Sei sulla pagina 1di 178

design

engineering
series
FASTENERS
^B
1
Time,
is the
most
component
Cut final assembly
costs with
FASTEX
Faster
fastening is the way to cut production
time and save
manpower

the most expensive
of all manufacturing
costs.
Fastex fasteners
specially designed for your
product will speed your assembly process and
cut your costs. The
=astsx team treat each
problem individually.
l"'"?y design the fastener lo
fit the application
a yecise answer
to your
particular problem.
The Fastex Design Service is free
-
take advantage of it.
1 Door Latch and Strike: 2. Rokut Rivet
3. Drive Fastener: 4. Linkage Clip Asswnbly,
5. Revense Lokul Nut
6. Wire Tie.
7. Quarter Turn Fastener,
FASTEX DIVISION
I"A" W%T LTD. ucm b*th no.
CIPPBNHAW
SI.O'JGrt-BJZHS BtHNHtM 4333
design
engineering
series
/
EDITORIAL
J. D. Beadle
ART
EDITOR
Edna A . Moore
PRODUCTION MANAGER
S . C . Commons
ADVERTISEMENT MANAGER
E. R. Cook
PUBLISHER
B. A. Philpott, L.I JVL
THE LIBRARY
THE
HARRIS
COLLEGE
CORPORATION
STREET,
PRESTON.
All Books must be Returned to the College Library
or
Renewed not later than the last date shown below.
1
-. DLu 1970
1974
1975
17
M 1982
^Hi^
1984
20. FEB.
1991
'
in
*&
1
#
199)
15.
Mm
lg
I0.MAV
^5
2
4 FEB
199*
DESIGN
ENGINEERING
SERIES
books are published by Morgan-
Grampian
Books Ltd in conjunction
with Design Engineering
. Further
copies are available at 45s. each.
Morgan-Grampian (Publishers) Ltd.
,
Books Division,
Summit House,
Glebe Way, West Wickham, BR4 OSL,
Kent.
Telephone 01-777 8271
London Office: 28 Essex Street,
London,
W.C.2.
Telephone 01 -353
6565
Morgan-Grampian
(Publishers) Ltd.
,
Books Division, 1969.
the devel-
the points-
;h for the
g
chapters
F Fastening
idcompar-
int perfor-
ms well as
ner' brings
pins , riv-
e all Fully
o chapters
. g.washers
devoted to
ye recently
id For spe-
sn compil-
s in Finding
y
speaking
5 the design
s and tele-
tely inalpha-
For details of other books in this series please
contact
the Publisher
1
Design
Data
Chapter 1 FASTENERS
-
ORIGIN, EVOLUTION & SELECTION
D. N. Pearce.
Page 5
Chapter 2
RETAINING RINGS & FIXES
F. H. Bowler.
Moulded Fasteners Ltd.
,
Plastics Div. , Geo. Salter & Co. Ltd.
Page 13
Chapter 3 EYELETS
W.T.J. Bownes,
Geo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.
Page 18
Chapter 4 INSERTED FASTENERS
H. D. Chambers, C. Eng, M.I. MechE.
Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.
Page 26
Chapter 5 NUTS
- CAGED
E. Larner,
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
Page 35
Chapter 6
NUTS
-
CLINCH & ANCHOR
A. Jordan,
G.K.N. Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
Page 36
Chapter 7
NUTS
-
LOCKING
T.E. Harris.
Page 44
Chapter 8 SINGLE THREADED FASTENERS
B. M. Wright,
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Page 54
Chapter 9 NUTS
-
PLAIN & WELD
R.W. Lowe,
G.K.N. Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Page 63
Chapter 10 PLASTICS FASTENERS
A. Griffiths.
Page 70
Chapter 11 PINS
-
SOLID & TUBULAR
R.G. Thatcher,
Spirol Pins Ltd.
Page 76
Chapter 12 PROJECTION WELDED FASTENERS
C.H. Meader,
K. S. M. Stud Welding Ltd.
Page 79
Chapter 1 3 QUICK RELEASE FASTENERS
H.J. Smith and M. R. P. Knight, A.M. B.I. M.
Dzus Fastener Europe Lid.
Page 93
Chapter 14
RIVETS -
BLIND (METAL & PLASTICS)
J. S. Sanders, B. Eng.
,
Avdel Ltd.
Page 98
Chapter 15
RIVETS
-
SOLID & TUBULAR
'
J.M.A. Paterson, M. A..J.P.
,
The Bifurcated
& Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd.
Page 108
Chapter 16 SCREWS
-
MACHINE
D. S. Thompson,
G. K. N. Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Page 114
Chapter 17 SCREWS
-
SELF TAPPING ETC
T.E. Harris.
Page 124
Chapter 18 SCREWS
-
SET
Dennis Troop and Barbara Shorter,
Unbrako Ltd.
Page 132
Chapter 19 SCREWS
-
WOOD
J. M. Humphrey, C. Eng. , M. I. Mech. E.
G.K.N.
Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Page 138
Chapter 20 SPRING STEEL FASTENERS
H. D. Browne,
Firth Cleveland Ltd.
Page 144
Chapter 21 WASHERS
R. M. Billington, M. Inst. M. S. M.
,
Morlock Industries Ltd.
Page 150
Chapter 22 STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES
E. B. McMullon and D. T. S. Ilett
CIBA (ARL) Ltd.
Page 155
Chapter 23 SELECTED SPECIAL FASTENERS
A. Griffiths.
Page 161
Directory
EQUIPMENT DIRECTORY
MANUFACTURERS ADDRESSES
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Page 169
Page 173
Page 176
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Editor and Publisher gratefully acknowledge the help and assistance that have been given in the comp-
ilation of this handbook by many companies in the Fastener Industry.
younameit...
Spare us one moment

are those fastenings


you specify for fixing Cladding sheets
the best obtainable today?
British Screw have moved ahead in the development
of these small but vital components and offer a
sophisticated range to meet modern requirements.
'Phone Leeds (0532) 30541 for information
or technical assistance.
TheBritishScrew
CompanyLimited
1 53 Kirkstall Road, Leeds LS4 2AT
Telegrams Angell Leeds
Telex 55363 Britscrew Leeds
Fasteners
-
origin, evolution
and selection
by D.N. Pearce.
A suitable definition of a fastener is as follows:
'A device that will position and hold two or more
members in a desired relationship to each other'.
To understand when man first used fasteners it is
necessary to study the origins of toolmaking. Per-
haps with the Pliocene, certainly by the dawn of
the Pleistocene, that is about a million years ago,
the typically human level of cerebral development
had been reached. Stone artifacts of standardised
types have been found in lower Pleistocene deposits
in various parts of Africa, and in deposits only
slightly more recent in Asia and Western Europe.
They show that toolmaking was no longer merely
occasional, but served permanent needs of these
earliest men. Examples have been found of chop-
pers, crudely fashioned from quartz stone and
broken animal bones, flint axes were also used
during this period.
The making of cord and rope by plaiting or twisting
fibres, hair and strips of hide presumably began
in Palaeothic times, since Stone Age man needed
cordage for fishing equipment and for the construc-
tion of traps. The idea of lashing parts together,
for example, could have originated in association
with a free-mutation, but it became established as
the basis of a general method by which a desired
connection between any two suitable components
could be effected or reinforced. As just suggested,
the idea of attaching a stone blade to a wooden haft
may have arisen out of some incidental method of
holding the blade temporarily in position in a bent
haft, and perhaps only at a later stage with a lash-
ing for security.
It is tempting to suggest that man discovered the
'principle' of the sleeve, or the socket, and, say
rotary motion, but what he actually discovered was
that, in the case of the sleeve and the socket, these
particular features of form facilitated the union of
two components, and, in the case of rotary motion,
that circularity in certain mechanisms had its ad-
vantages.
The tripartite disc is demonstrably the oldest as
well as the most wide- spread form of simple wheel.
About 2,750 years B. C. , wooden pegs were fixed
through the axle to prevent the wheel coming off.
In a tomb at Susa (2000 B. C. ) the peg is replaced
by a copper bolt with a decorative head, precisely
like the linch pins familiar in later periods. The
wheels were generally mortised together and some
200 or 300 copper nails were driven into the cir-
cumference to protect the rims from wear. By the
year 2000 B. C. copper tyres were being used on
chariots and these were attached to the rim with
copper nails. In 1475 B. C. Egyptian wheelwrights
began making spoked wheels, these consisted of a
hub with axle hole and sockets for the spokes and
a felloe or felloes. The Egyptians normally made
their felloes as several segments of wood, carved
separately to fit on the same circle and then con-
nected by mortise and tenon joints. By 500 B. C.
Celtic wheelwrights in Bohemia were already shap-
ing a felloe from a single length of timber, bent
into a circular form with heat, the ends were bevel-
led and overlapped, and the junction held together
by a metal swathe, which was nailed or riveted to
the rim.
An insistent problem for the metalworkers was the
joining of several pieces of gold or copper, they
could be fastened with pins or rivets, which were
indeed commonly used for fixing handles to a dag-
ger or knife, or for sheet metal work, as in a type
of drinking vessel, the body of which was built up
of separate pieces. In Ireland, the goldsmith fast-
ened plates by folding the edges together or by sew-
ing them with wire. In the Near East, an observant
craftsman, melting together two nuggets of gold
from various sources, noticed that some fused
earlier than others and, spreading over the rest,
bonded them together.
Moreover, he found that it was always the nuggets
from a particular source that melted first. Of
course he could not have known, as we do, that
native gold is always alloyed with some other met-
als, and that gold with a proportion of copper or
silver melts at a lower temperature than purer
gold. Nevertheless, such easily fusible gold was,
in fact, the earliest solder, and long preceded any
conscious attempt to make solder by adding copper
or silver to gold.
After this discovery, search was naturally made
for a similar material by which copper or bronze
might be joined. Modern brazing materials (i. e.
materials for joining copper and its alloys) are
usually composed of alloys of copper and zinc. The
Romans appear to have made brass by smelting
copper ores with callamine. Probably the earliest
example of essentially pure zinc is a coin of Yung
Lo (A. D. 1402) Ming dynasty, China. Brazing
materials, like all other hard solders, require
a high working temperature and form much strong-
er joints than soft solders.
A solder is a metal or alloy which, having a lower
melting point than the pieces to be joined, may be
caused to flow between those pieces and, on cool-
ing, bond them. There is a clear distinction bet-
ween hard soldering which needs a temperature of
550-900 C or higher, employed for jewellery, sil-
ver work and better class copper and bronze work,
and soft soldering for joining tin plate, lead, etc.
,
which may need only 183C or less. Copper and
gold melt at nearly the same temperature (1083C
as against 1063C) but if 10 parts by weight of- cop-
per are added to 90 of gold the melting point of the
alloy falls to 940 C, which suffices to make it a
safe solder for pure gold. If 18 parts of copper are
added to 82 parts of gold, the alloy will melt at
878C, the lowest melting point of any gold/copper
alloy. If a lower melting pint is required a propor-
tion of another metal, such as zinc (melting point at
419C) must be added. There has been confusion
in technical literature as to the methods 'actually
employed by the early craftsmen in joining pieces
of gold, electrum, silver, bronze or copper. State-
ments that they were fused together by autogenous
welding, without solder, or welded together by
hammer as a blacksmith welds iron, are erroneous.
By 2500 B. C. the soldering of gold and silver was
as well known as it is today. The ancient gold-
smiths, to whom so easy a process as soldering
was available, would not have attempted the dif-
ficult, if not impossible task, of welding. Burning
together was practised from the Bronze Age on-
wards. By this method a joint can be made on a
bronze tool or weapon without the aid of solder. A
bronze sword, broken at the hilt, might thus be
repaired. A smith fitted the pieces together and
formed a mould in clay around them. He left a
passage all round the joint and provided the mould
with a funnel shaped pour for the introduction of
the metal, and an overflow hole. Then he poured
into and through the mould several pounds of molten
bronze. The metal flowed between and heated up
the broken parts of the sword partly melting them.
Most of the molten metal escaped through the over-
flow hole, but enough remained to make the joint
strong. Superfluous metal could be cut away later.
Welding is the art of joining separate pieces of
metal by heat or mechanical treatment without sold-
er. For wrought iron it requires a temperature of
about 1350C. At this temperature scales of iron
oxide flake off continually from incandescent sur-
faces, leaving them clean. The metal is in a pasty
state and the surfaces to be united can come into
intimate contact. The crystals at the surface break
up under the hammer blows, and the fragments
grow into new crystals interlocking across the joint.
The welding of metal has been practised from early
times in Asia Minor as, for example, on the iron
head rest of Tutankhamen (1350 B. C. ) when as yet
iron was practically unknown in Eqypt. This head
rest was probably a gift from some ruler in Syria,
where iron working was more advanced. Not until
welding and the making and hardening of steel be-
came well understood, which in Syria was between
the 11th and 9th Centuries B. C. ,
can a true Iron
Age be said to have begun.
The principle of the wedge was known to man from
early times. Examples have been found holding
together the pieces of a Greek mining tool (300
B. C. ).
The Romans used wooden wedges for rock
splitting, driving them into the rock then saturating
them with water so that they swelled and split the
rock. The wedge was used for fixing together Ro-
man lever and screw presses, used for extracting
the juice from olives and grapes.
The so called stick furniture was of a very simple
construction and was used for Roman times. Seats
of chairs and stools and the tops of tables were
slabs of wood upheld on three or four legs. The
tops of the legs penetrated the seat and were held
tight by wedges. Other good examples of the wedge
as a fixing device can be seen in early Roman cata-
pults and cross bows.
The peg was used for fastening from very early
times,
particularly in ships.
During the late Bronze
age this method of building was used for the Home-
ric ships and its application was almost the same
as that employed for some wooden ships today. The
vessels had keels, stem and stern posts, and ribs
covered with outside planking. The construction
was fastened together with wooden pegs (tree nails),
a method which has only recently been generally
superseded by metal fastenings.
Rivets are known to have been used since 2,000
B. C. Good examples of riveted copper metal work
have been discovered in the shrine of a temple at
Drecros, Crete (750 B. C. ).
Probably no finer
instance of riveting has survived from the ancient
world than a bronze trumpet of the late Celtic per-
iod in Ireland, it is 8 ft. long and made from sheet
bronze bent round to form a tube. The abutting
edges are riveted to a strip of bronze about

in.
wide, and there are no fewer than 638 rivets along
the seam.
Nails were widely used by the Romans, thus follow-
ing the methods used by the Egyptians a thousand
years earlier. The Greeks used iron nails of vari-
ous forms to fix terra- cotta facings to timber or
stone structures. Viking vessels found at Nydam
late 4th Century A. D. showed planks attached to
ribs with iron nails.
Other good examples of the use of nails can be seen
in Tudor furniture and also in Gothic doors, where
many wrought iron nails with square heads were
used. The method of producing these nails was
extremely primitive and it involved hammering
the metal through a graded series of holes until
the correct diameter was obtained.
Perhaps no other device has played such an import-
ant role in the development of fastening techniques
as the screw, and it is worth examining its evolu-
tion in some detail. The auger, translating a cir-
cular motion to a linear motion along its axis of
rotation, is related to the screw which was certain-
ly known before Archimedes (287-212 B. C. ),
to
whom it has been falsely ascribed. It may have
been invented by Archytas of Tarentum, a Pytha-
gorean philosopher and mathematician (400 B. C.
),
though the evidence is unreliable. Screws of metal
were, however, known in classical antiquity. Many
machines for working metals are illustrated by
Leonardo though it is uncertain whether they re-
present his own ideas or apparatus already known.
One of the most original of Leonardo's machines
is the screw cutter, a model of which can be seen
in the Science Museum, South Kensington. Multi-
plication of forces by pulleys had been known since
the invention of pulley blocks in antiquity. Reduc-
tion of velocity by the screw was, however, probab-
ly a Mediaeval invention. The earliest known re-
cord is in the chronicle of Gervais the Monk (1200
A. D. ) who mentions the use of screws for lifting
loads. By the 15th Century it was commonly used
in bending the cross bow.
The use of the screw stopper on pottery bottles was
known in the Mediaeval period. A wooden chasing
device was used to form the thread in the neck of
the bottle, the top was made from a cast of the
vessel.
The development of light engineering and toolmak-
ing is closely associated with the extension of the
use of the screw. Although taps and dies were
understood and are sketched by Hero of Alexandria,
screws were made with the simples hand tools.
Screw cutting lathes were first in existence in the
16th Century but appeared to have been intended
for use in ornamental work. Despite the adequacy
of these machines in principle, they could not be
used in practice and long screws in wood or metal
were cut with chisel or file, much as in antiquity.
Short screws both coarse and fine and in metal or
wood, were commonly used for scientific purposes
after 1650, for focusing microscopes and on many
measuring instruments. Long screws were, how-
ever, expensive and likely to be inaccurate. The
use of the long lead screw was obstructed by these
difficulties in production. It is significant that
lathe work was developed on an alternative prin-
ciple that presented less technical difficulty. The
so called mandrel lathe was controlled by one or
more short screws which gave the work a traverse
of a few inches. Small pieces could be turned with
the guidance of these screws supplemented by some
form of fixed support for the cutting tool. It is
difficult to trace the development of the lathe in the
17th Century before Plumiers account of 1701. It
was still used principally for ornamental turning,
but it embodied principles that were later to be of
industrial significance, especially in clock and
watch making. In Plumiers time it was possible
to cut the screws for the arbors of the mandrel on
a lathe. Plumier was anxious to do so because it
was difficult to produce a perfectly cylindrical man-
drel with a file, but he found only two workmen in
Europe capable of turning satisfactory mandrels in
iron and steel. They used lathes of special con-
struction firmly fixed between floor and ceiling
and backing against the wall. A model of the mand-
rel was made in wood, somewhat larger in dia-
meter than the finished article. The iron was first
forged to this copy and turned to the shape required
in the lathe. A thread was then cut upon the end
of the turned mandrel. The mandrel was rotated
by means of a cord looped around it which was at-
tached to a foot treadle and a pole.
The production of screws by mechanical means
was thus severely limited. Techniques of casting
should have been applicable to the production of
screws in bronze. Cast iron would hardly have
been satisfactory.
Long before the forging process was introduced
bolts and screws were hammered out by hand (it
was not until the 19th Century that bolts were pro-
duced by forging). These early bolts were manu-
factured from a square steel bar which was heated.
The cylindrical shank of the bolt was hammered
out of the square. This crude product was the fore-
runner of the present square head machine bolt.
For precision work or for cutting lead screws, the
following precedure was adopted. On a rectangular
sheet of paper transverse lines were drawn, the
spacing and angle of inclination of which corres-
ponded to the thread to be traced. The paper was
wound around the rod to be made into a screw and
the threads were traced by following the line with
a sharp file, the cutting was done first with a trian-
gular file and finally with a steel chaser having
teeth spaced to correspond with the pitch of the
screw to be made.
Such methods took a long time and the quality of
the result depended entirely upon the skill of the
operator. To overcome these difficulties the great
English inventor and engineer, Jesse Ramsden
(1735-1800), invented in 1770 the screw cutting
lathe which was certainly the first machine of this
type ever constructed and which gave satisfactory
results.
Henry Maudsley (1771-1831), introduced in 1797
a lathe fitted with a slide rest, this was another
major step forward and it was widely adopted in
the screw making trade.
Maudsley gave much attention to the initial forma-
tion of accurate screw threads. In the method final-
ly adopted a hard wood cylinder was rotated in a
suitable holder against a crescent shaped knife held
obliquely to its axis. The knife, in cutting into the
cylinder, caused it to traverse, thus generating a
screw which could be copied in steel. Using an
accurately made screw Maudsley was also able to
make a bench micrometer accurate to 0. 0001 in.
,
which served him as a workshop standard.
Sir Joseph Whitworth (1803-1887) was the son of
a school master. At the age of 22 he went to Lon-
don and joined Maudsley. In 1833 he started his
own machine tool manufacturing business in Man-
chester. He produced a very wide range of mach-
ines which were quite revolutionary in their con-
cept and were certainly years ahead of their time,
after a few years he was manufacturing lathes,
planing machines, shapers, slotters, plane and rad-
ial drills, punching and shearing machines, nut
shapers, screwing machines, wheel cutting and
dividing machines. Whitworth was responsible
for bringing about the standardisation of screw
threads. He collected and compared screws from
as many work shops as possible throughout England
and in 1841 proposed, in a paper to the Institution
of Civil Engineers, the use of a constant angle (55^
between the sides of the threads, and a specifica-
tion for the number of threads to the inch for the
various screw diameters. The Whitworth thread
remained standard in engineering until 1948.
In America in the year 1855, Robbins and Lawrence
produced what they called a screw milling machine,
because it was used primarily for making screws.
Today we would call this an eight tool turret lathe.
However, at the time of its invention it certainly
represented the most advanced evolution of the
lathe and substantially reduced the manufacturing
costs of screws.
The Civil War (1861-1865) stimulated in the United
States a need for higher output with less expendi-
ture of labour, and this played an important part
in the evolution of automatic machine tools. Auto-
matic lathes for the mass production of screws
were built during the war, but the machine having
the most far reaching influence on the development
of automatic manufacture was designed by C. M.
Spencer, shortly after the war. Spencer built a
lathe which incorporated cylindrical cams, later
known as 'brain wheels'. Movement of. the cutting
tools and turret was controlled by adjustable cams
fitted on the cam cylinders, which were geared to
the spindle drive. So long as the machine was fed
with bar stock it automatically manufactured until
wear or breakage of the tools required them to
be changed. Spencer's lathe was widely used in
America for the production of screws and similar
components, and subsequently small automatic
lathes have always been known in America as auto-
matic screw-machines.
A British automatic machine for the production of
screws was patented by C. W. Parker in 1879 and
built by Greenwood and Batley. The bar stock was
fed through the head stock and turned to the correct
size by stationary tools, which were then withdrawn
to allow the screw die to advance and cut the thread.
The screw was cut from the bar by a parting tool.
The machine was originally designed to finish the
head of the screw, an operation later carried out
on a separate machine. The machine could produce
screws t in. diameter at the rate of 80-150 an hour,
according to their length. The movement of the
cutting tools were derived from a shaft carrying
cams that ran along the bed of the machine. A rol-
ler feed for the bar stock was incorporated in the
machine.
In 1895 an important new principle was introduced
into the construction of the automatic lathe when
a multi-spindle automatic was built in the United
States for the manufacture of sewing machine com-
ponents. A prototype of the first five-spindle auto-
matic was built in the USA in 1897, and by the end
of the Century four- spindle machines were com-
mercially available both in the USA and in Sweden.
In the early 19th Century small nails were sheared
from sheet. The sheet was cut to the width requir-
ed for the length of the nail and was fed forward
into a shear blade set at a small angle, being turn-
ed over between each stroke of the blade. The tap-
ered nail, of rectangular section, was headed in
another machine. Before the end of the Century,
however, nail and rivet machines using mild steel
wire were capable of turning out 300 components
a minute, cutting and, in the case of the nail, point-
ing simultaneously, heading was done in the move-
ment which ejected the component from the machine.
This Chapter would not be complete without some
mention of the Guest Keen and Nettlefold organisa-
tion which probably had more effect on the growth
of the fastener business than any other company in
Great Britain.
The oldest part of the Guest Keen and Nettlefolds
group is the steel works which was founded by John
Guest in 1759 when he started making steel at Dow-
lais in South Wales. John Guest and his successors
were very accomplished steel masters making rail-
way rails and other steel products which came with
the industrial revolution.
The second name commemorates Arthur Keen who
started work as a railway clerk in Smethwick and
eventually went into his landlord's business and
then married his bosses daughter, eventually buy-
ing a patent nut and forming the Patent Bolt and
Nut Company Limited. This company bought Lon-
don Works from Fox Henderson Limited and made
bolts and nuts, on the site of which is now the reg-
istered office of Guest Keen and Nettlefolds Limit-
ed. In 1900 Guest and Company Limited amalga-
mated with the Patent Bolt and Nut Company, to
become Guest Keen and Company Limited.
In the early 1830's John Sutton Nettlefold left the
family's business of ironmongers in London and
commenced making woodscrews in a water mill at
Sunbury on Thames, and shortly afterwards moved
to gain the advantages of being near the Black Coun-
try and founded a factory in the centre of Birming-
ham. He progressed for approximately 20 years
when he bought an American patent for putting a
gimlet point on woodscrews. To exploit this he
commenced to build a factory at Heath Street; on
the borders of Smethwick and Birmingham which
is the site of the present works. In order to pur-
chase the patent he borrowed money from his father
-in-law, Joseph Chamberlain the 1st, and took into
partnership Joseph Chamberlain the 2nd, the part-
nership being known as Nettlefolds and Chamberlain.
This partnership flourished until 1874 when Cham-
berlain decided to go into politics full time, and
John Henry Nettlefold, son of the founder, continued
the company under the name of Nettlefolds until
1880 when a limited company was formed as Nettle-
folds Limited. This company amalgamated with
Guest Keen and Company to become Guest Keen
and Nettlefolds Limited, in 1901.
An so we come to the 20th Century where the devel-
opment of new types of fasteners and fastening sys-
tems has been extremely rapid, particularly during
the last 35 years.
Whereas the designer in the 19th Century had a
very limited number of different fasteners avail-
able to him, the situation today is completely re-
versed. There are many thousands of different
types of fasteners to choose from, and the problem
facing today's designer is to decide which of these
fasteners is the best for his particular application.
He should, therefore, keep in mind these funda-
mental considerations in fastening selection:
1. Is the fastening necessary?
2. Is the minimum number of fastenings specified?
3. Does the fastener specified perform the job
best?
4. Is the fastener simple to apply?
5. Will the fastener have to be removed during
service and if so will it be easily removable ?
6. Does the fastener have the proper specifica-
tions for material?
7. Does the fastener have the proper specifica-
tions for finish ?
Now let us elaborate on each of the foregoing con-
siderations:
Is the fastening necessary?
It is probably true to say that with careful product
design and with the application of value analysis
techniques, a considerable number of the fasteners
in use today could be eliminated, thus reducing
material and assembly costs and at the same time
upgrading the product performance.
In many instances, especially on stampings and
injection moulded plastics components, the function
of several components can be combined, thereby
eliminating separate fasteners entirely. Spring
members can often be attached by latching methods.
Is the minimum number of fastenings specified?
A good example of this is a cover plate where often
four screws are used. One screw would hold the
cover down provided the design caters for proper
location, which can be achieved by recessing the
cover into the unit or by providing locating tabs on
the cover or the unit. Alternatively the cover could
be an injection moulding provided with a 'tuck under'
locating tongue or tongues and an integrally mould-
ed fastener detail which would engage in a hole in
the unit. Also always check strength requirements
to avoid wasteful 'over engineering'.
Does the fastener specified perform the job best?
A fastener that fails in service is both unreliable
and uneconomical, therefore, the operating environ-
ment should always be checked and a fastener selec-
ted that will withstand the physical effects involved.
Always consider what forces will act on the fasten-
er and whether extremely high temperatures will be
involved during manufacturing or in service. Do not
expect fasteners to overcome faulty design of com-
ponents or assembly. The proper fastener can
only be selected after, or even better at the time,
the joint or assembly has been properly designed.
Every part of a fastener, i. e. in the case of the
screw, the head, the thread, the point and the wash-
er, should be selected to perform a specific func-
tion. Consider each feature as a means of improv-
ing performance. It is most important when con-
sidering function to ascertain whether the assembly
will be subjected to vibration. This particular
aspect is discussed in more detail towards the end
of this Chapter. If the fastener is one of a group
with inter- related hole centres, which have to ac-
cept a 'mating' component, it is desirable to specify
fasteners which will float in their mounting holes
and thus enable wide manufacturing tolerances to
be used, i. e. plastics captive nuts, caged nuts or
similar.
Is the fastener simple to apply?
Use one-piece multi-function fasteners wherever
possible. They are best suited for both automatic
assembly and manual application. If the article
to which the fastener is attached will be subjected
to a finishing process, i. e. plating or painting,
prior to final assembly, then it is essential wher-
ever possible to specify a fastener which can be
fitted after the finished process, thus obviating a
costly and time consuming re-tapping operation to
clear contamination from the threads. Always try
to specify a fastener which can be easily assembled
by hand, or automatically, to the upper side of the
work piece. Generally speaking welding and stak-
ing operations are expensive because they are time
consuming and it is difficult to replace a fastener
if it is damaged in the subsequent assembly opera-
tions.
It is not uncommon in manufacturing today to find
instances where the cost of wages or overheads
equal or exceed all other costs of the finished pro-
duct. To reduce these basic costs and increase
profits it is necessary to produce more in the same
amount of time. Production efficiency and economy
can be markedly improved by the selection of a
fastener which can save assembly-line man hours.
It has been established that 19 per cent of the real
cost of fastening is in the piece part price. 81 per
cent of the cost of fastening is in the application
on the assembly line.
The above point is .extremely important, always
remember that a 10 per cent saving in assembly
costs can be more significant than a 40 per cent
saving in piece part price.
Will the fastener have to be removed during
service and if so will it be easily removable?
This is an important consideration which is fre-
quently overlooked, some designers only concern
themselves with the initial assembly and give little
or no consideration to removal and replacement
during service. A designer's responsibility does
not finish when the finished product leaves the fact-
ory because, in the event of the product having to
be dismantled to rectify a fault or for routine serv-
icing, it is important that these operations can be
carried out by the service engineer or mechanic
in the minimum of time. In many cases particular-
ly in the event of a warranty claim, the cost of this
work has to be borne by the manufacturer, there-
fore affecting his overall profitability.

9
If it is known that the fastener will be in a posi-
tion that is subject to rapid corrosion, the designer
should give consideration to using fasteners which
will not freeze up. There are a wide range of excel-
lent injection moulded plastics captive nuts avail-
able today which are easily snapped into place dur-
ing final assembly and are self retaining. They
provide insulation at the fastening point and are
corrosion free. They also have a prevailing torque
type locking action and automatically accommodate
for any panel misalignment. It is virtually imposs-
ible to overtighten them and with the latest designs
of 'reverse' nuts with split heads the metal screw
will often fail before the nylon nut.
Does the fastener have the proper specifications
for material?
Quite often stainless steel is specified for fasteners
when brass or aluminium could do the job just as
well, and with considerable cost savings.
Does the fastener have the proper specifications
for finish?
Always define the function of the component and
select a plating or paint specification which has
the minimum cost but which will meet the design
specification. Particular attention must be given
to the avoidance of hydrogen embrittlement when
considering finishes for spring steel components,
this point is covered in more detail at the end of
this Chapter.
VIBRATION
Some fasteners must, of course, carry heavy loads.
They resist various combinations of tension and
shear loading, usually without permitting any sig-
nificant relative movement of the fastened parts.
Most threaded fasteners are screwed up tight so
that they clamp the fastened parts together. It is
desirable to maintain this initial clamping force-
or as large a portion of it as possible.
Although the primary function is to permit conveni-
ent assembly and disassembly, threaded fasteners
are expected to stay in place between those events,
without fail!
Characteristics the designer wants then, are, re-
liability, strength, tightness and convenience in
service. He looks for ways to combine all these
ideals economically.
If a fastener loosens and falls off during service it
has failed as completely as if it had broken. A bolt
that is strong enough to carry its load when tight
may fail from fatigue if the joint loosens enough to
permit 'fretting'
-
or even if some of the initial
clamping force is lost. In fact, in the case of a
pre-stretched joint, failure has occured as soon as
the pre- stress is lost, which may be a long time
before the bolt 'rattles'.
It is well known that nuts and bolts tend to loosen
if the components they fasten are subjected to vibra-
tion or repeated impacts. A generally accepted
theory explains how motion of the fastened parts
can cause turning of a nut on a bolt. To visualise
this situation, consider a weight resting on an in-
clined plane. If static friction exceeds the com-
ponent of weight that tends to cause sliding, the
body remains at rest. If the plane surface is vi-
brated or if mechanical shocks are applied to it,
the effective coefficient of friction is reduced. As
vibratory motion of the plane surface becomes
more intense, a point can be reached when a weight
begins to slide down the plane. A loose nut on an
axially vibrating bolt will tend to 'walk' up and
down the bolt. The mechanism is much the same
as the sliding weight.
Vibration reduces the effective coefficient of fric-
tion and provides energy. Masses and shapes are
never perfectly symmetrical, and consequently
that energy produces motion. A few hours after
assembly a 'settling down' process takes place.
The mechanical fits and finishes involved deter-
mine to a great extent how much initial clamping
load will be lost. With precise, well finished,
parts, this relaxation may be limited to 2 or 3 per
cent of pre- stress. With rough surfaces, loose
thread tolerances and lack of squareness, as much
as 10 per cent of the original loading may be lost.
If fastener loosening is caused by repeated mech-
anical shocks which set up extremely high frequ-
ency vibrations, in fastener systems, there is not
much hope of solving problems by eliminating these
shocks, they are characteristic of the fastener
environment and cannot be avoided. There is no
practical way to 'tune out' all the exciting forces.
The factors that tend to prevent loosening are, high
pre-stress or bolt tension, the length of bolt under
stress and vibration energy dampening. Of these
three, bolt tension and length are relatively inflex-
ible, being determined by the individual fastening
application. Dampening, however, is of special
importance. Measured against all the practical
requirements a fastener dampening material must
meet, nylon plastics emerges as a clear first
choice. It is a good damper of high frequency elas-
tic waves in fasteners. It stays in place. It lasts
indefinitely in service. Nylon has a memory of
its initial shape and it tends to recover after de-
forming forces are released. It serves as a lubri-
cant during assembly and disassembly. The plas-
tics does not harden, flake, powder or crumble,
however, nylon is not a usable material at temp-
eratures above 350F, and it is this one limitation
that prevents almost universal use of nylon in self
locking fastener systems.
In conclusion then, a designer should give consider-
ation to specifying a nylon captive nut or a metal
self locking nut incorporating a full nylon locking
ring. For high temperature applications an all
metal self locking nut of the distorted thread or
beam type should be considered.
CORROSION AND PROTECTIVE
FINISHES
Corrosion protection for a fastened joint encompas-
10
ses much more than a consideration of the corros-
ion resistance of the fastener itself. Actually re-
quired is an analysis of the entire assembled joint
as a system. This system includes structural de-
sign, materials, protective coatings, stresses, pro-
duct life expectancy and environmental conditions.
Consequently, designing for maximum fastener
joint corrosion resistance is a complex problem that
cannot be readily resolved by applying a few gen-
eral rules of thumb. As a matter of fact, corrosion
is one of the least understood design considerations
in fastened assemblies.
The need for adequate protection against corrosion
in fastened joints is increasing, owing to the longer
operating life and current warranty periods of mech-
anical equipment.
Furthermore, environments are becoming more
corrosive, normal operating temperatures for some
types of equipment are going up, load stresses are
increasing, and optimised designs in some cases
are leaving less margin for strength losses. All
of these factors point to the need for greater con-
trol of corrosion in fastened assemblies.
The first step in designing for optimum corrosion
resistance in fastened joints is an analysis of the
factors producing corrosion, among which are time,
environment, stresses, and the effects of joining
dissimilar materials. Designers must ask them-
selves how long the assembled product should last.
Corrosion may be no problem in a product which is
intended to be used up or destroyed shortly after
manufacture. Storage life, also, is a factor that
must be considered in the corrosion analysis.
What are the environments to which the fastener
and joint will be exposed during the useful life of the
product? How will salt on the roads, or sulphide,
smoke, ash or smog in the air affect the assembly?
What will humidity and atmospheric conditions at
coastal airports do to an international continental
jet while it is on the ground between flights? What
corrosive liquids, cutting oils or sealants will splash
on the machine tool? Will the assembly be used
in a vacuum or a relatively air-tight enclosure?
A condition that affects cadmium coatings.
These questions are typical of those that the design
engineer must evaluate in his study of fastener
joint design with optimum resistance to corrosion.
Moisture and humidity are environmental conditions
that must be considered in such a study, since cor-
rosion, generally, is an electro-chemical
process
and the presence of an electrolyte encourages chem-
ical reactions. Temperature is also a factor, be-
cause high temperatures
accelerate chemical re-
actions. Static charges and electric currents that
are normal in electronic equipment and electrical
equipment may create or accelerate corrosive con-
ditions by providing circuits for galvanic reactions
between dissimilar metals.
End use of the product is still another factor to be
considered. Will protective coating be abraded by
wrenching during assembly or destroyed by care-
less handling? If not, it may be alright to let the
fastener corrode in place along with the rest of the
assembly. On the other hand, if it will be necessary
to remove and re-use the fastener, then in all pro-
bability no appreciable fastener joint corrosion may
be tolerated.
The economic factors of the design also must be
considered. Cost can be one of the most important
factors in the design analysis. An assembly may
be completely protected from corrosion, if cost in
terms of money or performance is no object. For
example, corrosion resistant high strength fasten-
ers can be produced from some materials that cost
from upwards of 40s. per lb. On the other hand,
design requirements may be relaxed to permit fast-
eners to be specified that are larger than actually
required, thereby, making the loss of strength
from corrosion unimportant. Or the fastener used
may be made of low strength material with high
corrosion resistance to a particular chemical to
be encountered.
Generally, the analysis of corrosion protection in-
volves a detailed consideration of the following
basic elements in the fastener joint system.
If the design problem is one of direct corrosive
attack, the first line of approach probably will be
to choose a material that offers high resistance to
the corrosive element in the particular environ-
ment involved. Another consideration in choosing
materials,
however, is the possible incompati-
bility of mating metals. Where similar metals can-
not be used, the choice should be metals which are
close together in the galvanic series. Metal couples
that are far removed in galvanic potential should
be avoided. For example, a bare stainless steel
insert in a bare magnesium plate probably would
loosen from galvanic corrosion in only one or two
days after assembly. Where metals close in the
galvanic series are not possible, the designer may
apply a fastener material that is cathodic to the
joint material and rely on the area rule principle
to control corrosion. The area rule principle is
based on the idea that the rate of galvanic corro-
sion is a function of the relative areas of anodic
(less noble) and cathodic (more noble) metals. The
greater the area of the anodic metal, which is the
metal that corrodes, the less severe the corrosion.
In practise, it is sometimes possible to use incom-
patible metals such as steel fasteners in an alumi-
nium structure without serious corrosion provided
the area of aluminium is relatively large. If the
materials are reversed, and the aluminium rivets
are used in a steel structure, corrosion will be
rapid because of the relatively small area of the
aluminium anode.
Protective coatings are normally used as economi-
cal substitutes for expensive,
corrosion resistant
base materials or to prevent galvanic corrosion
between incompatible metals.
Low cost coatings include paint, hot dip zinc and
phosphate oils.
11
Zinc galvanising is widely used as a protective
coating for industrial fasteners with broad toler-
ances. Thick coatings of galvanised zinc, however,
are unsuited for precision threaded fasteners.
Where cost is a governing factor, and corrosion is
not likely to be severe, conversion-type coatings
provide economical protection for close tolerance
industrial fasteners. Included in this category are
various phosphate base coatings for carbon and
alloy steel fasteners.
Passivation, another form of conversion treatment,
makes many stainless steel alloys more resistant
to corrosion.
Electroplating, generally, is a superior process
for providing corrosion protection for fastened
joints. Chromium plating, for example, which is
known as a barrier plating, provides a layer of
metal that is more noble and therefore less sus-
ceptible to corrosion than the base metal. Another
form of electroplating is known as a sacrificial type.
This type of plating uses cadmium, for example,
because it is less noble than the base metal, so it
corrodes, thereby protecting the base metal of the
fastener.
Economical corrosion protection is provided in
many non- fastener applications by use of noble
metal barrier coatings such as chromium plating.
However, to be effective, a noble metal coating
must be at least 0.001 in. thick, to bridge over the
impurities common to deposited platings. If the
coating is thinner than 0. 001 in. the plating may be
worse than no protection at all because breaks in a
noble metal coating expose the less noble metal
below to rapid deterioration by galvanic action.
The two most widely used sacrificial platings for
threaded fasteners are cadmium and zinc. Since
cadmium and zinc are considered toxic to humans,
tin is often used in food industry applications. Fre-
quently, cadmium and zinc coatings are rendered
even more corrosion resistant by post plating chro-
mate conversion treatment.
If cadmium plating is exposed to temperatures
above 450F it begins to melt and attacks the base
material. Cadmium should not be used in airtight
applications since, in the absence of oxygen, it
forms whiskers of cadmium salts.
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
Care must be taken to prevent hydrogen embrittle-
ment when some metal fasteners are electroplated.
Delayed embrittlement failure caused by the absorp-
tion of free hydrogen during cleaning and electro-
plating occurs primarily in plated carbon and alloy
steels.
The cause of the embrittlement is hydrogen which
is trapped beneath the surface of the metal, a
source of which is the acid cleaning prior to elec-
troplating and the plating process itself. In both
cases, atomic hydrogen is liberated at the surface
of the metal being treated. It is a well established
fact that atomic hydrogen can and will diffuse
through steel, whereas steel is opaque to molecu-
lar hydrogen. Under loading, which causes the
components to flex, bend or flatten, the atomic hy-
drogen will migrate ahead of the stress and collect
at dislocations (usually grain boundaries) and form
molecular hydrogen which cannot further diffuse.
Pressure will build up at these points until it ex-
ceeds the tensile strength of the steel at which time
rupture occurs. Each of these ruptures acts as a
sharp notch which effectively lowers the ductility,
and as this occurs at countless points throughout
the component, it exhibits a very brittle nature.
Unless the part is charged very heavily with hydro-
gen, it will exhibit good properties when first load-
ed, failure will occur later from a few minutes to
ninety hours. Components which show no failure
after being loaded for 96 hours are considered to
be free from embrittlement.
Prevention of hydrogen embrittlement begins with
good heat treatment. All oil and grease from prior
manufacturing operations should be removed. A
proper atmosphere must be maintained in the hard-
ening furnace to prevent the formation of scale or
soot. After quenching, the work should be cleaned
of the quench oil before the tempering operation.
As zinc is less noble than cadmium in the electro-
motive series, more hydrogen will be liberated and
absorbed during electroplating with zinc than cad-
mium. For this reason zinc plated parts are more
susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than cad-
mium plated parts.
After plating, the work should be baked to remove
as much of the hydrogen as possible, as the speed
and completeness of the hydrogen removal varies
directly with the temperature, the highest tempera-
ture possible should be used. The limiting factor
usually is the ability of the plating material to with-
stand oxidisation. For the customary finishes,
such as zinc and cadmium this upper limit is about
425 F. Whilst four hours at this temperature will
remove most of the hydrogen and is generally ad-
equate for parts loaded in pure tension, a minimum
of eight hours is required for parts which are load-
ed in bending.
As a measurement of the effectiveness of the dif-
ferent processes of production, it is good practice
to daily test load random samples from each type
of plating in accordance with acceptable, internal
A. Q. L. sampling practices.
It can be seen that simple or idealised solutions to
corrosion problems rarely are practicable and
since the designer usually must work within a bud-
get and an established framework of functional re-
quirements, it may be concluded that designing for
optimum corrosion resistance requires careful
study, intelligent analysis and wise compromise.
The designer must select from the many ways of
reducing corrosion, the materials, coatings, sea-
lants and environmental controls that will provide
adequate corrosion protection to meet the major
design parameters at an acceptable cost.
12
Retaining rings and fixes
by F.H. Bowler (Moulded fasteners Ltd.
,
Plastics Div. , Geo. Salter & Co. Ltd.)
The retaining ring or circlip is designed basically
to provide a shoulder, on a shaft or in a bore, and
in so doing offers an economic and mechanically
sound method of positioning and retaining compo-
nent parts.
This Chapter deals mainly with retaining rings pro-
duced, by high speed press methods, from metal
strip. The range manufactured to-day is now very
wide, and from the original basic types, alterna-
tive shapes and designs have been developed to suit
and satisfy specific applications.
Fig.1 .
INTERNAL BASIC EXTERNAL BASIC
O
AXIAL ASSEMBLY
The basic types illustrated. Fig. 1, serve the large
majority of retaining ring applications, where axial
assembly is possible.
The tapered section, decreasing symmetrically
from mid section to the free ends, ensures that the
ring maintains circularity when expanded or con-
tracted within the working limits of its normal use,
this being approximately 10 per cent of its dia-
meter. Their design also provides for a constant
pressure against the bottom of the groove, making
them secure against heavy thrust loads. The ex-
ternal ring may be used in assemblies subjected
to strong centrifugal forces and is secure against
high rev. /min.
The inverted lug type rings shown in Fig. 2 incor-
porate certain modifications to the basic types, in
order to satisfy certain specific fastening problems.
Fig. 2.
INTERNAL INVERTED EXTERNAL INVERTED
o
o
They differ from the standard internal and external
rings in two ways
-
the section height is increased
and the lugs inverted, so that they abut the bottom
of the groove. Due to the lug design these rings
provide less contact with the groove wall and there-
fore have a lower thrust load capacity than the
basic rings. For certain applications, however,
the following characteristics may well prove either
advantageous or desirable:
a. Due to the lug design on the internal ring a
larger clearance diameter is possible through the
ring. On the external ring, a smaller overall dia-
meter is possible
-
a useful feature when an as-
sembly is required to pass through, or locate in,
a minimum diameter housing.
b. This design provides a higher shoulder than the
standard rings and one that is uniformly concentric
to the shaft or housing. For this reason the inver-
ted rings are suitable for locating and retaining
lenses, seals and other components having curved
surfaces. The higher shoulder also makes it pos-
sible for these rings to accommodate ball, needle
and roller bearings and other items with large cor-
ner radii or chamfers.
c. When used externally, this ring looks better
than the basic ring and for this reason is especial-
ly suited to external applications on cameras, of-
fice machinery, domestic appliances and other
products where appearance is important.
The rings illustrated in Fig. 3 have been developed
to obtain an exceptionally high shoulder, and as
far as possible a uniformly distributed abutting
area around the circumference. The external con-
tour of the lugs of the external type and the inter-
nal contour of the lugs of the internal type have
been designed so that they lie on a circle concen-
tric with shaft or bore respectively. These rings
are mainly used for retention of bearings or com-
ponents with large corner radii. This design is
widely used on the Continent but is not so common
in this country or America.
In many assemblies, dimensional tolerances in ring
thickness, groove location or the overall length of
13
Fig. 4.
INTERNAL BOWED EXTERNAL BOWED
the machine components being retained add up to
a degree of clearance, or end-play, between the
abutting surfaces of the ring and the retained part.
A useful development from the basic internal and
external rings has been the bowed rings and bevel-
led rings. The former are widely used in this coun-
try, but the latter type which originated in America
have not been so readily accepted. The bowed ring
provides a resilient end-play take up, whilst the
bevelled ring is intended for rigid end-play take up.
The bowed rings illustrated in Fig. 4 are designed
to take up end-play resiliently and to dampen vib-
rations and oscillations. They are intended for
relatively small assemblies where diameters of
shaft, bore or housing do not exceed l|- in. As can
be seen from the illustration, they differ from the
basic rings in that they are bowed cylindrically
around an axis normal to the diameter bisecting
the ring gap. It can be seen that this bowing makes
it possible for the rings to take up end-play caused
by tolerances in groove location or the parts to be
retained.
The bowed rings provide resilient end-play take-
up in an axial direction while maintaining a tight
grip against the bottom of the groove. Proper
orientation of the rings is important for optimum
performance. Internal rings should be assembled
with the convex surface abutting the retained part;
the external ring should be installed with the con-
cave surface against the part. In addition to pro-
viding resilient end-play take-up in an assembly,
these rings may be used to pre-load bearings, pre-
vent rattle in machine linkages and provide spring
tension on adjusting screws. In the event of groove
wear, or if the groove for a flat basic ring has
been cut oversize, then the bowed ring can use-
fully be used to salvage the assembly. Average
amount of take-up possible with both internal and
external rings is 0. 010 in.
The bevelled rings, see Fig. 5, are designed to
provide rigid end-play in assemblies and other ap-
plications where manufacturing tolerances
-
or
perhaps wear in the parts being retained
-
cause
end-play between the ring and the retained part.
These rings differ from the flat basic rings in that
the edge in contact with the groove is bevelled to
an angle of 15. The bevel is therefore located
Fig. 5.
INTERNAL BEVELLED EXTERNALBEVELLED
around the outer circumference of the internal ring
and around the inner circumference of the external
ring. The groove required for these rings has a
corresponding
15 bevel on the load bearing wall
of the groove. The ring should be seated at least
half way in the groove to provide sufficient contact
area with the load-bearing groove wall.
When a bevelled ring is installed in its groove, it
acts as a wedge between the outer groove wall and
the part being retained. When there is end-play
between the ring and the abutting face of the retain-
ed part, the ring's spring action causes it to con-
tract or expand more deeply into the groove, thus
compensating for the end-play. It also exerts an
axial force against the retained part. If necessary,
the axial force can be calculated from an analysis
of the forces caused by ihe spring action of the ring
on the bevelled groove.
RADIAL ASSEMBLY
In many assemblies it may be impossible or im-
practical to install external retaining rings
-
of the
types already described
-
axially along the shaft.
The rings described in this section have been de-
veloped to accommodate this type of assembly.
Whilst it must be generally accepted that the parts
to be described will not withstand the loads sup-
ported by axial assembled rings, the radial assem-
bled rings offer two very important features
-
low
unit cost and rapid assembly. With these types,
methods of dispensing and application are available
which make them ideal for high speed mass pro-
duction.
The E-ring illustrated in Fig. 6 is probably the
most widely used and most popular ring of the
radial type. It provides a relatively large shoulder
on small diameter spindles. Although contact with
the groove is provided only through three prongs,
spaced approximately 120 apart, a comparatively
deep groove serves to increase this fastener's
thrust load capacity.
Fig.6.
c
Fig. 7.
CRESCENT
(REGISTERED
TRADE MARK)
n
The 'Crescent' ring illustrated in Fig. 7 is another
popular radial type ring and because of its shallow
section height and uniform shoulder, is ideal for
assemblies in which clearance dimensions are
critical, secure against moderate thrust loads and
vibration, neat in appearance and easily applied.
The E-ring and 'Crescent' ring retainers are read-
ily available through a wide range of spindle sizes.
Both types are more easily assembled with the help
of an applicator as illustrated in Fig. 8, and to
load the rings, a fixture
as illustrated in Fig. 9
may be used. The ring is pushed forward against
14
Fig. 8.
MILLED RECESS
Fig. 9.
ASSEMBLY FIXTURE
the vertical section of the fixture, and the recessed
jaws of the applicator spring round the ring holding
it firmly.
Being held under spring tension, the ring cannot be
dislodged until it is applied to the groove. As the
ring's gripping power on the shaft is greater than
the tension of the applicator jaws, the ring remains
in the groove when the applicator is withdrawn.
Applicators can be angled or cranked to suit cer-
tain locations.
The rings illustrated in Fig. 10 show variations in
design from the E-ring and 'Crescent' ring types.
None of these are so widely known or accepted as
the two previous types, and the size range for each
is limited -
however, each appears to be preferred
for certain applications in industry.
To conclude the radial assembled rings, are two
types for end-play take-up. The bowed E-ring
illustrated in Fig. 11 is similar in construction
to the flat E-ring but differs in that it is bowed
cylindrically around an axis normal to the diameter
bisecting the ring gap.
Fig. 11
SECTION I-
Fig.12.
PRONG-LOCK (REGISTERED TRADE MARK)
Fig. 13.
*^a.
TJ
(a)
(b)
INSTALLATION
(a) RING IS PLACED NEXT
TO SHAFT AND COM-
PRESSED WITH SCREW
DRIVER (OR APPLICATOR)
UNTIL LOCKING PRONGS
ENTER GROOVE
(b) RING IS THEN PUSHED
FORWARD UNTIL
PRONGS PASS OUTER
CIRCUMFERENCE OF
SHAFT AT WHICH
TIME RING SPRINGS
BACK TO NORMAL
BOWED POSITION AND
PRONGS LOCK AROUND
SHAFT
The bowed ring is designed to provide resilient
end-play take-up similar to that of the basic types
- for best results the ring is installed with the con-
cave surface abutting the retained part. These
rings cannot be used with a dispenser, due to the
bow -
but may be assembled with an applicator.
The ring illustrated in Fig. 12 is an excellent bow-
ed type ring. It provides end-play take-up, but in
addition the two small 'ears' provide a positive
lock behind the groove and ensure that the part
cannot dislodge. Two flats, one on each side, give
a good bearing surface. Assembled as shown in
Fig. 13.
PUSH-ON AND SELF LOCKING TYPES
The final group of retainers to be described, is
one which provides a range of parts invaluable to
industry in general, where rapid assembly of large
quantities of components is required. In many as-
semblies, it is impractical, or may be undesir-
able, due to cost, to cut a groove in a shaft or
housing. This is particularly true in the case of
toys, small appliances, plastics products and other
applications where the shoulder provided by the
retainer is not required to withstand any sizeable
load, but merely to position or act as a locking
device.
For applications such as these the push-on-fixes
are essential, and although there are many types
for the engineer to choose from, they are all based
on the same simple but effective design. Table 1
shows a selection of parts currently ayailable and
in use to-day, each one has prongs which are de-
flected backwards as the fix is pushed down the
shaft. Whilst it is possible to continue movement
of the part in the direction of the assembly, the
grip of the inclined prongs will prevent movement
in the opposite direction. Ideally suited for die-
cast and plastics studs, and certain types will
cater
for rivets, tubing and wire.
15
o
Table 1 .
Pushon fix with an arched rim For increased strength and thrust load capaci-
ty. Extra long prongs accommodate wide shaft tolerances.
o
Push-on fix with a flat rim, has shorter prongs and smaller outside dia-
meter. Ideal where flat contact surface with retained part is required or
clearance dimensions are critical
.

