u les a n d r egu la tion s sh a ll be a dh er ed to wh en per for m in g a n RTK su r vey. Th ese
sh a ll in clu de bu t a r e n ot lim ited to th e followin g:
Title 47, Code of Feder a l Regu la tion s ( CFR) pa r t 90, Section 173 ( 47 CFR 90.173) :
Obliga tes a ll licen sees to cooper a te in th e sh a r ed u se of ch a n n els.
47 CFR 90.403: Requ ir es licen sees to ta ke pr eca u tion s to a void in ter fer en ce, wh ich
in clu des m on itor in g pr ior to tr a n sm ission .
47 CFR 90.425: Requ ir es th a t sta tion s iden tify th em selves pr ior to tr a n sm ittin g.
Voice u ser s h a ve pr im a r y a u th or iza tion on th e por tion of th e r a dio spectr u m u tilized for
RTK su r veyin g. Da ta tr a n sm ission is a u th or ized on a secon da r y a n d n on - in ter fer in g ba sis
to voice u se.
Fa ilu r e to com ply with FCC r egu la tion s su bjects th e oper a tor, a n d th eir em ployer, to fin es,
seizu r e of th eir su r veyin g equ ipm en t, civil lia bility, a n d/ or cr im in a l pr osecu tion . Fa ilu r e to
com ply a lso jeopa r dizes th e fu tu r e u se of RTK/ GPS su r veyin g by or for Ca ltr a n s.
6B.2-4 Miscellaneous Equipment Requirements
Th e RTK equ ipm en t sh a ll be su ita ble for th e wor k bein g don e.
All RTK equ ipm en t sh a ll be pr oper ly m a in ta in ed a n d ch ecked for a ccu r a cy. Th e a ccu r a cy
ch ecks sh a ll be con du cted befor e ea ch su r vey or a t a m in im u m of on ce a week to en su r e
va lid su r vey r esu lts.
For deta ils r ega r din g equ ipm en t r epa ir, a dju stm en t, a n d m a in ten a n ce r efer to Ch a pter 3,
Su r vey Equ ipm en t.
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6 B. 3 Ge n e r a l RTK Su r ve y Spe ci f i ca t i o n s
I n a n RTK su r vey r a dia l sh ots a r e obser ved fr om a fixed ba se sta tion to a r over u n it. A
delta X, delta Y, a n d delta Z a r e pr odu ced fr om th e ba se sta tion to th e r over u n it on th e
WGS84 da tu m . Fr om th ese va lu es, coor din a tes of th e poin ts occu pied by th e r over u n it a r e
pr odu ced.
6B.3-1 RTK Survey Design
RTK su r vey design differ s fr om sta tic a n d fa st sta tic GPS su r vey design . With sta tic a n d fa st
sta tic GPS su r veys, a n etwor k design m eth od is u sed. See Section 6A.3- 1, Networ k De-
sign , for m or e deta ils on GPS n etwor k design . Th e followin g cr iter ia sh a ll be u sed for
RTK su r vey design :
Th e pr oject a r ea sh a ll be su r r ou n ded a n d en closed with RTK con tr ol sta tion s. ( See
th e en d of th is section for th e defin ition of a n RTK con tr ol sta tion .)
I f th e RTK con tr ol sta tion is u sed for h or izon ta l con tr ol, th e RTK con tr ol sta tion sh a ll
h a ve h or izon ta l coor din a tes th a t a r e on th e sa m e da tu m a n d epoch a s th e da tu m a n d
epoch r equ ir ed for th e pr oject.
I f th e RTK con tr ol sta tion is u sed for ver tica l con tr ol, th e RTK con tr ol sta tion sh a ll
h a ve a h eigh t th a t is on th e sa m e da tu m a s th e da tu m r equ ir ed for th e pr oject.
All RTK con tr ol sta tion s sh a ll be in clu ded in a GPS site ca libr a tion . ( See th e en d of
th is section for th e defin ition of a GPS site ca libr a tion .)
I f th e RTK equ ipm en t does n ot su ppor t th e u se of a GPS site ca libr a tion , th e RTK
con tr ol sta tion s sh a ll be u sed for ch eck sh ots.
For th ir d or der RTK su r veys, ea ch n ew sta tion sh a ll be occu pied twice. Th e 2
n d
occu pa -
tion of a n ew sta tion sh a ll u se a differ en t ba se sta tion loca tion . I f th e n ew sta tion is
bein g eleva ted by RTK m eth ods, th e 2
n d
occu pa tion of th e n ew sta tion sh a ll h a ve a
m in im u m of 3 differ en t sa tellites in th e sa tellite con stella tion . Th is is gen er a lly
a ch ieved by obser vin g th e 2
n d
occu pa tion a t a tim e of da y th a t is eith er 4 h ou r s befor e
or 4 h ou r s a fter th e tim e of da y of th e 1
st
occu pa tion .