Push-on fix with three prongs only, which provides stronger fixing than the
above parts. Also provides a large shoulder relative to spindle diameter.

Push-on fix where the inside form is star shaped


-
this design is normally
used on very small spindles, i.e. is to 4 . Particularly suitable for miniature
assemblies where smallest possible outside diameter is necessary.
O
Pushon fix with only two prongs, diametrically opposed, and the design al-
lows for considerable flexing, allowing quite wide tolerance on spindle.
IE3I
Push-on fix similar to the above, but rectangular in shape. Rectangular
part normally used for tight load applications.
Upturned end ensures that fastener will not dig into abutment surface. Allows
quite wide tolerance on spindle.
The inexpensive tool illustrated in Fig. 14 simpli-
fies the assembly operation of pushing on the cir-
cular push-on fasteners. It provides clearance for
the locking prongs to flex as the fastener moves
along the shaft and exerts an even thrust around
the periphery. A similar tool exists for the rect-
angular parts, but with the latter parts application
pressure is only exerted on the two long sides of
the fastener.
It will be appreciated that the push-on fix detail
can be incorporated into clips of a special nature
where the quantity to be used warrants special
tooling.
A comparatively recent addition to the various
types of self locking fasteners has been the so
called 'Gripring' illustrated in Fig. 15. This is
an extremely useful part, similar in shape to the
basic external rings but differing in several re-
spects. Firstly, it is pressed from a thicker gauge
and has a larger section height
-
the ratio between
the section height and free diameter is quite dif-
ferent from the standard ring. The overall size
of the 'Gripring' is much larger than the basic ring
for a given spindle size, providing a higher retain-
ing shoulder.
The ring is applied and removed with pliers, usually
a heavier or stronger type, to cope with the heavier
gauge - for suitable production assemblies a fix-
ture can be designed to incorporate a wedge moving
between the lugs to spread the ring, the spindle can
then be fed into'the ring. The 'Gripring' can be used
on tubes where the groove for a conventional ring
would be impossible, on plastics spindles, castings
and other parts not normally machined to close
tolerances.
On a mild steel shaft the 'Gripring' offers good re-
sistance to thrust loads, e. g. for a
\
in. dia. shaft
0. 002 in. , the appropriate ring will withstand
loads of up to approximately 35 lb.
Fig. 15.
GRIPRING (REGISTERED TRADE MARK)
16
MATERIALS - FINISHES - PACKING
The standard material for most types of retaining
rings and fasteners is carbon spring steel En42
or CS70. On certain small type sizes, beryllium
copper is standard. Providing a sufficient quantity
is required to justify purchase of the material,
most parts can be manufactured in beryllium cop-
per or phosphor bronze, should the application call
for a non-ferrous part.
Generally speaking, it is found that stamped re-
taining rings and wire formed retaining rings are
complimentary to each other, both serving indus-
try generally in a very wide field of application.
Production of stainless steel retaining rings in this
country is now practically nil, due mainly to the
difficulties of obtaining suitable strip material and
the limited demand which makes economic produc-
tion impossible. As a result most stainless rings
are imported from the USA.
The normal standard finishes for most parts in
spring steel are 'chemical black' or 'blued' finish.
Where desirable cadmium and zinc plating can be
applied and zinc chromate paint is also used for
certain parts and applications.
Basic type rings, E-rings and 'Crescent' rings, can
all be tape stacked, and this type of packing offers
several advantages. The rings are easily handled.
counted and identified -
the tape has the ring type
and size printed on it
-
there can be no tangling
of rings.
Development of special parts is often undertaken,
and these mostly occur in the 'push-on' field where
a specific fastening for a component can be satis-
fied by a clip incorporating the 'fix' detail.
Quantities have to be sufficient to justify design
and tooling and a requirement in excess of 100, 000
parts would normally be necessary if a low piece
part price is to be achieved.
WIRE FORMED RETAINING RINGS
These are normally coiled automatically from cold
drawn spring wire of a uniform section and shape.
The gap ends are cut according to the design re-
quirement and may be square or angled. The wire
ring is available in various cross sectional shapes,
the most popular, however, being round, square
and rectangular.
Probably the biggest single advantage of the wire
ring is its ability to expand or contract over a
much wider size range than the pressed ring, this
being due to the material grain structure. As a
result of this spring action, they are able to com-
pensate large shaft or bore tolerances if seated
without radial play. They are particularly useful
for shafts or housings of non-standard dimensions,
i. e. not covered by the pressed rings, and where
the quantity does not justify press tooling.
c
salten I
OMPONENTS
GROUP
Saltersprings
Salter Precision
Presswork Ltd.
Salterfix Ltd.
Salter Machining
Salter Heat
Treatment
Saltercast
components group
All types of springs from wire,
for all trades.
Specialists in precision
presswork.
Standard circlipsand fasteners
of many types.
Auto turning, capstan turning,
milling and gear hobbing.
Austempering capacity for bulk
quantity work.
Grey iron casting, aluminium
sand casting and pressure die
casting.
London
Spring
Co. Ltd.
Moulded
Fasteners Ltd.
Concise Tools
Ltd.
Multi-slide presswork.
Injection moulding capacity up
to 17oz. Experience in all
thermoplastic materials.
All types of Press tooling,
Multi-Slide tooling. Experience
in high class multi-stage tools.
Salter Components Group. Spring Road Smethwick. Warley. Worcs.
17
3
Eyelets
by W.T.J.Bownes (Geo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.)
The dictionary definition of an 'eyelet' is simply
'a small hole
1
but the term is generally accepted
as denoting a metal re-inforcement or neatener
for a manufactured hole in some less rigid mate-
rial. The usage of metal eyelets in this context
goes back a century or so, notably on sails and tar-
paulins, and the smaller varieties later began to
be used on boots and corsets. During the interven-
ing years hole reinforcement eyeletting, latterly
by automatic and semi-automatic means, of labels
and swing-tickets, tents and camping equipment,
industrial aprons, waterproof clothing, bedding,
travel goods, etc. , has assumed increasing cur-
rency and perhaps the most recent extension of this
is the eyeletting of reinforced polyethylene shroud-
ing to enable building work to continue during the
winter season.
Between the wars eyelets began to be used as fas-
teners for file fittings as a logical extension of
their usage on other stationery items and the idea
was quickly taken up by the radio industry where
numerous applications for a lightly stressed fas-
tener were beginning to appear.
The demands of these industries for high-rate in-
sertion machinery inspired improved manufacturing
techniques with closer tolerances and from thence
developed the wide range of eyelets and associated
inserting tools available today.
DESCRIPTION
Applications for metal eyelets are legion and in-
volve the whole spectrum of light industry but for
the purposes of this Chapter we can roughly sub-
divide them into three main categories:
1. Assembly types
2. Contact types and
3. Grommet types
Fig.1 . Drawn eyelet.
Assembly eyelets
Drawn. Assembly or fastener eyelets are made
from brass, copper, steel, nickel, monel and alum-
inium in diameters from 0. 047 to 0. 750 in. and in
lengths up to 2. 5 in. , see Fig. 1. These are pro-
duced by three basic means dependent upon length
to diameter ratio. The larger proportion of these
eyelets have a length: diameter ratio of less than
4:1 and are produced from the surface of metal
strip by progression or follow-on drawing opera-
tion. This method produces an eyelet of good mec-
hanical and visual quality, having a degree of taper
Fig. 2. Seamed eyelet
.
in the barrel (shank) and with some thinning down
in the wall toward the shank end. The stock mat-
erial thickness will vary with the size of eyelet but
is generally within the region of 0. 010 -
0. 020 in.
(heavier gauges can be adopted for special pur-
poses) and the average wall thickness will be some-
where below these figures. The flange or head on
this type of eyelet can be of more or less infinite
diameter if so required and of one of three basic
configurations: round-rim, flat-rim or counter-
sunk (funnel). The average flange diameter approx-
imates to a 50 per cent increase on the barrel dia-
meter but special flange forms can be readily pro-
duced to order. The majority of such eyelets can
be automatically fed.
Seamed.
Where the length: diameter ratio needs to
exceed
4:1, or for reasons which will suggest them-
selves later, the second basic manufacturing meth-
od is to blank
from
strip and roll the eyelet with
18
a longitudinal butted seam, see Fig. 2. By this
means brass or steel eyelets of 0. 050 in. diameter
with a length of say 0. 500 in. can be produced with
parallel barrels whilst lengths of up to 2. in. can
be offered in larger diameters. Limitations exist
on the flange diameters that can be offered with
this type of eyelet and all will exhibit a segmental
slot in the flange relative to the butted seam. The
majority of these eyelets are not suitable for auto-
matic insertion.
Tube. Where, for reaons of mechanical strength
or for aesthetic considerations, the butt-seamed
type of eyelet cannot be adopted, eyelets of diameters
from 0. 047 in. upwards and of lengths of up to 3.
in. are fabricated from brass, copper or alumin-
ium tube, see Fig. 3. Head diameters of up to 50
Fig. 3. Tube eyelet.
per cent above the shank diameter are offered and
of the three basic types available with the drawn
eyelets, i. e. rolled-rim, flat-rim and countersunk
(funnel). Wall thicknesses tend to be of the same
basic order as the stock material for the drawn
eyelet, i. e. 0. 010-0. 020 in. dependent upon dia-
meter and in general those eyelets having a length:
diameter ratio of 4. 5:1 or less can be automatically
fed, although this ratio can be exceeded in some
circumstances, as discussed later in this Chapter.
Contact type eyelets
,
including eyelet tags
Eyelets are used in various ways to promote elec-
trical continuity and some of these are mentioned
here.
Single and double-winged tags with integral round
or square eyelet barrels are used on transformer
bobbins, coil formers, etc. The single-winged
type, see Fig. 4, are supplied with the wing bent
at various angles and are generally hand assem-
bled, although at the time of going to press an auto-
matically fed machine is being developed. Double-
winged tags, see Fig. 5, some with blades suitable
for receptacle (quick- connect) connection, are gen-
erally supplied unbent for automatic insertion by
means of a modified eyelet machine. This machine
inserts and clenches the eyelet barrelled tag at the
same time forming up one or both wings at
90
to
the plane of the Danel or bobbin. These tags are
generally of brass, suitably finished for soldering.
n
n
Fig.4. Single wing tag
Wire-end tags are similar to the single-winged
tags
described above but having long wings of up to 2.0
in. or so, generally 0.031 in. wide, see Fig. 6.
These are usually of brass or phosphor-bronze,
suitably finished, and are used to terminate capa-
citors of various types. They are not suitable for
automatic assembly.
A range of terminal
eyelets, having internal dia-
meters when set, suitable to accommodate
BA to
8 BA screws, are available. Manufactured from
brass and suitably finished, they are used to ter-
minate the motor leads in refrigerators and vacuum
/^\
KJ
Fig. 5. Double wing tag.
19
^jFig.6. Wire-end tag
.
Fig. 7. Terminal eyelet
cleaners, and the mains cables of electric irons,
etc. They are automatically fed and set by a ver-
sion of the eyelet machine which forms a loop in
the stripped lead end and clenches the appropriate
diameter eyelet on to the preformed wire (Fig. 7).
Eyelets are used on ceramic feed-through devices
and on glass /metal seals, of steel, Nilo-K or Ko-
var, see Fig. 8. Brass eyelets are similarly used
on feed-through capacitors, usually being slit to
accommodate the diametral variation encountered
in the ceramic bodies of these devices, see Fig. -9.
Grommet type eyelets
This term is used in the broad sense to cover the
use of an eyelet to bush a hole in rigid or flexible
material for any purpose. This type of application
extends from the thin- walled brass eyelet used on
labels through zinc, brass and aluminium eyelets
used on garments and footwear to sail eyelets and
spur-toothed grommet eyelets up to 2.0 in. dia-
meter. Oval eyelets are also included in this cate-
gory and are available in a range of sizes and fin-
ishes, generally made from brass (Figs. 10-14).
Fig. 9. Body eyelet
capacitor.
High-speed inserting machines, having sequential
punching and eyeletting operations, are supplied
for the smaller sizes used by the garment and foot-
wear industries, see Fig. 15. The larger sizes
are generally hand-fed as it is often necessary to
use mobile tools owing to the nature of materials
involved.
MATERIALS AND FINISHES
The normal materials involved in eyelet manufac-
ture have been mentioned when describing the vari-
ous types, however, some comment on the proper-
ties of each will assist designers. By far the lar-
ger proportion of assembly eyelets are of brass,
with steel and aluminium following in that order.
The drawing qualities of brass lend themselves
admirably to the fashioning of an acceptable eye-
let in terms of appearance and general perform-
ance whilst being non-ferrous and of good electri-
cal conductivity it can be used widely on electrical
Fig. 10. Stationery
eyelet.
Fig.11. Shoe eyelet
(nicked)
.
apparatus. Shear and tensile strengths are gene-
rally adequate for the type of application found in
this class of assembly, and increased mechanical
performance can be obtained where necessary by
the adoption of a tube eyelet having a greater wall
thickness.
Steel is the most widely used alternative to brass
in the general assembly field, having two advan-
20
New Unbrako Loc-Wel socket screws have a radically
different kind of locking element. They represent a
significant advance over all other conventional self-locking
screws. The locking element is a thin skin of nylon fused
onto the threads: no drilling or slotting is involved.
It has an exceptional plastic memory that has enabled
Loc-Wel to be used many, many times.
Loc-Wel is the first full-strength self-locking socket screw.
No grain flow lines cut. No metal removed. No hardness
"let down". And since the Loc-Wel element is spread
over 4, 5 or more threads a greater surface tension is
obtained, allowing adjustment over a wide range.
Loc-Wel is available now from Unbrako on most
Unbrako socket, cap, or set screws. With all normal
finishes (another exclusive Loc-Wel advantage).
Get together with
Unbrako Limited
_ _
pp_ pHppH ppH
Burnaby Road, Coventry
A member of the SPS group of companies
Nodrilling
Noslotting
Noburrs
Nochips
Nomoisture traps
Noscrew
softening
Nolock nuts
Nolock washers
Nospring washers
Nokidding
Loc-Wel
^
Fig. 12. Sail eyelet and ring.
tages, i. e. reduced cost and increased mechanical
efficiency. However, the problems of corrosion,
etc. , outweigh these in most instances and brass
continues to be favoured. Aluminium is used where
the joint is only lightly stressed as the harder al-
loys do not respond well either to the drawing meth-
od of manufacture or subsequent processing. How-
ever, it has the advantage of cheapness and is some-
times used preferentially for this reason in very
light assemblies. Tube eyelets manufactured from
aluminium have the improved mechanical qualities
consistent with their greater wall thickness and can
be used in place of drawn brass eyelets or where
length:diameter ratios of greater than 4:1 are re-
quired.
Monel is one of the stainless group of alloys and
has most of the properties desirable in an eyelet.
The setting loads dictated by the relative hardness
of this material are greater than for brass or steel
drawn eyelets and its use is therefore restricted
to applications where its stainless properties are
considered essential.
The finish required in a fastener type eyelet will
necessarily vary with the desired performance and
environmental conditions. Brass and copper eye-
lets are supplied bright -dipped for decorative pur-
poses or moderate environmental conditions, other-
wise normally nickel -plated. They can be electro
-
tinned or stannate tin- dipped, the former being a
solderable finish, with or without a prior nickel
flash to prevent zinc migration. Brass, copper or
phosphor-bronze solder tags will be normally elec-
tro-tinned or solder coated (hot-tin-dipped) with
or without a prior nickel flash.
Steel eyelets will normally be nickel-plated to pre-
vent corrosion, or alternatively cadmium plated
to special order. A brass finish can be applied for
decorative purposes or very moderate environmen-
tal conditions.
Nickel and monel eyelets are normally used as
made, no additional treatment being necessary.
Aluminium eyelets are used as made in moderate
environmental conditions but where electrolytic
problems are likely to be encountered, anodising
is standard practice.
Fig. 14. Oval eyelet.
ADVANTAGES
OF EYELETS OVER
ALTERNATIVE FASTENERS
a. Low product price.
b. Low installed cost using unskilled labour.
c. Flexibility.
The prime advantage of the eyelet system of as-
sembly is undoubtedly its low installed cost. The
drawn type assembly eyelet compares very favour-
ably in product price with rivets, screws, etc.
,
and having regard to the moderately priced high-
speed feed machines available, often at low rentals,
the system is easy to install and operate, requir-
ing normally only un- skilled or semi-skilled fe-
male operators. Assembly times per fastener will
obviously vary with the complexity of the piece-
Fig. 15. Highspeed
inserting machine for
grommet eyelets (Re-
produced by courtesy
of George Tucker
Eyelet Co. Ltd.).
22
^1
Fig. 16. A powered
eyelet machine (Re-
produced by courtesy
of George Tucker
Eyelet Co. Ltd.).
Fig. 17. A powered
bench-mounted
eyeletter
(Repro-
duced by courtesy
of George Tucker
Eyelet Co. Ltd.). [
parts involved but will show great economies over
threaded fasteners, etc.
Setting pressures can easily be regulated to allow
movement of one piece-part relative to others and
the system can be adopted therefore to provide ar-
ticulated joints of various types in lightly stressed
assemblies, in toys and models for example and
on metering devices, watch bracelets, etc. Eye-
lets having double diameters can be used to replace
relatively expensive shouldered turned parts with
the extra advantage of semi-automatic assembly
added. Given that the eyelet system of assembly
is used in its correct context as a light fastening
system with full cognisance of the mechanical pro-
perties of the eyelet involved, this system has no
disadvantage compared to alternative methods.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Having regard to the availability of the thousands of
assorted sizes of fastener eyelets and to the easily
installed nature of the eyelet system, usually at
most requiring a mains electrical supply, design-
ers are sometimes inclined to assume the fact of
eyeletting and leave this detail until too late a stage
of development. Great advantages can follow from
considering the fastening aspect of the design at
the earliest possible stage so as to (a) enable the
use of a standard eyelet with its obvious cost ad-
vantage and (b) to utilise this eyelet in the most
economical way in terms of operator and assem-
bly machine efficiency.
Counterbores in one or both of the external compo-
nents can often be arranged, subject to the strength
requirement involved, to enable a standard drawn
eyelet to be used in place of the more expensive
tube eyelet, or to permit semi-automatic assem-
bly. Such design considerations, to be effective
from the cost view-point, must be incorporated at
Fig.18. A manually
operated bench-
mounted eyeletter
(Reproduced by court-
esy of George Tucker
Eyelet Co. Ltd.).
a sufficiently early stage, as secondary operations
to effect them later are invariably stop-gap and ex-
pensive.
To take full advantage of the low installed cost fac-
tor, designs should take into account the require-
ments of the hopper-fed semi-automatic eyelet
machine in terms of accessibility and clearance
diameters for the necessary pierced or drilled
holes in the piece-parts. Such holes should have
approximately 0. 008 in. clearance over the nom-
inal external diameter of the associated eyelet and
should be at sufficient distance from any obstruc-
tion as to allow the access by the tool-post. Tool-
post diameters will of course vary with the eyelet
diameter but a high proportion of fastener eyelets
are clenched on tools of 0. 250 in. diameter held
in approximately 0.500 in. diameter tool posts. It
will be seen therefore that in these
circumstances
a hole-cent re distance from the obstructing mem-
ber of at least 0. 250 in. is normal but this dis-
tance can be reduced slightly where the height of
the obstructing member is below say 1.0 in. and
the eyelet diameter will allow. Tool post heights
of 1.5 in. and 3.0 in. are standard but posts of up
23
to 10. in. in height can be specially supplied on
certain machines to enable eyelets to be clenched
inside deep box assemblies.
In general the utilisation
of a powered eyeletter as
illustrated in Fig. 16 requires clear access to the
face of the piece-parts on which the eyelet flange
will show although obstructions of a maximum height
of say 0. 75 in. can be tolerated provided adequate
hole-centre to obstruction
distance to accommo-
date the eyelet flange support tool is maintained.
Powered and manually operated bench mounted
machines are shown in Figs. 17 and 18.
Small tube eyelets down to 0. 047 in. diameter and
with length:diameter
ratios of up to 8:1 can be suc-
cessfully fed and set by means of a pneumatically
operated bench-mounted
eyelet machine illustrated
in Fig.
19. This type of machine has a vibratory
feed system and presents the eyelet flange down-
Fig. 19. A
pneumatically operated
bench-mounted
eyelet machine (Reproduced
by courtesy of George
Tucker
Eyelet Co . Ltd . )
.
wards for the operator to assemble the piece-parts
thereon. Hole diameters can therefore be held to
within plus 0. 003 in. of the nominal eyelet diameter
and multiple piece-parts can be effectively assem-
bled.
Where the eyelet length:diameter ratio or the con-
figuration of the piece-parts precludes the usage
of a powered or hopper-fed eyeletter, a hand-fed
treadle operated press, see Fig. 20, can be util-
ised and tooling can usually accommodate most sit-
uations. Such presses are made in a range of frame
sizes to provide adequate clearance for the piece-
parts.
Pliers having a back clearance of approximately
1.0 in. and accommodating
eyelets of up to 0. 275
in diameter are illustrated in Fig. 21. These are
not normally utilised for production batches but
are useful model- shop or service tools.
The setting tools for all the machines so far des-
cribed will necessarily vary dimensionally
to suit
the machine for which they are intended but in one
Fig. 20. A hand-fed
manually
operated
eyelet press (Re-
produced
by courtesy
of George
Tucker
Eyelet Co. Ltd.).
important aspect they must be alike. This aspect
is performance,
and for this they depend on good
design and workmanship.
The major design con-
sideration is involved with providing the maximum
strength in tension consistent with the base mater-
ial of the eyelet and this strength is a function of
a clean rolled setting. Such settings are the result
of a correct setting tool profile, perfectly temper-
ed and polished.
Incorrectly made or badly worn
tools can cause collapse of the eyelet barrel which
may give rise to the erroneous impression
that the
eyelet is too short (the average length allowance
for setting is 0. 060 in. ) or may cause the eyelet
setting to split badly with consequent poor appear-
ance and some reduction in strength.
Making of
correct tools is something of an art and the eyelet
manufacturers
can generally be relied upon in their
own interests to provide a good service
in these.
APPLICATIONS
Some typical
applications for assembly eyelets in
approximate order of ascending diameter size are
exampled below.
Assembly of switch contacts to S. R. B. P. or moul-
ded stators, using drawn brass eyelets, silvered
finish,
by means of hopper-fed pedestal eyeletter
s;
or tube eyelets, silvered finish by means of hopper-
fed bench-mounted
pneumatic machines.
The low
setting pressure results in reduced
reject rate com-
pared to alternative fastening methods.
Fig.21 . Eyelet
pliers (Repro-
duced by courtesy
of
George
Tucker
Eyelet
Co. Ltd.).
24
Assembly of terminals on low voltage batteries,
using drawn brass eyelets by means of powered
eyeletters. The usage of an eyelet enables a satis-
factory electrical connection to be established with
or without re-inforcement by soldering.
Assembly of automotive switches using drawn brass
eyelet with rectangular flange, the flange acting as
electrical contact, thus eliminating separate com-
ponent.
Assembly of ceramic bodied lamp holders for spe-
cial lighting using brass tube eyelets, the low rate
of radial expansion and tolerance of changes in as-
sembly thickness proving more efficient than alter-
native methods.
Assembly of socket panels, valve holders, etc. , to
chassis and cabinets in hi-fi, TV domestic radio
and tape equipments, using drawn brass nickel-
plated eyelets, in hopper-fed powered eyeletters.
The low installed cost of the eyelet assembly sys-
tem has proved to be unassailable in this very wide
field. The above mentioned socket panels are typical
of the wide range of components used in the radio
industry which are themselves assembled by means
of eyelets.
In fact the eyelet assembly system is used through-
out industry wherever a lightly stressed perman-
ent fastener is required and its versatility will en-
sure for it a logical place in future light industrial
designs.
PRICES AND ORDERING QUANTITIES,
STANDARD AND SPECIALS
It will be seen from the previous discussions that
low installed cost is the mainstay of the eyelet as-
sembly system and the two major components of
this are (a) low product price and (b) efficient in-
serting machinery. The high rate of production of
the drawn brass eyelet and the enormous
quantities
made contribute toward keeping the product price
at a desirable level. Designers should bear the
quantity component of this price in mind, however,
and select, where possible, eyelets from the stan-
dard range in order to achieve as economic a cost
as possible. Standard eyelets are bulked packed
(that is to say not in multiples of a given quantity)
and are priced by the thousand. Price differentials
relative to quantities ordered apply and therefore
advantages accrue to both sides if larger quanti-
ties with scheduled deliveries are ordered. This
will enable production planning by both parties to
be advantageously implemented.
Seamed eyelets and tube eyelets in brass have a
cost factor of very approximately 2x and 3x re-
spectively in relation to drawn eyelets of similar
dimensions, and the same considerations apply to
price/quantity ordered. Steel and aluminium, where
available, are approximately equal in price quan-
tatively due to the weight factor and are currently
cheaper than the brass equivalents.
The above comments apply to 'standard' eyelets
already tooled and in production, but inevitably
there will be requirements from time to time for
special manufacture of one or the other of the three
basic types of assembly eyelet. In this event the
various methods of manufacture dictate differing
economic ordering quantities and these are broadly
as follows:
Drawn assembly eyelets in brass, steel, alumini-
um, etc. , minimum initial order for special sizes
250, 000-300, 000 off, usually plus part cost of tool-
ing varying with eyelet size and with possibility of
using part of existing tooling.
Seamed eyelets in brass or steel, minimum initial
order for special sizes 50, 000-100, 000 plus part
cost of tooling varying with the blank size involved.
It is not possible to utilise part of existing tooling
for new sizes of this type of eyelet so that the part
tool cost is an inevitable corollary.
In the case of tube eyelets in brass or aluminium,
the method of manufacture from tube involves little
or no- special tooling with no liability, therefore, to
the purchaser in this respect. By the same token
short runs can be undertaken economically by the
manufacturers although it is true to say that longer
runs can produce a higher degree of price reduc-
tion pro-rata than the other two basic types. There
are virtually no standard sizes therefore with this
type of eyelet
-
the available tube diameters con-
stituting the basic limitations. Tube of any prac-
ticable diameter and wall thickness can be obtained
specially and the economic minimum is approxim-
ately 200 ft. run. It will be seen therefore that
minimum quantities with this type of eyelet can be
as low as 10, 000-20, 000 off even for a special size
not previously made.
FUTURE TRENDS
There seems no doubt that the eyelet assembly sys-
tem will continue to find a ready place as the pre-
mier light fastener in a broad range of industry
and that, with increasing cost of labour, its low
installed cost will find it new applications every-
where. However, its utilisation to the fullest ad-
vantage requires intelligent use of the standard
ranges by design and production engineers together
with optimum utilisation of automatic eyeletting
machines. It seems likely, therefore, that the ex-
traordinary diversity of sizes and types currently
made will give way to a rationalised range of sizes,
with steady increments of diameter and length,
which will at once enable designers and method
engineers to plan with the same certainty of ap-
proach as they can with, say, the BA range of
screws, and the manufacturers to offer an impro-
ved performance from the viewpoint of delivery
and tool supply based on increased quantities of
far fewer types.
25
Inserted fasteners
by H.D. Chambers, C.Eng.
,
M.I.Mech.E. (Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.)
Fig.1 . External
view of a wire
thread insert.
(By courtesy of
Armstrong Pat-
ents Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 2. Threaded bushes for insertion into
tapped hole
.
Fig.3a. and 3b. Inserts for
'moulding into' component.
Inserted fasteners for engineering products fall
within one of the following categories:
a. For insertion into a previously threaded hole.
b. Moulded or cast 'in situ'.
c. For insertion into a plain drilled, cored or
moulded hole.
Type (c), logically, would include rivets, but this
field is adequately covered in Chapters 14 and 15.
Rivet bushes, being threaded fasteners for use in
sheet or panel material, are covered below.
Types (a) and (b) will provide for higher strength
fastening then type (c) in many engineering mater-
ials, although this is not so with components mould-
ed from many of the thermosetting plastics, nor
with certain die cast alloys.
Type (a) fasteners include wire thread inserts
(Fig. 1) and threaded bushes (Fig.
2).
Type (b) are threaded
bushes so formed on the outer
surface as to be secure against axial and torsional
Fig.4. Rivet bush. Axial
force applied by hand or
power press using a
special tool first pierces
the hole and 'splines' the
panel and then swages
the sheet metal to pro-
vide retention against
tensile loading and a
'tight' spl ine .
Fig. 5. Rivet bush. After
inserting fastener into
previously pierced or
drilled hole, axial force
is applied by hand punch
or press , rivets the flange
and causes the serrated
face to bite into the panel
surface
.
Fig.4. by courtesy of
Prestincert Ltd. and
Fig. 5. by courtesy of
Benton Engineering Co.
Ltd.
Fig.6. 'Push type'
insert.
26
SHEET
METAL?
WITH
ROSAN PRESS NUTS
THE SIMPLE ANSWER
SO EASY
SO QUICK
SO PROFITABLE
SO WHAT?
-so send for some free ones!
PROVE FOR YOURSELF THAT THIS
EASILY INSTALLED PRESS-NUT:
provides a deep tapped hole in sheet metal
* can be fixed from one side
cannot rotate
is smaller, lighter
requires no riveting or clinching
There is a full range of British, American
and Metric threads

so just write
asking for your sample requirements &
details to INSTRUMENT SCREW CO..
LTD.. NORTHOLT ROAD, SOUTH
HARROW, MIDDX. Tel: 01-422 1141
ROSAN
PRESS NUTS
actual size of
a 2 BA nut
27
Fig.7. For thermosetting
plastics or aluminium
alloys. Held in position by the action of the
insert itself. (By courtesy of Armstrong Pat-
ents Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 8.
(Left) Insert locked in
position by the action of the
screw which expands the fast-
ener. (By coutesy of the Pre-
cision Screw & Mfg. Co. Ltd.)
Fig.9. (Centre) See text reference.
(By courtesy of Heli-Coil Corp.)
f^ig.10. (Right) A self tapping wire thread insert.
(By courtesy of Armstrong Patents Co . Ltd .
)
forces when moulded or cast into the object to be
fastened (Fig. 3).
Type (c) fasteners, other than the self tapping type,
achieve security against exial and torsional forces
by inducing a radial force, producing 'hoop' stress
in the component in which the fastener is located.
In the case of rivet bushes, this radial force is
sometimes replaced by the fastener splining the
plate or panel, or by gripping axially with serra-
tions on the fastener flange biting into the surface
of the panel (Figs. 4 and 5).
Type (c) fasteners, locating and holding by radial
force, take a number of forms, viz. , the expansion
insert which is either expanded by the action of the
insert itself (Figs. 6 and 7), or by the action of the
screw which is inserted after assembly of the mating
components (Fig. 8).
A variant of type (c), which works other than by
induced radial force, is available for thermoplastic
components. This insert (Fig. 9), is pushed into
a moulded hole and the plastics material immedia-
tely adjacent is than heated by inducing vibration
or high speed rotation of the fastener. This causes
local melting and, on resetting of the plastics, the
fastener has chaged its type from (c) to (b) as it is
now, effectively, moulded-in.
Fig. 11a. For rolling
threads into prepared
hole without cutting.
Fig. 11b. Insert cuts
its own thread . Bore
is broached for in-
sertion with an hex-
agonal key
.
The self tapping types are useful in a fairly re-
stricted range of main component materials and
typical types are shown in Figs. 10 and 11.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF THE VARIOUS TYPES
Type (a) inserts (for Insertion into a previously
tapped hole) are used when the main component
material is such that either the thread tapped in it
is substantially weaker than the screw or stud to be
used to make the fastening, or the resistance to
wear is inadequate and /or corrosion (electrolytic
or chemical) is likely to be a problem.
The above may be reasons for 'designing in' the in-
sert or for using it as 'salvage' where service ex-
perience shows this to be necessary.
Wire thread inserts (Fig. 1) have the advantage
over threaded bushes (Fig.
2) in requiring less
space. Effectively, only half the thread depth of
the fastener to be used is added to the standard
tapped hole diameter as can be seen from Fig. 12.
The driving tang can be supplied 'notched' to facili-
tate removal in the case where it is necessary for
the screw to be engaged through the entire length or
inserted from either end. Generally, wire thread
inserts are specified as 'notched' as these are
Fig.12. An installed wire thread insert.
(By court-
esy of Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.)
Fig.13. Wire thread
insert with screw
locking facility. (By
courtesy of Arm-
strong Patents Co . Ltd)
universally applicable. A cost saving can be made
by using unnotched inserts in specific blind holes.
Further advantages accruing from the wire thread
insert are that the tensile strength and the thread
surface quality can be very much higher than is
possible using a tapped hole. Furthermore, a
degree of compliance is provided, allowing pitch
and thread angle errors in the tapped hole in the
main component to be accommodated.
A disadvantage lies in the necessity of using special
taps. These are fully covered by BS specifications
and equivalent foreign specifications, as are the
inserts themselves, and are readily available in all
the manufacturing countries of the world.
A range of wire thread inserts are available provid-
ing a screw locking function (Fig- 13). This provid-
es a prevailing torque lock built into the female
thread thereby avoiding the need for loose compon-
ents which can be lost. They also avoid the need for
special screws and the danger of being lost and re-
placed incorrectly with standard screws in service.
The threaded bushes shown in Fig. 2 may show a
saving in prime cost compared with wire thread
inserts, but the provision of means for locking the
insert in a tapped hole may easily cancel this ad-
vantage. Various forms are available to overcome
this problem using separate locking rings, or with
a keyway along the external length into which a
locking key strip is driven. There is the ever pre-
sent risk that the locking facility may be omitted
accidentally or lost.
Type (b) (moulded or cast 'in situ') are only usable
when either the main component is produced as a
moulding or casting (generally only die cast metal
components are suitable due to the difficulty of
location in the casting) or when the ecomonics of
the manufacturing process permit the increased
'cycle time' occasioned by the need to position the
bushes in the die or mould.
Advantages lie in the low prime cost of the bush.
Disadvantages are the danger of omission and in-
creased 'floor to floor' time for moulding or casting.
Type (c) (for insertion into a plain drilled, cored
or moulded hole) are normally used when either
the cost of tapping the main component is not accep-
table, or material is unsuitable for tapping. In
certain very soft materials a stronger fastening
can be achieved by using this type of insert than by
tapping and insertion.
The simplest fixing is probably the 'push type'
shown in Fig. 6, and the strongest shown in Fig. 7.
Both have the advantage of permitting insertion to
be carried out at any convenient stage after mould-
ing or casting.
The type shown in Fig. 8 is not 'captive' in the main
component until the screw is fitted. Its advantage
is that it is sometimes stronger than the type shown
in Fig. 6 (depending on how the latter is used), and
lower prime cost than those shown in Fig. 7. Its dis-
advantage lies in its lack of captivity when first in-
serted and the possibility of the insert turning in
the hole when the screw is engaged.
The self tapping type shown in Fig. 10 is a wire
thread insert manufactured in a diamond profile
carbon steel wire. It is suitable for use in fibrous
material such as wood, chipboard and building
board.
Fig. 11 type self tapping inserts are suitable for
fibrous materials and certain moulded plastics.
APPLICATIONS
Type (a) fasteners are used most extensively in
light alloys or die cast parts. The aircraft, auto-
Fig. 14. Fig . 1 5 . Fig. 16.
29
threaded bush inserts in stainless steel or brass.
For high temperature applications in excess of
450C, special alloys, such as the Nimonics, are
often used.
FINISHES
On certain applications it is necessary to call for
a plated finish, zinc or cadmium being the usual
finishes for threaded bushes.
With stainless steel wire thread inserts, plating
is not normally required against electrolytic corro-
sion, although zinc chromate paste is sometimes
applied to the threads if the insert is to be used in
a magnesium alloy.
Cadmium, or even silver plating, may be called for
on wire thread inserts, if the screw or stud spec-
ification is likely to seize up or gall on tightening.
On some applications where it is necessary to stan-
dardise the specification of the metal fastener, it
is more economic to specify that all thread inserts
are plated rather than risk the mating of incompat-
ible fixings.
Cost factors involved in the specification of other
than natural finish
Unlike nuts where zinc and cadmium plating is very
common, plating of inserted fasteners is avoidable
in most applications.
As stated previously, the use of stainless steel is
normal for wire thread inserts for use in metal,
and phosphor bronze for use in plastics.
The question of cost penalty for special finishes is
restricted to cadmium plating for wire thread or
bush inserts. Except for extremely high temper-
ature applications when silver plating is used on
inserts manufactured from the Nimonic range of
alloys.
A surcharge of 35 per cent for cadmium on stain-
less steel, and 40 per cent for silver plating on
Nimonic alloy is a rough guide to the extra costs
involved.
OVERALL PRICE COMPARISONS
Due particularly to the small cash value of any type
of insert, prices are very 'quantity sensitive' this
is also because of the disproportionately high costs
of order processing, packing and invoicing.
Companies using inserted fasteners on many appli-
cations are advised to schedule their supplies and
thus effect economies.
The following prices (Table 1) are typical for the
inserts that have been described; the figures refer
to ordering quantities of 20, 000.
Table 1
Type Diameter Price/100
Fig.
6
BA 1 8s . 1 d .
4 BA 5s.6d.
Fig. 7 BA 18s.4d.
4 BA 10s.4d.
Fig. 8 BA 15s.5d.
4 BA 7s.11d.
Fig. 10 tin. 13s.6d.
Fig. 11 i in. 42s .3d.
For supply ex works, 500 off in the smallest size
and 100 off in the largest size represents a typical
minimum order. Smaller quantities are obtainable
from manufacturers for prototype work.
Normally a 50, 000 run will be necessary for any
part requiring special tooling unless, with the new-
er ranges, the resulting fastener consitutes a logi-
cal addition to the catalogue sizes.
Unless the prospective user has considerable ex-
perience of the use of all the listed types, it is
important to obtain manufacturers advice in deter-
mining the best type for any new application. Quite
apart from strength, life and cost factors of the
inserts themselves, a very wide variety of tooling
for insertion exists and the economics of the pro-
ject may well be affected more by 'floor to floor'
time than in the cost of the actual insert.
ASSEMBLY METHODS
For Fig. 1 type wire thread inserts, tooling for
insertion is available in manual, power and semi-
automatic forms. The choice of method will de-
pend upon the quantity to be fitted and on the size
of the inserted fastener.
Fig.22. Installation of tape fed air motor type
power insertion tool for wire thread inserts.
(By courtesy of O. T.A. L. U . , Chambery.)
32
x*1 Fig. 23. Installation of drill press
operated 'power' insertion tool
for wire thread inserts above 3 in.
diameter . (By courtesy of Arm-
strong Patents Co . Ltd
.
)
Fig.
26. Foot pedal operated
power' insertion
equipment for
Fig.7 type inserts.
The three basic forms comprise the .hand insertion
tool (Fig. 21) and the reversible air motor tool with
tape feed located in a roving arm which ensures
true axial alignment as shown in Fig. 22. For in-
serts above iin. diameter the tool shown in Fig. 23
is very
successful and can be driven by a standard
pillar drill or a hand held drill as reversibility is
not required.
In all cases, the inserts are pitch controlled in the
nozzle through which the fastener passes. This
ensures, in effect, a continuous thread from tool
to work piece as the former is spring loaded into
contact with the latter in operation.
Fig.24. Simple punch for inserting Fig.7. type
inserts . (By courtesy of Armstrong Patents
Co . Ltd
.
)
Fig.25. This tool locates the expansion plate
of the type of inserts shown in Fig.7 . (By
courtesy of Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.)
With the smaller diameters the mandrel which eng-
ages the tang on the insert is often threaded giving
complete pitch control. As this type of mandrel
must be screwed both into the fastener before in-
sertion and then screwed out again, a reversible
drive is necessary.
The speed of the whole operation, using power, is
such that a typical 'floor to floor' time is 7 seconds
and applications have been tooled down to 5 seconds
per insert.
Fig. 7 inserts may be inserted by hand and the ex-
pansion plate then pushed to the bottom of the hole
by a simple punch (Fig. 24). Higher speed is ach-
ieved without the use of power tooling by the semi-
automatic tool shown in Fig. 25 which locates the
expansion plate with a spring loaded co-axial pin.
For insertion in large hatch or production line pro-
ducts, the hopper fed power insertion equipment
(Fig. 26) enables much faster assemblies to be com-
pleted.
FUTURE TRENDS
With the exception of the self tapping inserts, the
use of all the types covered so far lies mainly in
metals and plastics, although highly satisfactory
applications of Fig. 1 type inserts in wood do exist.
Building and constructional fasteners are not within
the scope of the Chapter, but the author believes
that fasteners for containers should receive at
least a mention as many products depend very much
on the use of lighweight and/or re-usable containers,
particularly where air transportation is a require-
ment.
The captive screw device shown in Fig. 27 is used
in conjunction with a Fig. 10 insert for lid or collap-
Fig .27 . (By courtesy of Armstrong Patents
Co. Ltd.)
33
Fig.28. For fastening through a panel or as an
'expansion fastener' in fibrous materials.
Spring legs 'bite' into component on tightening.
sible container walls. The fastener shown in Fig. 28
threads into a drilled hole in fibrous materials such
as wood or wood products where size limitation
prohibits the use of the Fig. 10 type which are not
available below number 10 screw size.
Fig. 28 type also provides a fastening
at the back
of the wall or panel, being inserted on the screw
from the outside.
Whilst small, light and inexpen-
sive, pull test loads in excess of 50 lb. and shear
loads above 200 lb. can be demonstrated.
The in-
sert is also very suitable for fastening
metal cladd-
ing to timber frames.
Test work on the Fig. 9 type insert for use in thermo-
plastic materials is well advanced and certain appli-
cations already
exist.
Fig.
27 type is well established and Fig. 28 and
Fig.
9 inserts will shortly be available
on the UK
market.
In conclusion,
techniques of manufacture
and auto-
mation of tooling for insertion are continually
ad-
vancing in pace with the increasing use of threaded
inserts in engineering
and consumer
products.
Never this-
SAY NYLON
SELF LOCKING
SELF SEALING
NON CORROSIVE
LIGHTWEIGHT
COLOURS
SAY NYLOY
Nyloy
Screws
Ltd.
274 King
Street
Hammersmith,
01-748
9973
London,
W.6.
-
WITH NYLON
34
s
Nuts-caged
by E. Lamer (Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.).
A caged nut is a full threaded
nut enclosed within a
spring steel retainer. It is a fastening device that
has the high strength characteristics
associated
with full threaded fasteners,
and the versatility
and self-retaining features of spring-steel fasteners.
The retaining
portions, or cages, are normally
made of high-carbon spring steel. The threaded
members are mild steel nuts.
Fig.
1 shows a cage-type nut retainer which is used
to secure standard square nuts to sheet-metal
panels and other assembly components.
As can be
seen, the cage is in fact a loose box-like retainer
which fits over the threaded nut. Two sides are
open with tabs bent over to retain the threaded nut;
the other two sides extend underneath to form the
panel engaging elements. The nut floats within the
cage to compensate for assembly mis-alignment.
The nuts used in these fasteners can be low cost
standard square nuts, nylon nuts, or any special
design to suit specific requirements.
Full-thread nut retainers are particularly
useful
in blind fastening locations. Their self-retaining
feature eliminates the need for welding, clinching,
or staking nuts in place. They can be snapped into
place at any convenient spot along the production
line. They can be installed after painting or enam-
elling, thus masking or re-tapping is unnecessary.
In most nut retainer designs the nut floats within
the spring steel cage, allowing enough tolerance to
offset normal assembly mis-alignment.
But by
elongating the mounting hole, even greater mis-
alignment can be accommodated.
Fig.
2 shows the 'J' type of caged nut which operates
in much the same way. The 'J' type has a short
leg designed to embrace the panel and is started
over the edge of a panel and pressed into position,
Fig.2.

Fig.3.>
until the mounting hole is engaged
by the loca-
tion means.
A typical application for the 'J'' caged
nut is the replacement
of reinforcing rings and
blind threaded bushes on headlight assemblies
in
the automobile industry where, clipped into screw
receiving positions on the wing apperture, the
short leg on the front side of the nut ensures
a
good seal between gasket and wing, precluding mud
and water leakage.
'J' type nuts are extensively specified in the body
assemblies of the Land Rover and the Rover
2000.
Each body has slots or holes pierced to receive
the correct type of nut at the appropriate stage of
construction.
They are used extensively in the
mounting of a fascia, making full use of their blind
assembly advantages and vibration-proof
qualities.
On the Rover 2000, for example, door and roof
panels are prepared as sub-assemblies.
The door
latch remote control assembly uses three'
J
1
nut
retainers.
Their 'floating' characteristic
speeds
up assembly while still incorporating the full thread
engagement
of a conventional
nut. The boot lid
catch, a heavily loaded application on most modern
cars which has to withstand harsh treatment,
is
also secured by 'J' nuts.
Another popular type of caged nut is the circular
variety (Fig. 3). Again it is designed to. provide
a full-threaded
nut for assembly where access is
from one side only. If required,
it can be fitted
to
the panel before final assembly with a special appli-
cation tool or a flush fixing can be made by counter-
sinking the panel to contain the flange of the cage.
It is also possible to make a satisfactory assembly
without the application tool by exerting pressure on
the outer panel to prevent the cage from rotating.
Summing up, the caged nut is invaluable for heavy
duty blind applications. They are thus used ex-
tensively on automobiles, farm equipment, office
furniture, domestic appliances and in any product
where the design requirements
necessitate blind
fastening with high strength combined with a degree
of 'float'.
Nuts
-
clinch and anchor
by A. Jordan (G.K.N. Screws & Fasteners Ltd.)
These fasteners provide a means of obtaining deep
tapped holes, to take conventional machine screws,
in parent metal that is too thin to be tapped, or ex-
truded and tapped. They are also beneficial in
those applications where access to tightening on
final assembly is severely restricted and does not
allow adequate wrench engagement. Although gen-
erally applied to sheet metal sections the nuts can
be used on other materials that do not lend them-
selves easily to welding, i. e. light alloy, glass
fibre and plastics.
The use of such nuts also eliminates the need for
locally strengthening the parent material by the old
established methods of fabrication, such as the
welding on of bosses, or bolting on of flanges. Once
riveted in position the nuts permit the 'blind' as-
sembly of the bolt on final installation. The same
advantages are obtained as with the fully tapped
thicker materials, in that the nut and anchor sheet
are one unit, without interface movement between
nut and attached sheet.
CLINCH NUTS
Basic design features of most types of clinch nuts
is of a common nature, in that a nut of normal com-
mercial proportions is mounted on a spigot. To
fix the nuts in position a hole to match the nut spi-
got is drilled, or pierced, in the attachment plate,
the spigot end is then riveted to secure the nut to
the plate.
In order to prevent damage to the threaded sec-
tion of the nut the spigot is countersunk to a depth
slightly exceeding the spigot depth. The top face
of the nut also is slightly dished, so that in the
Fig.1 . Typical nut
profile showing
setting action with
sheet metal inter-
lock.
Clinch nut inserted in
hole to become integral
part of the product
.
Fig. 2. Assembly de-
tails of square spigot
type clinch nuts.
Special punch quickly
swages a clinch nut to
work
.
riveting process the thread run out is protected.
A flat face is recommended on the closing tool
for clinching the spigot end; on the large sizes of
nuts a convex punch may be necessary to spread
the spigot initially but a flat tool should be used
for final setting. Conical or pointed tools should
be avoided in case damage to the thread start is
incurred. Fig. 1 outlines the nut shape and setting
technique.
Precise design configuration will depend on instal-
lation requirements, viz. spigot shape and length,
body shape, resistance to turning. The following
illustrations serve as a guide to the range of nuts
available, but do not cover the combination of fea-
tures that are available.
Non circular spigot
This type of nut is somewhat of a 'special' and is
used in heavy installations that require an extreme-
ly high resistance to torsional rotation of the as-
sembled nut. The spigot shape, hexagonal, or D
section is located in a pierced hole of the same
shape in the attachment plate. Abutment surface
of the nut is usually flat, and the spigot is riveted
to clamp the plate. This means that the clamping
pressure, or resistance to pull out is derived from
the riveting operation, and the resistance to turn
achieved from the spigot-hole keying action. Fig. 2
shows this type of nut.
Circular spigot
Hexagon nut body
-
normal duty.
For use with plate
thickness in the 20 swg. to 11 swg range. One such
36
Fig.3. Standard hexagon body, showing
undercut abutment face locking indentations.
Fig. 5. Round body 'blind' sealing clinch nut.
type is illustrated in Fig. 3 and represents a typical
commercial variety, the spigot is of a length to ac-
commodate a limited range of plate thicknesses
dependent on nut size. The abutment undersurface
of the nut body is back tapered to facilitate the flush
fitting of the spigot with the inner face of the attach-
ment plate. In the riveting operation the plate is
deformed into the relieved abutment surface, which
is usually indented, thus generating a nut to plate
keying interference which gives the anti- rotational
properties.
The degree of 'flushness' that can be achieved will
depend on the proportion of spigot length and plate
thickness. For absolute flushness a slight counter-
sink in the drilled hole may be necessary, where
spigot length and plate thickness is not wholly com-
patible, i.e. plate too thin to accommodate dis-
placed spigot material.
Hexagon nut body

heavy duty. For heavy duty
installations, embracing plate thicknesses of up to
6 swg. , some forms of nut body have an annular
serrated ring on the underside of the nut abutment
face (Fig. 4). The serrated teeth embed in the at-
Fig.4. Hexagon body with serrated abutment
face for heavy duty installations.
tachment plate during the spigot setting operation,
thus giving strong anti-rotational properties. This
type is generally used when the plate thickness in-
creases to such an extent that it will not deform, to
give sufficient torsional lock, under the riveting
pressure.
Nuts of this type are usually available with various
spigot lengths, to suit a wide range of plate thick-
nesses, in all thread sizes.
Round body nuts
There is a range of round bodied nuts, instead of
hexagon, having the same application performance
and following the same basic designs as those pre-
viously mentioned.
This type of body acts as a safety feature on those
applications where field servicing may be required;
the round body prevents inadvertent loosening of
the nut by the application of a spanner to the clinch
nut body. Viewed from the wrong side a hexagon
clinch nut may be mistaken for a normal nut bolt
assembly, by the uninitiated.
Splined or serrated spigot
The basic nut configuration, and design, is similar
to other clinch nuts except that the anti -rotational
properties are achieved by the use of a serrated
spigot. Installation techniques are the same as
for other nuts; the riveting operation forces the
spigot serrations into the drilled hole, and into
the clamped face of the plate, giving high torsional
resistance.
Tank sealing nuts
This type of nut is used for making leak proof at-
tachments to water tanks, and other liquid con-
tainers (Fig. 5).
'The nut body is blind, i.e. there is no through
thread. Spigot design and installation techniques
are similar to other types. Flush fitting of the
riveted end is obtained by back countersinking the
abutment surface, and anti- rotational properties
are achieved by indents in this surface. To pre-
vent accidental unscrewing the nut body is cylind-
rical in form.
'Specials'
Clinch nuts having a 'self-locking' or 'stiff' fea-
ture in the threaded section are also available;
Fig. 6a. Riveting tool
arrangement for pre-
vailing torque clinch
nuts
.
37
Fig. 6b. (Top) Clinch nut with 'all metal'
thread friction prevailing torque feature.
Fig. 7. (Above) Contamination free 'cap'
clinch nut with splined spigot torsional lock.
mainly used in the aircraft industry, the threads
are of the UNF range. The prevailing torque
thread locking feature can be either the 'all metal'
type (Fig. 6b), or the annular nylon insert variety.
Installation of this type requires the bottom rivet-
ing tool to be counterbored so as to accept the nut
body, and prevent damage to the friction element,
the pressure bearing surface being the annular
surface at the top face of the nut body. To meet
aircraft requirements. Air Ministry specification
A122 must be met, which states minimum rotation-
al torque values for various plate thicknesses.
Another example of a special nut is the 'plastics
cap' type shown in Fig. 7, which is used in those
applications
-
electronics mainly
-
which require a
contamination free atmosphere. The cap forms
a seal over the open thread end so that any plating
dust, or metal throw out that occurs during the
bolt insertion is contained within the nut body.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
It is important to obtain the correct relationship
between metal thickness, size of thread used, and
type of nut; spigot length and attached material
thickness must be directly compatible. Excess
spigot length, from using too large a nut, or too
thin sheet, leads to excessive riveting pressure
to achieve satisfactory clamping, and adequate
flushness. Over setting in this manner will cause
local deformation, or dimpling, of the sheet. Such
excess riveting can also deform the lead in coun-
tersink of the spigot; the extra metal which has to
be displaced is spread radially inwards, and out-
wards, thus creating interference to the bolt entry.
Sheet metal too thick for the nut spigot raises the
reverse problems, in that insufficient material is
available for riveting, resulting in poor clamped
conditions. Attendant problems in this type of in-
stallation occur when mechanical riveting is used,
and the setting tool operates to a fixed height.
Where 'spigot' length/material thickness are mar-
ginally close, due account must be taken in vari-
ations in spigot length, due to normal commercial
manufacturing tolerances. In such critical con-
ditions the disparity between maximum and mini-
mum spigot length
-
usually of the order of 0. 010
in.
-
can make the difference between satisfactory
and unsatisfactory installations. The use of a coun-
tersink, or counterbore, can be employed in this
situation to achieve the correct relationship of spi-
got to sheet, as a last resort; the rivet setting tool
diameter must, however, be adjusted accordingly
to clear the parent sheet.
Correct relationship between hole size and spigot
diameter must be maintained. Insufficient clear-
ance can lead to interference fits between spigot
and sheet, due to manufacturing tolerances on both
hole and spigot; this will increase insertion time,
and cause incorrect seating of nut body. Too large
hole diameters permit swelling of the nut body,
generate poor bolt-nut thread engagement, and re-
duce effective clamping. As a general guide, hole
sizes should be 0. 002 to 0. 005 in. bigger in dia-
meter than the maximum specified spigot diameter.
The buckling strength of the sheet metal used is
quite often the weakest part of an assembly; thus,
without adequate support, thin sheet sections can
be deformed under the induced loads of a properly
tightened assembly, e.g. a mild steel i BSF screw
tightened to its correct pre-load, induces a tensile
load of 1500 lb. approx. On the other hand, if the
sheet metal strength is the dominating design fac-
tor, a lower strength bolt may be employed.
Axial loads induced in the assembly should, of
course, act against the abutment face of the nut,
the pull should never be against the riveted spigot.
A guide to the general clinching performance of a
standard range of steel hexagon bodied nuts, ap-
Table 1.
Torque to Pull out Rivet set-
Size
turn load ting load
lb. in. lb. lb.
6 BA 15 130 4500
4 BA 20 150 5600
2 BA 30 200 5600
i
in. 35 250 6700
& in. 150 400 1 1 ,200
1
in. 200 500 15,700
38
makefast
faster
-with Long-Lok self-locking screws and bolts
Long-Lok self-locking screws and bolts are designed to help designers by reducing
the number of locking components, cutting assembly time and providing a
vibration-resistant lock at any degree of torque. The locking action is effected by a
strip of special resilient material held in a longitudinal slot which imposes a
metal-to-metal drag between the threads opposite. Lock washers, split pins, safety
wires, popping
-
all are unnecessary. Long-Lok self-locking nuts and bolts lock as
they are inserted, reducing component and assembly costs. They also assist
after-sale maintenance and inspection : they can be re-used up to 1
5
times without
loss of lock.
^
Strip-Lokisa commercial version of the proven
M
Bl||ftf"***
#
*lH
Long-Lok product.
m UlMwUITllV
It is available at lower cost, where high volume
^^^^
requirements apply. Recommended re-usability: 5 times.
Special feature of Strip- Lok is sealing against fluid pressures, when screw thread
has been fully torqued down (seals as it locks).
T-Sert This thin- wall insert, which has received fine acceptance, locks
externally and internally, and is used in soft materials such as
aluminium and plastics. It possesses high strength characteristics while
offering a re-usable locking method.
For full information about range and applications of Long-Lok products,
j
please send for catalogue.
Long-Lok Limited
Buckingham Avenue Trading Estate, Slough, Bucks.
Telephone Slough 26741 . Telex 841 65.
39
plied to recommended
material thicknesses
is giv-
en in Table 1
.
Torque to turn is the measurement of the force re-
quired to rotate the hexagon body after setting.
Pull out - push out - load, registers the resistance
to pull out the nut against the riveted spigot.
Setting pressures are those necessary
to adequate-
ly set the spigot to obtain suitable flushness and
clamp performance, and serve as a guide to press
capacity requirements.
Operating temperatures for steel nuts should be
limited to
200C, and
125C for brass and alum-
inium nuts.
SIZE RANGE AND MATERIALS
The most common materials used for clinch nuts
are steel and brass, and these should be available
as stocked items. Stainless steel (En58M) and light
alloy are available for specialised applications.
The lack of a British Standard for this product
makes the permutation of material, thread type,
nut type and availability, a daunting proposition.
Although all thread forms BA-BSF/W-UNF/C are
catered for, usually, in the
i to
i
in. range, not
all are readily available in all types of nut. Key
dimensions controlling installation features, spigot
diameter and length, nut body height may vary be-
tween suppliers, and even types of nut. Thus, it
is essential to establish precise control dimen-
sions, and supply conditions, at the earliest design
stage.
ANCHOR NUTS
Anchor nuts provide a means of obtaining a captive
nut, in the pre-assembly stage, in those areas of
final assembly that prohibit the use, through re-
stricted space, of the normal wrenching means.
This type of nut is widely used in the aircraft in-
dustry where assembly of wing sections, etc.
,
present many problems of restricted accessibility
in the final stages of construction.
ADVANTAGES
The anchor nuts are affixed to the requisite mem-
ber in the early stages of jigging, where installa-
tion is easily achieved; thus final nut-bolt assem-
bly can be obtained by bolt driving only, permitting
assembly from one side. There are by-product ad-
vantages in that they can reduce assembly man-
power, and hence costs, and eliminate the danger
of incorrect fastening because of poor nut spanner
conditions, which are inherent in such situations
where the use of open-ended spanners only is pos-
sible. Assembly conditions are more stable, by
having one common driving member, this in turn
gives a more uniformly loaded assembly, torque-
tension relationship being more stable.
TYPES
The type of nut to be used will be decided by the
installation
conditions
prevailing, the
relationship
of nut-bolt axis, and attachment
planes available
will
determine
the shape of the nut, single lug,
double lug,
countersunk,
etc. Environmental
con-
ditions will
determine other
requirements,
align-
ment problems in the long run
assemblies,
seal-
ing necessity in tank
construction,
operating tem-
perature, and
tensile requirements
of the assem-
bly. Weight
considerations will
determine the need
for standard
or miniature
assemblies.
To meet these design
requirements
there is a large
variety of anchor nuts available,
the most common
types in use being as follows
:
Fixed anchor
This type is used when bolt misalignment
in the
final assembly is reduced
to a minimum.
Fig.
8. (Top) Fixed anchor , single long lug stiffnut
-ig.9. (Centre) Fixed anchor
, double lug stiffnut.
Fig. 10. (Bottom) Fixed anchor, corner attach-
ment stiffnut.
Single lug (Fig. 8). Generally used where attach-
ment to the plate is only possible on one side of the
nut axis, it allows the nut body to abut to a vertical
adjoining plane.
Double lug (Fig. 9). Attached to the plate in two
places equally disposed from the axis of the nut,
generally used where greater freedom of attach-
ment is available.
Comer lug (Fig. 10). Used in the restricted areas
where three adjoining plates, forming a corner,
prohibit the use of either a single or double lug.
In the three types outlined above a restricted am-
ount of misalignment of the bolt and nut in the final
assembly is permitted by the slightly oversize
clearance hole in the anchor lug plate. This clear-
ance is generally of the order of 0. 004/0. 005 in.
in excess of the nominal bolt diameter.
"Floating' assemblies
In assemblies that require a greater degree of flex-
ibility in final construction alignment, a range of
anchor nuts can be obtained in the 'floating', or
adjustable condition (Fig. 11). The nut is contained
in the lug assembly, but is permitted to move lat-
erally and vertically to a limited degree to take up
any out of line conditions that exist on final assem-
bly. This lateral movement is permitted again by
employing an oversize bore in the lug base plate,
the amount of movement available is dependent on
thread size; as a guide the oversize hole is of the
order of 0. 040/0. 050 in. in excess of the bolt dia-
meter. There are also, however, 'special' float-
ing assemblies that will give excessive movement
for extreme cases of adjustment.
In straight line multiple unit applications the use
of gang channel strip is advised (Fig. 12). The
'floating' anchor nuts are contained in a continuous
strip, in various specified nut spacings in lengths
up to six feet.

ig .11 . (Below)Floating anchor .double lug stiffnut.


Fig .12. (Bottom)Floating anchor , counterbored
nut gang channel
.
Fig. 13. Floating anchor nut, self sealing.
By this means installation costs are reduced, and
assembly time shortened. The same precaution
for accommodating mis-alignment is available, as
for the single floating anchor assemblies.
Self sealing
In applications requiring liquid or pneumatic seal-
ing, i.e. fuel tanks and pressurised cabins, a range
of self sealing anchor nuts are available (Fig. 13).
These are steel capped nuts, that contain the bolt
engagement within the cap, having an annular rub-
ber sealing ring in the bearing face that expands
on tightening, giving a pressure tight seal.
Pressure range of such nuts is -14 to +50 lb. /sq.
in. within an operating temperature range of -80F
to +250F.
Deep counterbored nuts
A range of nut body heights is available which ac-
commodates height variation in assembly clamped
Fig. 14. Floating anchor , two lug, deep countei

bored stiffnut.
Fig. 15. Weight saving achieved by the use of
deep counterbored anchor nuts.
OLD METHOD NEW ME I HOD
41
Table 2.
Details of Material , Finish & Performance .
Performance
.
Material Finish Min . Tensile Max . Operating
Temp.
Carbon steel Cadmium plated, molybdenum
disulphide dry film lubricant
coated after plating.
160,000
Ib./sq.in.
250OC,
Carbon steel Cadmium plated molybdenum
disulphide dry film lubricant
coated after plating.
125,000
Ib./sq.in.
250
oc
Corrosion Molybdenum dry film 125,000 250C
resistant lubricant. Ib./sq. in.
steel (A286)
Corrosion Silver plated. 125,000 450C
resistant Ib./sq.in.
(A286)
members (Fig. 14). By this means a standard bolt
length can be employed, and the elimination of pack-
ing shims, with consequent reduction in weight, is
achieved (Fig. 15).
ATTACHMENT OF ANCHOR NUTS
The usual method of attachment is by riveting,
during a pre-assembly jigging operation. In ex-
treme cases, however, the nuts can be riveted 'in-
situ' by locating the nut on the bolt and 'spotting'
through the rivet holes; that is, using the nut as a
template.
Friction welding is also used, this method however
is generally confined to the heat and corrosion re-
sistant steel nuts. In these applications, welding
nibs are provided on the lug of the anchor nut, in
place of the rivet holes. The use of welded attach-
ments are necessary in those applications where
the drilling of rivet holes is unacceptable, for rea-
sons of stress limitation. Such installations are
of a permanent nature.
LIGHTWEIGHT FASTENERS
The present trend is towards the lightweight, 'stiff
anchor nut assembly, drawn from relatively thin,
heat-treatable steels, a high quality lightweight
Fig. 16. Beam offset stiff anchor nut for high
temperature installations
.
all metal fastener is obtained. Basic metal thick-
ness ranges from 0. 01 7 to 0. 048 in. for most vari-
eties of nuts. Carbon steels are used for nuts in
applications where the operating temperatures do
not exceed 250C; above this temperature corro-
sion resisting steels are used. Table 2 outlines
the nut steels used, limiting operational tempera-
tures, tensile performance and the appropriate
finishes applied.
In order to improve vibration and shock resistance
the nuts are provided with a 'stiff feature, or fric-
tion element, which induces a prevailing torque
when the bolt is assembled. This is achieved on
the 'all metal' type of nut, by elliptically deform-
ing the upper portion of the threaded section during
manufacture. To prevent thread seizure, or gal-
ling, and induce uniform torque, the nuts are final-
ly lubricated, the type of lubrication being depend-
ent on nut material and finish, see Table 2.
The flexibility of the nut body, together with the
controlled lubrication, premits the nuts to be re-
Fig.17a and 17b. Two types of fixed anchor nuts
showing cage, cap, nut and the assembly.
42
Fig. 18. Fixed anchor nuts solid body welded
to attachment plate.
Fig. 20. Fixed lug assemblies with annular
nylon inserts for inducing prevailing torque.
used with consistent performance, and to retain
prevailing torque.
Prevailing torque characteristics can be achieved
by the use of the nylon insert type nut where a cap-
tivated annular nylon ring, at the thread section
remote from bolt entry is compressed by the pas-
sage of the bolt. The 'memory or recovery of the
nylon provides the frictional prevailing torque on
the bolt; withdrawal of the boit, allows the nylon
to reform to its original shape, thus allowing re-
application without loss of torsional characteristics.
Nylon inserts retain their effectiveness in opera-
ting temperatures up to 125C; heat resistant nyl-
ons, or polyamides, are required for temperatures
above this range.
In applications subjected to prolonged high temper-
atures (450C), it is advisable to compensate the
frictional element for temperature changes, so that
at operating temperature the nut is not overstress-
ed. The 'Beam offset' type of nut (Fig. 16) is de-
signed for this purpose; the multiple axially slot-
ted body is deformed, and retains flexibility such
that the locking torque remains consistent at high
operating temperatures.
The bolts used for such installations, such as ex-
haust manifold systems, are also compensated for
temperature change by having a 0. 003 in. relieved
pitch diameter.
In areas that are extremely confined, or where
weight reduction is of prime importance a range of
'miniature' assemblies is available; the same mech-
anical properties are obtainable with these nuts as
with the standard range. Weight reduction is at-
tained mainly by the reduction in the size of the
attachment lugs; an indication of the weight of these
assemblies can be appreciated from the following:
iUNF Single Lug Standard 0. 47 lb. per 100
i
UNF Single Lug Miniature 0.33 1b.
"
"
i UNF Corner Lug Standard 0. 52 lb.
"
"
i
UNF Corner Lug Miniature 0.30 1b.
"
"
Fig. 19. Caged assembly for welded installation.
Size range
Lightweight 'all metal
1
nuts cater generally for the
smaller sizes of the Unified thread series. Sizes
4-40 to
8-32 in the coarse thread range, and 10-32
to
1-24 in the fine thread range, class 3B threads.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The lightweight range of anchor nuts is replacing
the original captive nut assemblies, which covered
the larger diameters and British thread systems.
Standard type and sizes of nuts were contained in
a cup which was then encompassed in an enveloping
anchor plate (Fig. 17). The same system of lug
configuration, floating, static and strip assemblies
were, and are still, available. Variation in nut
type, material, and thread sizes were many, viz.
Fixed nuts
Floating nuts
6BA to
6BA to
iBSF
&BSF
Unified thread 6 UNC to I UNF are confined to the
solid, or one piece, nut body, and are attached by
spigot welding rather than encaged (Fig. 18), Nut
materials include, carbon steel, corrosion resis-
tant steel, light alloy, brass, phosphor bronze.
It is recommended that nut, cup and anchor plates
in these assemblies are of the same material class.
This system does permit the use of a wide permu-
tation of proprietary nuts, materials, and thread
types, in applications where weight is not of prime
importance. Whilst the accent has been placed on
the aircraft industry for the use of anchor nuts, the
advantages and benefits to be derived can apply to
any installation where accessibility and loss of con-
trolled installation is encountered. Fig. 19 illus-
trates one such type of the welded spigot variety
that is currently in use in the automative industry.
AVAILABILITY
The various types, and thread sizes, outlined above
are but a guide to the whole range available in the
anchor nut field. It is advisable, at the earliest
possible design stage, to contact suppliers for com-
plete range and specifications. Small modifications
at an early stage may well permit the use of a stan-
dard, or stock item, at a cost much reduced to
that which one must pay for specials, which become
a necessity if the design is too far advanced.
43
Nuts
-
locking
by T.E. Harris
There are many different terms for nuts with lock-
ing media, but for the purpose of this Chapter two
types of locking nuts will be considered and referr-
ed to throughout as 'stiffnuts
1
and 'free spinning
lockouts
1
..
Stiffnuts. This is the term used for a prevailing
torque locking nut, which is provided with some
element which grips the bolt threads, thus realis-
ing a continuous, or prevailing, torque wherever
the nut is positioned on the bolt. This torque has
to be overcome before the nut can be moved in
either direction along the bolt.
Free spinning locknuts. This descriptive name
implies that the locknut can be freely spun up to the
abutment or joint face until the locking medium or
element acts with the abutment face to give a lock-
ing action.
Before detailed study of locking nuts can be appre-
ciated it is important to understand the basic theory
of threaded joints, which is taken for granted by
most design engineers.
F
2
F
i
u.
u
11
o
/
D/'
Fo
... F~"p*
p
jr
Pi
T
P-AF
\ ,
o
Fi
TENSION
"^COMPRESSION
DEFORMATION e
g.1 . Force ~ Deformation diagram.

f//////
<
K\\\\\\M
^
M
ezzzzz
^sssssa-
Fig. 2.
Clamped joint
.
THEORY OF THREADED JOINTS
Reference to Fig. 1 will show the behaviour of a
nut and bolt connection of two metal plates being
clamped together as illustrated in Fig. 2.
Within the elastic range. Hook's Law applies and
deformation
(e) is directly proportional to the app-
lied force (F). The bolt deformation occurring on
tightening can be represented by line OA in Fig. 1.
The connected parts deform in compression as
they are also assumed elastic and their deforma-
tion can be represented by line BA. Because it is
usual that the components being clamped are more
rigid than the bolt, then CB is shorter than OC. In
other words the clamped components take less de-
formation than the bolt for the same load.
The joint is tightened to a point at A where the
force on the bolt and the clamped parts is
Fi
and
then tightening is stopped. This is now a norm-
ally tightened connection and we need to study what
effect externally applied loads (service loads)
would have on the joint.
Assume an external load is applied to the joint.
This results in a further elongation Ae of the bolt
and the compression of the connected parts de-
creases by Ae.
The load on the bolt increases by an amount AF
and if the connected parts are more rigid than the
bolt the load on these parts decreases by a greater
amount than AF shown by P-AF.
It is obvious that since the external load on the
bolt follows a straight line law and the deforma-
tion can reach point
Q
when the compression of
the connected parts becomes zero (at B) then the
joint will begin to open, since the parts can no
longer expand to maintain contact.
It can be proved that the external load F
Q
in Fig. 1
required to open the joint can be given by:
'.-"to*]
where k^
=
stiffness of bolt
=
~
Pi
k
=
stiffness of connected parts
= sr-
44
P
EXTERNAL LOAD
F,
= INITIAL TENSION
DEFORMATION e
Fig .3 . Force~Deformation
Ductile bolt
-
rigid joint.
or conversely the pre-tension necessary to prevent
opening when a know external load F
Q
is applied to
the joint can be found from:
Pretension Fi
=
F
|V^cJ
(Formula 1
Practically F^ should be between 1. 5 and 2 times
the value obtained from this formula.
If the joint is less stiff than the bolt (k <kij. the
term inside the bracket in Formula 1 becomes
small and the pretension necessary to prevent the
joint opening is low relative to the applied load.
Conversely, and the more usual case, if the value
of k
c
>k
D
then the bracket in Formula 1 approaches
unity and the pretension necessary approaches the
value of the applied load, if the joint is not to open.
This can be illustrated by Fig. 3, which compares
the force/ deformation diagram obtained by tighten-
ing a very long ductile bolt to clamp a very rigid
joint material with that in Fig. 4 which shows the
diagram obtained when a short stiff bolt is used to
clamp a relatively unstiff, perhaps gasketed, joint.
P EXTERNAL LOAD
F, = INITIAL TENSION
DEFORMATION e
Fig. 4. Force~Deformation
Stiff bolt
-
unstiff joint.
In both cases the same external load P is applied,
but the effect is vastly different. It can be seen
that in all cases the actual load is greater than the
initial tension.
Actual Load >
Fi
Also Actual Load < Fi + P
In Fig. 3 a smaller increase in load is felt by the
bolt so that any dynamic load P would have less
effect on fatigue life than with the arrangement of
Fig.. 4 where a very large proportion of the exter-
nal load is added to the bolt. It can be said, there-
fore, that the more ductile the bolt relative to the
joint material the smaller the effect of dynamic
load on the joint and the greater the fatigue life.
The converse is true in the joint represented by
Fig. 4 which could be a gasketed or spring loaded
joint where high initial tension can be dangerous
due to subsequent loading overstressing the bolt.
Fig. 5. Torque/Tension equipment.
Pretension can also be examined from the formula:
Young's Modulus E
=
so that strain
=
strain
=
stress
strain
stress
E
Elongation
original length
Elongation
=
stress x

E
(Formula
2)
Where L
=
Length in inches, E
=
30 million lb./sq.
in. for steel. Therefore for each inch of bolt length
and each 30, 000 lb. /sq. in. of bolt tensile strength
the bolt elongation will be 0. 001 in.
From this theory it can be seen that the longer the
bolt the greater stretch possible for the same load-
ing, which in the case of a dynamically loaded joint,
we have seen, is desirable.
Consider a hypothetical case of two similar joints
of the type shown in Fig. 2, one with a
1^ in. long
45
clamped length and the other with a 3 in. long clam-
ped length, both bolts being 'S' quality (50 ton/sq.in.
minimum tensile strength) steel. Consider both
bolts tightened to 60, 000 lb. /sq. in.
From formula 2:
1. Short Bolt: Elongation
=
^tgfp^
=
0. 003 in.
2. Long Bolt: Elongation
=
60,000 x 3
30 x 10
g =
0. 006 in.
Now assume, as a result of burrs under the head
of the bolt or on the abutment face of the nut, flat-
tening due to cold flow during the joints early ser-
vice life, that both joints relax in grip by 0. 001 in.
This would result in the joint with \\ in. clamped
length losing 33 per cent of its original tension,
thus retaining 67 per cent, whilst the longer bolt
joint with 3 in. clamped length would retain 83 per
cent of its original tension.
This is a simple way of illustrating that the longer
bolt is more likely to retain its tension and there-
fore perform more reliably in service in resisting
dynamic loads, with subsequent increase in fatigue
life.
It is because in practice there are many thousands
of cases where long bolts are not specified, that
the locking media are necessary on the nuts.
NUT FUNCTION
The function of a nut is to engineer or stress the
bolt to its full potential of strength and to maintain
the loads resulting, throughout the life of the joint.
How is the necessary tension in the bolt predicted
and attained? Once the joint design is finalised
and the required pretension calculated it can be
attained in a number of ways. Three of these are:
1
.
Turn of the nut method.
2. Bolt length increase method.
3. Torque/tension method.
VIELD TENSION
_ _ . nacr-.-n ibc
"V ^_^
"""
POINT
2
P
F
h
J
01
^^YIELD TORQUE
APPLIED TORQUE
Fig. 6. Bolt tension
~ Applied torque.
Turn of the nut method
This is probably the most accurate practical meth-
od, but not widely used except in heavy construction
industries. Here the pitch of the thread gives the
degree of turn of the nut necessary to stretch the
bolt a given amount and thus engineer a given load
into it.
Bolt length increase method
This is not very practical but is very accurate.
The overall length of the bolt is measured before
and after tightening and by formula 2 the bolt load
is predictable.
Torque/tension method
This method is by far the most widely used in arriv-
ing at the correct pre-tension in a bolt. The cor-
rect torque to engineer a given tension is predicted
in two ways:
a. By use of torque/ loading test equipment of the
type shown in Fig. 5 which simultaneously measures
bolt tension and torque to turn the nut in order to
simulate actual conditions, a curve of load against
torque can be plotted for each case. A typical
curve is illustrated in Fig. 6.
Since there is a more or less linear relationship
between tension and torque, a percentage of the
yield torque can be taken to give the same percent-
age of the yield tension, so that if a yield torque
of 20 lb. ft. were obtained, 15 lb. ft applied tighten-
ing torque would give 75 per cent of the yield load
as the bolt pretension. This figure of 75 per cent
is quite often used as the utilisation of full bolt po-
tential, but higher figures can be used if the joint
arrangement is suitable, as in the case of long duc-
tile bolt fixing a stiff joint.
The relationship between torque and tension is ex-
tremely inconsistent with factors such as thread
roughness, plating finish, squareness of the face
of the nut to the axis of the thread, material, lubri-
cation present and thread fit, being only a few of
the multiplicity of factors involved.
b. By calculation from the formula:
T
=
Fj [^B (a+9) +
T
m
nl (Formula 3)
where
T - Application torque.
Fi= Bolt pretension.
d
e
=
Effective diameter of thread.
<* =
Thread helix angle.
8
=
Friction angle of thread.
m
=
Mean radius oi abutment face of nut.
I
1
= Coefficient of friction.
This formula is quite commonly used, but usually
a simplified version is employed:
T = KFid
(Formula
4)
where d
=
bolt major diameter. Normally Ej is in
46
pounds force, giving torque in pounds inches when
d is in inches, and in pounds feet when d is in feet.
K is a friction factor which varies according to the
condition of finish, lubrication, etc. , already men-
tioned. The value of K is found to lie between 0. 1
for MoS
2
finished nut on a highly ground abutment
surface, to over 0. 2 for dry self finish nuts on
rough finished bolts and with rough abutment sur-
faces.
EXAMPLE . Assume a joint consisting of Sin.
UNF x \\ in. long bolt tightened with a dry self
finish nut with a bolt tension of 4, 000 lb. required
Calculated the applied tightening torque required:
Solution Consider a K factor of 0. 18 from the con-
dition described:
Thread shear
The nut shown in Fig. 7 is subject to high shear
force on the first threads. If the nut material
lacks the ductility that enables it to deform under
tightening, thus allowing enough threads to engage
to distribute the load more evenly, then progres-
sive thread shear can occur. Relative material
strength of nut and bolt to ensure satisfactory re-
sults in this respect are described later.
Crushing
Nuts must have sufficient abutment face area to re-
sist the crushing force, avoiding the high crushing
stresses which would result from small surface
areas. This crushing will result in relaxation in
bolt tension with possible adverse results.
T
=
0. 18 x 4000 x 0.312
=
225 lb. in. or 18. 7 lb. ft.
NU DESIGN
A high tensile bolt is only as useful as the tension
that can be loaded into it, making the nut as criti-
cal an element as the bolt.
The thread of a nut is subject to a force during
tightening which can be expressed as two compo-
nents:
(1)
horizontal or radial force acting outwards
and tending to dilate the nut at the base;
(2)
vertical
or shear force acting in a line parallel to the axis
of the bolt.
Wall dilation
A nut must have sufficient wall thickness and mat-
erial strength to resist the radial force which is
trying to spread the base of the nut. However, one
advantage from this is the spreading of the load to
threads futher away from the abutment face, com-
pared with an over rigid nut in which the load dis-
tribution is one of excessive load on the first threads
followed by a rapid dropping away as shown in
Fig.
7.
i
\
/
y
A
^3
Fig. 7.
Load distribution
over threads.
COARSE OR FINE THREADS
Yet another important consideration affecting the
threaded joint is the selection between coarse or
fine threads and the relative advantages and dis-
advantages of both are discussed here:
1. Coarse threads are easier to start than fine
threads.
2. Coarse threads are less likely to seize during
tightening.
3. The stress distribution with coarse threads is
more even than with fine
- even when each is of
the same material.
4. Fine threads have approximately 10 to 15 per
cent load carrying advantage over coarse threads
in the Unified thread series.
5. Fine threads have greater torsional strength
than coarse threads, because of the higher value
of cross sectional area of the bolt core.
6. Fine threads tend to strip earlier than coarse
threads due to nut dilation causing early disengage-
ment from male threads.
7. Fine threads have a greater resistance to un-
screwing as a result of their lower helix angle.
MATERIAL. SELECTION
The material is selected for the bolts required in a
joint on the basis of service loads on the joint, size
of bolts, number of bolts, type of thread selected,
and whether the fastener has to be corrosion re-
sistant. Once this bolt material has been selected
it is essential to select the correct nut material.
While the bolt must be capable of sufficient strength
to resist failure by external joint load, the nut must
be capable of engineering this bolt and we have
seen that, in order to do this, it must be ductile
enough to distribute the load as evenly as possible
over the maximum number of threads to minimise
thread shear. The nut material is usually several
grades of material strength lower than the bolt
material (usually about 75 to 85 per cent in terms
of material used) and is expressed in the British
Standard Specification for Unified precision hexa-
gon bolts, screws and nuts (BS1768) in terms of
nut proof load. This is also the case in the Ameri-
can Specification for prevailing type hexagon lock-
nuts (Stiffnuts).
47
Table. 1 . Proof load for nuts
-
Unified hexagon series.
Bolt stress Grade Grade 1 Grade 3 Grade 5
Nut
size
Area Nuts Nuts Nuts Nuts
UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF
in. sq.in. sq.in. ton. ton. ton. ton. ton. ton. ton. ton.
1
A
16
i
.0324
0.0532
0.0786
0.0368
0.0587
0.0886
1 .134
1 .862
2.751
1 .288
2.054
3.101
1 .620
2.660
3 . 930
1 .840
2.935
4.430
1 .782
2.926
4.323
2.021
3.228
4.873
2.430
3.990
5.895
2.760
4.402
6.645
i
ie
i
1
.1078
0.1438
0.184
. 1 1 98
0.1612
0.209
3.773
5.034
6.440
4.193
5.643
7.176
5.390
7.190
9.200
5.990
8.060
10.25
5.929
7.91 1
10.12
6.589
8.869
11 .28
8.085
10.78
13.80
8.985
12.09
15.37
1
3
I
i
0.229
0.338
0.467
0.258
0.375
0.513
8.016
11 .83
15.97
9.031
13.12
17.96
11 .45
16.90
23.35
12.90
12.60
25.65
12.60
18.59
25.68
14.19
20.63
28.21
17.17
25.35
35.02
19.35
28.12
38.47
1 0.612 0.667 21 .42 23.34 30.60 33.35 33.67 36.68 45.90 50.02
The proof load figures for BS1768 are shown in
Table 1 and are tested by assembling a sample
nut on a hardened thread mandrel and the nut load-
ed to the appropriate load shown for the particular
size. The nut should resist the load without stripp-
ing. Nuts in this British Standard are classed as
either Grade 0, 1, 3 or 5.
In the American Specification, nut Grade A, B and
C compare respectively with Grades 1, 3 and 5 in
British Standard. These values are shown in Table
3. The underlined figures are the proof stresses
used for calculation of all proof loads shown below
these figures. Grade A locknuts are for use with
bolts up to 35 ton/sq. in. Grade B locknuts are for
use with bolts from 45 ton/sq. in. to 55 ton/sq. in.
Grade C locknuts are for use with bolts from 60
ton/sq. in. to 70 ton/sq. in.
WHY USE LOCKNUTS?
We have examined, in the first part of this Chapter,
the theory of joint design, and have seen that if cor-
rectly selected fasteners are specified and the cor-
rect pretension has been applied by properly app-
lied tightening torques the joint will remain intact.
It is because of breakdown of abutment surface and
other factors causing relaxation of tension and the
difficulty of arriving at the correct pretension in
the first place, that makes locknuts necessary.
Also, design limitations sometimes necessitate the
use of short bolts on joints which are not rigid in
that they may be gasketed, pivoting or sprung and
high pretension and high bolt stretch cannot be
achieved.
STIFFNUTS
The object of stiffnuts is, if they cannot prevent the
joint 'slackening', to prevent the joint from 'turning
loose'. To explain these terms we can say that if
a joint is secure against 'slackening' it is also sec-
ure against 'turning loose', whereas a joint secured
against 'turning loose' is not necessarily secured
against 'slackening
1
.
Prevailing torque type locknuts or stiffnuts are
provided with locking elements of various types
usually at the end opposite the abutment face of the
nut or at a point between the abutment face and the
free end of the hut. This element exerts a friction-
al force on the bolt threads thus helping to prevent
the nut turning loose during service.
There are two main standards which have been used
as a basis for testing of stiffnut performance, the
first being a British Standard for stiffnuts (Unified
threads) for aircraft, the second, the previously
discussed American Specification for prevailing
torque type hexagon locknuts.
British Standard (aircraft)
This has been used for many years as the standard
for stiffnuts by many manufacturers.
It specifies
a minimum unscrewing torque figure for the nut
using an unused bolt.
Six nuts are taken from a test sample and mounted
on unused dry bolts and the average torque to resist
unscrewing is measured over at least three turns
Table.2. Nut and bolt selection
.
Nut Bolt
Grade Tensile Strength (min.)
Grade P
35 ton/sq. in.
Grade 1 S 50 ton/sq . in
.
Grade 3 T 55 ton/sq. in.
Grade 5 V 65 ton/sq. in.
X
75 ton/sq. in.
48
Table.3. Proof load stiffnut specification.
Proof load (lb.)
Nut Grade A Grade B Grade C
Size UNC UNF UNC UNF UNC UNF
109,000 120,000 1 50 ,000
iin.
3,450 3,950 3,800 4,350 4,750 5,450
iin.
5,700 6,300 6,300 6,950 7,850 8,700
iin.
8,450 9,550 9,300 10,500 11 ,600 13,150
&in. 11 ,600 12,900 12,800 14,200 15,900 17,800
iin.
15,500 17,400 17,000 19,200 21 ,300 24,000
Sin.
19,800 22,100 21 ,800 24,400 27,300 30,500
iin. 24,600 27,900 27,100 30,700 33,900 38,400
Jin.
36,400 40,700 40,100 44,800 50,100 56,000
104,000 115,000
iin. 48,000 52,000 53,100 58,500 69,300 76,400
1 in. 63,000 69,000 69,700 76,200 90,900 99,500
at a uniform speed between 2 and 30 rev. /min.
,
the static torque being ignored. After this the same
nut is mounted on the same bolt and immersed in
a
light oil and the test repeated.
The average of the six dry and the average of the
six oiled unscrewing torque readings are to be not
less than the values in Table 4, and the minimum
individual unscrewing torque reading is to be not
less than 75 per cent of the values.
An endurance test is specified in which a nut is
screwed on a standard bolt for at least three threads
through the friction or locking element and then re-
moved, the cycle being repeated 30 times.
The final unscrewing torque must be at least 50
per cent of the figure shown in Table 4 in each case.
Other tests performed are bolt tolerance test, tor-
sional strength test and high and low temperature
tests.
The first four nuts described below, i. e. 'Nyloc',
'Parlox', 'Aerotight' and 'Philidas', are all design-
ed to satisfy this specification, whilst all others
described under stiffnuts are tested to the Indust-
rial Specification for prevailing torque type hexagon
locknuts.
Industrial specification
Grade A and B nuts which cater for bolts up to 'T'
quality (55 ton/sq. in. )
are required to satisfy maxi-
Table.4. Unscrewing torque
-
steel nuts.
Size Torque lb ./in.
iin. UNF 1 .3
fiin. UNF 2.4
iin. UNF 4.0
&in. UNF 6.1
Jin. UNF 8.8
Ain. UNF 12.4
iin. UNF 16.4
iin. UNF 27.0
*in. UNF 41 .5
1 in. UNF 60.0
mum figures for prevailing torque (on) during first
application and first and fifth minimum breakaway
torques on removal as shown in Table 5.
An unused standard bolt of thread fit Class 2A is
taken and an unused stiffnut screwed on to it, the
prevailing torque being the 'on' torque measured on
first installation with no load on the bolt and with
the locknut in motion, and with the bolt protruding
through the locknut between two and three threads.
The breakaway torque is measured on the first and
fifth removal and is the torque required to start the
locknut in unscrewing motion at a point where the
bolt protrudes through the locknut by between two
and three threads, the bolt unloaded at this point.
Stiffnuts described below (except the first four) are
tested to this specification.
Nyloc'
This nut (Fig. 8) is probably the best known in this
category and is one of the most reliable of all stiff-
nuts. It consists of a plain nut portion surmounted
by a shroud which has been rolled over and keyed
after insertion of a ring of nylon material. The
keying is to prevent rotation of the insert during
application.
49
METAL
s.
SHROUD ^