Esta blish th e n ew sta tion s in a r ea s wh er e obstr u ction s, electr om a gn etic fields, r a dio
tr a n sm ission s, a n d a m u ltipa th en vir on m en t a r e m in im ized.
Use th e cu r r en t geoid m odel wh en a ppr opr ia te.
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Definition: An RTK control stationis a sta tion u sed to con tr ol a su r vey th a t u tilizes
RTK m eth ods. Th e sta tion sh a ll h a ve eith er h or izon ta l coor din a tes, a h eigh t, or both . Th e
or der of a ccu r a cy of th e h or izon ta l coor din a tes a n d th e h eigh t sh a ll be a t lea st th ir d or der.
Definition: A GPS site calibrationesta blish es a r ela tion sh ip between th e obser ved
WGS84 coor din a tes a n d th e kn own gr id coor din a tes. Th is r ela tion sh ip is ch a r a cter ized by
a tr a n sla tion , r ota tion , a n d sca le fa ctor for th e h or izon ta l coor din a tes a n d by a n in clin ed
pla n e for th e h eigh ts. By a pplyin g a GPS site ca libr a tion to n ewly obser ved sta tion s, loca l
va r ia tion s in a m a ppin g pr ojection a r e r edu ced a n d m or e a ccu r a te coor din a tes a r e pr o-
du ced fr om th e RTK su r vey.
Note: A GPS site ca libr a tion ca n be pr odu ced fr om RTK obser va tion s, a n office ca libr a -
tion , or fr om a com bin a tion of both . I f th e RTK con tr ol sta tion s wer e esta blish ed by sta tic
or fa st sta tic GPS tech n iqu es, th en a n office ca libr a tion m a y be u sed.
Th e pr ocedu r es for a n office ca libr a tion a r e:
Do a m in im a lly con str a in ed a dju stm en t befor e n or m a liza tion h oldin g on ly on e
WGS84 la titu de, lon gitu de, a n d ellipsoid h eigh t fixed.
Th e epoch of th e fixed va lu es sh a ll cor r espon d to th e epoch of th e fin a l coor din a tes of
th e RTK su r vey.
Associa te th e r esu lts of th is m in im a lly con str a in ed a dju stm en t with th e fin a l gr id
coor din a tes in a site ca libr a tion .
6B.3-2 Satellite Geometry
Sa tellite geom etr y a ffects both th e h or izon ta l coor din a tes a n d th e h eigh ts in GPS/ RTK
su r veys. Th e sa tellite geom etr y fa ctor s to be con sider ed for RTK su r veys a r e:
Nu m ber of com m on sa tellites a va ila ble a t th e ba se sta tion a n d a t th e r over u n it.
Min im u m eleva tion a n gle for th e sa tellites ( eleva tion m a sk) .
Position a l Dilu tion of Pr ecision ( PDOP) or Geom etr ic Dilu tion of Pr ecision ( GDOP) .
Ver tica l Dilu tion of Pr ecision ( VDOP) .
Refer to ta bles 6B- 1 a n d 6B- 2 for specific r equ ir em en ts.
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6B.3-3 Field Procedures
Pr oper field pr ocedu r es sh a ll be followed in or der to pr odu ce a n effective RTK su r vey. For
Th ir d- or der RTK Su r veys, th ese pr ocedu r es sh a ll in clu de:
I t is r ecom m en ded th a t th e ba se sta tion occu py a n RTK con tr ol sta tion with kn own
coor din a tes for h or izon ta l RTK su r veys a n d kn own h eigh ts for ver tica l RTK su r veys.
A fixed h eigh t tr ipod sh a ll be u sed for th e ba se sta tion .
A fixed h eigh t su r vey r od or a su r vey r od with lockin g pin s sh a ll be u sed for th e r over
pole. A tr ipod a n d a tr ibr a ch m a y a lso be u sed. I f a fixed h eigh t su r vey r od or a su r vey
r od with lockin g pin s is n ot u sed, in depen den t a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e
r equ ir ed a t th e begin n in g a n d en din g of ea ch setu p a n d sh a ll be m a de in both feet a n d
m eter s. Th e a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts sh a ll ch eck to with in 3m m a n d 0.01
feet.
A bipod/ tr ipod sh a ll be u sed with th e r over u n its su r vey r od.
Th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k sh a ll be esta blish ed.
A m in im u m of five com m on sa tellites sh a ll be obser ved by th e ba se sta tion a n d th e
r over u n it( s) .
Th e r over u n it( s) sh a ll be in itia lized befor e collectin g su r vey da ta .
Th e in itia liza tion sh a ll be a va lid ch ecked in itia liza tion .
PDOP sh a ll n ot exceed 5.
Da ta sh a ll be collected on ly wh en th e r oot m ea n squ a r e ( RMS) is less th a n 70
m illicycles.
A ch eck sh ot sh a ll be obser ved by th e r over u n it( s) im m edia tely a fter th e ba se sta tion is
set u p a n d befor e th e ba se sta tion is ta ken down .
Th e GPS site ca libr a tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m h or izon ta l r esidu a l of 20 m m for
ea ch h or izon ta l RTK con tr ol sta tion .
Th e GPS site ca libr a tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m ver tica l r esidu a l of 30 m m for ea ch
ver tica l RTK con tr ol sta tion .
Th e n ew sta tion s sh a ll be occu pied for a m in im u m of 30 epoch s of collected da ta .
Th e pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta sh a ll h a ve a va lu e less th a n or equ a l to 10 m m
h or izon ta l a n d 15 m m ver tica l for ea ch obser ved sta tion .
Th e r over u n it( s) sh a ll n ot be m or e th a n 10 km fr om th e ba se sta tion .
Th e 2
n d
occu pa tion of a n ew sta tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m differ en ce in coor din a tes
fr om th e 1
st
occu pa tion of 20 m m .
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-34 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Th e 2
n d
occu pa tion of a n ew sta tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m differ en ce in h eigh t fr om
th e 1
st
occu pa tion of 40 m m .
Wh en settin g su pplem en ta l con tr ol by RTK m eth ods for con ven tion a l su r veys m eth ods,
it is r ecom m en ded th a t th e n ew con tr ol poin ts be a m in im u m of 300 m eter s fr om ea ch
oth er. See Ch a pter 5, Accu r a cy Cla ssifica tion s a n d Sta n da r ds, for m in im u m a ccu r a cy
sta n da r ds th a t sh a ll be a ch ieved for specific su r veys.
Wh en esta blish in g set- u p poin ts for con ven tion a l su r vey m eth ods, set th r ee in ter visible
poin ts in stea d of ju st a n a zim u th pa ir. Th is a llows th e con ven tion a l su r veyor a ch eck
sh ot.)
For gen er a l- or der RTK su r veys, th ese pr ocedu r es sh a ll in clu de:
I t is r ecom m en ded th a t th e ba se sta tion occu py a n RTK con tr ol sta tion with kn own
coor din a tes for h or izon ta l RTK su r veys a n d kn own h eigh ts for ver tica l RTK su r veys.
Fixed h eigh t tr ipods a r e r ecom m en ded for th e ba se sta tion . I f fixed h eigh t tr ipods a r e
n ot u sed, in depen den t a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e r equ ir ed a t th e begin n in g
a n d en din g of ea ch setu p a n d sh a ll be m a de in both feet a n d m eter s. Th e a n ten n a
h eigh t m ea su r em en ts sh a ll ch eck to with in 3 m m a n d 0.01 feet.
A fixed h eigh t su r vey r od or a su r vey r od with lockin g pin s sh a ll be u sed for th e r over
poles. A tr ipod a n d tr ibr a ch m a y a lso be u sed. I f a fixed h eigh t su r vey r od or a su r vey
r od with lockin g pin s is not u sed, in depen den t a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts a r e
r equ ir ed a t th e begin n in g a n d en din g of ea ch setu p a n d sh a ll be m a de in both feet a n d
m eter s. Th e a n ten n a h eigh t m ea su r em en ts sh a ll ch eck to with in 3 m m a n d 0.01
feet.
A bipod/ tr ipod sh a ll be u sed with th e r over u n its su r vey r od.
Th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k sh a ll be esta blish ed.
A m in im u m of five com m on sa tellites sh a ll be obser ved by th e ba se sta tion a n d th e
r over u n it( s) .
Th e r over u n it( s) sh a ll be in itia lized befor e collectin g su r vey da ta .
Th e in itia liza tion sh a ll be a va lid ch ecked in itia liza tion .
PDOP sh a ll n ot exceed 6.
Da ta sh a ll be collected on ly wh en th e r oot m ea n squ a r e ( RMS) is less th a n 70
m illicycles.