,
,-NYLON

^r
INSERT
The inside diameter and thickness of the nylon
ring is scientifically designed to satisfy the torque
and performance requirements previously des-
cribed. The inside diameter gives a controlled
percentage engagement in the depth of the male
thread before application to the bolt.
As the nut is tightened on to the bolt thread the nyl-
on is formed (not cut) with the profile of the thread
and a high pressure is therefore exerted on the
threads by the nylon. The nylon moves radially
inwards to make intimate contact with the full depth
of the male thread giving a reasonable degree of
sealing effect against seepage of fluid, though no
claim is made by the manufacturer of sealing under
a head of fluid.
Creep of the nylon under load does not occur be-
cause of the almost complete encapulation of the
nylon ring by the turned-over shroud (Fig. 9).
On removal of the nut from the bolt for service, the
nylon insert recovers towards its original shape so
that subsequent application shows a torque recovery.
The nut is therefore almost infinitely reusable and
Fig. 10 shows the performance curve of unscrewing
torque against number of removals of a 'Nyloc' nut.
The main advantages of this nut are reusability,
reliability in performance which is second to none,
no bolt damage and high resistance to turning loose
due to extreme vibrations.
The disadvantages are temperature limitations and
limitations on its use in chemicals which attack
nylon. Price is also slightly higher than some of
the metal types described later.
A wide range of inch and metric sizes in various
materials and finishes are available.
'
Pariox'
The 'Parlox' nut is as the 'Nyloc' nut in its opera-
tion with the same advantages and disadvantages
and has only very slight design differences when
compared with 'Nyloc'.
On the larger sizes the nut is of two piece construc-
tion with the shroud formed from a tubular steel
section cut to length and staked to the nut body.
The manufacturers claim that this method gives a
higher torque performance compared with a one
piece construction. This can only be so if the physi-
cal dimensions of the nylon after closure or the
grade of nylon used are different.
The 'Parlox' nut is now available in a glass fibre
reinforced nylon insert which gives higher torque
and higher temperature performance.
The standard and glass fibre reinforced versions'
are available in a wide range of sizes, materials
and finishes.
'Aerotight'
With the 'Aerotight' nut (Fig. 11) the locking action
is obtained from the cantilever arms which are
formed by cutting and slotting operations followed
by a downward deflection of the arms after tapping
of the nut.
When the nut is applied to a bolt, the bolt thread
forces the arms upwards towards their original
position with the resultant pressure due to the re-
silience of the nut material causing a locking action
on the bolt threads. The orientation of the beams
makes for easier application than removal.
It is claimed that the 'Aerotight' nuts can be used
to 300C with no problems. They are available in
various thread sizes, materials and finishes.
Advantages are high temperature performance,
resilience, reliability, reusability and resistance
to many chemicals and oils.
There seems to be a disadvantage in the danger of
fatigue fracture of the cantilever arms, under very
extreme conditions of vibration, due to notch effect
in region of the root of the cantilever.
Phil idas'
The 'Philidas' stiffnut (Fig. 12) is another which is
provided with a beam like locking element by cir-
cumferentially slotting the crown portion and de-
flecting the beam, so formed, after tapping.
The nut, it is claimed, can be used up to
500c
and retain its locking action after many removals
and applications.
50
Fig. 11. Aerotight nut. Fig. 12. Phil idas nut. Fiq.13. Cleveloc nut.
Fig. 14. Stover nut. Fig .15. Two-way nut
.
Fig. 16. Uni-torque nut.
'Philidas' nuts are available in all standard threads
and in many materials and finishes.
Advantages are high temperature performance,
resilience, reliability, reusability and resistance
to many chemicals and oils. Notch effect of slott-
ing can be considered similar to 'Aerotight'.
'Cleveloc'
'Cleveloc' (Fig. 13) is an all metal prevailing torque
type stiffnut manufactured with an integral locking
crown portion which is given a controlled elliptical
deflection to provide an excellent locking medium.
This elliptical design form eliminates thread in-
teruptions or excessive pitch error so that bolt
entry is met with a gradual and smooth increase
in prevailing torque up to its maximum value.
The nut is prelubricated with a wax finish to assist
assembly with resulting greater consistency in the
prediction of correct tightening torques.
It is claimed that the nut performs satisfactorily
at temperatures between -70C and +250C.
Advantages are that the full height of the nut is
load bearing and high temperature resistance.
One of the big disadvantages as with many of the
all metal. stiffnuts is occasional bolt thread damage
as a result of over deflection of the crown. If this
does not occur the locking performance is reliable.
'Stover'
As can be said for the 'Clevelock' nut the 'Stover
1
nut (Fig. 14) is one of the newer generation of all
metal prevailing torque stiffnuts and is formed by
controlled deflection of the top portion of the nut at
two opposite flats of the hexagon. The control of
this deflection ensures that the locking action is not
sudden but is gradually applied over the last two
or three threads of the nut so that thread galling
on application is avoided.
The nuts are waxed to assist assembly with the
same advantage as with 'Cleveloc'.
The full height of the nut is load bearing and the
nut can be used up to 300C.
Bolt thread damage on occasions can occur with
weakening of thread strength and possible removal
of plating protection on bolt threads.
Hexagon distortion can occur over the whole wrench
length of the nut as a result of the top deflection,
with possible spanner fit problems.
'Twoway'
The centre portion of this all metal stiffnut (Fig. 15)
is compressed at two opposite flats to form an el-
liptical thread centrally between top and bottom of
the nut.
The nut was originally a symmetrical plain nut so
that the formed stiffnut can be used from either end.
The spring like action of the elliptical section de-
velops a progressive and strong locking action on
the bolt threads.
Advantages and disadvantages are similar to those
of 'Stover' nuts but with the added advantage of hav-
ing no orientation porblems.
51
Fig .17. (Top) Action of the Uni-torque
.
Fig.18. (Centre) Eslok nut.
Fig. 19. (Bottom) Binks nut.
Table. 5. Locking performance grade A & B locknuts.
Size Prevailing
torque
lb. in. max
Breakaway torque lb . in . max
.
lin. 30
1st removal 5 th removal
5 3.5
&in. 60 8 5.5
fin. 80 12 8.5
A
in. 100 17 12
Jin.
150 22 15
Sin-
200 30 21
Jin. 300 39 27
tin. 400 58 41
*in. 600 88 62
1 in. 800 120 84
'Uni-torque'
This one piece stiffnut (Fig. 16) is provided with
its locking element by a controlled deflection of
the top threads as illustrated in Fig. 17. The nut
starts freely on the bolt up to the deflected threads
the prevailing torque then building up to its maxi-
mum value very quickly.
Advantages and disadvantages as with the 'Cleveloc'
and 'Stover' types of nut.
'Eslok*
The 'Eslock' stiffnut (Fig. 18) is a comparatively
new design and consists of a plain nut with a per-
manently applied patch of nylon on a controlled
area of thread to give predetermined levels of
locking torque.
'Eslock' nut offers excellent resistance to vibration
and has the advantage of not causing thread galling
compared with some all metal types. The nylon
patch gives effective sealing against liquid seepage
along the bolt threads.
A disadvantage with this nut is the tendency for
the bolt threads to shear out fragments of the nylon
patch which, if it occurs, leaves low breakaway
torque figures. This can happen with bolt threads
which are not smooth and clean.
Maximum temperature for this nut is only 120 C.
Binks'
The 'Binks' nut (Fig. 19) is another of the slotted
deflection beam type of nuts, but with the two slots
moving at an angle from the top centre of the nut
downwards and outwards to stop at a designed di-
stance from the flats of the nuts.
The nut is tapped after slotting followed by a con-
trolled downwards deflection of the beam portions.
Advantages and disadvantages are similar to other
all metal types with the notch effect of slotting,
lowering fatigue strength, the only obvious dis-
advantage .
'Philidas Mark V
The 'Mark V one piece all metal nut has a turret
section which is accurately deformed at two diam-
metrically opposite points in a plane between radial
and axial, so that a flexible locking element is
created, in a similar manner to the Uni-torque nut.
All threads are fully load bearing so that shorter
bolts can be used for the same strength of joint
,
compared with other types in which the locking
element is not fully load bearing.
FREE SPINNING LOCKNUTS
'Whiz Tite"
The 'Whiz Tite' nut (Fig. 20) is a free spinning lock-
nut with a series of spiralling serrations or teeth
Fig.20. Whiz Tite nuts.
Fig.21 . Whiz
Tite design details.
Fig. 22 . Keps nut
-
external lock washer
.
(Fig. 21). The number, shape, height and curve of
the teeth are critical in the performance, which is
aimed at creating a higher breakloose (off) torque
than the application or tightening torque.
It is claimed by the manufacturer, that the 'Whiz
Tite' is designed so that when vibration or shock
load are applied the teeth grip the abutment surface
with unequalled locking power.
Keps-
'Keps' is the term applied to a nut and washer com-
bination and work on the principle or spring action
in both the External Lock Washer Keps (Fig. 22)
and the Plain Dished Washer Keps.
Dished and external lock washer Keps come into
their own on short bolts where high bolt elonga-
tion cannot be expected. With high strength joints,
the
collapsing load of the washer may be low com-
pared with the normal design pretension of the bolt,
and the washer effect is reduced to that of a plain
washer until the tension drops to below the flatten-
ing load of the washer.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Limited.
Parlox Limited.
G.K.N. Limited.
Whitehouse Industries Limited.
Glynwes Screws & Fastenings Limited.
E.S.N. A.
Brown Brothers (Aircraft) Limited.
ITW Limited.
North Bar Tool Co.
C J. FOX & SONS
LTD.
SELLING AGENTS FOR:
KAYNAR
HARTWELL
TWO-LUG FLOATING ANCHOR NUT
All metal lightweight stiffnuts,
Nut plates, Thin-wall inserts,
Self sealing nuts and also
Greer nylon insert nuts
SPECIAL TRIGGER CONFIGERATION
HOOK, pin, Rotary and trigger latches;
Quick-release pins: Nylon panel fastners
and Cable clips.
PLEASE CONTACT US FOR FULL PARTICULARS
C J. FOX & SONS LTD.
117,
VICTORIA ST., LONDON S.W.I.
TEL: 834 0204/5 TELEX: 27661
53
8
Single threaded fasteners
by B.M. Wright (Carr Fastener Co.Ltd.)
The first pressed metal nut was designed for use on
top of a tightened load-carrying nut to prevent the
nut from backing off or loosening under severe vib-
ration. They can, however, be used singly for
light assemblies and, in many instances, replace
the three more conventional parts used, namely, a
plain nut, flat washer and lockwasher.
These types of fastener are single thread locknuts
made of hardened and tempered carbon steel and
can be assembled like ordinary nuts. The thread
engaging area is a formed helix in true relation
to the pitch of the screw thread, in which the inner
contour is designed to provide maximum strength
from a single thread nut. At the same time, it is
sufficiently resilient to yield in a spring like manner,
when tightened, to provide a vibration proof lock.
Assembly can be by hand or power operated tools.
They have certain advantages
over other methods of
fastening:
By the nature of their design they can save up to
65 per cent of the weight of plain nuts, 80 per cent
of a nut and washer and 85 per cent of nut, lock-
washer and plain washer. In most cases, accord-
ing to the type used, they require less space than
many other fasteners. This is especially true
where lock and flat washers are eliminated.
When assembling, it is only normally neccessary
to run the nut down the thread until the assembled
parts are brought into contact and the first resi-
stance to turning begins. A further *toi of a turn
is all that is necessary to complete the assembly.
When the assembly is completed a double locking
action is applied by powerful spring forces being
extended upwards by the helix on to the underside
of the threads and downwards by the underside of
the nut on to the assembly. At the same time further
JUtr
Fig.1. Illustration
showing the double
locking action. The
arrows indicate the
directions of locking
forces . (By courtesy
of Carr Fastener
Co. Ltd.)
fe^fcy-
livp)
[W|
forces are exerted inward with the nut gripping the
bolt like a chuck (Fig.
1).
TYPES OF SINGLE
FASTENERS
Regular type
THREADED
They can be removed and reused repeatedly, with
full security, as long as the coned centre portion
has not been unduly flattened by excessive tighten-
ing torque. They are interchangeable with other
locking devices and generally require no change in
design when used.
Because the fasteners are made from hardened and
tempered spring steel and require no other mater-
ial to effect a positive lock they will withstand, and
are not affected by, temperatures up to 400 F. For
convenience in assembly either the nut or the screw
can be driven.
These nuts are frequently used for assembly on to
threads which are affected by paint, burrs or dirt
,
but because of their single thread form they incor-
porate a very effective self-cleaning action when
applied.
The fastener can be used safely for assembly of
fragile or brittle parts and materials. The resi-
lience of thread form effects a firm but spring
cushioned pressure on the assembled parts.
The Regular type locknut (Fig. 2) is the nearest in
appearance to. an ordinary hexagon nut. For light
duty assemblies (Fig. 3) it can be used alone but
where higher stress is involved, it can be used on
top of a solid nut (Fig. 4). The solid nut carries the
load and the pressed metal nut is applied to main-
tain the original tightness. Regular types can be
applied in confined spaces. Where it is not possible
Fig. 2. Regular type single thread pressed metal
nut. (By courtesy of Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
54
five
minutes
We'll put you wise to
Dotlocs:
what they are, how they work, and why you should use 'em.
Dotlocs
-
what they are
Our Dotlocs are the most effective
way of retaining threaded parts.
They're unique. Single thread lock
nuts made of hardened and
tempered steel giving quick, secure
fastening ... at low cost ! There are
eight different designs in a host
of sizes. Take a look at two of 'em.
Acorn: Tension:
Covers unsightly Holds adjusting
rough bolt ends and screws to desired
protects assembly.
Self-threading
version available.
setting.
Why they work so well
Take the regular type Dotloc. Its
engaging part is spirally formed in
true relation to the pitch of the
screw head. Its inner contour gives
maximum strength from a single
thread nut. When tightened,
powerful spring forces (AA) are
exerted upwards on the screw
threads and downwards (BB) on
the part. Spring forces (CC) are
exerted inwards making it grip the
bolt like a chuck. Hence the double
locking action
-
the most efficient
there is.
Regular type Dotloc
The double locking is common to most.
B ^^ B
Why they're the best
Dotlocs cost less. They're precision
made under careful control, yet,
because they're produced in such
large numbers, they're exceptionally
low priced.
They save weight. And lots of it
!
More than 65% of the weight of
plain nuts; 80% of nut and lock
washer; 85% of nut lock washer
and plain washer. They save space
and assembly time. A single Dotloc
replaces two, three, even four
fastening devices depending on the
application and type used. Forget
about lock, flat, seal washers etc. etc.
Regular type Dotloc
When used as load carrying nuts for
light duty assembly, they replace plain
nuts and/or lock washers.
With just the one part to handle
you'll fit them much much faster . .
.
and in a smaller space!
They're
interchangeable. Dotlocs
get on well with most other locking
devices! Only in exceptional cases
will they call for a change in design.
They're tough. Real tough.
Temperatures of up to 400F won't
affect them.
And you can use 'em over again.
Screw Dotlocs on and off as many
times as you like and they'll be none
the worse for it!
the firm
with the best connections
CARR FASTENER
UNITEO-CARR GROUP
'
I know something about Dotlocs.
II
like what I know. But I'd like to
know more. Please send me the rest
I
of the gen.
To : Carr Fastener Co Ltd,
I Stapleford, Nottingham
I We make
. Name
'
Position
|
Company
I
Address
F4/DEH
55
Fig
.3 . Regular type used for retaining
a volume
control switch to radio chassis
. (By courtesy of
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
to use conventional
wrenches for tightening,
the in-
side hexagon of the nut can be utilised
using an
internal plug wrench. Table 1 shows available sizes.
Acorn type
This type of pressed metal nut (Fig. 5) is intended
for covering unsightly bolt ends when a neat appear-
ance is necessary. The single thread helix incor-
porates the same self-locking feature as the other
types. The Acorn type affords up to 25 per cent
more inside screw length clearance than ordinary
dome nuts, thus minimising failure to seat and as-
semble correctly, a fault so often encountered with
solid tapped dome nuts. These nuts can be used by
themselves for light assemblies or as a locknut on
top of an ordinary nut for high stress assemblies
(Fig. 6). Table 2 shows commonly
available sizes.
Adjusting type
The Adjusting type single thread fastener (Fig. 7) is
similar to the Acorn type but in addition to the lock-
ing action at the base, it has the top formed
down
and inward to provide an additional six point spring
grip at the top (Fig. 8). This will provide a pre-
vailing torque grip at any position on the screw
thread (Fig. 9). Table 3 shows available sizes.
Fig.4. Regular type nut used on top of an
ordinary nut as a locknut. (By courtesy of
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
The semi-Acorn shape approaches
the smooth
ap-
pearance of a full Acorn nut, but provides for the
extension of screws
through the top should varia-
tions of screw length be encountered.
This type
can be used on its own as an adjusting
nut. The
six point grip at the top acts as a brake
on the
screw threads, retaining
itself in any pre-deter-
mined position, making it suitable for adjusting
purposes (Fig.
10). It requires no seating to hold
effectively
when used in this way.
Tension type
The Tension type nut (Fig. 11) is similar in appea-
rance
to the Regular type except for a small barb
on the edge of each flat.
This nut is applied in such
Fig. 5. Acorn type .
(By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
Fig.
6.
Acorn type used as a locknut on higher
stress assemblies. (By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co. Ltd
.
)
a way that the barbs will bite into the surface of the
assembly (Fig. 12). They are used in instances
where adjustment of the screw is necessary.
Once
the nut is applied and tightened,
the screw can be
adjusted as many times as is necessary.
Varying
degrees of tension in the screw can be obtained by
varying the torque applied in seating the fastener.
They grip satisfactorily
on most materials such as
mild steel, brass, aluminium or plastics, but are
not recommended
for use on hardened steels, cast
iron or chromium plated
surfaces. Table 4 shows
commonly available thread sizes.
Wing type
A lightweight Wing nut (Fig. 13) incorporates all
the qualities and principles of the previously men-
tioned types. These nuts are self locking when only
56
Table 1 . Commonly available thread sizes of
the Regular type locknut.
Thread Size Thread Size
4 BA i
in . x 26
2 BA 1 in . x 26
ft
in. WHIT & in . x 26
1 in. WHIT
ft
in. x UNF
i
in. BSF
ftin.
BSF
| in .
-
32
Fig. 7.. Adjusting
type . (By courtesy
of Carr Fastener
Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 8. Illustration
showing locking
actions applicable to
the Adjusting type
.
(By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co . Ltd
.
)
finger tightened and are proof against assemblies
subject to vibration. Table 5 shows available sizes.
Washer type
The Washer type nut (Fig. 14) combines in a one
piece spring steel fastener the functions of a nut,
a lockwasher and a plain flat washer. The spring
locking action and resilience of the large diameter
washer base result in firm assembly but will absorb
the shock of tightening and permit safe assembly of
fragile parts. The washer base enables the nut to
be used in conditions where the thread projects
through large diameter clearance holes or slots.
Table 6 shows available sizes.
Earthing type
The Earthing type (Fig. 15) is similar to the Washer
type but has three tooth- like elements formed out of
the washer base. These are intended for effecting a
good earth on electrical assemblies by penetrating
any non- conductive coatings, unclean or corroded
surfaces. They can be provided with a plastics
sealer to prevent water or dust seepage through to
the assembly. Table 7 shows available sizes.
Captive nuts
These fasteners (Fig. 16) were designed for appli-
cation to sheet metal, as a quick and simple fasten-
ing for sheet metal and plastics where a threaded
hole is required. A specified hole is prepunched
or predrilled in the sheet and the captive nut is
pushed on. The integral latch on the flat side drops
into the hole positioning the nut in readiness for
the screw, but at the same time allowing some
movement for centring. They can also be used in
any position in a panel by inserting through a slot
(Figs. 17 and 18). Captive nuts are made from
hardened and tempered spring steel, and are avail-
able in a wide range of sizes to fit standard screw
threads. The engaging portion of the thread is a
specially formed spiral in true relation to the pitch
of the thread in which the inner contour is designed
to provide maximum strength from the single thread.
At the same time, because the material is hardened
and tempered spring steel, it is sufficiently re-
silient to yield in a spring like manner when tight-
ened, providing a vibration resistant lock. This
feature eliminates the use of other forms of lock-
ing such as toothed washers, etc. It is only neces-
sary for the screws to be turned to finger tightness
and then given a further half to three quarters of a
turn to be fully locked, tightening the screws until
they can be tightened no more is not necessary.
Other forms of single thread fastening are for appli-
cation where access to one side of the panel only is
available. Two types of single thread fasteners
are manufactured for this purpose.
Blind Assembly panel nut
The Blind Assembly
panel nuts (Figs. 19 and
20)
are intended for snap-in application in a round hole
and provide a single form thread. The part is so
Table 2. Commonly available thread sizes of
the Acorn type
.
Thread Size Thread Size
2 BA
10-32
ftin. WHIT
iin. WHIT
iSin. WHIT
8-32
i
in. UNF
|
in. UNF
Fig. 9. Adjusting
type will retain
itself in any pre-
determined
position . (By
courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co . Ltd
.
)
arranged that when it is snapped into the prepared
hole two spring legs open out behind the panel thus
preventing
the fastener from being removed.
These
legs also help to prevent the fastener
turning when
the screw is tightened.
57
Fig.10. Adjusting
type used as spring
adjustment on indust-
rial equipment . (By
courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 1 1 . Tension
type . (By courtesy
of Carr Fastener
Co. Ltd.
Fig. 12. Tension type
can be used singly.
They may also be used
on either side of sheet
metal as shown. (By
courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co . Ltd
.
)
45
turn nut
Another type of fastener for blind assembly is the
45
turn nut (Fig. 21). It is intended for application
into a square hole from the front face of a panel.
When inserted the fastener is turned through
45
to
lock in position (Fig. 22). Projecting tabs locate in
the corners of the hole preventing the fastener from
turning. At the same time the corners of the square
nut are positioned under the centre of the sides of
the hole/ securing the fastener ready to accept the
screw.
Helix washer
A fastener developed for use in the metal furniture
industry incorporates a single thread helix (Fig. 23).
This fastener is manufactured from high quality
spring steel and enables two tubes to be joined at
right angles with considerable strength and no un-
sightly welds. Table 9 shows available sizes.
A bolt is fixed through the diameter of one tube, and
the Helix washers are spun on to the protruding por-
F ig . 1 3 . Wing nut type . (By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co . Ltd
.
)
Table 3 . Commonly available thread sizes of
the Adjusting type
.
Thread Size Thread Size
2 BA
10-32
&
in. WHIT
* in. WHIT
,-Sin. WHIT
8-32
J
in. UNF
i|in. UNF
tion with the concave side facing towards the head
of the screw. The assembly is then pushed into
the end of the other tube, and screwed tight, mak-
ing a strong right angle joint (Fig. 24). The outside
edge of the Helix washers bite into the sides of the
tube in a powerful locking engagement which resists
removal. Two washers are necessary for align-
ment and average strength. Where a stronger joint
is required a third Helix washer can be introduced.
SELF THREADING
FASTENERS
Although not for applications involving turned threads,
the self threading fastener falls into the category
of the single thread nut. When applied to plain rods
or studs it makes its own thread by means of the
integrally formed helix. The self threading nuts
are made from hardened and tempered carbon steel.
They are available as Washer types (Fig. 25) or
Acorn types. Self threading fasteners retain approx-
Fig.14. Washer type.
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
(By courtesy of Carr
Fig. 15. Earthing type
Fastening Co . Ltd
.
)
(By courtesy of Carr
58
studbolt, studiron, allworm, allthread, nippling, wormrod, screwed stick,
threaded rod, stemming, threaded stem .... Whatever you call it we can
supply it in brass, copper, mild, HT and stainless steel, aluminium, nylon and pvc. Threads?
BA, Whit, BSF, UNF, UNC, BSP, CEI, ISO and left handed! Length? You name it!
There are even more applications than names for it. Suspending, clamping,
jigging, tensioning, jacking, and prototypes are just a few. But all you need
to remember is Telcomatic Studding. There are stockists throughout the
country. Ask us for price list and further details. We also manufacture a vast
range of other fasteners and turned parts -ask us about things like tie
rods, allthreads, nuts and specials.
Telco
Telco Limited, Alma Road, Enfield, Middx. Tel: 01-804 1282. Telex 21783
Birmingham: Aston Brook Street, Birmingham 6.
Tel: 021-359 4828 Telex 33572
59
Table 4. Available sizes of the Tension type.
Thread Size
Thread Size
6 ANC
4 BA
2 BA
A in. WHIT
i in . WHIT
Table 5. Available sizes of the Wing type.
Thread Size Thread Size
2 BA
A
in. WHIT
iin. WHIT
A
in. WHIT
A
in. 16 threads/in.
1
-
32 in
.
1 in . 16 threads/in .
A
in. 26 threads/in.
Fig.16. Captive nut.
Fastener Co. Ltd .
)
(By courtesy of Carr
Fig.17. Illustration
showing method of
application of Captive
nut and also the lock-
ing arrangements
.
(By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 18. Captive nut used with sheet metal screw
can be inserted through a slot in any position on
panel . (By courtesy of Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
Table 6. Commonly available sizes of the
Washer type.
Thread Size Base Dia.
in . mm
.
10.32 0.500 12.70
10.32 0.625 15.88
10.32 0.750 19.05
10.24 0.500 12.70
8.32 0.470 11 .94
&.
Fig. 19. Blind
Assembly
panel nut.
(By courtesy of Carr
Fastener
Co. Ltd.)
Fig.20. Illustration Showing the method of appli-
cation of Blind Assembly panel nuts. (By courtesy)
of Carr Fastener Co. Ltd .
)
Table 7
.
Available sizes of the Earthing type
,
Thread Size Base Dia.
in
.
mm.
10.32
0.750 19.05
10.32
0.500 12.70
10.24
0.500 12.70
imately the same strength characteristics as con-
ventional threaded members. Table 10 shows com-
monly available sizes.
No special tools are required, standard socket,
ring or open ended spanners are suitable along
with power operated tools.
The self threading fastener can be removed and
reused in the same way as a normal nut by un-
threading. It can be applied to studs which are
up to 20 off vertical and still seat on to the face
of the assembly making a perfectly safe and secure
fix (Fig. 26). In the same vein, a fastener of this
type does not have to be applied squarely to the
stud. Since the device cannot cross thread, the
assembler can be as much as 10 to
15
out of line
and complete a fully satisfactory assembly.
This type of fastener can be supplied with a bonded
plastisol seal (Fig.
27).
Characteristics of self threading
fasteners
The fasteners usually have a double lead with a
total gripping area on the stud of slightly less than
60
Fig.21.
45
turn nut.
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
(By courtesy of Carr
Fig.22. Illustration showing method of appli-
cation of securing
45
turn nut. (By courtesy
of Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
allowance will have to be made in the stud dimen-
sions so that the finished stud diameter does not
exceed the tolerances. At the point where the fast-
ener will engage the stud, the following tolerances
should be specified: metal studs + 0. 002 in. (in-
cluding plating)
-
0. 003 in.
;
plastics studs + 0. 005
in. to -0.000 in. Table 11 shows typical assembly
torque and corresponding stud tensions developed
under average assembly conditions.
Zip Twist fastener
A variation on the self threading principle is the
'Zip Twist' fastener (Fig. 28). This fastener is in-
tended for use on 3 mm. dia. plain studs of the more
fragile materials.
The 'Zip Twist' is positioned on the stud and then
pushed down until firmly seated. To effect a posi-
tive retention the fastener is then given aito 1 of
a turn to lock. The torque exerted by the fastener
on to the stud is very low, enabling it to be used on
such materials as brittle and flexible plastics and
die cast metals.
one full thread. The pitch is coarse, usually about
five to seven threads per inch. The thread cutting
teeth are formed by generating a helical form in
the stamped nut.
Studs
The self threading fastener will yield optimum per-
formance only when the stud material is softer
than that of the fastener itself.
The fastener can be removed by unthreading like a
standard nut. No special tools are required as a
standard hexagon is incorporated.
It must be noted, however, that these fasteners do
not develop sufficient clamping force to pull up
warped or poor fitting sheet metal, or to compress
any but the most flexible gaskets.
MATERIALS AND FINISHES
The stud must be fixed so that it cannot rotate as
the nut is applied. It must also (including its joint
if welded) be strong enough to withstand the high
ultimate torque and resulting tension exerted when
the fastener is seated against the assembly.
To help in starting a self threading fastener the
stud is preferably chamfered at the tip.
The fasteners can be applied to die cast studs which
have been nickel-chromium plated. In this instance
Table 8. Commonly available sizes of Captive nuts.
Choice of material for producing the above range
is limited to a high content carbon steel which when
Thread Size To Suit Panel Thickness
in. mm
.
iin. ACME 0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
10 PK 0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
&in. WHIT 0.036
-
0.064
0.95-1 .65
10-32 0.036
-
0.064 0.95
-
1 .65
2 BA 0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
8 PK 0.028
-
0.064 0.71
-
1 .65
8 PK 0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
2 BA 0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
10
-32
0.036
-
0.064 0.95-1 .65
i
in. ACME 0.064
-
0.090 1 .65 -2.29
i in. x 20 UNC . 036
-
. 064 0.95
-
1 .65
8 PK 0.028
-
0.064 0.71
-
1 .65
8 PK 0.048
-
0.064 1 .22
-
1 .65
8 PK 0.060
-
0.100 1 . 52
-
2 . 54
B 3.9 mm 0.028 -0.064 0.71 - 1 .65
Fig.23. Helix washer. (By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co . Ltd
.
)
Fig.24. Helix washers used to make right angle
joints in tubes . (By courtesy of Carr Fastener
Co. Ltd.)
61
Table 9 . Availabl e sizes of the Helix washer.
For.Tube Size Thread Size
O/D
gauge
f
in . WHIT
in
.
mm.
16-18 0.750 19.05
i
in. WHIT
J
in. BSF
&
in . WHIT
0.875
22.22 16-18
i
in. WHIT
J
in. BSF

in . WHIT
&
in. WHIT
1 .000 25.4 16-18
i
in. WHIT
J
in. BSF
Fig. 25. 'Dotloc' type
self threading fast-
ener. (By courtesy of
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.)
heat treated would give the required hardness, and
yet still have the 'built in' resilience necessary to
achieve the double locking actions. A 0. 45 to 0. 60
per cent carbon steel (to BS1449 En43F) is used for
all the parts covered in this Chapter. The heat
treatment consists of passing through an electric-
ally heated Austempering furnace and quenching
in a salt bath. This treatment produces a VPN of
500 to 580.
The standard finishes available for the aforemen-
tioned products are as follows:
Black oil
A low cost finish for conditions where maximum
corrosion resistance is not important. The finish
is glossy black coated with a corrosion resistant
oil.
Walterised finish
A blacK phosphate coating on the parts which are
then immersed in a corrosion resistant oil for fur-
ther protection. This finish is suitable for use in
Fig. 26. Self threading fasteners can be applied
10-15 off square to the stud and still seat
correctly, and also can be applied to studs which
are up to
20
off vertical . (By courtesy of Carr
Fastener Co. Ltd.)
ffi
Fig.27. Self threading
fasteners with inte-
grally bonded plastisol seal . (By courtesy of
Carr Fastener Co . Ltd .
)
Table 10. Available sizes of self threading
fasteners
Stud Size Type Washer Base Dies
in. mm.
Washer
in
.
mm.
Jin. 3.18 0.437
11.11
ftin-
4.76 Washer 0.500
12.70
*in- 4.76 Acorn
- -
Jin. 6.37 Washer 0.539 15.08
Jin. 3.18 Washer 0.531 13.49
conditions where the parts are not exposed directly
to the weather.
Phosphate black
Walterised for good bonding in initial corrosion
resistance properties the parts are finished with
phosphor etch stoving enamel. An even black matt
satin finish results.
Zinc chromate
This highly corrosion resistant finish consists of
a walterised coating followed by two coats of zinc
chromate stoving enamel. Appearance is olive
green semi-matt.
Nickel plate
Bright nickel plate is a highly corrosion resistant
finish and does not tarnish with atmosphere sulphur
compounds.
Table 1
1
. Typical assembly torque and stud tensions
Stud size Torque (lb ./in.) Stud Tension (lb
.
)
in
.
mm. Zinc
(die cast)
Steel Zinc
(die cast)
Steel
Jin.
Sin.
3.18
4.76
9
40
22
65
40
110
150
280
Fig.28. Zip Twist
fastener.
(By
courtesy of Carr
Fastener
Co. Ltd.)
Nuts
-
plain and weld
by R.W. Lowe (GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.)
This Chapter is divided into two main sections,
plain nuts and weld nuts. There is also a short
note on torque-tension relationships.
Industry uses thousands of millions of nuts every
year. Apart from some precision and miniature
applications, they range in size from 8 BA (0.086
in. ) through BA (0. 236 in.
), i in. , 4 in. , I in.
,
A in. , i in. , etc. through to 6 in. Thereafter, non
'standard
1
nuts are almost exclusively specials and
diameters of two feet and more have been known.
By far the most commonly used sizes are
t
in.
,
3 in. and
f
in. and, particularly in the motor in-
dustry, these three sizes fulfil the majority of
applications.
THREAD FORMS
Nuts are supplied in a variety of thread forms, but
the most common are BA, BSW, BSF, UNC and
UNF. Again, the motor industry tends to prefer
the Unified range whilst general engineering mainly
uses BSW and BSF. With the advent of metrication,
however, BSW, BSF and BA have now been declared
obsolete. The 'recognised' thread forms are now ISO
Metric and ISO Unified inch (both having a coarse
and a fine pitch series). Although Unified is widely
used in the motor industry, it is now thought that
it will eventually give way to Metric. British motor
companies have already began using ISO Metric
fasteners and even the Americans, who until re-
cently seemed to be against the use of Metric, have
now begun to seriously investigate the possibility
of changing over. Thus, although current usage
of nuts covers most thread forms, by 1971/72 it
is anticipated that 25 per cent of them will be ISO
Metric.
Although ISO Metric has two series of pitches, only
the coarse pitch is currently available from stock.
It should be suitable for the majority of applications.
ISO Metric coarse is finer than Whitworth, but an
increased angle of thread and a larger root radius
compensate for this. With regard to the replace-
ment of BSF, similar considerations counterbalance
the difference in pitch between Metric coarse and
BSF making the substitution by Metric coarse a
practical and safe proposition. Nevertheless, de-
signers may require ISO Metric fine nuts and can
then take advantage of the fine pitch series. How-
ever, before specifying 'fine' nuts, he should care-
fully examine his reasons for doing so. Many have
admitted that they have decided to use fine on tradi-
tional grounds alone, others because of the increas-
ed stress area which a fine pitch series gives. What
they frequently forget is that although the stress
area is higher with a fine thread this is only rele-
vant when considering the bolt strength. Further-
more, unless the tolerance class, i. e. the class
of fit, of a nut on a bolt, is carefully controlled, a
fine thread is far more likely to fail through strip-
ping than is a coarse thread.
It is desirable that the length of the internal thread
and its dimensions be such that, taking into account
differences in the strength of material of the inter-
nal and external threads, the threaded portion of
the external thread will break before either the
external or internal threads strip. The reason
quite simply is that bolt fracture is readily noticed;
stripping of the nut threads is not.
With this in mind therefore, standard nuts are de-
signed to give sufficient length of engagement to
cause the bolt to fracture rather than the nut to
strip. Advantage can, however, be taken of the
increased area in the nut over which the load is
taken compared to the bolt, and, in most cases,
nuts are of a lower tensile strength material than
the bolts on which they are used.
TOLERANCING
As far as the class of fit is concerned, it is worth
noting at this point that the ISO recommended toler-
ancing system is specified by numbers and letters.
For example: 5H/4h; 6H/6g; 7H/8g. These corre-
spond to 3A/3B, 2A/2B, 1A/1B for the Unified
series.
The tolerance class is a combination of the toler-
ance grade and the tolerance position, signified by
a number and a letter respectively. Nuts (i. e. in-
ternal threads) are referred to by capital letters.
The small letters refer to the externally threaded
members.
MANUFACTURE
It is often thought that most nuts are turned from
hexagon or square bar. This is not now the case
for sizes up to I in. diameter, which can be cold
forged. There are several nut forging and press-
ing processes, but the most common is one in which
a nut forming (transfer) machine cuts off a slug
of 'round' wire and forms it into a nut blank. Tap-
ping is all that is then required. A typical pro-
gression is shown in Fig. 1.
63
Fig.1
nut.
Stages in the manufacture
of a standard
Fig. 2. Washer Faced nut.
Larger nuts can also be forged, but this is done
on automatic hot forging machinery.
When the size
exceeds about 1
i
in. diameter, nuts are hot forged
on an indenting machine,
which cuts hexagon blanks
from rectangular section bar. Very large nuts,
3 in. diameter and over, are forged 'by hand' on
hammer forging machines.
STANDARD
MARKINGS
DIMENSIONS AND
Below are given details of nuts to various British
Standards, their shape and size, grades marking,
etc. As ISO Metric is the thread form of the future,
greater detail has been gone into for nuts to Metric
Standards.
BS1768 grades of nuts
BS1768.(1963) gives guidance on the correct grade
of nut to be used with each grade of bolt.
Grade Nuts suitable for use with bolts, grades
'A', >B' and 'P'. These nuts should be capa-
ble of withstanding a proof load based on
minimum tensile strength of Grade 'P'
bolts.
Grade 1 Nuts suitable for use with bolts grade 'S'.
These nuts should be capable of withstand-
ing a proof load based on minimum tensile
strength of the Grade 'S' bolt.
Grade 3 Nuts suitable for use with bolts grade 'T',
These nuts should be capable of withstand-
ing a proof load, based on minimum
ten-
sile strength of Grade 'T' bolts.
Grade 5 Muts suitable for use with bolts grades 'V
and 'X'. These nuts should be capable of
withstanding
a proof load based on the
minimum tensile strength of Grade 'X
1
bolts.
The nuts must satisfactorily resist the proof load
without the threads stripping and must be remov-
able by the fingers after the test.
Brinell hardness. BS1768(1963) gives guidance on
the Brinell Hardness requirements
for grades of
nuts. For nuts over 1 in. diameter, the Brinell
Hardness should not be less than the minimum hard-
ness specified. For nuts up to 1 in. diameter the
Brinell Hardness numbers are recorded for guid-
ance only.
Brinell Hardness Numbers
Up to 1 in.
Over 1 in.
Min Max
Min
Grade 1 163
240 180
Grade 3 183
300
230
Grade 5 270
335 270
Marking
of nuts. Grades
1, 3 and 5 will be marked
with the Grade number on the non-bearing face of
the nut. In addition either:
i. A circular groove of semi-circular section in-
dented in the non-bearing face (for cold formed
double chamfered nuts and locknuts);
or
ii. A recess in the non-bearing face of the nut (for
cold formed washer
faced nuts only);
or
iii. A line of contiguous circles indented on one or
more of the flats of the hexagon and parallel to the
axis of the nut (for nuts made from the bar).
BS1 083 grades of nuts
BS1083 gives guidance on the correct grade of nut
to be used with each grade of bolt.
Ultimate
Brinell
Tensile
Hard-
Strength
ness
Grade
ton/sq. in.
A For use with
Grade 'R' Bolts
P For use with
28 min
121/235
Grade 'T' Bolts
R For use with
35 min 152/240
Grade 'V Bolts
T For use with
45 min 201/271
Grade 'X' Bolts
55 min
248/335
For nuts which are manufactured from the bar,
the Brinell Hardness numbers are given for guid-
ance only and are not part of the requirements of
the Standard.
When nuts are manufactured by cold
forming from round wire, with or without subse-
quent heat-treatment, the Brinell Hardness num-
bers apply as part of the requirements laid down
by this Standard.
Marking. Grades of nuts P, R and T should have the
grade letter marked on one of the hexagon flats.
64
BS916
Nuts to this standard must possess a minimum
tensile strength of 26 ton/sq. in.
ISO Metric nuts (BS3692, 4190, etc)
The designation system for steel nuts should be a
number which is-feth of the specified proof load
stress in kg. /sq. mm. The proof load stress is the
minimum
ultimate tensile strength of the highest
grade of bolt with which the nut is to be used.
Designation of nut 4 5 6 8 12 14
Proof load stress (kg/sq. mm) 40 50 60 80 120 140
Thus the correct nut to use with a Grade 8. 8 bolt
is a Grade 8 nut.
Nut marking
Nut marking is in the form of a code symbol based
on a clock face with a single dot indicating twelve
o'clock. The second mark, a bar, indicates the
grade, i. e. in the case of Grade 8 nut the bar is at
the eight o'clock position on the top of the nut. The
marks on nuts are indented.
rnii
Fig.3. Grade 8 nut.
STRENGTH
GRAOe
4 5 B e*
12* 14*
SYMBOL i S e
8 12 14
'CLOCK
FACE
T
MARKING
SYSTEM
-j-k
fJml
fjis
(k- ^
!
l|pj
^
P^
marking of strength grade is manoatory
Fig. 4. Strength grade designation marking of
nuts.
Fig. 5. Examples of marking of forged nuts.
Fig .6. Example of marking of bar turned nut.
Table 1 .
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL NUTS
Strength grade designation 4 5 6
8
12 14
Proof load
stress
kg./sq .mm
40 50 60 80 120 140 All nuts other than
those exempted by
agreement between
the purchaser and
the manufacturer.
N/sq.mm 392 490 588 785 1177 1373
Brinell hardness HB max. 302 302 302 302 353 375 All nuts
Rockwell hardness
HRC max
.
30 30 30 30 36 39 All nuts
Vickers hardness HVmax. 310 310 310 310 370 395 All nuts
Table 2
.
RECOMMENDED BOLT AND NUT COMBINATIONS
Grade of bolt 4.6 4.8 5.6 5.8 6.6 6.8 8.8 10.9 12.9 14.9
Recommended grade of nut 4 4 5 5 6 6 8 12 12 14
NOTE. Nuts of a higher strength grade may be substituted for nuts of a lower strength grade.
Preferred diameters
These are as follows:
Ml. 6 M4 M10 M24 M48
M2 M5 M12 M30 M56
M2.5 M6 M16 M36 M64
M3 M8 M20 M42
TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIPS
Apart from certain
types of load indicating devices
on high strength friction grip bolts, the most com-
monly used method of controlling the tightening of
nuts is by torquing thorn up to a pre-determined
value and by using simple formulae, relating this
to axial load.
Table 3. BS3139 (High strength bolting).
Nominal T.P.I. Stress Area
Proof Load*
Size of Nut
UNC
sq . in
.
tons lb. kg.
i
in. 13
. 1 41
9
9.12 20,450
9,276
|
in.
11 0.226
14.53 32,550 14,764
i in. 10
0.334 21 .47
48,100 21 ,818
i in.
9
0.462 29.71
66,550
30 , 1 86
1 in.
8 0.606
38.95 87,250
39,576
1 A in.
7 0.763
49.62 109,900 49,850
1
i
in.
7 0.969 62.30 1
39
, 550 63,298
1
|
in.
6 1 .405 90.31 202 ,300
91 .762
*Basedon 64.73 ton/sq.in. (144,000 Ib./sq.in.)
(10.124 kg/sq.cm.)on tfr e equivalent stress area of
the corresponding bolt.
Table 4. BS1750 (Bolting for the petroleum industry).
*Based on Minimum Tensile of Grade X bolts 75 ton/sq
.
in
.
Nominal T.P.I.
Stress Area
Proof Load*
Size of Nut
UNC
sq. in.
tons lb.
kg.
i
n
.
13
. 1 41 9 10.64
23,839 10,813
i
n. 11
0.226 16.95
37,968
17,222
i n
.
10
0.334 25.05 56,112
25,452
i n. 9
0.462
34.65 77,616 35,207
1 n.
8
0.606 45.45 101 ,808
46 , 1 80
1 h n. .7
0.763 57.23
128,184
58,144
1 i in. 7
0.969 72.68
162,792 73,842
Table 5. Nut materials. Grades of carbon and alloy steel for nuts to BS1750 and ASTMA.A
193.
Grade of Nut and Marking Symbol
Service Conditions
Material Specifications
2 or 2H (see Fig.
8.)
High Temperature
BS1506
-
162
High Temperature
BS1506
-
240
L4
Low Temperature
BS1506
-
240
BS1510
-
LT.100
There are two methods of calculating torque. First-
ly, it must be recognised that this torque has to:
1. Overcome friction between the underside of the
nut, and the washer.
2. Overcome friction in the threads.
3. Induce tension in the bolt.
TORQUE FIGURES
Recommended torque figures for ISO Unified, BSW,
BSF and ISO Metric threads are shown in Table 6.
The torque figures quoted in this Table are aver-
age figures and apply to fasteners in the 'self col-
our' condition only. They do not take into account
special lubricants, plating or the effect of hard, and
smooth mating surfaces (e.g. hardened washers).
All of these factors may reduce frictional conditions
and have a significant effect on the torque figures.
WELD NUTS
There are many applications where a nut has to be
fixed to the parent metal. This can be done quite
simply either mechanically or by welding and it
has been found that by designing a special type of
nut, namely a weld nut, this can be effected quick-
ly, easily and cheaply. Resistance welding (by the
application of heat and pressure) has proved to be
the best method of fixing nuts in this way. It is
clean, no filler or flux is required, it is fast, con-
trolled, needs little skill and it is repetitive. Un-
fortunately heavy, expensive machinery is needed
which must deliver high instantaneous power and
it must be frequently maintained. The electrodes
must be clean and flat and the component itself
must also be clean.
Nuts can be welded on by arc welding but this is
only employed for very large sizes. If an attempt
was made to weld an ordinary nut to sheet, the
heat would be dissipated throughout the nut and
this would cause it to deform and collapse. Some
form of heat concentration is therefore needed and
so by designing weld nuts to have a limited contact
area (i. e. small projections) the heat can be con-
centrated in small specific areas. Having thus
established a basic design, a means of location
must then be provided and there are two basic types
of weld nut:
1. Locating collar weld nuts
2. Collarless weld nuts
Locating collar nuts
This is the most accurate location method, but
because of the physical depth of the collar there is
a limitation to sheet thickness to which it can be
attached. Furthermore, a collar has to be made
(thus making the nut more expensive to produce)
and because the nut needs to be located by hand,
it is slower in use. The hole in the plate must
also be punched to a closer tolerance. However,
a collared nut does have welding advantages. Weld
% 4)
0)
4-)
(A
E E E E E E E
CO
n
0)
1
O)0)0)0")0)O)O>Q>
0)
O
C CD XXXXXXX.X
Ll 9
wmcooioNOio
"
o
T>
CM
*
*"
() (0
CO
. r S Ml) 10
J
CO v- -
CM 10 N 0)
4) S
C.
>
-t-
4) II)
u
10
E EEEEEEEE
V
co
01 CTJ0)0)O10)D)01O)
L D
10
*
rA
X xxxxxxxx
o
<
O 4)
CO
CM
ommiflNoiraic