A ch eck sh ot sh a ll be obser ved by th e r over u n it( s) im m edia tely a fter th e ba se sta tion is
set u p a n d befor e th e ba se sta tion is ta ken down .
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-35
Th e GPS site ca libr a tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m h or izon ta l r esidu a l of 20 m m for
ea ch h or izon ta l RTK con tr ol sta tion .
Th e GPS site ca libr a tion sh a ll h a ve a m a xim u m ver tica l r esidu a l of 30 m m for ea ch
ver tica l RTK con tr ol sta tion .
Th e pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta sh a ll h a ve a va lu e less th a n or equ a l to 15 m m
h or izon ta l a n d 20 m m ver tica l for ea ch obser ved sta tion .
Th e r over u n it( s) sh a ll n ot be m or e th a n 10 km fr om th e ba se sta tion .
6B.3-4 Office Procedures
Pr oper office pr ocedu r es m u st be followed in or der to pr odu ce va lid r esu lts. Th ese pr oce-
du r es sh a ll in clu de:
Review th e down loa ded field file for cor r ectn ess a n d com pleten ess.
Ch eck th e a n ten n a h eigh ts for cor r ectn ess.
Ch eck th e ba se sta tion coor din a tes for cor r ectn ess.
An a lyze a ll r epor ts.
Com pa r e th e differ en t obser va tion s of th e sa m e sta tion s to ch eck for discr epa n cies.
After a ll discr epa n cies a r e a ddr essed, m er ge th e obser va tion s.
An a lyze th e fin a l coor din a tes a n d th e r esidu a ls for a ccepta n ce.
6B.3-5 General Notes
At pr esen t, RTK su r veys sh a ll n ot be u sed for pa vem en t eleva tion su r veys or for sta kin g
m a jor str u ctu r es.
I f th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k is u n a ble to be esta blish ed, th e RTK su r vey m a y be per for m ed
with th e in ten t of post pr ocessin g th e su r vey da ta .
Th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k sh a ll n ot step on a n y voice tr a n sm ission s.
I f a UHF/ VHF fr equ en cy is u sed for th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k, it sh a ll be ch ecked for voice
tr a n sm ission s befor e u se.
Th e da ta tr a n sfer lin k sh a ll em ploy a m eth od for en su r in g th a t th e sign a l does n ot
in ter fer e with voice tr a n sm ission s.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-36 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
6 B. 4 Th i r d- Or de r RTK Su r ve ys
Applications
Th ir d- or der h or izon ta l a ccu r a cy is a ccepta ble for th e followin g typica l Ca ltr a n s RTK
oper a tion s:
Su pplem en ta l con tr ol for en gin eer in g su r veys a n d con str u ction su r veys
Ph oto con tr ol
Con tr ollin g la n d n et poin ts
Con str u ction su r vey set- u p poin ts
Topogr a ph ic su r vey set- u p poin ts
Mon u m en t su r veys
Mon u m en t su r veys ( set)
Th ir d- or der ver tica l a ccu r a cy is a ccepta ble for th e followin g typica l Ca ltr a n s RTK oper a -
tion s:
Su pplem en ta l con tr ol
Ph oto con tr ol
Con str u ction su r vey set- u p poin ts
Topogr a ph ic su r vey set- u p poin ts
Ta ble 6B- 1 lists th e specifica tion s for th ir d- or der a ccu r a cy u sin g RTK pr ocedu r es.