0) CO
C
4)
i.
O
co co in o co co
-n
T- m o v cm in co co
. U
0)
"5
*
u_ -C
U)
5 E
g
o W * (0 o w ^
V)
0) w
m m
TD
E
<0
<Q
CO'-i-'-'r-CMCMCM
Si 4) 25
L
r
4-1
2
5
* r--a>cDcoco^fOOinoQOO
pi^Nt-soiT-iocswcocoa)
_
>
i
CO
^T-w*(00)'ta)(D'j
Ll
CO
m
^
r- CM CO
0) COCM'-NCMIOCOCMOOOOO
a.
i-coinr--i-iococoincoocor~-
r-r-OJ^(DCat0NOI
i- t- CM
c
CO
* corfcM'tococO'-cooioiom
5f
i-cMcoincot-0)cot-t--coo
h
1- i- CM <t lO N O
to
*
CO
CM
loiocMr^ooocoiooo o
|
>
CM^h-OCO'-CDCMg-COg) . CO
T-'-CMCOCOCBCOCO 1
CM
T- 1- CO
En

CD
CO r-or^oinininootnio o
D
to
ft
1
t-co^-r--o^finT-cMr--co . m
41
CD
t- t- CM t CO CO CM ' i-
u.
V CM
r-
L
3
LU *
NCO'-'-COCOCOCMCMCOO O
t
T-CMCO'tCO'-CONCOir) 1 10
CO
f" 1- CM CO lO CD
o
CL
>
o o o o
cn in io o
u-
y
CO 0) CO m
(1)
4)
3
C
h
f t-
CM CO
co
Z
D CO
w
Q Q Q
t^ o 't S>
o
in o co
ii-
"O
4)
Ifl
(fl
t
i>Sffl
3
i-
h
>
"t
COQr-inOCOininQQQQQ
CMincocMcococoo)Ooo)oo
^-T-cM^j-cooinocoN
a.
X
r- T- CM CM CO
CO
0)
Ll
cMOCMcoh-CMinioinoooo
CM'tcocncocncocorocO'-in^-
4)
z
(fl
T
L
3
1-i-coior-T-CDi-co
3
J

-
<
t- v CM CM
h
m *
CO^J-CMCO'-CMCOONCO^tinCO
1
T-c\icoii)NC\ioo)coO'-ffl
i- CM CM 4 CO CO o
CM
inincO'-ocMcocMOioooo
oi-tS'-tD'-oiram'tocoo
"-v-cMcocorocoo)
fftffl
>
O
T- t- CM CO
en oincowcoooinoinooo
z
ir
CMComcocMr-ocococococM't
_>
rr0)tSO50))
1" t- i-
CM
CO
s
f l- W
w- t- (0
"*
CD QI * <B CO Q
r-CMC01-CD->-C0NCD<tCMm
t- i- Ol CO IO N O)
15
o
5
c
*
_ -to H *
-t
-frl *S"'H2-*'tt'*
oro,*'*
T
-
T
-,-^.,-
z
67
spatter is reduced because the collar protects the
threads of the nut from molten metal during the
welding
process. Secondly, the collar prevents
direct shearing of the welding projections by itself
bearing on the parent metal.
Collarless nuts
The collarless nut requires a retractable spigot
in the electrode usually made of a non conducting
heat resistant material. It is cheaper to make
but its location is not as accurate as the collared
nut. However, it is much easier to use on auto-
matic machinery and it can be attached to very thin
plate.
Its disadvantages are that there is little protection
for the threads, which unless the welding para-
meters are carefully controlled, are frequently
splashed with molten metal. It also cannot with-
stand such high torque loadings because it tends
to shear on one projection rather than on three or
four.
The following are the basic types of weld nuts:
1. Standard locating collar -
suitable for use on
0. 036 to 0. 048 in. (20 swg -
18 swg) material.
2. Deep locating collar -
suitable for use on
material 0. 064 to 0. 160 in. (16 swg -
8 swg)
material.
3. Standard collarless nut
-
suitable for use on
material of less than 0. 036 in. (20 swg) mat-
erial.
4. The McLaughlin Patent square weld nut
-
(collarless) -
suitable for most sheet thick-
nesses and has increased welding projections.
5. Cone weld nuts -
suitable for sheet thicker
than 0. 160 in. (8 swg) material. This nut
Fig.10. Deep locating collar weld nut.
gives an annular ring weld and is extremely
strong but 'large capacity' machines are nec-
essary for its use.
The above are the most common types of weld nut,
but other special varieties such as the round and
the grommet type are available for special applica-
tions. The grommet type of weld nut has much
heavier projections and can be used on thicker mat-
erial than the deep locating collar variety can cope
with. Round weld nuts are usually required for
some automatic feeding systems.
It is difficult, if not impossible,
to specify the ex-
act settings of welding machinery for these nuts
because there are so many inter-related variables.
It is preferable, therefore, to carry out a few short
tests with the welding machinery.
Fig. 11 . Standard collarless weld nut.
The normal sequence of events of welding is:
1. Squeeze (air pressure on).
2. Weld (squeeze still on) current on (for a pre-
set number of cycles).
3. Hold (current off).
Pressure, current (heat) and time (also a type of
heat control) can all be varied but
, unfortunately,
are not independent of each other. Furthermore,
the nut condition and the plate condition can have
a considerable effect on the quality of the weld as
can the size of the plate to which the nut is being
welded. This latter problem arises because the
larger the amount of magnetic material in the sec-
ondary circuit, the lower is the current developed
at the electrodes.
Of the above variables, time is the least influen-
tial and current the most. Current is affected by
pressure (because of the alteration of electrical
resistance). If the resistance is increased the heat
increases and therefore lowering of the pressure
can increase the heat.
Pressure
This must be large enough to break any oxide film
and to follow-up the collapse of the projections.
Failure to achieve either will result in weld spat-
ter. The pressure must be small enough not to
damage the small projections (and cause prema-
ture collapse).
68
Time
This must be long enough to allow the projections
to collapse and short enough to limit overheating.
This time normally lies between 5 and 10 cycles.
Current
This is the most important variable of all and must
be high enough to ensure good fusion but not so
high as to give excessive heat or spatter.
What to look for in a good weld
(a) Top (or nut) side:
1. The heat pattern around the projections should
extend 50 -
75% of the way to the next corner
of the nut.
2. The top face and top threads of the nut should
be free from overheating and distortion.
3. The nut should be 'down' on the plate (i. e.the
projections should be fully collapsed).
(b) Bottom side:
1. There should be little or no weld splash.
2. A small nugget (or blister) should be visible.
3. The weld should not extend past the projection
area.
Unfortunately, the afore mentioned variables fre-
quently give rise to bad welds and nuts are seen to
fall off sheet under quite small torque loadings.
The following points should give guidance as to the
cause of a bad weld:
1. The main cause is obviously incorrect weld
settings as described above.
2. The electrodes may not be flat and are often
damaged .
3. The machine may be in poor condition.
Fig. 13. Cone weld nut.
4. The sheet on to which the nut is being welded
may be rusty or dirty (oil does not usually
matter).
5. There may be some detergent on the nuts (re-
sulting from incorrect washing procedures).
6. If a collar nut is used the collar could possi-
bly have projected below the sheet and thus
short circuited the current through the body
of the nut and not through the projections.
7. The collar may be too tight in the hole thus
shunting the heat away from the projections.
8. The projections may not be formed properly
or are possibly damaged.
9. The wrong nut has been chosen for the appli-
cation.
To check the quality of the weld there are two re-
cognised methods:
1. Torque shear loading.
2. Push out loading.
The torque method is normally preferred and, again,
this varies from application to application. Some
typical torque shear loads are shown in Table 7.
Table 7
.
TORQUE SHEAR LOADS
-
LB ./FT.
DIAMETER 16 swg 1 8 swg 20 swg
OF NUT Sheet Sheet Sheet
Thickness Thickness Thickness
10 N.F.

9
&
In. 16 16 16
i in. 27 27 27
A
in. 36 36 36
The above torque values are well in e>ccess of the
torque loads which will be transmitted to the nut
during tightenings
.
69
10
Plastics
fasteners
by A. Griffiths (Consultant Editor)
For the purpose of this Chapter, a plastics fasten-
er is considered to be a fixing device made from a
thermoplastic material as used in an engineering
assembly.
Other fixings manufactured from plas-
tics are also to be found in miscellaneous indus-
tries, such as the garment and horticultural in-
dustries. Whilst these applications are of con-
siderable consequence, it is proposed to concen-
trate on those devices available to the engineer.
Plastics fasteners, as they are recognised today,
were not available until the early 1950's. At the
end of the Second War the spring steel clip was the
forerunner of modern fastening techniques and as
more suitable plastics became available some metal
devices were replaced by thermoplastic fixes.
Designers
in the USA were first to use the modern
plastics fastener and their acceptance
of this new
form of fixing can be related to the following facts:
1.
3.
Plastics technology
was advancing rapidly and
new engineering plastics were being widely
accepted by forward thinking
designers.
Labour costs were rising rapidly which
in-
creased the costs of 'secondary
operations
associated with regular fixing devices. Plas-
tics do not normally require any after opera-
tions.
Engineers
were becoming
more concerned
with installed costs rather than the price of
the actual fastener
unit. Thus plastics fixings,
which are normally more expensive than met-
al counterparts,
were accepted for their full
value.
ADVANTAGES
The main advantages of plastics fastenings
are
listed as follows:
Non-corrosive.
This particular property
of plas-
tics is probably one of the most important.
Gener-
ally a polymer
can be chosen that will withstand
practically
any environmental
attack -
many poly-
mers are therefore unaffected
by common
solvents
and acids. Above all, plastics do not rust or cor-
rode when weathered.
Non-conductive.
In normal terms plastics do not
conduct electricity and are, therefore,
capable of
acting as electrical
insulators as well as fasteners.
This is shown in Fig. 1 where a radio chassis is
isolated by way of plastics 'nuts'.
B.S.
SPECIFICATION
415
IMPROVED
VERSION
Fig .1 . A nylon
nut that can be
snapped into a
radio chassis.
The self tapping
screw is isolated
from the chassis
when assembled.
Light weight. The majority of plastics are light
in weight, with specific gravities of about 1.2,
compared
with mild steel at 7. 87. Whilst the in-
dividual
saving in weight of one fastener may be
small, the overall reduction,
when the total per
automobile,
appliance or the suchlike is consider-
ed, can be great. This is particularly so in the
aircraft industry
where a multitude of fasteners
are used in connection with cable and pipe fittings,
and for attaching insulative and decorative panels.
Fig.
2 shows a lightweight,
non- conductive,
self-
fixing cable clamping arrangement.
Fig.2. A special
lightweight cable
strap that can be
fixed in a variety
of ways
.
70
Fig.3. Refrigerator
shelf supports that
have integral rivets
incorporated in the
design . The rivet pins
are shown in the
undriven position.
Fig.4. A
refrigerator
door bearing
bush that
is self retained by way
of a special leg detail..
Self-colouring. Unlike most traditional fasteners,
plastics fixings can be moulded in pigmented com-
pounds, so as to be self-coloured. In consequence,
if scratched, the marks and witnesses are unlikely
to show. Also the component will not rust or cor-
rode if maltreated. The many plastics trim pad
fixings on modern automobiles illustrate good use
of the above properties.
Multi-functional. One of the most profitable advan-
tages of a plastics fastener is its ability to have a
multiplicity of uses or functions. Probably 60 per
cent of today's plastics fixes perform more than
one function when assembled. This is typical of the
refrigeration industry, where shelf- supports are
self- fixing into the liners, as in Fig. 3.
Self lubricating. Several 'engineering' thermoplas-
tics are self lubricating, for instance nylon and
acetal. Therefore, a fastener may be used as a
glide button. Conversely, a bush or bearing may
be self-fixing and thus show a further saving. A
simple nylon hinge bush is shown in Fig. 4 where
it is used on the assembly of an appliance door.
Thermally insulating. Plastics fasteners are used
in low temperature applications where thermal in-
sulation is an important factor. For this reason,
plastics evaporator supports are also widely used
in refrigerators. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.
Non-rattling. As opposed to metallic fasteners,
plastics fixings do not tend to rattle in the assem-
bled condition. In fact, they can be used to deaden
vibrations in mating components. These applica-
tions are particularly apparent in the automobile
industry.
Self locking. When used in conjunction with screws,
many polymers are self locking and prevent en-
gaged threads from rotating. This advantage is
particularly apparent where nylon inserts are used
Fig. 5. Two common designs for evaporator
supports . The arrangement shown is typical of
many assemblies incorporating plastics fixings.
as locking elements in nuts and bolts. Many pro-
prietary lock nuts and bolts feature small plastics
locking pieces.
DISADVANTAGES
As well as the above advantages, it is necessary
to consider the disadvantages of particular fasten-
ing methods. In the case of plastics these are gen-
erally as follows:
Plastics fasteners are expensive. The average
plastics fix costs about |d. each compared with
the equivalent cost of a metal fix of about |d. each.
However, the full advantages and disadvantages
must be considered before making the final choice.
It should also be remembered that an average fas-
tening usually costs less to purchase than to handle
and fix into position. Therefore, the installed cost
must be taken as the ultimate yardstick. Plastics
are also usually expensive to tool. However, if
the application is sound and warrants the develop-
ment of a special fixing, then it is wise to ignore
the tooling cost, to amortise it into the unit cost
and consider the economies of the combined price.
Fig.6. An indication of the size of a simple single
impression mould. The part of the tool containing
the core is not shown.
71
Plastics fixings are difficult
to prototype.
Unlike
metal fixings, which can easily be hand made, plas-
tics pieces are best produced from single cavity
prototype
tools. A mould of this nature,
the size
of which is shown in Fig.
6, will cost in the re-
gion of
100. However,
this enables the user to
obtain many samples; very often in different
plas-
tics at a minimal cost. These sample tools can
also frequently
be of added value when contempla-
ting production
tooling since some manufacturing
difficulties can be overcome in advance.
Plastics
fasteners are not strong. This is true in
as much that plastics are inherently weaker
than
metals and some other traditional
materials.
How-
ever, many fixings made from metals are grossly
over engineered. For instance,
one may ask why
an automobile number
plate should be held on with
5
in. mild steel bolts when plastics fixes moulded
in a suitable polymer would
certainly be as strong
a,s the application
requires.
Heat affects plastics fixings. Most complaints of
plastics failing at elevated
temperatures are caused
by engineers
and designers failing to adequately
test their
pre-production
prototypes. There are
many instances of plastics fastenings
being suc-
cessfully and economically
used on electric ovens
and automobile
under-bonnet
applications.
These ap-
plications
have been beneficial
because careful con-
sideration has been given to material choice,
com-
ponent design and thorough
environmental
testing
Plastics fixings are weakened by exposure to
sun-
light.
It is true that ultra violet rays will often have
a detrimental
effect on certain
plastics. However,
stabilised
grades of most plastics are available in
many instances. Generally
these materials will
need to be black in colour, if the ultimate in per-
formance is required.
APPLICATIONS
The merits of a fastener
system are generally best
described by illustrating actual proven examples
of successful applications.
The following figures
therefore
indicate some typical examples of plas-
tics fixings in use. Fig. 7 shows two ferite rod
clips which are used on radio
assemblies.
This is
a double ended fastener also acting as an insulator
and spacer.
It is moulded from nylon 66 and would
cost about lid. each. Fig. 8 illustrates a self-
fixing
pivot. The pivot has a special rivet detail
whereby the fastener legs are pushed into a hole
and the protruding pin is driven through
the part so
as to expand the legs behind the panel, thus giving
a secure blind fix. A fastener of this nature would
cost about Id. each moulded in nylon. Fig. 9 shows
a simple plastics grommet that is used to secure
a front entry indicator lamp. It is moulded in nyl-
on 66 and the head also acts as a decorative bezel.
Some of the bezels are
vacuum metallised for fur-
ther effect.
POLYMERS USED FOR
FASTENERS
The following
thermoplastic materials are current-
ly used in the fastener industry and they have been
listed in an approximate order of importance.
Nylon 66. Probably 50 per cent of all plastics fas-
teners are made from this material. Its main vir-
tues are:
1. A 'springy' material.
2.
A relatively hard surface.
3. Good chemical resistance.
4. A 'tough' plastics.
5. Fair resistance to creep.
6. High temperature performance
relative to
other thermoplastics.
Nylon 66 is a fairly expensive raw material and it
costs the moulder about 3jd. per cubic inch.
Nylon
6. This grade of" nylon has many of the pro-
perties of Nylon 66 but is less springy and has a
softer surface.
Nylon
11 . A more specialised grade of nylon which
theoretically has a lower temperature performance
than other nylons. It is relatively soft material and
72
easy to process. Most grades of nylon are hygro-
scopic to quite a degree, nylon 11 is considerably
better in this respect. It is more expensive than
other nylons.
Acetals. This group of plastics are divided into
homopolymers and copolymers. Both types are
used by leading manufacturers and there is little
to choose between the two materials. In many ways
acetals have similar properties to nylon 66 but can
usually be identified in their natural form by their
slightly whiter appearance. The choice of plastics
is best left to the experienced fastener producer,
especially in the case of acetals and nylon. How-
ever, it can be concluded that the acetals are gen-
erally more springy than nylons and in consequence
prove to be a very useful fastener medium.
Polypropylene. The use of this material is gener-
ally confined to larger components which have some
integral fixing device. Examples of this material's
use would be found in cable clips, cable straps,
housings and covers. Polypropylene is strong and
relatively inexpensive and can therefore be used
for larger fastening devices where the raw mater-
ial is a greater proportion of the manufacturing
cost. Polypropylene may be 'waisted' so as to form
a section that will hinge. Consequently it has been
successfully used to make hinges that incorporate
integral rivets and fixes.
Polystyrene.
This material is mainly used in its
higher impact grades in the refrigeration industry.
The majority of self assembling shelf and evapor-
ator fixings have been made in this material. It is
relatively cheap at id. per cubic inch, but it is not
as strong as the previously mentioned materials.
Polystyrenes are particularly weak in light sec-
tions and all high impact grades have a matt sur-
face.
ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/.styrene). This mat-
erial is similar to polystyrene but has a harder,
glossier surface and is much stronger. It also has
a better high temperature performance. ABS costs
about twice as much as polystyrene.
Polythene (polyethylene). There are two main
grades of polythene - high density, which is hard,
and low density, which is soft. Polythene is also
known by some users as polyethylene. Most fas-
tener applications call for the high density mater-
ials. It is generally used for simple and non-critic-
al applications. Its main characteristics are:
1. Inexpensive
-
about Jd. per cubic inch.
2. Light in weight (S. G. of 0. 95)
3. Non-springy
The most common applications for polythene are
hole plugs, stud anchors and cable ties.
PVC. Few fasteners are made from this material.
If used in conjunction with other plastics or painted
surfaces it must be ascertained that the materials
are compatible. This particularly applies to the
plasticised grades of PVC.
Polycarbonate- This is a specialised plastics with
good high temperature characteristics. It is strong,
can be transparent and very tough if correctly pro-
cessed. Its main use for fasteners would be where
the fastener was being used as a lens as well as a
fixing in areas where elevated temperatures could
be expected. Polycarbonate is an expensive raw
material.
PPO (polyphenylene oxide) and its derivatives are
being considered for some fastener applications
where a performance similar, but superior, to
acetal is required. PPO is also expensive and
difficult to process, but it has yery good temper-
ature characteristics.
Polysulphone. This material has many of the pro-
perties of PPO but also has outstandingly good
electrical and chemical properties.
Whilst many plastics have been described in this
Chapter it is interesting to note that about 75 per
cent of all plastics fasteners are made from either
nylon or acetal. Of the remaining 25 per cent about
15 per cent are produced in polythene leaving the
rest of the plastics with a 10 per cent share. Thus,
one can see that the more sophisticated materials
are only contempleted in very special instances
where peculiar environmental and operational con-
ditions are envisaged.
FINISHES
.As mentioned previously, finishing is not normally
required on a plastics fastener. However, in some
instances the following secondary operations are
encountered.
Annealing. This is a process which refers to the
conditioning of plastics components after mould-
ing. It is carried out by heating the items in air or
a liquid so that moulded-in stresses are relieved.
Moisture that has been dried out by processing can
be rapidly replaced by boiling in water. This is
particularly the case with nylon 66.
Vacuum metallising. In this process a thin metal
deposit, often aluminium, is deposited on to the
fastener. The metal is protected by applying a
transparent and tough lacquer. This finish is oc-
casionally applied to hole plugs and the such like
where a chromium plated finish is required. The
finish is not particularly durable and is only as
strong as its protective lacquer. Most thermo-
plastics can be vacuum metallised.
Electroplating. Some plastics
-
notably ABS
-
can
be plated in the same way that metals are finished.
It is relatively expensive to apply and the applica-
tions are not numerous.
Painting and lacquering. Although one of the major
advantages of a plastics fixing is that it can be
self-coloured, there are instances where pigment-
ed plastics are not available. Either because there
is not the time to prepare the material or where
the quantity to be produced does not warrant a col-
73
our-matched raw material. When lacquering,
care
must be exercised in selecting a paint that adheres
well to the base but at the same time has no undue
solvent effect on the material. This is particularly
so when finishing polystyrene.
Vapour blasting. On occasions it may be necessary
to impart a matt finish on to a fastener. This can
be done by either vapour blasting the cavities in
the mould, or blasting the mouldings themselves.
The process is seldom used, but it does enable col-
our/texture matches to be achieved more readily.
PRICES OF PLASTICS
FASTENERS
The next section has been included to assist en-
gineers in evaluating
the cost of a plastics fixing.
The figures given are typical of a particular type.
However, it must be stressed that figures have
not been taken from any one manufacturer's price
list. Therefore the illustrations must be regarded
as typical of a type of fixing. As mentioned earlier,
it is wise to consider the installed cost of the fix
when looking at prices. Also, as with all mass
produced items, the unit cost is considerably in-
fluenced by the extent of the tooling. Usually higher
tool charges result in lower unit costs.
Fig.10. Nylon/acetal blind rivet.
Unit cost: 20s to 60s per 1000.
The price depends much on size and popularity.
The smallest rivets are about
i in. in diameter
ranging to i in. diameter
Fig.11. Polythene
stud anchor
.
Unit cost: 10s to 15s
per 1000. Used to
fix most automobile
badges
.
Fig.12. Nylon 66 or acetal push-in-fix.
Unit cost: 17s to
50s per 1000.
Costs will vary .rnmensely
according to size
and popularity of item.
Fig.13. Nylon
push-in-nut
.
Unit cost: 20s to 60s
per 1000.
Size ranges from
number 4 screws
upwards. The bores
are not threaded.
Fig.14. Nylon/
polythene hole plug.
Unit cost: 20s per 1000.
Materials will vary
according to application
Tooling costs
These depend on the intricacies of the component
design and the number of impressions required to
put into the tool. The average cost for a fastener
mould is about 750. Tt may be considerably more
if the fastener is incorporated into a bracket or a
larger moulding. Also many fastener manufactur-
ers contribute part oi' the tool cost so that they can
assist the user and retain the right to produce for
other customers on the same tooling.
Ordering quantities
Generally, all plastics fasteners are made to or-
der and stocks are not kept on the shelf. There
are few fixings that can be called 'standard parts'.
The reason for this is that many pieces are made
from a specific material or colour for each appli-
cation. It is therefore important to specify fasten-
ers early in the design stages.
Most manufacturers will consider designing and
producing a 'special', if the initial order is for
250, 000 parts or more. Frequently, orders for
less than 50, 000 pieces create problems, since
the cost of 'setting up' to produce such small quan-
tities would be prohibitive.
Some manufacturers
will produce short runs of standard parts but they
may charge a premium to cover the extra costs.
CHOOSING A PLASTICS
FASTENER
1. Call a specialised fastener manufacturer and
try to use a standard fixing.
74
2. Fully test all applications before releasing for
production. This particularly applies to appli-
cations where elevated temperatures are to be
expected.
3. Make sure that hole sizes are closely toler-
anced
- most plastics fasteners require care-
ful attention to hole details.
4. If fixing holes are punched ensure that fasten-
ers are inserted from the 'punch' side.
5. Allow for paint build up in holes and test fas-
teners wherever possible in piercings that have
been painted under production conditions.
6. Use correct installation tools wherever rec-
commended.
FUTURE TRENDS
In 1960 there was practically no market for plas-
tics fixes in the UK. Today it is calculated that
each year over 700 million plastics fixing devices
are used in automobile industry alone - such has
been the growth of the business. No doubt the use
of plastics has been due to the many factors pre-
viously mentioned, however it is also sure that the
activities of practitioners in value engineering in
various companies has done much to highlight the
virtues of plastics fixings. The future trends al-
most certainly depend on their ever increasing use
as moulded-in fixing details in larger components.
The increased usage of existing devices can also be
foreseen as more sophisticated plastics become
widely used. Furthermore, whilst metal fastenings
are generally becoming more expensive as raw
material prices rise, this should not be so in the
plastics industry, where price of raw material has
remained static or has even dropped.
75
11
Pins
-
solid and tubular
by R.G. Thatcher (Spirol Pins Utd.)
Because
of their simplicity of design, pin fasteners
offer a neat and effective approach to assembly in
a variety of applications.
Pin fasteners
represent
one of the basic methods of joining parts and can
be used as pivots,
shafts, retainers, stops, locat-
ors, etc., in most industries. Traditional
forms
such as tapered, dowel and cotter pins which were
intended as location surfaces, are among the oldest
fastening elements in use and are still finding valid
applications in certain assembly functions.
Although
today some fasteners which have been in use for
years are still demanded by some designers, the
greatest potential in design for fastening service is
offered by a group of pin devices that are of more
recent origin. Although all of these fasteners are
characterised by the inherent simplicity of the pin,
details of design and construction
vary widely.
Basically there are two types of pin available,
c
sisting of machined pins and radial locking pins.
con-
MACHINED PINS
Hardened and ground dowel pins.
These pins are
high quality parts manufactured to exacting require-
ments, the assembly of which necessitates a press
or tap fit into reamed holes.
Tapered pins
. The wedging action of this type of
pin is obtained by a force fit assembly into a taper-
ed hole which often necessitates a three drilling
operation and then finally a reaming operation with
a tapered reamer. The standard pins have a taper
of tin. per foot measured on the diameter.
As
a simple low cost fastener element, the standard
taper pins have been widely used for light duty ser-
vice in the attachment of wheels, levers and simi-
lar components, to shafts. To provide a tight fit
the taper pin is usually driven into the hole until
it is fully seated. The taper on the pin aids hole
alignment in assembly.
Cotter pins. These are one of the oldest forms of
pin fasteners. The split cotter pin is characterised
by its simplicity and reliability. In assembly the
pin is inserted into a hole and locked in place by
spreading the split ends. Basically, however, the
cotter pin is a locking device for other fasteners.
RADIAL LOCKING PINS
To allow for ease of assembly and low cost of pro-
duction, radial locking pins of various types have
been developed during the fairly recent past, and
in view of their demand and improved
characteris-
tics this section has been expanded to explain more
fully their
capabilities.
Even here there are two basic forms of pins
-
first-
ly, the solid pin with grooved surfaces and secondly
the tubular pin either with a spirally wrapped coil
or with a cross section of a tube with a longitudinal
slot along the entire length.
The high resistance to vibration and impact loads
of these pins have proved to be the greatest attri-
bute of this fastener. In assembly the radial forces
produced by these parts put pressure on the side
walls of the hole and develop a secure frictional
locking grip against them. In addition to the fric-
tional locking action several other desirable cha-
racteristics of these pin fasteners stem from the
resilient surface construction. All of these pins
are re-usable, and can be removed and re-assem-
bled many times without appreciable loss of fasten-
ing effectiveness, although once a pin has damaged
the side walls of the hole it does begin to lose ef-
fectiveness, and the designer should always ensure
that the pin used would not cause damage, other-
wise this will result in the pin loosening in the hole
and eventually becoming ineffective. With this type
of pin the need for accurate sizing of the holes is
eliminated as the design of these pins allow for the
pin to be larger than the hole into which it is to be
inserted - a reduction in the expanded diameter of
the pin is made when tapped into the hole. Holes
drilled to standard production tolerances are usual-
ly adequate and in Fig. 1 a comparison of hole tol-
erances allowable with different types of pin can
be seen.
Grooved straight pins. Locking action of the groov-
ed pin is provided by parallel longitudinal grooves
uniformly spaced around the pin surface. The con-
ventional practice is to use three grooves, rolled
Fig.1
. Graph showing
permissible hole tolerances
of pin Fastener Forms .
DIAMETER IN INCHES
76
or pressed into solid pin stock. The grooves tend
to expand the effective diameter and when the pin
is driven into a drilled hole corresponding in size
to the nominal pin diameter, the deformation of
the raised grooved edges produces a force fit with
the side walls of the hole. The best results with
this type of pin are obtained under average assem-
bly conditions when the holes are drilled closely
to th,e same size as the nominal pin diameter. Un-
dersized hole specifications should be definitely
avoided. Also, when the part material is apprecia-
bly harder than that of the pin, chamfered or round-
ed hole edges should be specified to avoid shearing
the expanded pin section.
Spring pins. Resilience of walls under radial com-
pression forces is the principle of two pin forms
developed for fastening applications. One design
employs a spirally wound metal strip to achieve
almost a coiled spring effect, the other has the
shape of a slotted tube to provide the desired effect.
Both of these pins are made to controlled diameters
greater than the holes into which they are inserted.
When compressed on being driven into the hole, the
pins exert spring pressure against the hole wall
during the entire engaged length to develop a strong
locking action.
Slotted tubular pins.
Standard sizes of these pin
fasteners provide a range of standard nominal dia-
meters from
ii
to i in. and in length from $ to 4 in.
Standard materials are heat treated carbon steel
with corrosion resistant steel available in some
cases. These pins offer a tough yet resilient self
locking fastener that can withstand shock and vi-
bration loads. Under normal application conditions,
holes produced with standard fractional drills and
held within the practical tolerance shown in Fig. 1
for slotted tubular pins, will provide adequate
locking action where the material of the hole is
satisfactory. Because of their design, the slotted
tubular standard pin is not practical for use with
automatic assembly operations, although more
recently these pins have been manufactured with
the slotted section narrower than the thickness of
the material used in the manufacture of that dia-
meter. This, unfortunately, reduces the effective-
ness of the spring type action. The shear values of
these pins as shown in Table 1 are only obtainable
when the force of shear meets the pin with the slot-
ted section
90 from that direction. Higher shear
strength can be obtained with the use of these pins
if two pins are used in conjunction with each other,
but in double pin assemblies random orientation
of the slots is recommended.
Spirally wrapped pins. Standard sizes of these pins
cover a range of nominal diameters from ^to
}
in. and in length from } to 6 in. Standard mater-
ials are heat treated carbon steel, heat treated
chromium alloy stainless steel and work hardened
nickel stainless steel. Three series of pins are
available to meet varying load and service require-
ments. Light duty pins are recommended for low
shear loading and are suggested for use in soft or
brittle materials and in delicate instruments. The
medium duty pin is the optimum in balance between
high shear strength and great shock resistance.
Heavy duty pins are recommended for extreme
service conditions where shock and vibration loads
Table 1 . Minimum static double shear strength of equivalent pin fasteners .
Recommended
shaft sizes
Nominal
diameter
Minimum double shear in lb.
Slotted tubular pins
Spirally wrapped Equiv. solid
cold rolled Carbon Carbon Carbon Steel
Steel (1
)
Steel &
En 58 A (2)
& En 58 A Steel pin
(1
)
3/32 1/32
- 75*
-
3/32 0.039
- -
120*
-
5/32 3/64
- -
170*
-
5/32 0.052
- -
230*
-
3/16 1/16 425 425 450 400
7/32 5/64 650 650 700 625
1/4 3/32 1 ,ooo 1 ,ooo 1 ,000 900
5/16 7/64
- -
1 ,400
-
3/8 1/8 2,100 1 ,840 2,100 1 ,600
7/16
-
1/2 5/32 3,000 3,000 3,000 2,500
9/16
-
5/8 3/16 4,400 4,400 4,400 3,600
11/16 7/32 5,700 5,700 5,700 4,900
3/4
-
7/8 1/4 7,700 7,700 7,700 6,400
15/16-1.1/16. 5/16 11
,500 11
,500+
11
,500 10,000
1.1/8-1 .1/4 3/8 17,600 17,600+ 17,600 14,400
1 .5/16
-
1 .7/16 7/16 20,000 20,000+ 22,500 19,600
1 .1/2
-
1 .7/8 1/2 25,800 22,240+ 22,240 25,600
1 .15/16
-
2.3/16 5/8
- -
46,000

2.1/4 and up 3/4
- -
66,000
-
1 . As given by Firth Cleveland Fastenings Limited
.
2. As given by G.E. Bissell and Company Limited.
*
En 58 A only
+ Carbon steel only
77
are severe.
The coiled design,
which is more
recent than any other type of pin fastener design,
offers characteristics
of the cross section which
will withstand higher shock and vibration loads.
The overlap on the outside surface is a slit edge
which is slightly broken to prevent wear in the mov-
ing parts. Orientation
of the overlap in assembly
with directional
applied load is not necessary.
Pro-
duction drilled holes are recommended.
With toler-
ances more liberal than those for other types of
pin, both plus and minus hole tolerances are per-
missible on nominal diameters of & in. and greater.
Standard, pins have a swaged chamfer on either
end to facilitate assembly.
The locking force de-
veloped
by the spirally wrapped pin is a function
of length engagement and pin diameter. Pin inser-
tion and removal forces can be readily varied to
meet specific application requirements by control
of hole and pin sizes. These pins are suitable for
application in blind or open locations.
The material most commonly used for pin fastener
construction is En49A carbon steel or mild steel,
although other materials are available, stainless
steel in particular. The spirally wrapped pin is
stocked in the widest range of materials as stan-
dard. There are various finishes available on the
carbon steel and the most common of all is the zinc
or cadmium plated finish, which both give a fair
resistance to corrosive conditions. There is also
the phosphate coated finish which not only combats
corrosion but also, in certain cases, can increase
the frictional hold of the pin on the side walls.
Ordering quantities vary from manufacturer
to
manufacturer and if only small quantities are re-
quired, say less than 1000 in the smaller diameters,
to 50 in the larger diameters, a surcharge is made
by companies who will supply in these smaller
quantities.
Special types of pin fasteners are available, and
because of their design the spirally wrapped pins
can offer the widest variety of special designs pos-
sible. Some slotted tubular pins and grooved pins
can also be supplied in special forms; normally,
however, most companies do insist on a minimum
quantity of 50, 000 pins on a special production line.
The spirally wrapped pins can be supplied in quan-
tities of as little as 1000 on small diameters, al-
though a set up charge is made.
One main point that requires a re-appraisal of en-
gineering thinking which has been prevalent in the
past, is the understanding of dynamic situations
with which most fasteners are presented.
There
is a so-called 'rule of thumb
1
to double the static
shear strength requirements for applications sub-
ject to shock or dynamic situations. This rule re-
sults from the great difficulty in analysing dynamic
situations without performing the actual simulated
tests. The continued flexibility of a spring pin in
the hole creates a new relationship
between static
shear strength and dynamic loading. It has been
proved that a flexible pin will repeatedly outlast a
solid pin which has greater static shear strength,
and it would be advisable
to ensure that a pin be
used that will remain flexible even after it is in-
serted into the hole. These facts do not make the
problem of analysing a dynamic situation easier,
but comparative tests will prove the results in each
application.
Obviously one of the prime considerations in design,
is servicing and the cost of the finished article.
During a survey on pin fasteners it was found that
only 19 per cent of the assembled price was for the
actual pin, the remaining 81 per cent of the cost
was for fitting that pin. Therefore, when consider-
ing the prices of pins, the very important factor of
ease of assembly should be taken into considera-
tion. In an effort to reduce this assembly cost, a
new range of pin insertion machines are available
that can feed, position and insert normal types of
pins at a rate of up to 20, 000 per day. These mach-
ines are of definite interest to the production en-
gineers, whilst also concerning the designer on any
future designs. Comparatively cheap to buy, these
machines will facilitate ease of assembly especially
in the smaller range of diameters and lengths that
are usually a menace on the assembly lines. The
machinery will take standard type of pins down to
in. in diameter.
Because pin fasteners can offer a real saving not
only on the piece part price, but also on assembly
costs, the designer not only has the task of finding
the situations where other fasteners can be replac-
ed by a cheaper method, but, because of the num-
ber of different types of pin fasteners available,
has the decision of which pin fastener to use, and
it is hoped that this brief resume of pins available,
together with their characteristics, will make that
job a little easier.
78
12
Projection welded fasteners
by C.H. Meader (KSM Stud Welding Ltd.)
When looking into the possibility of utilising the
stud welding process in the manufacture of his com-
pany's products, it is a distinct advantage for the
designer to understand the welding process involved
in attaching the fastener, as well as knowing what
types of fastener are available to him.
Two different forms of stud welding are in general
use, 'arc and 'capacitor discharge' (or 'CD'); the
fundamental principle by which they effect the welds
are similar, the two forms being complimentary
rather than competitive in their application.
There is now on the market a range of arc and
capacitor discharge equipments, which suit every
need, whether it be a portable unit for general fast-
ening applications (Fig. 1 ) or solid state control
fully automatic machines for mass production re-
quirements (Fig. 2).
Experience with the practical applications of both
forms of stud welding, coupled with due considera-
tion of the economics involved, has proved the two
processes do not generally overlap in application,
although, on some occasions, some may give equal-
ly acceptable results.
For ease of fastener selection, it is better to treat
the arc and capacitor discharge processes separ-
ately. It can be seen from Figs. 3 and 4 how the
welding operations for the two processes differ.
In both cases, the welding process in controlled
automatically by stud welding equipment and stud
positioning can be controlled to as close as + 0. 003
in. It is necessary, therefore, to give due regard
the capital outlay on equipment when considering
the economics of stud welding.
Fig.1.
Portable
arc stud welding
control unit with
hand held gun.
This unit has the
capacity to weld
fasteners up to
J
in.
diameter at rates
of 10/12 per minute.
Fig.2. Solid state
control automatic
feed pneumatically
operated capacitor
discharge bench
production machine.
Multihead versions
of this type of mach-
ine are available
each head being cap-
able of welding up to
1800 fasteners per
hour.
As an alternative to outright purchase of equipment,
it can be hired at low rates for periods of one week
or more, thereby enabling stud welding to be justi-
fied on a short run or contract basis.
SELECTION OF PROCESS
There are a few check points which will enable the
designer to ascertain what system and, therefore,
what type of fastener to select. These check points
are as follows:
a. Fastener size.
b. Parent metal thickness.
c. Material compositions.
d. Fastener shape.
Looking at the above check points in more detail
we have:
Fastener size. If the stud required is larger than
i|in. diameter the arc stud welding process must
be used. CD stud welding limitation presently rests
at iJin. diameter maximum. Arc stud welding limi-
tation reaches a maximum diameter of li in.
Parent metal thickness. If the parent metal is less
than 16 swg. , the CD system must be used. If the
parent metal is heavier, arc stud welding can be
used.
Material composition. Mild steel and austenitic
stainless steel is compatible with either process.
Various aluminium alloys can also be welded with
either system. Copper, brass, and galvanised
sheet can only be welded with the CD process. Die-
79
3. 6.
Fig.3. Stages in the arc stud welding process.
1 . The stud is located on the spot to which it is
to be welded
.
2. Pressure on the stud welder seats the arc shield
firmly with the work
.
3. The trigger is pulled, the solenoid energises
and the lifting mechanism in the stud welder lifts
the stud
,
thereby creating a pilot arc between the
end of the stud and the work surface
.
4. The welding contactor closes and as the stud
remains off the work the welding arc puddles the
metal under the stud and melts a small portion of
the end.
5. When the cycle is automatically completed, the
solenoid de-energises and the stud welder's main
spring plunges the molten end of the stud into the
molten area of the work where a complete bonding
of the metals forms at once
.
6. The molten metals solidify almost instantly,
fusing the metals in a permanent bond . When the
stud welder is removed from the stud, the arc
shield is knocked off. The stud should appear as
illustrated.
cast zinc and certain cast and sintered alloys can
also be satisfactorily
welded with the CD process.
Fastener shapes
. It is usual to consider fasteners
of circular section; but unusual shapes, such as
square or rectangular pins, can be satisfactorily
welded with both processes.
FASTENER TYPES
'Capacitor discharge' (CD)
The CD process operates on the principle of capa-
citor stored welding energy, which is instantaneous-
ly discharged by the equipment system through a
1.
3.
Fig.4. Stages in the
CD welding process.
1 . The stud is 'located on the spot to which it is
to be welded and the stud welder footpiece is seated
on the plate.
2. The trigger is pulled, releasing the electrical
energy stored in the capacitors. The current pro-
duced disintegrates the projection on the end of the
stud and creates an arc between the stud and the
work resulting in a molten state on the surface of
the plate and the stud
.
3
.
At the instant the tip is completely melted
,
spring pressure forces the stud into the molten
pool , completing the weld . The entire weld cycle
takes place in approximately 6 milliseconds. The
completed fastening develops the full strength of
the stud and plate material and will not break in
the weld area.
special weld tip. This results in high temperature,
which melts the weld end area of the stud and the
area of parent metal immediately below it. The
stud is forced into the molten metal and, upon cool-
ing, a uniform cross sectional bond is achieved.
A vast selection of studs and fasteners are current-
ly available as standards, varying in size from
8 BA to
ft
in. These studs are available with all
forms of thread, including Metric.
It is normal for CD studs to be manufactured by
a cold heading process; threads, where required,
being rolled and not cut. Some of the more comp-
lex types are manufactured by an automatic turning
process, and where necessary further secondary
operations, such as slotting or cross drilling, are
carried out.
CD studs are normally manufactured from the fol-
lowing materials:
Mild steel
Stainless steel
Aluminium
Aluminium alloy
Copper
Brass
(En 2A)
(Eno8B)
(Commercially pure)
(3^
per cent magnesium)
(Electrolytic or lead free rolled)
(lead free 63/35 or 70/30)
Table 1 will enable the designer to select the type
of fastener required for his application from the
standard range available. It should be remember-
80
I I
!
I
!

Fig. 5. Shown above is a small selection of the
infinite variety of CD stud types; including,
threaded studs .nameplate,insulation and pierced
hanging pins , tapped pads knock-off pins and
square and rectangular shaped studs
.
directly end welded to the parent metal in a fraction
of a second, although these times are long when
compared with the CD process.
A source of direct current welding energy is re-
quired in addition to the welding controller and gun.
All arc studs are solid aluminium fluxed on the
welding end, and each stud is supplied with a cera-
mic ferrule (arc shield). Fig. 3 shows the welding
sequence.
Once again, a vast selection of studs and fasteners
are available as standards, varying in diameter
from 1 to 11 in. Thread forms include RA, UNF,
BSW, BSF and Metric. Arc studs are available in
the following materials:
ed that all material listed above can be offered in
this standard range.
Standard fasteners are flanged, but for some ap-
plications the designer finds this flange undesirable.
It is possible, therefore, to obtain the whole range
of fasteners detailed in Table 1 with the flange re-
moved. On the question of economics, the non-
flanged studs are more expensive as this flange
removal involves a further operation during manu-
facture.
In addition to the standard fasteners listed in Table
1, an extensive range of semi- standard and special
fasteners are available. An indication of the varied
selection available can be seen in Fig. 5.
'Arc'
The arc process is similar in many respects to
manual arc welding. The fastener (electrode) is
Mild steel
Stainless steel
Aluminium alloy
(En32A)
(En58B)
(3|
per cent magnesium)
Table 2 will enable the designer to select the type
of fastener required for his application from the
standard range available. In addition to these stan-
dard fasteners, an extensive range of semi- stand-
ard and special fasteners are available. An in-
dication of the varied selection available can be
seen in Fig. 6.
It would be impossible to include specifications of
all the various styles of studs that have been pro-
duced and are readily available for the designers
use. Most normal machining operations such as
cross drilling, slotting, bending, swaging, pierc-
ing, etc. , are available in combination with the
standard studs listed. In the case of design ap-
plications with special lengths or other secondary
machine operations, free advice is offered by the
stud welding fastener manufacturer.
Standard welding studs
Full threaded 'PD' studs
Collar studs
Straight pins
Tapped pads
'J' shaped support pins
Pierced rectangular pins
'T slotted rectangular pins
(i) Korr pins
(j)
Multiple grooved korr pins
(k) Concrete anchors
(I) Shear connectors
(m) Insulation pins
(n) Stay bolts
(o) 'T pins
(p)
Shoulder studs
(d)
u
u-S
(e)
(ft
CO
o
to)
n
CO
(k) (1)
Cm) Co)
fr
3
Ch)

CP)
Fig.6. A small selection
of the infinite variety of arc
studs currently available.
81
Table 1 . Standard 'capacitor
Stud Size
Head Diameter 'D' (inches)
Mild
Steel
Stain-
less
Steel
Pure
Alum.
Alum.
Alloy
Brass
Head Thickness 'T'(inches)
Mild
Steel
Stain-
less
Steel
Pure
Alum.
ftin. BSW &in. UNC
iin. Dia. pin
*in. BSF lin. UNF
i
in
. BSW
J
in . UNC BA M 6
]|in. Dia. pin M5
2 BA &in. BSW 10 UNF 10 UNC
8 UNF 8 UNC iin. Dia. pin
4 BA
M 4
6 UNF
6 UNC
4 UNF 4 UNC 6 BA
M 3
8 BA
0.40
0.350
0.325
0.315
0.280
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.160
0.40
0.335
0.325
0.315
0.280
0.250
0.250
0.220
0.250
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.160
0.350
0.350
0.312
0.280
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.220
0.220
0.205
0.220
0.187
0.350
0.350
0.312
0.280
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.220
0.220
0.205
0.220
0.187
0.330
0.312
0.312
0.280
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.187
0.050
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.050
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Tolerances 0.015 in
.
Tolerances
0.010 in.
NOTE: ABOVE DIMENSIONS DETAIL TYPES A AND B. BUT ALL
STANDARD FLANGE
THREADED STUDS
(a)
STANDARD FLANGE
PLAIN PINS
T
U
discharge' welding fasteners.
Head Thickness
T
(inches) Maximum Length
'
I_' (inches) Minimum Length 'L' (inches)
Allum.
Alloy
Brass
Mild
Steel
Stain-
less
Steel
Pure
Alum.
Alum
.
Alloy
Brass
Mild
Steel
Stain-
less
Steel
Pure
Alum.
Alum.
Alloy
Brass
- -
3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 0.375 0.375 0.375
0.375 0.375
0.050'
0.050 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 0.312 0.312 0.312
0.312
0.312
0.050 0.050 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312
0.050 0.050 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 0.312 0.312 0.312
0.312 0.312
0.050
0.050 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.250
0.250
0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.250
0.250
0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 0.250
0.250
0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 1 .0 0.250
0.250
0.250 0.250 0.250
0.050 0.050 1 .0 1 .0 0.75 0.75 1 .0 0.250
0.250
0.250 0.250 0.250
Tolerances Tolerances . 01 5 in
.
Tolerances
. 015 in.
0.010 in.
ARE AVAILABLE WITH FLANGE REMOVED AS TYPES C AND D.
NON-FLANGED
THREADED STUDS
(c)
NON-FLANGED
PLAIN PINS
L
83
Table 2. Standard 'arc' weldingfasteners
.
MATERIALS: LOW CARBON MILD STEEL AND 18/8 OR 18/8-1 STAINLESS STEEL.
AVAILABLE THREAD FORMS: BA.BSW.BSF .UNF .UNO ,ANF .
STANDARD THREADED STUDS
U^
AFTER WELD
(AW)
REDUCED BASE STUDS
h^H
AFTER WELD
(AW)
FULLY THREADED STUDS
AFTER WELD
(AW)
STUD SPECIFICATION
Diameter
Ain. 2BA
tin. OBA
|
in.
iin.
fin.
Jin.
H
0.160
0.216
0.275
0.332
0.445
0.563
0.682
Min. (AW)
Length
A L
A
in-
tin
.iin. fin
.iin. Jin
iin.
tin
rain. Sin
iin. 1 in
Ain. 1 Ain
Weld Bead
Dimensions
iin.
Min.
Ain.
gin.
iin.
iin.
ft
1 "-
a
in.
sin.
iin.
ft
in.
Ain.
Ain.
Max
.
(AW)
Length
4.0 in.
6.0 in,
8.0 in.
8.0 in.
10.0 in.
10.0 in.
10. in.
STUD SPECIFICATION
Diameter
D
Ain. 2BA
iin. OBA
Ain.
Iin.
iin.
iin.
iin.
Dia.
H
0.125
0.175
0.230
0.283
0.379
0.494
0.606
Min. (AW)
Length
1 iin.
1 Iin.
A
iin
iin
5sin
A in
as in
iin,
iin,
Weld Bead
Dimensions
iin.
u

32 in
.
lain
.
Sin.
F
iin.
iin.
iin.
kin
.
A
in
.
Ain
.
Ain
.
Max.
(AW)
Length
3.0 in
3.0 in
5.5 in
5.5 in,
5.5 in,
5.5 in
3.5 in,
STUD SPECIFICATION
Diameter
D
Ain. 2BA
i in . OBA
A in
.
iin.
iin.
iin.
iin.
Min (AW]
Length
L
Sin.
Sin.
iin.
iin.
1 in.
1 Ain.
1 iin.
Max
ft
m.
Ain.
Ain
.
A.
"in.
Ain
.
Ain
.
Ain
.
Weld Bead
Dimensions
in.
in
.
|4n.
gin.
ft in
.
iin.
1 in.
Bin.
i
in.
32 in
.
Ain
.
Ain
.
Max (AW)
Length
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
2.75 in.
PLAIN PINS
1-T
AFTER WELD
(AW)
STUD SPECIFICATION
Diameter
D
Ain.
iin.
Ain-
Iin.
Ain.
iin.
iin.
Iin.
Min (AW)
Length
L
iin.
S
in '
iin.
iin.
1 in.
1in.
1 A
in
.
1 iin.
Weld Bead
Dimensions
Bin.
gin.
Ain.
i
in.
'iin.
Sin.
iin.
1in.
iin.
in.
ain.
iin.
Bin.
kin.
*i
in .
Max (AW)
Length
4.0 in.
6.0 in.
8.0 in.
10.0 in.
10.0 in.
10.0 in.
10.0 in.
10.0 in.
NOTE:
1.
A FULL RANGE OF ARC STUDS WITH METRIC THREAD FORMS ARE ALSO
AVAILABLE.
2. SHORTER STUDS OF 'BREAK-OFF' TYPE ARE ALSO AVAILABLE
AS STANDARDS.
3. STUDS OF GREATER LENGTH THAN THOSE LISTED ABOVE ARE AVAILABLE TO SPECIAL
ORDER
.
All shapes. All sizes. That's our versatile range
of standard studs. If we don't have in stock
exactly what you need studs can be speedily
made up to your requirements. And remember,
all of these studs can be welded in under
a second. Saving time. Saving money. Try us.
P.S. We make stud welding equipments, too.
(rompton Parkinson Stud Welding
CromptonParkinson Ltd. . CromptonHouse, Aldwych, London WC2
f0f
HAWKER SIDDE1.EY COMPANY
85
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
Arc stud welding
m. High application rates (upHo 1800 welds per
hour with single head automatic bench machines).
In designing arc stud welding fastenings, there
is a ratio of parent metal thickness to stud dia-
meter that should be followed for practical engin-
eering and production quality results. The parent
metal thickness should be a minimum of a third of
the weld base diameter of the welding stud. There
are, however, many applications where strength
is not the primary requirement. In cases such as
these the parent metal thickness may be reduced
to a minimum of one -fifth the weld base diameter.
Thickness above this will afford complete cross-
sectional area weld fusion without burn-through
or excessive distortion of the parent material.
CD stud welding
In designing fasteners with the CD system, parent
metal material can be as thin as 0. 020 in. (0. 032
in. aluminium) without burn-through occurring.
Studs welded to this thickness will normally
cause
sheet failure when loaded to ultimate.
FASTENER
COSTS
To achieve the lowest fastener cost, it is recom-
mended that first and fullest consideration
should
always be given to:
1. Use of standard stud types, as detailed in manu-
facturer's
specification sheets.
2. Use of standard lengths, diameters and thread
forms (studs are available with length increments
of i in.
)
3. Use of supplier's standard
materials.
ADVANTAGES
OF STUD WELDING
Listed below are some of the main advantages
of
stud welding
when compared with other fastening
processes:
a. Low cost standard fasteners.
b. Elimination of drilled or punched holes.
c. Elimination of tapping operations.
d. Reduction in gauge of parent materials.
e. Aesthetically improved product.
f. With CD welding, the ability to join dissimi-
lar metals often having widely different melting
points.
g.
Welding and fastening from one side which, -in
some cases, eliminates the need for two opera-
tors.
h. With the well designed stud welding equipment
currently available on the market, unskilled op-
erators can be taught to use it successfully in a
very short time.
i. Vibration proof permanent fastening,
j.
Reverse side marking and burning consider-
ably reduced or eliminated.
k. Leak-proof fastening (lending itself to use on
containers of all kinds).
1. Low cost. jigs and fixtures.
DISADVANTAGES OF STUD WELDING
The disadvantages of stud welding can be summar-
ised as follows:
a. Difficulty in obtaining high strength welds on
certain base materials, i.e. high carbon steels,
copper based aluminium
alloys, cast iron, etc.
b. Difficulty in welding fasteners through
pre-
painted surfaces,
unless the weld area is scraped
or ground clean beforehand.
c. Difficulty in welding through heavily plated
zinc or cadmium surfaces.
(It should be pointed
out, however,
that stud welding can be carried out
successfully
through many plated surfaces includ-
ing electro-
galvanised zinc, chromium,
nickel,
etc.)
Ftg.7.
TYPICAL
APPLICATIONS
Stud welding is currently
being used in virtually
every section of industry,
a few of the more inter-
esting applications are described below:
1. A manufacturer of high class holloware
pro-
ducing utensils in stainless clad aluminium wished
to eliminate the conventional method of fastening
handles, which involved punching holes and assemb-
ling handles by a riveting process.
The solution was found by designing
a square sec-
tion aluminium
alloy tapped
CD welding fastener
with a weld base diameter of 0. 375 in. (Fig. 7). A
special handle was designed to suit this fastener,
the square section of which
provided the location
to prevent the handle rotating.
The handle is re-
tained by a screw into the pad, and Fig. 8 shows
the arrangement for final assembly.
After final assembly,
the utensil is considerably
improved in appearance and has no marking what-
86
Fig.8.
soever on the inside surface, which makes it easier
to clean and renders it leak- proof.
With this particular application, utensils can be
welded at the rate of 400 per hour and a cost saving
was effected over the original method of riveting.
2. Another application for capacitor discharge
stud welding which has proved to have considerable
advantages over the previous technique, is in the
production of high quality plastering trowels.
With this application, it is necessary to attach the
handle tang to a light gauge high carbon steel blade.
The original method was first to punch holes in the
blade, secondly to place the blade over the ready
drilled tang, passing through each of the holes a
mild steel countersunk head rivet. A skilled crafts-
man then peened over each rivet by hand, the final
operation being to grind flat the working surface of
the trowel.
The technique now adopted is to stud weld standard
flanged brass CD pins on to the blade, thus elimi-
nating reverse side marking and hence the need
for punching and grinding. The tang is more easily
assembled to the blade as the rivets .are welded
firmly into position. The end result is that as-
sembly time has been considerably reduced and
the quality of the product improved.
Fig. 9 shows the trowel blade with the stud welded
in position and the finished article
-
note the ab-
sence of marking on the reverse side of the blade.
3. An application for arc stud welding, which is
highly successful and well-proven, is for inspec-
tion plate covers on industrial boilers and oil filled
transformers.
One application in question involved the attaching
of sixteen \
in. diameter threaded studs to a cir-
cular
inspection plate cover flange. The original
drilling and tapping method involved seven opera-
tions and took 60 minutes to complete.
When arc stud welding was introduced, the number
of operations was reduced to three, and the com-
plete operation was carried out in 8 minutes.
Arc stud fastener costs compared with those of
the threaded studding used in the original opera-
tion. The installed cost of the fastener was, how-
ever, considerably reduced.
MATERIAL SELECTION
AND
SPECIFICATION
Arc and capacitor
discharge stud welding can be
carried out on a variety of base materials. How-
ever, CD stud welding is more versatile in this
respect, the weldable range of base materials in-
cluding mild steel, medium carbon steel, stainless
steel
(austenitic), lead free brass and copper, alu-
minium and aluminium alloys. With arc stud weld-
ing, applications are limited to low carbon mild
steel, stainless steel (austenitic) and magnesium
based aluminium alloys.
Table 3 indicates the weldability of the above quoted
base materials related to CD studs produced in a
variety of materials.
With certain arc stud welding applications, it is
necessary to pre-heat the base material immediate-
ly prior to welding, for example when welding to
armour plate, or to special high yield structural
steels. It is essential, therefore, for technical
advice to be sought from the stud welding manu-
Fig.9.
facturer when designing for stud welding to special
base materials.
Tables 4 and 5 indicate typical standard load
strengths on CD and arc studs of different sizes
and materials. These values should be used as
a guide only, as it is
impracticable to provide pre-
cise torque loadings for all conditions.
FINISHES
Finish must be considered firstly from the aspect
of protective coatings and secondly from the type
of protective finish through which studs can be
welded to the base materials.
In considering the finish on the studs, it is normal
to supply mild steel arc studs, self- finished and
slightly oiled, however, if a protective finish is
required on the stud, they can be supplied zinc or
cadmium electroplated. This plated finish is not
applied to the welding end of the stud, as the effect
of the zinc or cadmium is detrimental to the weld
quality.
In the case of CD welding studs, mild steel types
are normally supplied with a copper flash finish.
87
Table 3
.
BASE MATERIAL
STUD MATERIAL
MILD STEEL
EN2
STAINLESS
STEEL
18/8
ALUMINIUM
PURE AND
3>i% Mg.
BASS
65-35, 70-30
Mild Steel
0.3% C. Max.
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Medium Carbon Steel
0.3
-
0.55% C
Limited
Limited
Limited
Galvanised Sheet
Excellent
Excellent
Structural Steel
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Stainless Steel
(Austenitic)
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Lead Free Brass
Electrolytic
Copper
Lead Free Rolled Copper
Limited
Limited
Excellent
Aluminium Alloys
(Non-Heat
Treatable)
Excellent
Aluminium Alloys
(Heat Treatable)
Limited
Zinc Alloys
(Die Cast)

...
Limited
Limited
Excellent
Limited
CODE: Excellent -All capacitor discharged flanged studs up to and including
,-Sin. diameter
welded with full strength results.
Limited - Generally full strength results; dependent
upon stud size/parent material
combination
.
the thickness of this coating being 0. 0001/0. 0003 in.
The main purpose of this copper flash coating is to
protect the stud during storage,
which also has the
additional advantage of ensuring a good electrical
contact between the stud and the chuck during the
welding operation.
Mild steel CD fasteners can also be supplied with
a protective nickel flash,
if specifically
requested.
All studs in other materials
are normally supplied
self- finish.
PLATING OF BASE MATERIALS
To ensure trouble-free welding
conditions, the de-
signer should always aim for the stud to be welded
to clean, unpainted, or unplated, surfaces. Failing
this, it is possible to CD weld satisfactorily through
electroplated zinc and cadmium surfaces.
It is not
recommended that CD welding
be carried out on
painted surfaces of any kind, unless the area to be
welded is scraped or ground clean beforehand.
In the case of arc stud welding to pre-coated sur-
faces,
as a general rule,
it is not
recommended to
weld through
pre-plated surfaces of any kind. How-
ever, using specially designed arc shields, it is
possible to achieve high quality welds when welding
through
electroplated
zinc surfaces.
Welding through
hot dipped zinc coatings is defintely not advised.
If arc studs are required
with a cadmium or zinc
plated finish the cost of the stud can increase by
as much as 50 per cent. This high cost is due to
the fact that the weld end of the stud needs to be
protected during the plating process, each stud,
therefore, has to be handled individually.
PRICES
When considering
the justification
for stud welding
from an economic
point of view, it must firstly
be
remembered
that this process offers the following
advantages which, in themselves,
save costs:
a. Elimination
of punching or drilling operations.
b. Elimination of tapping
operations.
c. Relatively
simple positioning of jigs or tem-
plates required.
d. Equipment can be used by unskilled
operators.
e. Assembly can be made from one side.
f. Thinner
parent materials
can be used.
After considering the above advantages
to be gained
from using stud welding, it is wise then to consider
the most suitable, and of course, the cheapest
type
of fastener for the application in question.
The
cheapest fastener available is of the cold headed
flanged type (Table 1), these varying in price from
2s. per hundred upwards, depending
upon the mat-
erial used, the quantity purchased, and the size
required.
88
Do you spend hours looking
for the right
material ?
Do
you then spend hours
locating
a manufacturer?
If you answer 'yes' to the questions you
are strongly
advised to read on
Design Engineering has long since recognised that time is often wasted
searching for the right material and the best way to form it, and then trying
to find the most suitable manufacturer. It is to ensure that the best advice
is always on hand that Design Engineering Handbooks have been conceived.
In the Design Engineering Handbook on Metals base metals, precious
metals, refractory metals, irons and steels-, and coated metals are examined.
Nine of the 34 chapters deal with the forming of metals, whilst the other
chapters discuss the advantages and limitations of each material, its
applications and design considerations, together with the latest developments
For more information and a list of Design Engineering Handbooks, write to
the Publications Manager, Product Journals Ltd., Summit House, Glebe Way,
West Wickham, Kent.
89
Table 4. KSM standard CD stud load strengths.
MATERIAL
SIZE FASTENING
ULTIMATE MAXIMUM
TORQUE TENSILE
SHEAR LOAD
(IN. LB.) (LB.)
(LB.)
Steel
6 BA 4
400
280
Low Carbon
4 BA
9
850
590
Copper
2 BA
18 1 1 00
770
Flashed
i BSW 40
1850
1300
Stainless
6 BA
6
600
420
Steel
4 BA 14
1250
890
18/8
2 BA
28 1650
1150
* BSW 60
2770
1950
Aluminium
4 BA 3
260
160
(Pure)
2 BA
6 360
220
i BSW 11
600
380
Aluminium
4 BA 6
520
320
(3J% Mg.)
2 BA
12
720
440
i BSW 22
1200
760
Brass
6 BA 5
400
270
4 BA 10
850
520
2 BA
17
1100
700
J BSW 40 1850
1230
This same range of studs can be purchased without
a flange, but as this involves a further operation
during manufacture, it must, of course, be realis-
ed that the cost will be higher.
Internally threaded fasteners are manufactured by
a slower auto turning process and the cost for a
fastener of this type would therefore be higher than
for that of an externally threaded fastener.
Several thousand different types of fasteners are
currently available and it must be appreciated,
therefore, that in an article of this type it is dif-
ficult to provide an average cost. It must also be
remembered that it is the applied cost which must
be considered and not just the fastener cost.
The selection of arc studs currently
available en-
ables a range of fasteners
varying from
4 in. dia-
meter to 1 i in. diameter to be satisfactorily end
welded to base materials,
however, with this pro-
cess it is necessary to utilise a ferrule and the very
nature of the stud, therefore, makes its cost high-
er than a comparable CD fastener of the same size.
If fasteners above A in. diameter are to be welded
with portable equipment, it is essential to use the
arc stud welding process. It is better on the grounds
of economics, therefore, to design around a CD
fastener in sizes up lo ,-| in. diameter.
As in the case of CD fasteners, several thousand
different types and shapes are currently available.
Table 5. KSM standard arc stud load strengths.
MATERIAL SIZE
(THREADED BSW)
FASTENING TORQUE*
(IN. LB.)
ULTIMATE
TENSILE (LB.)
MAXIMUM SHEAR
LOAD (LB
.
)
LOW
CARBON
STEEL
Jin.
fin.
i
in.
gin.
iin.
iin.
1in.
51 .5
112.0
184.0
405.0
870.0
1090.0
1 660 .
2460.0
2,000
3,240
4,820
8,750
14,200
20,900
29 ,000
38,000
1 ,500
2,440
3,620
6,650
10,600
15,650
21 ,600
28,400
STAINLESS
STEEL
18/8 or
1 8/8
-
1
iin.
,-fin.
in.
iin.
fin.
Jin.
iin.
1in.
75.2
132.0
236.0
517.0
1110.0
1530.0
2328.
O
3440.0
2,880
4,680
6,920
12,800
20,200
30,000
41 ,600
54,500
2,160
3,500
5,190
9,600
1
5
, 1 50
22 , 500
31 ,200
40,900
*
These values should be used as a guide only, as it is impracticable to provide precise torque
loadings for all conditions.
and it is, therefore, difficult to give a cost for such
a fastener. Once again, the applied cost is the im-
portant consideration.
Special tooling costs
If a designer requires a fastener to be manufactur-
ed for his application of a type not listed as stand-
ard in the manufacturers'
catalogues, it is usually
necessary to pay a higher price for the fasteners,
in order to offset the special tooling costs involved.
Alternatively, tooling can be paid for separately.
In the case of special cold headed fasteners, a spec-
ial tooling cost of between 50
- 100 is involved,
and in the case of auto turned fasteners, where
special operations, such as cross drilling or cross
slotting, are involved, tooling charges could rise to
as much as 150
-
300.
It can be seen, therefore, that particularly with
short-run work, it is better to aim for the stand-
ard range of fasteners offered by the manufacturer.
Ordering quantities
When considering the use of CD welding, it should
be borne in mind that the minimum ordering quant-
ity for standard fasteners is 2000 off.
In the case of special fasteners, this minimum
quantity can also be as low as 2000 off. However,
for special auto turned fasteners, this minimum
quantity may be raised to 5000 off, depending upon
the setting up time and the tooling charges involved.
The stud welding manufacturer is, however, usual-
ly prepared to accept orders on a blanket cover or
scheduled call- off, provided the fasteners covered
on these orders are called-off within a maximum
period of twelve months from the date that the or-
der was placed.
In this way, the customer can gain the advantage
of quantity discount. An indication of the scale of
discounts for varying quantities of CD and arc fast-
eners is shown in Table 6.
Table
Arc
welding studs, because of their higher value
and the range of diameters available, can be pur-
chased in quantities as low as 100 off per size.
Once again, it is to the advantage of the designer,
when using this type of fastener, to direct his pur-
chasing department to place blanket order cover,
thereby ensuring maximum price advantage for
quantity.
FUTURE TRENDS
CD welding
Since its establishment in the UK some 8 years
ago, capacitor discharge stud welding equipment
has made rapid strides. When first introduced,
only portable machines were available, capable
of welding fasteners up to
|
in. diameter at rates
of 10/12 per minute.
Since this time, further developments have been
single and multi head bench production machines
with electro mechanical charging and control cir-
cuits. Following on from this, a similar range of
machines have been developed with all solid state
control. This change to solid state systems has
opened the field up even wider by enabling the stud
welding equipment manufacturers to offer single
and multi head machines with automatic stud and
base component feed, each head being capable of
welding at a rate of up to 1800 fasteners per hour.
The requirement for accurate positioning of fast-
eners to mass produced components has, at this
stage, led to the development of special purpose
automatic machines with logic control systems,
which utilise a pre-programmed tape controlled
indexing bed, thereby combining high application
rates with accurate positioning of fasteners, a typi-
cal unit is illustrated in Fig. 10.
Arc stud welding
This process, although established in this country
for a much longer period, has not developed along
the same lines. The requirement for arc stud weld-
ARC WELDING FASTENERS
STUD
QUANTITIES
DISCOUNT
SCHEDULE
100
TO
249
PLUS
60.0%
250
TO
499
PLUS
30.0%
500
TO
1 ,999
LIST
PRICE
2,000
TO
4,999
LESS
4.5%
5,000
TO
9,999
LESS
9.5%
10,000
TO
49,999
LESS
11 .5%
50,000
TO
99,999
LESS
14.0%
100,00
TO
199,999
LESS
18.6%
200,000
AND
UPWARDS
LESS
21 .0%
C. D. WEL DING FASTENERS
STUD
QUANTITIES
DISCOUNT
SCHEDULE
2,000
TO
4,999
PLUS
66.0%
5,000
TO
9,999
PLUS
12.0%
10,000
TO
24 ,999
LIST
PRICE
25,000
TO
49,999
LESS
5.0%
50,000
TO
99,999
LESS
8.0%
100,000
TO
249,999
LESS
12.0%
250,000
TO
499,999
LESS
16.0%
500,000
AND
UPWARDS
LESS
21 .0%
Fig. 10. Single head automatic
Feed capacitor
discharge stud welding unit with tape control
system
.
ing still lies mainly in the heavier fabrication field,
where it is more convenient to use portable equip-
ment with hand held guns. There is little need for
automatic feed equipments,
although some special
purpose machines have been developed which feed
$
-
i
in. diameter fasteners
at rates of 20/30 per
minute. Applications here include boiler tube stud-
ding and commercial vehicle assembly.
When looking at the future of stud welding, it is
fairly obvious that the bias will be towards full
automation, thereby eliminating the need for cons-
tant operator attendance. At the same time, the
accent will be on a greater degree of positional
accuracy at high rates of application.
The stud welding manufacturers
are constantly de-
veloping along these lines, and the many advant-
ages to be gained from using the drawn arc and
capacitor discharge
stud welding process indicates
a very bright future.
want
to cut
fastening
costs ?
make
a mMof
diffmce!
Contact us now to find out about our
free technical advice and service.
*
How to eliminate costly drilling and
riveting.
*
High application rates.
*
Trouble free operation.
*
Excellent delivery on all goods.
KSM
Stud Welding Ltd.
^^>I
I 1, Farnham Trading Estate, Farnham, Surrey.
Telephone: Farnham 21101-4.
92
13
Quick release
fasteners
by H.J. Smith and M.R.P. Knight, A.M.B.I.M. (Dzus Fastener Europe Ltd.)
'Quick release fastener' is a generic term used to
cover any device which is designed to give a simple
and rapid means of closure and release. This may
range from a clip device to secure kitchen cabinet
doors, to a highly sophisticated and complex mech-
anism for use on aircraft. This range of devices
may be loosely grouped into five basic headings and
these are: rotary stud, toggle, latch, press button
and slide. Rotary stud devices are those most com-
monly termed quick release fasteners (or in mili-
tary phraseology
- turnlock fasteners), and it is in-
tended that this Chapter should be restricted to a
description of this type of fastener.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Rotary stud fasteners comprise a solid fastener
stud or pin which passes through a hole in the dis-
mountable panel or component and this is usually
held captive but free to rotate in the panel and an
anchor member, frequently called a receptacle, is
secured to the inner face of the fixed structure to
which the dismountable panel is to be attached. In
operation the dismountable panel is offered up to
the fixed structure, the fastener stud being brought
into preliminary engagement with the anchor mem-
ber. A brief turn of the stud completes the engage-
ment, thus providing a strong and vibration proof
fixing. With most rotary stud fasteners a 90
turn
is sufficient to lock the fastener, although a simi-
lar quick release function can be achieved with
fasteners based on multiple thread principles. These
are usually two or four start threads and the female
thread is usually generated in the anchor member
or receptacle or, in some designs, as an internal
threading of the fastener stud. Various forms of
friction or depitching methods are used to lock the
threads against accidental release under vibration
or shock loads. The chief advantage of this type
of fast thread fastener is that they are capable of
pulling rigid materials together which may have
distorted or be subject to residual stresses after
Fig.1 . The multiple thread Dzus Universal fast-
ener.
^Bk
periods of cycling loads have been applied in ser-
vice. The fasteners are capable of resisting very
high shear and tension loads and the principle of
these fast threaded fasteners is generally well
known. Such types are often descriptively called
long reach, high shear fasteners. A typical fast
thread fastener is shown in Fig. 1.
However, the majority of rotary stud quick re-
lease fasteners are of the quarter-turn variety.
This type of fastener offers very rapid locking and
unlocking, and when locked can withstand predeter-
mined loads. The use of quick release fasteners
can therefore save many valuable man hours in un-
locking panels where the equipment requires fre-
quent servicing. As the stud portion of the assem-
bly is usually of a fixed length it is necessary to
supply different types of stud lengths for different
thicknesses of material. Designs differ according
to manufacture but generally the stud lengths in-
crease in increments of 0. 010 in. on miniature
types of fasteners to ranges between 0. 025 in. and
0. 050 in. on other larger types of fasteners. It
will be seen therefore that proper selection of stud
length is essential to meet total material conditions
and allowances should be carefully made for total
tolerance build up during fabrication, rubber strips,
paint or other surface finish layers.
Thus it may be difficult to standardise on one parti-
cular length of fastener where varying panel thick-
ness conditions may occur. The second point where
difficulty sometimes occurs is that too little atten-
tion is given to the inclusion of quick release fast-
eners in the early design of equipment and conse-
quently the selection and call-up of any particular
fastener is generally left until the equipment is
either built or in a very advanced stage. It is ex-
tremely important that consideration of the quick
release fastener selection should be given at the
earliest possible opportunity and this foresight will
undoubtedly result in a correct selection of the
fastener for the particular application.
Fixed length rotary stud fasteners are usually
based on some form of helical cam or bayonet prin-
ciple, where the cams are either machined into
the fastener body or as excrescence swaged from
the stud exterior. The cams engage with mating
parts of the anchor member and as the stud is man-
ually rotated the smooth action of drawing the parts
together is achieved. An example of quick release
fastener employing the helical cam principle is
shown in Fig. 2. The illustration shows the stan-
dard Dzus fastener assembly and this principle
may be employed in a variety of fastener types.
Fig.2. The standard Dzus fastener assembly.
The function of the spring element is to obviate
backlash in the mechanism and to provide a tension
or force which finally clamps the fastener materials
together. This clamping force can vary from a
few pounds up to about a maximum of 100 lb. High-
er initial figures are not practically achieved with
such designs.
Other designs of quick release fastener differ in
so much as the cam is formed with spiral ramps in
the anchor member itself, the stud being provided
with projecting pins which provide the engaging ele-
ment. In the aforementioned design the cam action
has to be supplemented with a spring compensator
-or resilient element, which is either incorporated
in the anchor member or fitted under the fastener
head built-in unit. An example of this type of fast-
ener is the Oddie quick release fastener and, in
this particular type of fastener, the resilient ele-
ment is provided by a rubber washer fitted under
the head of the stud member. The Camloc fast-
ener is an example of quick release fasteners em-
ploying the spring compensator mechanism fitted
under the^head of the stud and the projecting pins
on the stud itself engage on the spiral ramps of the
anchor member of the receptacle.
APPLICATIONS
As previously indicated in this Chapter the applica-
tions for which quick release fasteners are now
used range from aircraft fasteners, for which the
quick release fastener was originally designed, to
applications is such industries as tne automotive,
electronics, lighting, machine tool, agricultural
machinery and other industries allied to the engi-
neering field. In the building industry there is an
increasing fastener demand for trunking -
access
panelling and suspended ceiling access traps.
The object of using quick release fasteners in all
these industries is generally the same, i. e. to pro-
vide means of quick access for servicing purposes.
As the reader will realise this is particularly im-
portant in the aircraft industry and quick release
fasteners have been employed for some 30 years
to fasten cowling panels, for instrumentation on
the flight decks and also on the galley equipment
inside the aircraft. A typical application in the
motor industry would be to fasten radiator grilles
on commercial vehicles and to fasten the floor of
the car boot where the spare wheel is housed be-
neath the luggage compartment. Quick release
fasteners are also widely used on agricultural trac-
tors as hood fasteners and there are many other
instances of the use of quick release fasteners
saving many valuable man hours. Figs. 3 and 4
show two typical applications; Fig. 3 shows panel
fasteners in operation on microwave equipment;
Fig.
4 a bank of switchgear cubicles incorporating
quick release fasteners for cover removal.
The increasing use of this type of fastener has led
to the development of a wide range of head styles.
Originally the fasteners were designed for use with
a screw driver but fasteners are now generally
available for hand operation by means of a wing in
varying forms, a ring or with a knurled head. In
addition it is becoming increasingly necessary to
offer such devices with a head style which will pre-
vent unauthorised entry. This can be achieved
by
the use of what may be termed a tamper proof fast-
ener, i. e. having a head style operable only with
a special key, or it may be achieved by means of
a quick release fastener incorporating a key lock-
ing mechanism. The introduction of these vary-
ing head styles leads to a rather complex produc-
tion and stock holding problem but the need for such
variations in the basic fastener is now well estab-
lished.
Fig .3. The Dzus panel fastener in operation on
microwave equipment .
y
Fig.4. The standard Dzus fastener in use on
switchgear cubicles.
MATERIALS
The normal quick release fastening device has a
stud produced from carbon steel and heat treated
whilst the receptacle or spring component is pro-
duced from some form of spring steel. The speci-
fication of the stud will normally be produced from
the group of steels having 55 ton/sq. in. tensile
strength as typical. However, quick release fasten-
ers are available in other alloy steels and where
high stressed fasteners are required a tougher
type, having 75 ton/sq. in. tensile strength, maybe
used. The call for stainless steel fasteners is also
increasing and, in addition, fasteners may be pro-
duced from phosphorus bronze or brass. The nor-
mal fastener material will have a hardness range
of 262-311 HB, although this may vary dependent
upon the make and type of fastener.
This broadly covers the materials from which metal
fasteners are produced, although at this stage it
should be stated that a relatively new departure in
the quick release field is to produce fasteners from
plastics. This aspect of quick release fasteners
will be covered more fully later.
It is quite usual to provide some form of protective
finish to the metal parts of most fasteners and this
is generally cadmium or zinc plating with, perhaps,
chromate passivation. Other forms of decorative
or functional finishes can be supplied and the most
usual of these is chromium plating.
The selection the fastener finish will, of course,
depend to some extent on the actual application.
Where appearance is important chromium plating
offers an obvious advantage. Where the fastener
will be subject to weather conditions it is import-
ant that the appropriate grade of plating is stated.
The cost of chromium plating can add considerably
to the. cost of the fastener but where the fastener
is visible and is incorporated on an expensive piece
of equipment the cost of this finish may well be
justified. It is perhaps more usual for the head
of the fastener to be painted once fitted to the cus-
tomers equipment, thereby blending with the gener-
al appearance of the equipment. In this case a
cadmium or zinc plate with chromium passivation
is the most suitable, as this finish provides a good
key for paint. Furthermore, this finish is relatively
inexpensive and, provided that the correct thick-
ness of plating is applied, will give satisfactory
service under adverse weather conditions. Of
course where corrosive atmosphere is likely to be
encountered, it is more usual for the customer to
specify stainless steel parts that require no after
treatment.
PRICES
It will be obvious to the reader that as this form of
fastening device offers advantages over permanent,
more conventional fasteners, they will be rather
more costly than, say, a screw or bolt and nut.
Furthermore, not only will the piece part cost be
higher, but the cost of installation -is likely to be
higher. Much has been done recently in an attempt
to reduce the cost of installation. In certain cases
the spring element of the assembly may now be
spot welded or clipped on, whilst the stud itself
can be retained in the unlocked panel by means of
retaining devices which can be hand fitted. A great
deal can also be done by customers themselves in
providing the correct form of tooling (for mount-
ing holes, etc. )
where a production run justifies
the initial tool cost.
It is extremely difficult to be specific about the
cost of a quick release fastener assembly, bearing
in mind the various sizes and types of fastener
available, and only a rough guide can be given for
the potential user. In its simplest form, the metal
quick release fastener assembly may cost as little
as 5d. per assembly when called up in large quanti-
ties. Fastener size, fastener quantity, head style
and finish all play important parts in determining
the eventual cost of a fastener assembly. In its
most sophisticated form, a complete fastener as-
sembly may cost as much as 30s. each.
Even at the highest level the cost of quick release
fasteners may well be justified by the function they
perform and the eventual time they will save. As
machinery and equipment becomes more expensive
and sophisticated so the cost of servicing and down
time through machine failure increases. Designers
and engineers are increasingly aware of this factor
and are, therefore, able to justify the initially high-
er cost of quick release fasteners.
It should perhaps be emphasised at this point that
the main benefits of quick release fasteners, under
normal circumstances, accrue not to the manufac-
turer of the equipment in which they are installed
but in fact to the manufacturer's own customers.
Thus, forms of quick release device often have a
sales appeal of their own and have been, on a num-
ber of occasions, used as a selling feature for the
end product.
As quick release fasteners are used in such a wide
range of industries and on so many different types
of machinery or equipment it will be obvious that
the manufacturer of quick release fasteners re-
ceives orders varying in quantity from only a few
to hundreds of thousands. As in many other in-
dustries this creates a number of commercial pro-
blems, but in general even very small orders will
be accepted. As in other fields, it is usual to fix
a minimum order charge and this will vary from
manufacturer to manufacturer. In view of the fact
that the commodity is a relatively low cost item
the minimum charge may be of the order of 1
.
This sum will normally cover supply of fifteen to
twenty standard assemblies or perhaps as few as
ten assemblies where the fastener has some spec-
ial feature such as a wing head.
The figure of 1 will normally only apply to stocked
fasteners. A fairly large percentage of fasteners
produced are designed for special applications, and
in these circumstances the minimum cost for spec-
ials can be higher. In these cases there will usual-
ly be setting-up charges and the minimum order
charge is likely to be 2 at the lowest, and may
Fig.
5. The Dzus Dart assembly
manufactured
in
acetal copolymer.
even be as high as 5. It should be emphasised
that the figures quoted in this section are intended
as a guide only and the policy on this particular
matter will obviously vary from manufacturer
to
manufacturer.
In addition to the prices discussed above and the
various guides given on ordering quantities it should
be mentioned that under certain circumstances it
will be necessary to make some charge for tools
where a special fastener assembly is required.
Obviously such a charge will only occur where re-
latively large quantities are required and tool costs
can be negotiated with the individual
manufacturer
should the occasion arise.
FUTURE
TRENDS
Recently developed plastics have made possible
fastening devices which were not feasible ten years
ago, and although there are still some limitations
imposed by this material, for example reduced
load capabilities, there are now a number of plas-
tics quick release fasteners
available. The prin-
ciple of this new type of fastener is usually based
upon that of the metal fastener,
i. e. the fastener stud
has projecting members which engage on ramps in
the anchor member itself. Plastics fasteners
differ from metal fasteners
in that the resilient
element is supplied by the characteristics of the
plastics, thereby obviating any spring member of
the assembly. A typical assembly usually cdm-
prises the same three basic components, i. e. stud
retainer and receptacle.
Examples of this type of fastener are the GKN
Rotolock fastener, the Dzus Dart fastener (Fig.
5)
and, in addition, some of the Oddie fasteners are
available
in a combination
of metal and plastics.
The normal plastics materials used for quick re-
lease fasteners belong to the acetal homopolymer
or copolymer family.
There are many other trends in the quick release
field and perhaps the most sgnificant of these
is
the attempt to produce a satisfactorily
variable
grip fastener. This fastener would retain the vir-
tues of quick release and at the same time obviate
the necessity
to change fastener lengths with varia-
tions in material
thicknesses.
If every
ad in this book
there d still not
be roomfor
all
the new
Dzus
Fasteners.
So we printed our own book.
Once, there was only one kind of Dzus fastener.
The kind everyone knows. The quarter-turn-and-
click kind.
Now there's a bookful. Pawl latches. Universal
threaded fasteners. Ejecting fasteners. Panel fast-
eners. And more besides.
You need our book like you need the phone book.
Right there beside you.
So send the coupon.
Send me your big D4 Dzus fastener catalogue.
Name
Company
Address
DEFH/69
WA
Dzus Fastener Europe Limited
Farnham Trading Estate Farnham
Surrey Telephone 4422
96
NOTE S
97
14
Rivets
-
blind (metal and
plastics)
by J.S. Sanders, B.Eng. (Avdel Ltd.)
Blind rivets are so called because they are design-
ed to be installed from one side of the work only by
a single operator. They find application not only
for truly blind situations where access to the rear
of the rivet is impossible but also where the work
is of such size or shape as to make rear access
at least inconvenient and require a second operator.
DESIRABLE
PROPERTIES
OF RIVETS
Shear strength. The ability to resist applied shear
loads.
Tension strength.
tensile loads.
The ability to resist applied
Clench.
The ability of a rivet to draw the joint
members tightly together and close any small gaps
present before the rivets are installed. Although
usually associated with another property known as
pretension, it should be distinguished from it.
Pretension.
The ability to develop and maintain a
tensile load in the rivet and hence a compressive
force on the joint members. This property is bene-
ficial in several ways. Firstly, it improves the
shear strength of a joint by producing a high fric-
tional resistance at the interfaces of the joint mem-
bers. Equally important is the increased resist-
ance of the joint to alternating stresses (fatigue).
Ideally, the static tensile stress induced in each
rivet by pretension should exceed the maximum
tensile stress value in the alternating stress cycle.
If this condition is obtained, the rivets themselves
are not subject to tensile alternating stresses and
the effects of fatigue are avoided.
Grip range
. The variation in total joint thickness
in which a rivet can be satisfactorily installed.
A
wide grip-range is beneficial to the user since it
reduces the number of basio rivet lengths he needs
to stock and also reduces the chance of error in
assemblies where more than one basic length of
rivet would otherwise have to be used.
Hole-Fill .
. The ability of a rivet to accommodate
its own tolerances and those of the hole, and fill
the clearance between the rivet shank and the hole.
Good hole-fill promotes uniform distribution of
shear load between a group of rivets and thus pro-
duces a joint with improved proof shear strength,
i.e., a higher load may be applied to the joint be-
fore a permanent set is produced. It is very de-
sirable that the hole filling operation occurs after
the tail expansion and clench phases of the instal-
lation cycle. This enables the very best clench
to take place before the sheets are jammed against
the expanded rivet shank.
Avoidance of external forces. To obviate the risk
of damage to fragile structures, it is important
that the installation forces and their reactions are
contained in the rivet and its associated installa-
tion tool. Blind rivet systems are usually, but not
invariably,
designed to achieve this requirement.
Minimum rear protrusion. When used in blind 'box'
sections of limited depth it is important that the
rivet can be properly seated before the installation
cycle begins. It is therefore essential that a blind
rivet protrudes by the least possible length from
the rear of the joint members before installation.
RIVET TYPES -
DESCRIPTION
GENERAL
All blind rivets employ a tubular rivet body in some
form. The means of expanding the blind side tail
is a convenient method of classification.
Group A.
By pulling a stem or mandrel into the
hollow body. Virtually, all rivets suitable for air-
craft applications occur in this group. This can
be subdivided into:
1. Pull- through.
2. Break-head or stem.
3. Self-plugging break-stem.
4. Self- plugging lock- stem.
5. Tail splitting break stem.
6. Screwed stem.
Group B
. By pushing a stem or mandrel into the
hollow body.
Group C. By detonating an explosive charge within
the hollow body.
Group A
(1)
Mandrel pull-through type. In this rivet, the
bore is reduced in diameter at the tail in the form
of a taper such that when a mandrel with an enlarg-
ed head is pulled through, the shank is expanded
to form the blind tail (Fig. 1). The mandrel is ef-
fectively part of the installation tool and is capable
of expanding a large number of rivets. The tool
itself, which may be manually or power operated,
contains a magazine of rivets and pulls the mandrel
through the rivet while reacting on the rivet head.
98
MATERIALS
Steel, Monel, Aluminium Alloy, Copper,
Pure Aluminiumfor in situ anodising after
setting.
BASIC TYPES
Standard Open
Sealed (pressure tight up to 500 p.s.i.)
Grooved (for soft panels, timber, etc.)
VARIATIONS
$%"
to
3"
diametersin a wide range of
lengths to suit any specific applicationthus
saving cost on excessive metal in oversize
rivets.
Available with Clips