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-37
Continued
Table 6B-1 Third-order RTK Survey Specifications
Specification RTK Survey
Field
Geom etr y of RTK con tr ol sta tion s Su r r ou n d a n d en close
th e RTK pr oject
Min im u m a ccu r a cy of RTK con tr ol sta tion s Th ir d- or der
Min im u m n u m ber of h or izon ta l RTK con tr ol sta tion s
for h or izon ta l RTK su r veys 4
Min im u m n u m ber of ver tica l RTK con tr ol sta tion s for
ver tica l RTK su r veys 5
Ba se sta tion occu pies a n RTK con tr ol sta tion Recom m en ded
Ba se sta tion u ses a fixed h eigh t tr ipod Yes
Per cen t of da ta collected with a va lid ch ecked in itia liza tion 100 %
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion obser va tion 5
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved sim u lta n eou sly 5
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 5 secon ds
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a bove th e h or izon 15 degr ees
Ma xim u m RMS du r in g a sta tion obser va tion 70 m illicycles
Min im u m n u m ber of epoch s of collected da ta
for ea ch obser va tion 30
Hor izon ta l pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta Less th a n or
for ea ch obser va tion equ a l to 10 m m
Ver tica l pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta Less th a n or
for ea ch obser va tion equ a l to 15 m m
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-38 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Table 6B-1 , Continued
Specification RTK Survey
Ma xim u m r esidu a l of th e h or izon ta l coor din a tes for th e
h or izon ta l RTK con tr ol sta tion s in th e GPS ca libr a tion 20 m m
Ma xim u m r esidu a l of th e h eigh t for th e ver tica l RTK con tr ol
sta tion s in clu ded in th e GPS ca libr a tion 30 m m
Ma xim u m dista n ce fr om th e ba se sta tion to th e r over u n it( s) 10 km
Per cen t of n ew sta tion s occu pied 2 or m or e tim es 100%
Per cen t of secon d occu pa tion s h a vin g a differ en t ba se sta tion 100%
Ma xim u m differ en ce in h or izon ta l coor din a tes of th e secon d
occu pa tion fr om th e fir st occu pa tion 20 m m
Ma xim u m differ en ce in h eigh t of th e secon d occu pa tion fr om
th e fir st occu pa tion 40 m m
Esta blish sta tion s to be u sed a s con ven tion a l su r vey con tr ol
in gr ou ps of 3 Yes
Office
Ch eck th e da ta collector file for cor r ectn ess a n d com pleten ess Yes
Ch eck th e ba se sta tion WGS84 coor din a tes a n d ellipsoid
h eigh t for cor r ectn ess Yes
An a lyze th e GPS site ca libr a tion for a h igh sca le fa ctor a n d
h igh r esidu a ls Yes
Com pa r e ch eck sh ots with th e kn own va lu es Yes
Ch eck a ll r epor ts for h igh r esidu a ls Yes
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL 6-39
Continued
6 B- 4 Ge n e r a l - Or de r RTK Su r ve ys
6B.4-1 Applications
Gen er a l- or der a ccu r a cy is a ccepta ble for th e followin g typica l Ca ltr a n s RTK oper a tion s:
Topogr a ph ic su r veys ( da ta poin ts)
Su pplem en ta l design da ta su r veys
Con str u ction su r veys ( sta ked poin ts) exclu din g m a jor str u ctu r e poin ts a n d fin ish gr a de
sta kes
En vir on m en ta l su r veys
Geogr a ph ic I n for m a tion System ( GI S) su r veys
Ta ble 6B- 2 lists th e specifica tion s for gen er a l- or der a ccu r a cy u sin g RTK pr ocedu r es.
Table 6B-2 General-order RTK Survey Specifications
Specification RTK Survey
Field
Geom etr y of RTK con tr ol sta tion s Su r r ou n d a n d en close
th e RTK pr oject
Min im u m a ccu r a cy of RTK con tr ol sta tion s Th ir d- or der
Min im u m n u m ber of h or izon ta l RTK con tr ol sta tion s
for h or izon ta l RTK su r veys 3
Min im u m n u m ber of ver tica l RTK con tr ol sta tion s for
ver tica l RTK su r veys 4
Ba se sta tion occu pies a n RTK con tr ol sta tion Recom m en ded
GLOBAL POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM (GPS) SURVEY SPECI FI CATI ONS MARCH 2002
6-40 CALTRANS SURVEYS MANUAL
Table 6B-2, Continued
Specification RTK Survey
Ba se sta tion u ses a fixed h eigh t tr ipod Recom m en ded
Per cen t of da ta collected with a va lid ch ecked in itia liza tion 100 %
Ma xim u m PDOP du r in g sta tion obser va tion 6
Min im u m n u m ber of sa tellites obser ved sim u lta n eou sly 5
Ma xim u m epoch in ter va l for da ta sa m plin g 5 secon ds
Min im u m sa tellite m a sk a bove th e h or izon 13 degr ees
Ma xim u m RMS du r in g sta tion obser va tion 70 m illicycles
Hor izon ta l pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta for Less th a n or
ea ch obser va tion equ a l to 15 m m
Ver tica l pr ecision of th e m ea su r em en t da ta for ea ch Less th a n or
obser va tion equ a l to 20 m m
Office
Ch eck th e da ta collector file for cor r ectn ess a n d com pleten ess Yes
Ch eck th e ba se sta tion WGS84 coor din a tes a n d ellipsoid h eigh t
for cor r ectn ess Yes
An a lyze th e RTK site ca libr a tion for a h igh sca le fa ctor a n d
h igh r esidu a ls Yes
Com pa r e ch eck sh ots with th e kn own va lu es Yes
Ch eck a ll r epor ts for h igh r esidu a ls Yes