Washers

Large
Heads. Long Mandrels

for use in appli-
cations with awkward access.
SERVICES
We have tools for all services: mechanical,
hydraulic, pneumatic

and the only
electric blind riveting tool on the market.
Special corner heads and extension nose-
pieces are available for applications in-
accessible to ordinary blind riveting tools.
that secure productivity
For industrial fasteners
talk to TUCKERS
Catalogue and advice from

GEO. TUCKER EYELET COMPANY LIMITED WALSALL ROAD, BIRMINGHAM 22B TEL:
021
-356 4811
99
Fig.1 . Mandrel pull-through rivet (Chobert
system)
.
(2)
Break-head or break-stem type. In this type
the hollow rivet is assembled with a headed stem.
This stem is formed with a reduced neck or break-
notch and projects from the head end of the rivet
to enable it to be gripped by the installation tool.
In operation the tool is engaged with the rivet stem
and, by means of suitable jaws, grips and pulls
the stem while reacting on the rivet head. The
rivet tail is deformed to produce an enlarged blind
tail. On completion of the cycle the stem breaks
at the weakened break-notch and is discarded.
The position of the break-notch determines whether
the stem head is retained to plug the tail end of the
rivet bore (break- stem) or whether it falls away
when the stem is discarded (break-head). The de-
sign of the stem head determines the type of blind
ra ra
Fig. 2. Break
stem rivet ('Pop').
S
S
B,9
(FORM ASSUMED BY SAME RIVET IN
DIFFERENT SHEET THICKNESSES)
Fig. 3. Avex rivet.
of higher strength but limited ductility.
However,
hole fill tends to be incomplete being usually limit-
ed to the tail portion.
In the 'Avex' rivet the tail deformation is severe,
demanding the use of high ductility material with
associated relatively low strength. Variations in
sheet thickness are accommodated by an automatic
adjustment of the number of tail folds. The tail
form also permits good clench action to occur and
the compressive axial forces on the rivet body pro-
duce good hole- fill after clench is complete.
Another variation of the 'Pop' rivet (known as the
'Imex') is designed for applications
where a sealed
bore rivet is essential. Here the rivet body is
formed hollow but it is not pierced at the tail (see
Fig. 4). In manufacture, the stem is inserted into
Fig. 4. Imex rivet.
Fig. 5. Self-plugging
break-stem rivet
(Avdel).
the rivet bore from the head end and the rivet shank
is then closed tightly round it. In operation it is
similar to the other 'Pop' types.
(3)
Self-plugging break-stem type.
This is a two
piece rivet primarily designed for aircraft use. It
is similar to the previous type in that the stem
breaks at a predetermined load after the tail has
been formed but differs in that the stem is arrang-
ed to fill the whole length of the rivet so as to ob-
tain maximum shear strength from the materials
employed. After installation the broken stem is
left protruding from the rivet head by an amount
which varies with the joint thickness. This excess
stem is usually trimmed off flush with the rivet
head (Fig. 5). The stem is retained within the rivet
by interference forces between the stem and rivet
bore.
tail produced. In the 'Pop' rivet the stem head
enters the rivet bore which assumes an enlarged
tubular form (Fig. 2). In the 'Avex' rivet the stem
head is largely prevented from entering the rivet
bore, the tail being thereby folded and compressed
(Fig. 3).
In the 'Pop' rivet the amount of tail deformation is
only moderate, allowing the use of rivet materials
(4)
Self-plugging lock stem type (aircraft).
The
limitations of the two-piece self- plugging rivet
described above are mainly overcome by this fam-
ily of rivets which usually consist of three com-
ponents: rivet body, stem and locking ring. On
instaUation, the stem is drawn into the body form-
ing the tail and plugging the bore as before, but it
is arranged that the stem breaks flush with the
rivet head regardless of joint thickness. This feat-
100
Fig. 6.
Cherrylock rivet.
Fig.7.
rivet
.
Bulbed Cherrylock
ure is essential to the function of the locking sys-
tem in which a locking collar is forced into suitably
formed recesses in both rivet head and stem. Thus
the stem is subject to a positive mechanical lock
in addition to the purely frictional retention of the
previous type. The time-consuming stem-trim-
ming operation is also avoided. The means of ac-
commodating joint thickness variation while main-
taining a flush stem break, demands special tech-
niques. Three systems to achieve this are in cur-
rent use. In the first, the plugging portion of the
stem, after forming the rivet tail, is reduced in
diameter and elongated as it is drawn into the rivet
(Fig. 6).
In the second, the stem head is provided with a
shearable ring which is displaced axially a vari-
able amount depending on the joint thickness (Fig.
7).
In the third, the rivet tail is designed to fold and
collapse in a controlled manner, the position of
the fold always being adjacent to the rear of the
joint regardless of thickness (Fig.
8).
(5)
Tail splitting break-stem type. Splitting of a
rivet tail is normally a defect to be avoided or kept
to an absolute minimum. In this type of fastener,
consisting of two pieces, the tail is deliberately
split to obtain a very large tail contact area with
the sheet. This is accomplished by forming a
series of angular projections on the stem head.
On installation, the tail splits into a number of
regular 'petals' which curl round to touch the blind
side of the joint. The stem is also provided with a
series of rolled grooves and the body with a large
diameter head from which projects an integral
sleeve portion. After the 'petal' tail is formed, but
before the stem fractures, the tool, which is pro-
vided with a suitable 'anvile' nose, swages the pro-
jecting collar material radially inward into the stem
grooves providing a positive stem lock. This rivet
is known appropriately as the Daisy (Fig. 9;.
(6) Screwed stem type (Jo-Bolt fastener).
In all
previously discussed types the rivet body has of
necessity been made from deformable material
since the tail has to be formed from it. This fac-
tor places inevitable limitations on its strength.
In this type the tail forming member is separated
from the body and takes the form of a loose sleeve
of deformable material, allowing both body and
stem to be made from very high strength material
for maximum shear strength. The body is thread-
ed internally and is tapered at the tail end. The
stem is threaded externally and provided with a
shear- neck and driving flais to enable it to be dri-
ven by a rotating tool. The body and stem are as-
sembled with the cylindrical sleeve as shown in
Fig. 10. Installation is effected by applying a rot-
ary tool which turns the stem while keeping the
body stationary. As the stem moves axially into
the body the sleeve is forced over the tapered end
of the body expanding it to form the tail member.
Group B

Stem push types
Because of the unavoidable load applied to the work
during its installation, this type has found little
favour in the metal rivet field. Furthermore, since
the mandrel is driven in the direction head to tail,
the development of clench and pretension forces
is rather difficult. However, a notable example
of this type is available in plastics (Fastex). It con-
sists of a hollow rivet with a parallel stem mould-
ed integrally with it and attached at the head by a
short shear section. The rivet shank is moulded
as a number of prongs splayed out towards the tail.
101
Fig. 10. Screwed
stem rivet
(Jo-Bolt).
In operation, the prongs are first closed inwards
as they are inserted into the hole. Installation is
completed using a tool which supports the project-
ing stem radially while driving it into the rivet.
The stem is sheared from its attachment and fills
the rivet bore thus expanding the portion of prongs
which project at the rear forming a blind tail (see
Fig. 11).
Group C
-
Explosive rivets
In this type of rivet a small controlled explosive
charge is packed into the hollow bore which is then
sealed at both ends. On installation, the charge is
( >>1
o
Fig .11. Stem-push
rivet (Fastex Rocut).
Fig. 12. Explosive
rivet.
usually detonated by the application of heat by some
The tail of the rivet is expanded to a bulbous form
and the rivet shank, enclosed by the joint material,
expands to fill the hole clearance (Fig. 12).
Fig.
9. Huck 'Daisy' rivet
(front of installation tool
shown in views 2, 3 & 4).
Explosive rivets possess relatively low clench and
pretension porperties, and strength is somewhat
limited by the fact that the bore remains perman-
ently unfilled.
COMPARISON OK TYPES AND
APPLICATION SUITABILITY
Pullthrough types
This rivet can be manufactured in a wide range of
materials provided they possess adequate ductility.
These include aluminium alloys, brass, monel
(copper-nickel alloy) and steel. Qualities suitable
for both aircraft and commercial purposes in dia-
meters from
,-fe
in. to
i
in. are available. The grip
range is normally limited to
A
in. which is average
for a blind fastener. Its basic design can be adapt-
ed for unusual or specialised duties. For instance,
when provided with external grooves, for riveting
wood or plastics. The shear strength of this rivet
is good, particularly when made from steel, monel
or high strength aluminium alloy. Typical appli-
cations are illustrated in Figs. 13-16.
The shear strength can be further increased by
filling the bore with interference- fitted pins. It
should be noted that while the rivet can be installed
without applying loads to the work, the same does
not apply to the pins which are driven by a hammer.
The tail expansion of this rivet is rather limited
by virtue of its means of operation.
This feature
is of little consequence in most applications of
reasonable thickness but may cause difficulty in
joints of very thin material.
Clench and pretension are very limited in this fast-
ener but hole fill is good, being obtained
by a con-
trolled expansion of the parallel section of rivet
bore. This expansion must not be overdone or
These rivets were used for a time in the second
World War. They were fired by application of a
hot iron. Owing to some uncertainty
in operation
and the element of danger in manufacture and stor-
age, they lapsed into disfavour.
Recently, they
have been reintroduced as a hopper-fed repetition
system for which they are very suitable.
The rivet
is rapidly heated electrically
by a current obtained
from contacts in the tool. The operational
reliabi-
lity of this type has been much improved and offers
some advantages over other repetition systems.
These include simplicity and compactness in de-
sign of the installation tool and ability to reach
very difficult situations.
Fig. 13. Blind rivet-
ing application on a
tubular chair.
(By
courtesy of Avdel Ltd.).
102
Fig. 14. Riveting commercial vehicles panels
using a pneumatic magazine loaded placing tool
(By courtesy of Avdel Ltd.).
Fig. 16. Panelling being attached to hangar
doors (By courtesy of Avdel Ltd.).
Fig.15. Lighting channel attachments being
placed on site with a hand operated magazine
loaded placing tool (By courtesy of Avdel Ltd.).
there is a possibility of introducing defects known
as sheet separation and head retraction. In the
first, an excess of rivet body material is forced,
between the joint members, thus driving them
apart. In the second, the excess of material ap-
pears as an axial extension of the rivet shank so
that the rivet head is lifted off the sheet as the
mandrel is withdrawn. The function of this rivet
is not affected by the use of sealants in the joint
construction.
As regards installation, this rivet is very suitable
for use in magazine loaded tools designed for rapid
repetition riveting. For this purpose the rivets
are packed end-to-end in 'pods' so that reloading
the tools is simple and rapid. Tools are available
either pneumatically power operated for 'factory'
use or in rotary manual form for use on 'site' work
where pneumatic power may not be available. For
reaching difficult situations, a hand plier tool is
available for 'single- shot' riveting.
Mention should be made of the desirability of using
riveting clamps, particularly for high quality work.
These are available in types to suit work of vary-
ing stiffness and thickness. A simple type is shown
in Fig. 17. The central claw is pushed through the
hole and hooked behind the rear sheet. The nut is
then tightened to clamp the joint members tightly
together. Clamps are normally applied to alter-
nate holes while the vacant ones are riveted. The
clamps are then removed and riveting completed.
A typical view of clamps in use appears in Fig. 18.
Breakstem types
Good clench and hole-fill, a large tail and fairly
low strength characterise the 'Avex' rivet. It is
103
Fig.18. Riveting clamps in use prior to rivet-
ing an aircraft component (By courtesy of
Avdel Ltd.).
available only in aluminium
alloy in diameters from
i in. to
|
in. It has a wide grip range (Sin. ). It is
very suited to thin sheet applications but is equally
satisfactory at the thick end of its grip range. It
can be easily removed for repair work by drilling
off the rivet head. The hole-fill feature holds the
rivet against rotation whilst drilling.
The 'Avex' rivet is comparatively insensitive to
hole size and will accommodate the irregular and
oversize holes often produced by unskilled labour.
Break- stem rivets of all types find wide use in low
and medium strength applications which include
vehicle bodies, garage doors, wall cladding and
ducting (Figs. 19 and 20).
Rather better shear strength is obtainable from
the 'Pop' rivet which is available in a wider selec-
tion of materials including aluminium alloy, steel,
monel, stainless steel and copper. It is available
in diameters
from
k
to 1 in. and a grip range which
varies from ito
i in. approximately depending on
diameter.
Both types may be rapidly and efficiently installed
by power tools usually of the pneumatic -hydraulic
type. Hand pliers are available in many forms
and may be employed for difficult-access positions
or small volume work.
The use of sealants does
not affect these
types.
Self-plugging
break-stem
This is a high strength rivet available in aluminium
alloys, corrosion
resisting steel, and titanium
alloy in diameters
from * to
ft
in. The grip range
is of the order
of Ain. It is usually limited to air-
craft use, but has been employed on commercial
projects where special
requirements have to be
met or arduous
environments
withstood.
For in-
stance, corrosion resisting
steel rivets have been
applied to food machinery and chemical
plant as
well as to high speed aircraft.
Titanium rivets
have solved fastener problems on atomic reactor
components where erosion from high intensity
radi-
ation and elevated
temperatures is severe.
They
also find an important
duty in advanced aircraft
structures
because of their high strength to weight
ratio.
Lock-stem types
These find
applications almost exclusively
in the
aerospace
industry. They are designed to meet
the stringent requirements laid down in US stand-
ards. The 'Cherrylock
2000 Rivets', 'Cherrylock
Bulbed
Rivets' and 'Huck Blind Bolts' are all install-
ed by a special tool incorporating
a 'shifting head'.
This is shown in operation in Fig. 21.
It will be
noted that the reactive load is applied
to the rivet
head in the initial stages of installation.
When the
stem has reached its final
position in the rivet, the
shifting head transfers
the reactive load from the
rivet head to the locking collar which is therefore
driven home into its recess.
The stem is finally
fractured flush with the rivet head to complete the
installation cycle.
The 'Cherrylock 2000 Rivet' is available in several
aluminium alloys, monel and precipitation harden-
ing steel. The relatively small blind tail is a dis-
advantage in very thin sheet but in all conditions
this rivet has good clench and hole fills well.
The bulbed version has a much larger blind tail,
presents a much larger bearing area to the blind
side of the joint and therefore is very suitable for
thin sheet applications. Hole filling tends to be
Fig. 19. Avex rivets
being placed into com-
mercial vehicle panel-
ling by a hydro-pneu-
matic hand tool (By
courtesy of Avdel Ltd
.
)
.
Fig.20. Fan rotor
blades attached
by
Avex rivets
(By court-
esy of Avdel Ltd
.
)
.
104
JAWS
JAW HOUSING-
NOSE CAS1NG-
Fig.21 . OpeTation of shifting head in conjunction
with lock-stem rivet (Huck blind bolt).
less complete however since this property depends
in this case on axial compression of the rivet with-
in the hole. Bulbed rivets are available in alum-
inium and monel.
The "Huck Blind Bolt' is available in alloy steel in
diameters from &to i
in. with grip range of
A
in.
'Huck Blind Rivets' based on the same principle are
available in aluminium alloy, monel and precipita-
tion-hardening
stainless steel in diameters from
*to ft in. The grip range of the rivets is rather
limited at
approximately a in.
Tailsplitting break-stem
'Jo- Bolts' are usually manufactured with the body
and stem in high tensile low alloy steel or with an
aluminium alloy body and low alloy steel stem both
in conjunction with a collar in 18-8 stainless steel.
For corrosive conditions, 'Jo- Bolts' have also been
made in limited quantities in martensitic stainless
steel, again with an 18-8 stainless steel sleeve.
Stem-push types (drive-pin rivets)
The drive-pin rivet is currently limited to the plas-
tics version. Metal types are likely to be intro-
duced in this country shortly. Plastics rivets are
available in a variety of materials, the most pop-
ular probably being nylon. They are currently
used in situations where high strength is unneces-
sary and where freedom from corrosion, chemical
inertness or electrical insulation is a vital factor.
Typical applications are therefore found in internal
fitments on refrigerators, trim and accessory at-
tachment on motor vehicles, and panel and com-
ponent assembly on electronic equipment. Nylon
has the property of absorbing appreciable amounts
of moisture from its environment which has the
effect of lowering its electrical insulation and pro-
ducing dimensional instability. Where these fac-
tors are important, other plastics may be chosen.
Acetal resins, for instance, offer superior dimen-
sional stability and reduced moisture absorption.
Polystyrene and polyethylene offer superior insula-
tion properties. Polyethylene is much more flex-
ible than polystyrene which tends to be brittle.
The split tail rivet is specifically designed for
riveting thin sheet members together. Its large
bearing areas both on the front and blind sides en-
sure wide distribution of clamping loads. This
enables not only metal to metal joints to be made
but also between plastics, rubber or plywood and
metal. A synthetic rubber washer can be added
under the head of the rivet to weatherproof the
joint. It is available either in aluminium alloy or
steel in one diameter only (&in. ). The grip range
is large at approximately
|
in.
Typical applications include attachment of corru-
gated roof and wall cladding, lining of containers
with plastics foam sheeting and ducting.
Screwed stem type
This fastener is most often employed in aircraft
construction. It offers excellent shear strength and
clench and has good tension properties. No hole-
fill need be expected since the body and stem are
in high- strength alloys and remain undeformed.
For best joint strength, therefore, good quality
close tolerance holes are essential. A typical
structural joint is shown in Fig. 22.
While many blind rivets will tolerate conditions
slightly beyond the recommended grip limits, this
fastener is very sensitive to this kind of error.
Problems are liable to arise if careful considera-
tion is not paid to this matter. The lavish use of
sealants may also cause difficulty and interfere
with the proper expansion of the sleeve member.
MATERIAL AND FINISH SELECTION
The choice of material for rivets is governed by
strength, corrosion, environment and cost con-
siderations.
The strength properties of a rivet will de dependent
to some extent on the strength of the materials it is
intended to join. It is a usual, though not invari-
able, rule to select a rivet of somewhat higher
strength than that of the sheet. The most economic
design is often the one where rivet and joint mat-
erials have similar ultimate strength.
Fig. 22. Screw stem rivets (Jo-Bolts) being
placed into an aircraft wing structure (By court-
esy of Avdel Ltd . )
.
105
Compatibility of rivet and sheet from the corrosion
aspect must also govern the choice.
It is obviously
of little satisfaction
to a consumer of a riveted pro-
duct to have the rivets in a perfect state of preser-
vation while the adjacent joint material is severely
corroded as a result of electrochemical
action. In
cases where a rivet is desirable
from strength con-
siderations
but is incompatible with the joint mat-
erial, a solution to the difficulty can often be ob-
tained by plating the rivet with a suitable metal.
This should be chosen to have an electrode poten-
tial intermediate between those of rivet and joint
material. For instance, if it is desired to rivet
aluminium or magnesium alloy sheet with uncoated
stainless steel rivets, we have an unsatisfactory
combination
from the corrosion
aspect due to the
large difference in electrode potential between rivet
and sheet. Plating the rivet with cadmium provid-
es a zone of intermediate
potential and the corro-
sion tendency is reduced to an acceptable
level.
Cadmium plating is, however,
usually limited to
aircraft and special applications
due to its relative-
ly high cost. Zinc plating is usually applied to
rivets for commercial
use where necessary from
the corrosion aspect, as its basic cost is of the ord-
er of Aith of that of cadmium and for many environ-
ments offers results almost as good as cadmium.
For fasteners subjected to elevated service temp-
eratures, silver plating is employed in place of
cadmium due to the low melting-point limitation of
the latter.
FUTURE TRENDS
In the commercial field, future development
is
likely to be directed mainly towards the means of
installation.
Detail refinements in rivet design
are, of course, continuously being made but 'major
-breakthrough' advances involving completely new
principles are unlikely.
This is mainly because
only a limited number of basic blind rivet princi-
ples are possible, and these have already been
well explored.
There is, however, wide
scope for improvement
in installation
tools.
Faster, more efficient
eco-
nomically
designed tools will be needed in the drive
to increase
productivity, improve
operator com-
fort and reduce operator fatigue.
Still more advanced is the continuous
hopper-fed
riveting machine
several versions of which have
recently appeared.
This concept is capable of
being extended to a completely automatic assembly
system dispensing with the human
operator entirely.
In the aircraft field where cost is less of a con-
sideration, the demands of the aerospace industry
will require the exploitation of very expensive and
sophisticated materials to satisfy the very severe
structural
and environmental
conditions.
These
materials will probably include
precipitation hard-
ening stainless steels, the 'multiphase' alloys,
titanium alloys, beryllium alloys and perhaps even
ceramics.
As the reader may have noted, the perfect blind
rivet with all desirable
features embodied in a
single design, has so far eluded inventors and re-
mains to be developed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to thank his colleagues,
F. A.
Summerlin
(Chief Engineer, Avdel Ltd) and G. R.
Russell (Standards Engineer, Avdel Ltd) for their
assistance in the preparation of this Chapter.
106
much
morethan
just
faster
fastening
Avdel offers you a major breakthrough in fasteningin
production cost, in time, in quality.
Avdelthe most sophisticated advance in industrial fastening
techniques in the last 1 00 years. Yet simple to incorporate in any
production system in industrial fabrication or mass production
assembly. And simple to operate. Because Avdel systems can be
operated with 1 00% consistent qualityeven by
unskilled, semi-
skilled and female labour.
The
increased speed and quality, the decreased cost inherent
in
Avdel systems are made possible by the use of brilliantly simple
tools that eliminate operator errors. Write to us for further details
on any industrial fastening system. Avdel
industrial fastening
systems.
INDUSTRIAL
FASTENING SYSTEMS
Avdel Limited. Welwyn Garden City. Hertfordshire.
Telephone : Welwyn Garden 281 61 Telex : 24254 Cables :
Avidev. Welwyn Garden.
107
15
Rivets
-
solid and tubular
by J.M.A. Paterson, M.A.
, J.P. (The Bifurcated and Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd.)
Firstly, we should consider the various types of
rivets which are available to industry today.
on the bulkiness of the component and the size of
the rivet to be set.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SOLID RIVETS
The solid rivet has been in use for many hundreds
of years. In this country, a standard range of these
rivets is covered by BS641:1951,
which covers
rivets from
in. diameter. The rivets listed in
this Standard are sub-divided by head styles, as
follows
:
1. Snap or round head rivets
Pan head
Mushroom head
Flat head
Four types of countersunk head rivets, with
angles of countersink ranging from
60
to 140.
In addition there is a table which governs the di-
mensions of countersunk head reaper rivets.
The Standard covers rivets made from mild steel,
copper, brass and a range of aluminium alloys and
pure aluminium as specified in BS1473:1955.
Components to be riveted with solid rivets require
a hole to be punched or drilled, prior to the rivet
being inserted.
With regard to types of equipment for setting solid
rivets, the majority require the rivet firstly to be
inserted by hand, and then clinched by one of the
following methods:
a. A hammer and snap
b. A portable pneumatic percussion tool
c. A portable pneumatic or hydro pneumatic
squeeze riveter
d. Under a light press fitted with suitably profiled
rivet snaps
e. A hand feed bench riveting machine
f. An automatic feed rivet setting machine.
Generally speaking, it is only possible to use meth-
od (f
)
provided the component can be taken to the
machine. The choice of riveting equipment depends
The advantages of using solid rivets are (i) that
they are cheap to manufacture, and (ii) that it is
possible to use one length of rivet for a fairly wide
variation in the thickness of the components to be
riveted, as any excess metal can be squeezed out
to form a larger or smaller clinch as the case may
be. The disadvantages
are (i) that, without care,
one is apt to get a rather untidy clinch, (ii) con-
siderable force is required to set the rivet, and
(iii) except in those cases when an automatic feed
machine is used, the time cycle to insert and set
one of these rivets is considerably in excess of
that when tubular, semi-tubular
or blind rivets
are used.
Probably the greatest user of solid rivets today is
the aircraft industry, where speed of riveting is
not of paramount importance, but where a good
finish is required, certainly as far as the outside
skin is concerned.
When setting solid rivets, the following points
should be borne in mind to ensure the best results:
a. Rivet support - for good results, rivets should
be well supported by material of equivalent strength.
b. Hole clearance - keep to the absolute minimum
to avoid sloppiness (which results in a smaller
.clinch and poor finish). The recommended clearan-
ces, where condition -
permit, are shown in Table 1.
c. Rivet length - ensure that the rivet is of correct
length for thickness of work and form of clinch re-
quired. Snap clinch rivets are most commonly used
and the correct protrusion for these is li times the
diameter.
d. Rivet clinch form -
the selection of rivet clinch
can determine the size of the riveter. On alumin-
ium alloy, for example, taking the snap clinch as
a factor of
2, the relative squeezing pressures re-
quired for alternative clinches are:
Flat clinch
1
North American cone clinch 1.
1
Rivet diameter
Hole diameter Rivet diameter
Hole diameter Table 1 . Recommended
clearances
.
ins
.
mm. ins
.
mm. ins
.
mm. ins
.
mm
.
i
M
2.38 0.096 2.43 i
6.35
0.257 6.52
i 3.17 0.128
3.25
i.
16 7.93 0.316
8.02
a.
M
3.96 0.159 4.03
1 9.52 0.386 9.80
ft
4.76 0.191 4.85
1
7 12.70 0.516 13.10
7
5.55 0.221 5.61
108
Halfthe television sets in Britain have
a built in commercial for B&TR
This special purpose
machine, widely used in
the electrical industries,
is primarily intendedfor
setting small electric
contacts.
Sn>
It doesn't show on the screen, ofcourse. But the set reliability
you take for granted owes a good deal to the assembly and
fastening methods devised by B & TR in collaboration with
leading television set manufacturers.
Throughout industry, you'll find the experience ofthe
Bifurcated and Tubular Rivet Company making for more
efficient, more economical and quicker fastening and assembly
on every kind ofjob from motor cars to micro-switches. If your
production process means fastening one thing to another, you
could benefit from B & TR's skill and experience. They don't
simply make rivets

they design and manufacture complete


rivet setting systems tailored to give you the fastest, most
efficient assembly or fastening method for your especial needs.
They've been doing it for years : the experience they've built
up is yours for the asking.
Write or 'phone for technical
literature, or detail your problem
and let us devise a solution.
THE BIFURCATED AND TUBULAR RIVET CO. LTD.
Aylesbury Bucks Telephone: Aylesbury 5911 Telex: 83210
Countersunk 60
clinch 1. 7
Pan clinch
1. 8
Thus, to form a snap clinch requires twice the load
of a flat clinch.
e. Rivet snaps - take care to provide snaps well
finished to the correct form.
TUBULAR RIVETS
Solid rivets only were available until 1874, when
an American, Mellen Bray, patented the solid
drilled tubular rivet. This was, to all intents and
purposes, a solid rivet which had a hole drilled
up the centre of its shank (see Fig. 1). The idea
SOLID DRILLED TUBULAR RIVET
Fig.1
.
was to produce a rivet which was self piercing
through leather and similar materials. The rivet
was driven straight through the leather and clinch-
ed in one operation, the slug of the material being
riveted being retained in the bottom of the hole.
This speeded up the operation very considerably,
compared with the use of solid rivets, where first
a hole had to be punched in the material, the rivet
inserted, the work turned over, and a washer plac-
ed over the projecting portion of the shank, which
was then clinched by means of a hammer and snap.
Today, the principal use of tubular rivets is for
riveting components which are apt to vary in thick-
ness, or when the rivet is unsupported by the com-
ponent, and is, therefore, apt to buckle when being
set. An example of the former case, and where
probably the greatest number of tubular rivets is
used today, is in the riveting of friction linings to
brake shoes, where the brake shoe is apt to vary
in thickness from end to end. The rivet accommo-
dates this by the formation of a larger or smaller
roll when forming the clinch.
An example of the latter application is in the as-
sembly of folding tubular furniture, where the tubu-
lar components have to swivel one on the other.
Here a rivet is required which can be set to give
a sufficiently large clinch without the setting force
causing the rivet to buckle and lock the components
together.
Standard ranges of tubular rivets are covered by
two British Standard Specifications. Part II of
BS1855:1952 covers the dimensions of oval head,
flat countersunk head and flat countersunk bevel
head solid drilled tubular rivets, with shank dia-
meters &in. and No. 9|- gauge. Tubular rivets
Fig.2.
TJ
@D^
(a) A SOLID DRILLED (b) CROSS SECTION
TUBULAR RIVET
OF MATERIAL AND
CLINCHED RIVET
Cc) PLAN VIEW OF
THE CLINCH
SHOWING ROSE-
CUT ROLL
H
(a) A SOLIO DRILLED (b) GROSS-SECTION (c) PLAN VIEW OF
TUBULAR RIVET
OF MATERIAL AND CAP IN POSITION
WITH
AN'IDEAL'CAP
RIVET SET IN AN
BEFORE SETTING
'IDEAL'CAP
Fig.
3.
used for the attachment of friction linings are cov-
ered by BS3575 : 1963. In addition to specifying
the dimensions, materials and recommended hole
sizes for the rivets, it also specifies the correct
rivet hole sizes for the components being riveted
together.
Equipment used for setting tubular rivets is the
same as listed for solid rivets, but due to the fact
that the shank of the rivet is now hollow, consider-
ably less power is required to form a satisfactory
clinch. For this reason, equipment which is con-
siderably lighter and, therefore, cheaper, can be
employed. Another advantage of having a tubular
shank is that it is possible to design a setting tool
or snap which can locate in the hole and roll the
clinch into a uniform shape, thus avoiding the dis-
tortion often experienced with solid rivets.
When setting a tubular rivet, the clinch can be
formed either into a plain roll or rose- cut, by em-
ploying a suitably profiled anvil (see Fig. 2). Where
a particularly smooth finish is required, it is also
possible to set the tubular rivet into a cap (Fig. 3).
Naturally a tubular rivet is considerably more- ex-
pensive than a solid rivet, due to the drilling
oper-
ation which has to be performed, but this is usually
offset by the increased speed of riveting, coupled
with the fact that the resultant clinch is neater.
BIFURCATED
RIVETS
This rivet was first produced and patented in the
USA in 1889 by Jacob J. Unbehend. It is produced
by cutting a tapered section out of the centre of the
shank of a solid rivet (see Fig. 4a). It is princi-
pally used where the rivet is able to penetrate the
materials to be riveted together, and unlike the
original use of the tubular rivet, it can pierce the
components without removing any of the material,
thereby unimpairing its strength. It can be driven
through the material using a hammer,
while hold-
ing the rivet with a specially formed
wire clip.
When the prongs of the rivet have pierced the mat-
erial, they are clinched by hitting them with a ham-
mer, while the head of the rivet is supported on
the hard surface. The normal method of setting
these rivets, however, is to use a hand or auto-
matic feed rivet setting machine, which drives the
Fig. 4.
I
a d
'*'
oiSft^
ATED
0>) CROSS-SECTION (c) PLAN VIEW OF THE
RIVET
OF MATERIAL AND
CLINCH
CLINCHED RIVET
110
rivet through the work and clinches it in one single
operation, using a specially profiled solid anvil
which turns the prongs of the rivet outwards and
backwards into the face of the material (Fig. 4b).
Though more expensive than a solid rivet, a bifur-
cated rivet is very much cheaper than a drilled
tubular rivet. Its principal use is in the manufac-
ture of travel goods of all types, fibre and leather
articles and the assembly of plywood containers
with terneplate angle pieces on the corners. It is
also used for riveting terneplate handles on to chip
baskets, as .a normal bifurcated rivet can easily
penetrate this.material.
f
roi
(a) A BIFURCATED 0>) CROSS-SECTION
RIVET WITH AN
OF MATERIAL
'IDEAL' CAP
AN RIVET SET
BEFORE SETTING
IN AN 'IDEAL' CAP
(c) PLAN VIEW OF CAP
IN POSITION
Fig. 5.
If a particularly good finish is required on the side
of the clinch, the rivet can also be set into a cap,
as with the tubular rivet (see Fig. 5).
The standard range of bifurcated rivets is listed in
BS1855:1952, Part 1, covering rivets from No. 3
gauge to No. 16 gauge with oval, flat countersunk
and flat countersunk bevel heads.
SEMI-TUBULAR RIVETS
This rivet was first introduced by the Tubular Rivet
and Stud Co. of America around 1929, when the
manufacture of light metal parts began to develop
in a large way, and mass production techniques be-
gan to extend to all types of industry. Since that
time, the use of the semi-tubular rivet has been
extended to the assembly of components made of
plastics, ceramics and other materials which can
be produced by moulding or die casting. Since the
holes can be drilled, punched or moulded in the
material before riveting, and the thickness of the
components can be kept to fairly close limits,
there is no need to drill such a deep hole as in
the solid drilled tubular rivet. Semi-tubular rivets
are usually manufactured with one or two types of
tapered hole, the depth of hole varying from 80 to
100 per cent of the shank diameter, according to
requirements.
It will be seen from Fig. 6 that when the rivet is
clinched, the tubular portion is rolled back, leav-
ing a solid shank to give maximum shear strength,
similar to that obtainable with a solid rivet. When
setting the rivet, in addition to rolling back the
tubular portion, the solid shank of the rivet is made
tr
Fig. 6.
(a) SEMI-TUBULAR (b) CROSS-SECTION
RIVET OF MATERIAL AND
CLINCHED RIVET
(c)
PLAN VIEW OF
CLINCH
to swell and thus
completely fill the hole in the
components being joined together.
Semi-tubular rivets can be set by any of the meth-
ods previously listed for setting solid rivets, but
again much lighter automatic feed equipment can
be used, owing to the fact that the clinching force
required to roll back the tubular portion is much
reduced. Consequently, the semi-tubular rivet is
very suitable for setting by means of an automatic
feed rivet setting machine, where very high speeds
of assembly can be obtained. On
straightforward
work an operator can set as many as 3000 rivets
an hoUr. The standard range of semi-tubular rivets
is covered by BS1855:1952, Part III, which gives
Table 3
1

\_x\\\W V
//////
s,
H
\
CLINCHING FORCE (LB.)
Rivet
Rivet
gauge Steel Brass Copper Aluminium 2.69 gauge
18 220 160 120 15 18
17 280 240 175 27 17
A
365 330 233 40 160
&
16 405 375 263 50 16
15 500 460 320 70 15
141 580 530 375 90 141
14 705 640 445 120 14
13 800 713 500 145
330 13
12 1040 940 645 225 12
11 1310 1180 810 322
11
i
1420 1285
880 363 599
i
10 1510 1365 940 400 10
91 1860 1680 1140 545 91
9 2140 1940 1320 670 890 9
8 2440 2200 1490 792 8
7 2770 2500 1690 940 7
SL
10
3170 2860 1930 1103 10
6 3580 3220 2200 1270 1325 6
5 4130 3725 2565 1500 5
4 5000 4540 3180 1895
4
3 5560 5050 3600 2145 2340 3
Note: The above figures are values obtaine d From
actual tests on un-heat-treated rivets not.es<ceed-
ing

in. length.
111
.
OJ
a
s
h
ance later
ial
t
to
use
D
J
3
-u 4)
d) 01
1
CO r~- CO LO
-**
^1-
CO CM CM o 01 0) CO t^
"IS
CO lO ^f CO
A
=
Diameter
of
Rivet
D
=
Riveting
Allow
B
=
Diameter
of
Head
E
=
Thickness
of
l\i
C
=
Diameter
of
Hole
in
Material
F
=
Length
of
Ri\/e
Length
F
=
Thickness
of
Material
+
Riveting
Allow
z
O
0)
o
"*
CM
CM
in
in
o
N
o
CO
CO
0)
CO
o
CM
CO
CM
5
CM
LO
CM
0)
CM
CM
O
co
o
CM
co
3
co
CO
CD
CO
01
CO
CO
CO
1-
CM
CO
CO
CO
01
CM
O
O
co
o
o
10
s
o
0)
1
o
1
o
o
5
o
o
CO
o
o
I--
o
o
I--
co
o
CM
CO
o
o
o
o
CO
0)
O
O
0)
0)
o
o
o
o
01
1
o
CO
CM
o
in
CO
o o
CO
in
o
CO
o
CM
CO
o o
if
a
o
CO
CO
o
o
CM
CM
t
LO
in
LO
CO CO
co
0)
CO
CM
0)
CM
CM
to
CO
CM
to
CM
CO
CM
CM
o
CO
m
CM
CO
m
CO
0)
CO
CO
8
co
co
CM
CO
a
o
(!)
Z
CO
CM
O
O
8
o
I
o
1
o
o
s
o
o
m
m
o
o
8
o
in
8
o
o
o
co
o
o
o
o
o
0)
o
o
CO
c:
o
o
o
o
CM
o
01
o
CO
CM
o
CO
CO
o
in
o
co
LO
o
CM
N
o
CM
CO
o
0)
(0
o
CO
o
0)
0)
o
o
0> CM
CO
N
^f
in
in
CO
CO CO
CO
o
OJ
CO
CM
CO
CM
CM
0)
t
CM
01
CO
CM
co
OJ
O
CO
o
CO
co
CO
m
co
CO
CO
CM
<*
in
c3
i in
*! Z
10
-
o
CO
co
o
o
0)
co
o
o
CM
o
o
t
o
o
CM
10
O
O
CO
m
o
o
8
o
CO
CO
o
o
o
o
CO
o
o
iO
CO
o
o
CO
CO
o
o
CO
a>
o
o
8
o
co
o
CM
O
o
co
o
01
CO
o
o
in
o
CO
CO
o
in
o
2
S5
CO m t~- CO o
CM
CM
CM
t
CJ
in
CM 01
10
co
CM
CM
CO
co
CO CO
CO
CO t
co o
10
CM
10
IN
m
CO
(0
CO
CO
5
CM
o
2
CM
in
o
6
10
0)
lO
o
o"
CO
o
o
o
(--
o
o
lO
co
q
d
1
q
o
CM
CO
\
CO
CO
0)
o
d
LO
8
o
co
o
CO
LO
CO
CM
o
co
CO
o
LO
o
CD
*-
c5
co
CM
CO
o
8
o
IO
m
o
CM
o
CO
CM
CM
O
CO
t
CM
6
1"
^

|M
UJ
O
9
E .
u2
r-
CM
\
CM
co
t
10
CO
CO
N.
CO
CO
co
CO
CO
0)
s,
CO
o
CM
(D
CM
s
CM
CM
CO
CO
CM
CM
rj)
CM
(0
CM
s
CM
CO
CM
o
0)
CJ
CO
s,
CO
CM
CO
o
CO
:
r
.
In-
CO
CO
o
t
0"*
\
in
CO
CO
CO
\
CO
CO
CO
CO
o
*
CO
t
c^
CM
CO
N
CO
t
co
01
^r
\
co
o
m
CM
in
\
CO
CM
in
co
in
\
t
in
co
CM
co
o
CO
CO
IO
m
CO
\
CO
CO
CO
A
V
1
!
.
5 to
Q Z
o
IT)
O
O
s
CM
lO
O
O
CO
L0
o
o
o
co
CO
o
o
co-
8
o
o
o
o
\
CM
r~-
o
o
CO
o
o
CO
o
o
in
CO
o
o
\
t--
co
o
o
CO
0)
o
o
8
o
CO
0)
o
o
co-
o
o
in
o
o
\
o
o
CM
o
1
o
m
CM
o
\
N
CM
o
o
CO
o
\
CM
CO
o
CO
o
CO
CO
o
o
10
o
\
CJ
10
o
CO
o
s
CO
CO
o
o
CO
o
CM
CO
o
CO
o
CO
01
o
\
CO
0)
o
in
o
CM
o
s
CO
o
CM
o
CO
CM
CM
O
i
CM
CM
O
in
OJ
o
co-
CM
o
CO
in
CM
o
\
CO
CM
o
in
10
r
EG
^i
i
r

1
I
T3 .
0)
CM
CO
CM
CO
CM
CO
co
CO
CO
CM
10
CO
CO
CO
CM
CO
LO
CO
CO
0)
*
o
55
o
55
o
<*
o
co
CO
o
<
s,
CO
CO
CO
t
in
\
CM
CO
in
CO
in
CM
CO
m
CO
10
s
CM
CO
10
CO
m
N,
CM
CO
LO
r--
co
-^
CM
o
CO
\
OJ
o
CO
r-
co
r-
s
CM
o
CO
0)
CO
CO
\
CO
CO
CO
01
10
CD
cn
CO
01
\
LO
CO
01
CM
8
CM
co
CM
2.
CM
CO
CM

Q
CD

m
5
CO
z
CO
0)
o
CO
o
o
N
CM
o
CM
CO
o
N
CM
c
s
CM
co
o
r-
CM
o
1
CO
o
o
s
0)
in
o
i
o
\
oi
in
o
s
o
i
in
o
10
CO
o
o
0)
o
in
CO
o
\
o
0>
o
CO
CM
o
\
CM
CM
O
CO
CM
o
\
CM
CM
O
CO
OJ
o
CM
CM
O
CO
CM
O
N.
C'l
OJ
o
O
o
CO
o
o
CO
o
1
co
o
o
co
o
CO
o
CM
CO
o
%
t
CO
o
CO
c-
co
o
cU
CO
co
o
CO
r^
CO
o
\
o
CO
CO
o
t
CO
51-
o
CM
1
O
01
o
o
10
o
l~-
01
o
o
LO
o
i
4J
If
\
CM
CM
C0
\
CM
10
LO
\
CO
CO
10
CO
\
CO
CO
CO
N
55
CO
0)
\
CM
CO
CM
\
CO
CM
CM
0)
CM
CM
\
0)
co
CM
CM
i
CM
co
CM
\
CM
0)
CM
\
h-
O
CO
o
CO
c}
CM
CO
o
OJ
CO
\
o
CO
CO
CD
.o
'O
\
co
CO
co
CI
co
CO
o
1
CO
LO
co
t
N
8
t
s
CO
o
10
CO
co
lO
\
IO
01
CO
in
s
CM
o
CO
CO
CM
10
CO
CO
<
<5

5
to
z
(0
O
o
\
CO
o
o
to
o
%
CO
10
o
o
CO
o
1
co
o
o
10
CO
o
o
CO
8
o
CM
o
1
in
r-
o
o
CO
o
CO
o
o
10
CO
o
CO
o
o
o
0)
o
o
s
0)
o
o
0)
o
o
o
o
o
o
CO
o
o
I--
o
\
CM
o
CM
CM
O
\
in
CM
o
CO
CM
o
o
o
p
D
o
LO
o
s,
in
LO
c
o
CO
o
\
LO
co
o
o
\
co
r-
o
CO
CO
CO
CO
o
in
01
I
CM
O
o
CM
in
CM
o
CM
co
CM
O
\
N
CO
CM
O
10
CM
o
\
o
10
CM
o
X Y'4^-
<o
t/Ar^
\
> 3
LY oi
CO f- CO in ^f CO CM CM
-
O 0) CO r~
"IS
co m t co
the dimensions of oval and flat countersunk head
semi-tubular rivets, from ,$in. to No. 16 gauge.
Today, machine riveting with semi-tubular rivets
is a very simple process, but there are a few es-
sential details which should be fully understood if
good results are to be obtained and high rates of
production maintained. For example, it is essen-
tial to have the correct diameter of hole in the com-
ponents to be riveted, and also to use the correct
length of rivet. The diameter of hole is most im-
portant, so many designers have the mistaken im-
pression that a hole which will just take the rivet
shank, as for solid riveting, is satisfactory, but
this is definitely not the case. The rivet holes must
be made large enough to permit the tubular end of
the rivet to roll around when being set and, at the
same time, allow the shank to expand to fill the
hole exactly. If the holes in the components are
made too small, the rivet cannot roll, and the re-
sult is usually one where the rivet is half clinched
and the head stands proud on the other side.
The length of the rivet to be used must be equal to
the total thickness of the components being riveted
together, to which is added a certain riveting allow-
ance, which varies according to the shank diameter
and the material from which the rivet is made.
Table 2 gives details of hole sizes and riveting al-
lowances for rivets ranging from No. 18 to No. 3
gauge inclusive.
It is sometimes of interest to know the clinching
force required when setting semi-tubular rivets
other than by means of specially designed rivet
setting machines, e. g. a press fitted with profiled
setting tools. Table 3 gives details of clinching
forces in pounds required to set steel, brass, cop-
per and aluminium rivets from No. 18 to No. 3
gauge inclusive.
113
16
Screws
-
machine
by D.S.Thompson (GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.)
The machine screw fastener is certainly one of the
simplest and cheapest methods for joining parts
together. Despite the introduction
of alternative
and more sophisticated fastening techniques, its
usage is still increasing and somewhere in the reg-
ion of 5000 million machine screws are used each
year in the UK in nearly every type of industry.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
A machine screw consists of a shank, which is
threaded, and at one end of the shank
-
a head
which is equipped with a means of driving. It is
surprising that from this simple design such a wide
range of combinations of shank size, thread type,
head style and method of driving should have evol-
ved. Such combinations run into several thousands
and present an immense variety of problems to
manufacturers and users.
The prime function of a machine screw is that it
should be capable of securing a component in place.
It is not often used to its maximum mechanical
strength or to perform a multiplicity of functions.
The fundamental requirements are therefore:
a. Inexpensive.
b. Easily obtainable.
c. Suitable quality to mate with internal thread.
Table 1 List of British Standards .
BS NO.
Title
84
93
1580
3643
57*
450*
1981
3155
4183
1083*
1768
3692
Parallel screw threads of Whitworth
form.
BA screw threads.
Unified screw threads
.
ISO-Metric screw threads.
BA screws, bolts and nuts.
Machine screws & machine screw
nuts (BSW& BSF).
Unified machine screws, machine
screw nuts
Qi
in. dia. & larger).
American machine screws & nuts
(size below
M
in. dia.).
Machine screws & machine screw
nuts -
Metric screws .
Precision hexagon bolts, screws,
nuts (BSW& BSF).
Unified precision hexagon bolts,
screws, nuts (UNO & UNF).
Dimensions of ISO-Metric precision
hexagon bolts, screws & nuts.
*BS57, BS450 and BS1083 were rendered
obsolete in 1966.
d. Capable of being driven easily, safely and ac-
curately.
e. Capable of withstanding the environmental con-
ditions.
Provided the machine screw can meet these re-
quirements it will invariably prove superior either
in function or cost to other screw fastening
systems.
Its main disadvantage is that it requires to mate
with an internal thread to complete the assembly,
and with the large range of thread types in use, mis-
match can occur; also tapping is an expensive pro-
cess. The development of self-tapping
types of
machine screw now provides, in many
cases, a
more suitable method of assembly.
British Standards
Screw threads and machine screws are produced
to the British Standards shown in Table 1.
FACTORS INFLUI
SCREW DESIGN
NCING MACHINE
The main factors influencing machine screw de-
sign are:
1. Threads.
2. Heads.
3. Method of driving.
4. Point.
5. Length.
6. Material and mechanical properties.
7. Tightening torques and clamping load.
8. Protective and decorative finishes.
9. Availability.
Threads
There are now 6 basic thread types in use in the
UK
-
BSW, BSF,BA,UNC, UNF.ISO-Metric. Other
countries do not suffer from this problem and it is
necessary
to rationalise these thread styles in the
UK to maintain a reasonable price structure for
these products.
The screw thread is largely attributed to Henry
Maudsley and the first attempt at standardisation
was by Whitworth in the middle of the nineteenth
century. The British Standard Whitworth (BSW)
thread form has been predominantly used in the
engineering industry in the UK and the metric di-
mensioned BA thread form was largely adopted by
the scientific and instrument industries and later
114
Table 2.
ISO-UNIFIED THREAD DIAMETER AND T.P.I. ISO-METRIC THREAD DIA. & PITCH
Diameter inches Equiv
.
T.P.I. T.P.I. DIAMETER INCH. PITCH EQUIV.
mm. (Fine) (Coarse) Equiv
.
(mm). T.P.I.
0.060 1 .52 80

1 0.072 1 .83 72 64
2 0.085 2.16 64 56 M2.5 0.098 0.45 56.5
3 0.098 2.50 56 48
4 0.112 2.85 48 40 M3. 0.118 0.50 50.8
6 0.138 3.50 40 32
8 0.164 4.16 36 32 M4. 0.157 0.70 36.2
10 0.170 4.80 32 24 M5. 0.197 0.80 31 .8
1 0.250 6.35 28 20 M6. 0.236 1 .00 25.4
,-1 0.3125 7.94 24 18 M8. 0.315 1 .25 20.3
1 0.375 9.52 24 16 M10. 0.394 1 .50 17
Table 3
.
BA No. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1 .
0.
Recommended ISO-Metric Size M2. M2.5 M3. M3. M4. M4. M5. M5. M6.
made standard in the electrical industry. In the
USA the American National series thread form was
used, and as trade between the UK, USA and Canada
developed the need for a common thread standard
was apparent. A Unified thread form was first pub-
lished in 1949 (BS1580) by the three ABC countries.
This standard was based on compromises between
these countries and was subject to some criticism
resulting in a modified standard which was issued
in 1953. This standard has now been recognised by
the International Organisation for Standardisation
(ISO) as an internationally accepted screw thread
standard based on the inch system and can thus be
called the ISO-inch series. BS1580 was re-issued
in 1962 and now meets the ISO requirements. For
various reasons, the Unified series did not replace
existing BA, BSW, and BSF thread forms for machine
screws except in such industries as the motor trade
and certain manufacturers of consumer durables.
In 1965, following recommendations by Industry to
the Government, a change to the Metric system was
announced and therefore the adoption of an ISO-Met-
ric thread form. BS3643 Part II was issued in 1966
providing a thread standard for a coarse thread
series in Metric terms and in the same year .the
British Standards for BA, BSW and BSF thread
forms were rendered obsolete. It is expected that
by 1970, Industry will have commenced changing
specifications to Metric dimensions and will have
completed 7S per cent of the changeover by 1975.
Industry will thus be provided with 2 basic thread
forms:
ISO
- Metric and
ISO
-
Inch (Unified)
These two standards will provide complete inter-
changeability throughout nearly the entire world
population and all new designs should now be based
on these thread systems. The recommended sizes
for substituting BA threads with ISO- Metric threads
are as shown in Table 3.
Head styles
Logically, head styles fall into two categories:
a. Those that fit flush with mating component (i. e.
countersunk heads) and where the clamping load is
developed against the flank of the head.
b. Those that have a flat underhead condition
against which is developed the clamping forces.
Originally machine screws were manufactured by
auto -machining methods from a round bar and thus
a cheese head form became most economic to manu-
facture. Machine screws larger than M2 or 2-UN
are now generally cold forged from wire stock and
thus the economic design of the cheese head is no
longer applicable, however, its usage has only
slightly decreased. Tradition dies hard and yet the
cheese head screw shape is the least satisfactory
for cold forging, except for the tapered cheese
head form which is now standard practice for ISO-
Fig. 1. Basic ISO thread profile.
This thread
profile is common for ISO-Unified and ISO-Metric]
screw threads.
H=0.86603P
H/4=0.21651 P
H/8=0.10825P
3/8H=0.32476P
5/8H=0.54127P
115
4 6 8 10
III I
16 8 UNIFIED SERIES
H
rt
H
r-
-+-
M2.5 M3 M4 MS M6 M8 M10 M12
METRIC SERIES
SCREW DIAMETER
Fig.2. Diameter -
pitch comparison.
ISO-
Metric coarse v Unified.
Metric screws. Whilst the cheese head screw is
not recommended, due solely to its large usage
it still remains a 'preferred' type for pricing pur-
poses.
Countersunk heads. These heads differ in the angle
of countersink as follows:
BA, BSW, and BSF screws - 90/
9
2
ISO-Unified - 80/82
ISO-Metric - 90/92
The basic requirement for countersunk head screws
is that the head should fit into the countersunk hole
with as great a degree of flushness as possible. It
is therefore necessary to control the dimensions of
the head of the screw and the countersunk hole with-
in prescribed limits.
British Standards specify 'round heads' for BA,
BSW and BSF threads and 'pan heads' for BSW and
BSF, ISO-Unified and Metric series. The round
head is composed of 2 radii, whereas the pan head
is flat and parallel to the base of the head, being
radiused at the edges. The only British Standard
to incorporate both round and pan is BS450 for
BSW/BSF screws, however, the most commonly
used style is round head. Although not incorpora-
ted in BS57 for BA screws, pan heads, sometimes
called 'binder heads', are also used. Round heads
are also used with ISO-Unified screws.
With the recess head, a combination of round and
pan is used for all thread types and is termed a
pan head (Fig. 7).
Fig. 5. Raised countersunk head .
(a) ROUND > IEAD (b) PAN HEAD
Fig. 6.
Thus, the standard descriptions are as shown in
Table 4, and where iwo styles exist the predomi-
nant one is underlined. With the rationalisation of
thread types to ISO-Unified and ISO-Metric, the
pan head style only will exist.
The maximum or design size of head is controlled
by a theoretical diameter to a sharp corner D and
the minimum head angle, i. e. 90. The minimum
head size is controlled by a minimum head dia-
meter d, the maximum head angle, i. e. 92,
and a
flushness tolerance. Fig. 3 shows the maximum
and minimum metal conditions that can exist. The
The edge of the head may be flat or rounded as shown
in Fig. 4. The flat portion is referred to as the
land and is required for cold forged heads.
A variation of countersunk head is the 'raised coun-
tersunk head' (Fig. 5). This is sometimes called an
'instrument head' and has an improved appearance
and greater slot depth or recess.
Round and pan heads . These are the remaining
common head styles. Confusion again exists on
terminology and the following notes will clarify the
standard description. For slotted heads, the
FLAT EDGE ROUNDED
EDGE
FLUSHNESS
TOLERANCE
(MAX.)
Fig .3.
MAXIMUM
CONDITION
MINIMUM
CONDITION
^
V
Fig.
4.
Slotted or recessed screws. The slotted machine
screw suffers several disadvantages:
1. A multitude of slot widths, depths and lengths,
requiring many sizes of screwdrivers.
2. Usually has 'burrs' present, which can disrupt
automatic assembly.
3. Screw head can suffer considerable damage
during driving.
4. Screwdriver blade can slip out of head thus
damaging surrounding surfaces.
5. Difficulty in transmitting high driving torques.
All these problems are overcome
by using a recess
screw head. Although these are more costly, due
to increased tool cosis, the increases in produc-
tivity and reduction in damage can offset this ini-
tial extra high cost.
fable 4
.
THREAD
HEAD STYLE
SLOTTED. RECESS
BA Round Pan
BSW/F Round . Pan Pan
UN Pan Pan
ISO-M Pan Pan
Fig.7. Recess pan head
profile
.
Fig. 8. Section
through
the Pozidriv recess
form head. r7
XT
The slot and the recess form the main methods of
internally-wrenching machine screws. External
wrenching is normally achieved by spanner or hexa-
gon power tool in conjunction with a hexagon head
screw.
Hexagon heads. Variations of hexagon head machine
screws are shown in Fig. 9. The type of hexagon
head is largely left to negotiation between supplier
and customer. For forged and trimmed hexagon
head machine screws, the washer faced type is
recommended. New techniques of cold forging
have led to the introduction of the indented hexagon
head, although the quality of the hexagon form was
generally poor, and more advanced techniques now
being exploited may lead to an increased usage of
a plain hexagon head.
Combinations of internal and external wrenching
can be obtained using a slotted hexagon head or
recessed hexagon head.
Other head styles do exist (see Fig. 10), although
they are normally non-preferred types and their
use is limited.
Point styles
Machine screws are generally unpointed. The
threads are produced by a rolling process and are
Fig. 9.
CXX)
tr
WASHER
FACED
PLAIN
SINGLE DOUBLE
INDENTED
CHAMFERED CHAMFERED
Fig. 10.
DU
MUSHROOM RAISED
(TRUSS) CHEESE
(FILLISTER)
3
Fig. 11 .
Rolled end
.
Fig. 12.
(a) DIE POINT
(t>) DOG POINT
(C) PINCH POINT
(d)CONE POINT
thus slightly smaller in diameter at the end of the
screw as the last two threads are undersize. The
last thread slightly 'rolls over' leaving a character-
istic indentation at the end of the screw (Fig. 11),
this is termed a 'rolled end'. For applications re-
quiring easier assembly conditions or where mis-
match occurs between the mating holes or for use
with cage nuts, a more positive lead is required on
the screw. There are several versions available
as 'specials' and these are listed below.
The die point type (see Fig. 12a) has a lead angle
produced on the cold forged blank at an inclusive
angle of 40 -45 . After thread rolling, the section
is slightly deformed and results in an approximate
70
chamfer point. This is the nearest equivalent
to a
90
chamfer point provided on machine cut
screws.
Table 5. A preferred range of length increments.
ISO-Unified ISO-Metric
(inch)
(mm.)
*
i
ie 5
i
6
i
8
i
10
i
12

16
i 20
i
1
Then + 1 in. Then + 5 mm
.
117
Table 6. Minimum tensile properties.
Steel
25 ton/sq.in
40 kg/sq.mm
40 hB
392 MN/sq.m.
Stainless Steel
37-42 ton/sq . in
.
60 kg/sq . mm
60 hB
628 MN/sq.m.
Brass
20 ton/sq.in.
32 kg/sq.mm.
32 hB
314 MN/sq.m.
Aluminium Alloy
20 ton/sq. in
32 kg/sq.mm.
32 hB
314 MN/sq.m.
i able 7.
MATERIAL
FASTENER
PRODUCTS
RELATED
SPECIFICATIONS
TENSILE
STRENGTH
HARDNESS
0.1% Carbon Steel
Bright Drawn
.
Slotted Machine Screws.
Recessed
Machine Screws
.
EN2A/1
SAE 1008
ton/sq.in.
28 min. 140-200
0.1% Carbon Steel
Soft Drawn
.
Recessed Machine
Screws.
Weld Bolts.
EN2A/1
SAE 1008
25
1 20-1 60
18/8 Type
Stainless Steel
.
Slotted Machine Screws. AISI 305
40 160-200
Brass. Slotted
& Recessed Machine
Screws.
BS2873
CZ 108 25 70-120
Aluminium Alloy:-
High Strength
.
Slotted
& Recessed
Machine
Screws
.
BS1475 HG 15 OD 18
60-100
Corrosion
Resistant.
Slotted & Recessed Machine
Screws
.
BS1475 NG 6 OD 20 60-110
A type of lead point often used to prevent cross
threading is the dog point shown in Fig. 12b. The
pinch point (Fig. 12c) is virtually
equivalent to the
conventional cone point except that the included
angle is 60 . It is produced by a press process,
more economic than machining,
and is used for
locating hole positions.
The full cone point (Fig. 12d) is produced by machin-
ing, which is more expensive than the method used
for pinch pointing.
Pointing is usually charged
as a list extra to a
standard
screw , for example, the following addi-
tional costs are usually charged on
\
in. diameter
machine screw:
Die point 2s. lid per 1000 extra.
Pinch point 8s. 4d. per 1000 extra.
Cone point 10s. 5d. per 1000 extra.
Length of machine screws
The nominal lengths of machine screws are subject
to tolerances stated in the appropriate
Standard.
Tolerance practice is not standard and is as follows:
ISO- Unified screws Unilateral tolerance -
Minus
value.
ISO- Metric screws Bilateral tolerance.
BA screws
Unilateral tolerance -
Plus
value.
BSW
& BSF screws Unilateral
tolerance
-
Minus
value
.
BS4183 for ISO-Metric machine screws makes a
serious attempt to restrict the choice of lengths.
A similar system is intended for the revision of
BS3155 and BS1981 for Unified machine screws.
Table 5 shows a preferred range of length incre-
ments in millimetre and inch dimensions.
With some justification it can be claimed that
lengths smaller than 5 mm. will be required for
Metric screws and thus lengths of 3 mm. and 4 mm.
would also be standard.
It is to everyones advantage that screws are de-
signed around these preferred
lengths. Many in-
dustries still specify fasteners in lengths of
&
of an
inch and
k
of an inch and, through thoughtless de-
sign, pay the penalty of high prices and difficult
procurement.
Mechanical
properties and materials
Cold forged machine screws
are generally manu-
factured in either steel,
stainless steel, brass or
aluminium alloy, conforming
to the minimum ten-
sile properties shown in Table 6.
Cold forging steels do not exactly conform to En
specifications,
however.
Table 7 briefly lists the
materials used, typical
mechanical properties
and
related specifications.
118
Table 8. Recommended tightening torque ratios for machine screws.
16"
3_
16
BSF
16"
3
16"
5_
16
"
10
8
_5_
16
'
10-
BSW BA UNF UNC
0.03
0.03
0.01-
-
3
2
1SO-M
Steel machine screws are cold forged from wire,
which itself is subject to several drawing passes
to achieve the
smaller diameters. Each draw will
work harden the material and the screw manufac-
turing process of cold forging and thread rolling
will further work harden the material. The final
product will therefore often possess
appreciably
higher mechanical properties than the minimum
tensile quoted, rising to 40-50 ton/sq. in. for
small diameter screws. Mild steel slotted machine
screws need not be stress relieved after manufac-
ture and cannot have their strength properties in-
creased by hardening and tempering. Some recess
screws are stress relieved to reduce the high stres-
ses induced immediately beneath the recess during
forging. Such stress relieving is performed after
the cold forging stage and prior to thread rolling
and the temperature should not exceed 550C. It
is recommended practice that stress removal is
achieved by stress relieving of machine screws
rather than annealing.
Tightening torques and breaking loads
In order to obtain satisfactory application of
machine screws,
tightening torques should be ac-
30
360
35 L-B.FT.
400 LB.IN.
TIGHTENING TORQUE
curately controlled. This is fully appreciated with
high tensile products but is often, and wrongly,
considered less important on mild steel items. It
is perhaps to the credit of machine screw manu-
facturers that their products behave as well as
they do with such abuse. The essential feature of
controlling the tightening torque is to ensure that
a suitable clamping load is established on the mem-
bers
-
insufficient and the assembly can be left
loose or will work loose, too much and the induced
tension will rise beyond the elastic limit perman-
ently stretching the screw. Problems exist not
only in deciding the correct tightening torque for
a particular application but also in ensuring that
it is in fact being applied. Under hand-assembly
conditions no control is possible unless special
torque drivers are used, and here again setting
these to a predetermined torque and maintaining
it is not easy. Perhaps this problem will eventu-
ally be solved by the manufacturers of screw driv-
ing tools. Many factors can affect the establish-
ment of the correct tightening torque, these are:
1,
Dimensions of male and female
components
within tolerance band.
119
2. Surface condition of
components, i. e. oily, dry,
scaly, roughness
or smoothness of thread.
3.
Electroplated
deposit and other surface coat-
ings.
4. Underhead friction -
dependent upon joint com-
ponent materials.
5. The length
of thread
engagement.
6. The material
and yield strength
of the machine
screws
used.
Table
8
shows
recommended
tightening
torques for
various
diameters and tensile strengths
of machine
screws.
These figures were obtained using self
colour nut - bolt -
washer
assemblies lightly oiled
and therefore only
provide a guide which needs to
be adjusted to suit specific
application conditions.
Clamping load
For a threaded
joint tightened to the yield point of
a fastener,
the clamping load will be about 70-80
per cent of the normal proof load of the fastener
as
obtained under
pure tension.
This is for normal
lubricated threads where \i is say 0. 2 to 0. 15.
If the co-efficient of friction ((X)
is reduced to 0.
1
this figure is increased to about 90 per cent with
a high u figure, i. e. for dry, unlubricated
threads,
the figure may reduce to 50 per cent, thus the re-
lationship
between tightening torque to induced ten-
sion and thus to clamping
load is very dependent
upon surface conditions.
Some electroplated
de-
posits, e.g. cadmium, reduce
the co-efficient of
friction from the self- colour condition.
Applied tightening torque is utilised in the three
following was:
1. 10 per cent to drive the mating thread helices
over each other against the action of the axial load
Jo which they are inclined and hence induce tension
into the bolt.
2. 40 per cent to overcome thread friction.
3.
50 per cent to overcome friction
between the
bearing face of screw and nut.
Due to the importance
of friction conditions,
the
following simple formula can be used:
Torque T
=
A. Po. D. Where
Po
=
axial load
D = Basic major
thread diameter.
This formula is only
accurate to about
20 per
cent and where more accurate
calculation is re-
quired direct measurements
should be made for
the particular assembly
conditions.
Because of
practical difficulties in applying exact tightening
torques, locking
washers are often used. Whilst
frequently
preventing unscrewing,
such washers
can often result in loss of tightness during
service
through bedding down. The best method of main-
taining the stiffness of a threaded joint in general
is by adequate
pretightening and provision of good
bearing surfaces.
Protective and decorative finishes
Most finishes can be applied to machine screws
and the important aspect is to ensure that some
corrosion
protection is provided for without caus-
ing thread form
interference. Machine
screws are
stocked to pre-plating
limits, which, for Unified
threads
to class 2A, has an allowance of practically
0. 001 in.
,
and for ISO-Metric
threads to tolerance
grade
6g, an allowance
of approximately
0. 020-
0. 030 mm. dependent upon diameter in the range
M2.5 - M12. The maximum deposit
thickness
that can be accommodated
on self-colour
machine
screws is a function of the thread angle. Fig. 13
shows the effect of electroplating
a screw thread.
A
Fig.13. Screw
thread with elec-
troplated
deposit.
AC represents
deposit thickness.
AB represents increase
on
|
the machine screw
diameter.
AC
gg-
= cos BAC =
0. 5 for 60
thread form,
.".
AB
-
2 x AC
Thread diameter
increase
=
4 x deposit thick-
ness.
Thus, for a total screw thread allowance of
- 1 in.
. the maximum
deposit thickness would
be
J
=0. 00025 in. This value will vary slight-
ly for different thread diameters (Table
9) due to
different thread forms.
BS3382 provides
an electroplating
standard for
threaded
components and Table 10 shows the maxi-
mum deposit that can be accommodated
on screw
diameters
without making special allowances on
the thread form.
Plating thickness
It should be noted that deposit thickness
is mea-
sured in terms of Average Batch Thickness, not
local thickness which is impractical to measure on
machine screws. The normal method for deter-
mining Average Batch Thickness is by the 'Strip
and Weigh' technique
(BS3382 Appendix B).
Table
9. Depos i I thickness
factors .
Thread Form.
Factors.
ISO-Unified
ISO-Metric
BA
BSW
BSF
4
4
5
4.3
4.3
120
Table 10. Plating Thickness.
BASIC
MAJOR
DIAMETER
(mm)
BATCH AVERAGE
THICKNESS (mm)
BASIC
MAJOR
DIAMETER
(in)
BATCH AVERAGE
THICKNESS (in)
Minimum
Maximum
Minimum
Maximum
1 .52-3.20
3.20-6.35
6.35-12.70
12.70-19.05
0.0038
0.0051
0.0064
.0076
0.0051
0.0064
0.0076
0.0089
0.060-0.126
0.126-0.250
0.250-0.500
0.500-0.750
0.00015
0.00020
0.00025
0.00030
0.00020
0.00025
0.00030
0.00035
Table 1 1 .
FEATURE
ZINC
CADMIUM
Cost
Zinc deposits considerably
cheaper than cadmium .
Expensive
Toxicity
Not recommended with food
and beverages.
Strongly toxic,
particularly if
vapourised at welds
.
Solderability
Special care, and possibly
low antimony solders needed
Good, preferably not
passivated
.
Appearance
Brightness not usually re-
tained as long as cadmium .
Matches against aluminium.
Better than zinc . White coi

rosion products formed are


not voluminous
.
Thread lubrication
Increases
friction.
Reduces
friction.
Upper temperature limits
For service, -re.
significant
change in appearance.
200C
250C
-re . subsequent room temp-
erature corrosion resistance.
250C
No embrittlement occurs in
excess of 300C
350C
No
embrittlement of standard
fasteners at above or below
the melting point of cadmium
(321 C).
Embrittlement only
reported in fasteners with
tensile yield strengths in ex-
cess of 95 ton/sq . in
.
Hardness Hv 40 to 60
12 to 22
Contact with other metals Similar characteristics.
Contact with cathodic metals and alloys, for
example copper , nickel and stainless steel ,
will increase the attack
on the coating when wet. This can be minimised by suitable insulating
washers and jointing compounds . Cadmium corrosion products are
less detrimental to appearance than the voluminous white corrosion
products of zinc
.
The deposit thicknesses shown in Table 10 are
those which will be obtained if plating is specified
to BS3382 Parts 1-4. This gives a guarantee of
minimum plating performance on standard threads.
'Commercial plating
1
, which is essentially just a
colour finish, provides no guaranteed minimum
deposit thickness and may give coatings as little as
0. 00001 in. BS3382 should be specified in pre-
ference to other British Standards for similar de-
posit thickness as it is specifically designed for
threaded parts.
For greater corrosion resistance, deposits thicker
than those specified in BS3382 Parts 1-4 are nece-
ssary. To minimise thread interference on as-
sembly when these thicker deposits are present, it
is necessary to manufacture threaded components
with special allowances. BS3382 Part 7 provides
the information on these allowances.
Greater corrosion resistance wihtout special thread
allowances becoming necessary can also be achiev-
ed by either selectively plating those parts of fast-
eners which must have a thick deposit, usually
the heads, and plating the threads with a thinner
acceptable deposit, or by selecting an appropriate
corrosion resistant alloy such as austenitic stain-
less steel.
121
Table
12. A typical price list for steel slotted screws, round and pan heads, Whit BSF BA UNC
and UNF threads.
ROUND
DIAMETER
& WHIT.
2 BA
10 UN
LENGTH
*
i
I
i
PRICES SHILLINGS PER 1000
'AA' AND A LIST
PRICES FOR
POPULAR
SIZES
Head styles available
at 'AA' or A prices
WHIT
P
3
)
p

R
BA
R P
P
P
P

P
P

R
BSF UNC
P
R P
R P
R
R P
UNF
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
UNDER
4,000
70
48
48
48
50
50
54
56
60
4000AND
OVER
('AA
1
}
22
22
22
23
23
25
26
A
35
24
24
24
25
25
27
28
30
B LIST PRICES
UNDER 4,000 100,00C|
4,000 TO AND
99,999 OVER
105
72
72
72
75
75
81
84
90
70 35
48 24
48 24
48 24
50 25
50 25
54 27
56 28
60 30
Degree of protection from corrosion.
It is not pos-
sible in this Chapter to give details of all the fac--
tors determining the choice and thickness of a part-
icular plated deposit, however, the following points
should be noted.
1. For sacrificial deposits, such as zinc and cad-
mium, the rust free life is approximately propor-
tional to a deposit thickness.
2. Passivation of zinc or cadmium deposits will
increase their rust free life.
3. Zinc plating is superior to sherardising, thick-
ness for thickness, and is more suitable for small
thread diameters.
4. Nickel deposits which are chromium plated have
improved appearance and corrosion resistance.
5. Corrosion protection in excess of five years in
all but mild environments is difficult to guarantee
by electroplated deposits and austenitic stainless
steel should be considered as an alternative.
6. Deposits such as zinc, cadmium and nickel are
more suitable for recess finishes.
It is always recommended that specification depo-
sits are used whenever coatings are required to be
more than just a decorative finish.
The effectiveness of a deposit is often measured
in terms of its performance in Salt Spray tests.
Whilst not particularly related to service condi-
tions these tests either state a minimum time to
the first appearance of rust or the minimum time
for the first appearance of white corrosion pro-
ducts. The latter is a test of the supplementary
passivation finish, whilst the former is a rather
crude test of coating thickness. Typical minimum
specification performances in a neutral 5 per cent
Nacl Salt Spray test of 95F (ASTM B117 test) are:
Zinc. Deposit thickness 0. 0002 in. 24 hours be-
fore first rusting.
Zinc. Deposit thickness 0. 0005 in. 96 hours be-
fore first rusting.
Zinc and passivation. Deposit thickness 0. 00035in.
96 hours before first rusting.
Zinc and passivation. Deposit thickness 0. 00035in.
72 hours before first white corrosion products.
Under these test conditions cadmium is always
superior to zinc in the time to first rusting. How-
ever, in service in industrial and urban atmos-
pheres, cadmium performs less satisfactory than
zinc, thickness for thickness, and hence the ac-
celerated Salt Spray tests are not totally reliable.
The following British Standard Specifications are
concerned with electroplated deposits.
BS3382 Part 1 Electroplated coatings on threaded
components. Cadmium plating.
BS3382 Part 2 Electroplated coatings on threaded
components. Zinc plating.
BS3382 Part 3 Electroplated coatings on threaded
components. Nickel or nickel chrom-
ium on steel.
BS3382 Part 4 Electroplated coatings on threaded
components. Nickel or nickel chrom-
ium on copper or copper alloy com-
ponents.
BS3382 Part 7 Electroplated coatings on threaded
components. Thicker deposits.
BS1706 Electroplated coatings of zinc and
cadmium on steel.
BS1224 Electroplated coatings of nickel and
chromium.
BS1872 Electroplated coatings of tin.
AVAILABILITY
The basic factors of machine screw design have
now been covered, these are: thread, head, point,
length, material, strength and finish, the final fac-
tor affecting a specification is availability.
From the 7 basic parameters listed above many
combinations arise. In recent years, most large
manufacturers have produced new pricing policies
based on low prices for a preferred range of fast-
eners with price penalties for non-preferred sizes.
122
Diameter M1 , M1 .2, M1 .6, M2 M2.5, M3 , M4, M5, M6, M8 ,
M10.
Length (mm) 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 etc.
Table 1
3 . Preferred
Metric sizes.
A safety device enables a non-preferred size to be
brought back to the same low price if orders of a
sufficient quantity are placed.
Table 12 illustrates a typical preferred and non-
preferred pricing scheme.
This type of price list should be studied by design-
ers to ensure that price penalties are not being
borne unnecessarily. The list is used as follows:
lows:
1. The general description is stated at the top,
i. e. steel slotted screws, round and pan head,
threads BSW, BSF, BA, UNC and UNF.
2. The first left hand column shows the diameter
within the thread range, i.e. 3/16 BSF, 2 BA, and
10 UN.
3. The second column lists length increments.
4. The remaining columns are divided into two,
'AA' and 'A' sizes and 'B' sizes. 'AA' sizes are
the most commonly used and have the lowest price.
'A' sizes are preferred and have a low price. 'B'
sizes are non-preferred and are priced against or-
der quantity.
5. The indication for 'AA', 'A' or 'B' is found
under the column heading for the thread types, i. e.
Whit, BA, BSF, UNC and UNF. If the letter R
for round or P for pan head appears against the
length for the thread type, then that head styles is
an 'AA' or 'A' size. If the letter is 'circled' it is
an 'AA' size, if not an 'A' size , or if not marked
the item is a 'B' size. Thus
i
in x &in. Whit
steel round E) is shown as 'circled' and is there-
fore priced from the column headed 'AA'. For the
same size with a pan head, it is shown without a
circle ahd is therefore priced from column headed
'A'. If the same style of screws has BSF threads,
there is no mark and they would be priced from
the 'B' list which would make such a screw twice
as expensive unless the quantity was in excess of
100, 000. Thus sensible screw design will save
costs.
It is immediately obvious that the particular price
list shown does not yet include ISO-Metric and does
not include Unified items as 'AA' sizes. As usage
of BA, BSW, and BSF screws declines, predomi-
nance will be shown for the ISO thread system.
METRICATION
No article on fasteners would be complete without
some mention of metrication. Following inter-
national agreement on two common thread systems
ISO-Unified (inch) and ISO-Metric, recommenda-
tions R261 and R262 resulted in the publication of
BS3643 providing a metric thread series. In 1967,
BS4183 'Specification for machine screws and ma-
chine screw nuts
- metric series' was published,
and leading manufacturers are now carrying a
stock range of ISO-Metric machine screws to this
standard. The theory of preferred sizes is incor-
porated in the British Standard and the sizes shown
in Table 13 should be utilised.
The strength
classification for steel machine screws
is grade 4. 8 (40 kg. /sq. mm. ) and the tolerance
grade for screws is
6g
(medium fit). 95 per cent
of metric screw usage in Europe is with coarse
threads and thus machine screws are stocked only
with the coarse thread series.
It is anticipated that the usage of BA, BSW, BSF
threads will decline from 1970 onwards and, by
1975, 75 per cent of procurement will be for either
ISO-Metric or ISO-Unified screws. All new de-
signs should now be based on one of these two
thread systems and with immediate effect the use
of BSF threads should be totally discouraged.
Prices for ISO-Metric fasteners are comparable
with imperial equivalents.
FUTURE
DEVELOPMENTS
With such a basic product as a machine screw, few
startling developments are likely to occur in the
immediate future. Improvements to quality are
most important to assist automatic assembly
methods and the Pozidriv recess represents an
important development in this respect. Additional
features can be provided on machine screws to im-
prove their usefulness such as:
1. Paint removal
-
the inclusion of flats or grooves
at the end of the screw to clear paint from tapped
holes.
2. Locking
-
the incorporation of stiff elements in
the threads or teeth under the screw head to pre-
vent untightening.
3. Earthing screws
-
the use of pips or teeth under
a screw head to ensure electrical contact between
the screw and mating member.
4. Screwdriving methods
-
variation in the form of
recesses may arise although it is felt that industry
cannot afford a multiplicity of alternative screw-
driving systems. More sophisticated methods of
automatic screw driving, possibly of the cartridge
loaded type, are being required by the larger screw .
using industries.
5. Materials
-
machine screws are available in
nylon, and other materials within the plastics fam-
ily may prove suitable. The use of impregnated
steel or preplated steel may be introduced to assist
corrosion problems.
The future of the machine screw industry is still
one of expansion and the main rewards to pur-
chasers will result from greater concentration on
standardisation and rationalisation. 'Specials' are
costly and difficult to procure quickly, often result-
ing in service problems at a later stage. The UK,
with even only two thread systems, will be at a
disadvantage to foreign competitors who may con-
centrate either on Metric or on Unified only and a
competitive situation can only be maintained by
superiority of production methods and large scale
production.
17
Screws
-
self tapping etc.
by T . E . Harris
A class of screws exists which can be described
under the general heading of this Chapter. They
are (1) of the types which can form or cut a thread
in a hole already prepared, or (2) of the types
which drill or pierce their own holes before form-
ing the thread.
The first type are self tapping screws which can.be
further sub-divided into thread forming screws and
thread cutting screws.
THREAD FORMING SCREWS
This category of self tapping screw, as the name
implies, are not provided with cutting edges to tap
the thread in the metal, plastics or other type of
material being fixed, but rather to form a mating
thread by a thread rolling or swaging action.
No pre-tapped holes are necessary in the material
so that costly tapping operations and the equipment
involved are no longer required. The principal
advantage, therefore, of a self tapping screw is the
low in place cost of the fastening.
Thread forming screws have the advantage of high
strength when compared with machine screws and
figures are normally in excess of 50 ton/sq. in. as
a result of the case hardening treatment normally
applied to the screw. This class of screw, as a
result of forming its own closely mating thread, by
displacing or forming the material in the wall of
the pilot hole, gives a perfect fit between the male
and female threads which cannot be achieved in a
normally tapped hole with a mating machine screw.
It is obvious that this results in a joint which pos-
sesses a greater resistance to failure due to vibra-
tion or shock loads.
The thread forming screws and the thread cutting
screws described below are all referred to in
BS4174:1967 which is a specification for self tapping
screws and metallic drive screws. In this Standard
details can be found of hole sizes for various thick-
nesses and types of materials into which the screw
is to be driven. It should be remembered, how-
ever, that these hole sizes are only recommended
for guidance and particular conditions affect the
performance of the screw, and these particular
conditions may require different hole sizes from
those recommended. For example, harder mat-
erials normally require slightly larger holes and
conversely for softer materials.
A' Type
This gimlet pointed screw (Fig. 1) is one of the
most widely used types of thread forming screw
and is primarily designed for use in thin metals. It
has a 60 thread form based on the Unified thread
type, but is widely spaced with pitches approxi-
mately double the equivalent diameter UNC thread
series.
Certain shorter lengths of screws have finer pit-
ches, which are in fact the same as those of the 'B'
type screw described below. The standard sizes
available are from Number 4,
with a maximum
major diameter of 0. 114 in.
,
to Number 24 with a
maximum major diameter of 0. 390 in.
'B' Type (or 'Z' Type)
This type of screw also has widely spaced threads
which are slightly finer than those of the normal
lengths of 'A' type screws. The principal difference
between the two types of screw is the blunt but
slightly tapered point of the 'B' type screw, as illu-
strated in Fig. 2.
(^
fymmm
Fig.2. 'B' Type screw.
Fig.3. 'U' Type screw.
124
"U" Type
This is a type of thread forming screw which is
usually
termed a metallic drive screw (Fig. 3).
The screw has multiple threads with a long helix
angle, so that rapid advance into the material can
be achieved. As Fig. 3 illustrates, there is no slot
provided in the head of the screw and application is
by hammer driving rather than a turning movement.
Whereas 'A' and 'B' type screws are primarily in-
tended for use in light sheet metal, fibre reinforced
resins, resin
impregnated plywood and similar
materials, 'U' type screws are designed for light
alloy diecasting,.cast iron, brass, and plastics, as
well as thick steel sheets. The maximum thickness
of the materials into which the 'U' type screw can be
driven, should be not greater than the diameter of
the screw.
THREAD CUTTING SCREWS
The screws in this group are provided with cutting
edges and chip flutes so that they produce a mating
thread by removing material from the sidewall of
the hole in the component material.
The very high bursting forces experienced when
using thread forming screws, sometimes neces-
sitate the selection of a thread cutting screw, which
removes some of the material and considerably
lowers the bursting stresses in the component. In
certain applications a lower drive torque is parti-
cularly desirable and in this case selection of a
thread cutting screw is recommended. There are
several types of thread cutting screws in service
and the main ones are described below.
T'Type
Fig. 4 illustrates this type of screw, which is of the
Unified machine screw type of thread, but with a
blunt, slightly tapered point. The screw is provided
with one or more flutes and cutting edges extending
from the point a short distance along the shank of
the screw.
Fig. 4.
'T' Type screw.
Fig. 5.
'BT' Type
screw.
Fig. 6.
'D' Type screw.
.
These screws are
designed for use in materials
such as cast zinc and aluminium, sheet aluminium,
sheet brass, lead
diecastings, sheet steel, stain-
less steel and cast iron.
They are available in coarse and fine thread pitch
series, the fine thread
series being recommended
for the thinner materials, and the coarse threads
for weaker materials. With weak materials a
greater thread depth is necessary in order to ach-
ieve the same degree of stripping strength.
*BT* Type
The form of these screws is similar to the 'B' type
thread forming screw, as can be seen from Fig. 5,
but in this case the thread cutting action is achieved
by the provision of a single cutting flute extending
from the point a short distance along the shank.
They are designed for use in plastics, diecastings,
asbestos and other similar type compositions.
'D
1
Type
As with the >T' type screw, 'D' type screws (Fig. 6)
have threads of Unified form, but have one slot to
form a cutting edge from the point for a short dis-
tance along the shank. The low driving torque
found with these screws is a result of the cutting
edge being formed radially to the screw centre
line. These screws are ideal for low strength
materials, plastics, brittle metals and for re-
threading pre-tapped holes which have been clogged
after tapping, for example by painting operation
being performed on the component.
'Y' Type
The 'Y' type screw (Fig. 7) has widely spaced threads
with a blunt tapering point similar to the 'BT' type
screw. The screw is provided with multiple cut-
ting flutes extending from the point to the head,
making it suitable for use in brittle plastics and
diecastings. It can be used with extremely long
thread engagement especially in blind holes and is
unique among self tapping screws in this respect.
USE OF SELF TAPPING SCREWS
The following are four alternative combinations of
fixing conditions which can occur when using 'A'
and 'B' type screws. There are, of course, other
special combinations which can occur.
125
1. Holes drilled or punched in both sheets,
as
illustrated in Fig. 8.
2. Holes in both sheets pierced and plunged to give
a stronger joint (Fig.
9).
3. Clearance hole in second panel with a pierced
and plunged hole in the first panel (Fig. 10).
4. Clearance hole in second panel with an extruded
hole in the first panel (Fig.
11).
For all other types of screw it is more usual to
provide a clearance hole in the second panel with
the correct tapping hole size in the first panel,
casting or moulding.
TORQUE FIGURES
It is essential that the self tapping screw remains
in tension and initially that the correct tension
is
applied. This- can be controlled
by the correct se-
lection of application torque for the screw, with
the particular set of conditions involved
and can
only be accomplished by carefully testing the as-
sembly under actual conditions to find the tapping
torque and the stripping torque.
Subsequently a
safety factor is applied to the minimum stripping
torque value found from testing, to arrive at a suit-
able application torque. Fig. 12 shows the type of
graph that can be obtained by testing an assembly in
this way.
Fig. 12.
Torque
spread
against hole
diameter.
HOLE DiAMETEK

It is -evident from this graph that there is a bigger
spread of stripping
torque than of tapping
torque for
all diameters.
It is also important
to realise
that
with coarser
pitch screws in thinner
materials
the
difference between tapping torque and stripping
torque becomes less, so that accurate
setting of
application
torque becomes far more critical.
USE OF SCREWS IN PLASTICS
With
plastics
materials it is also very important
that the correct tightening is applied.
It is general-
ly found that the softer the plastics
the nearer are
the two values of tapping torque and stripping tor-
que, making the selection of the correct. application
torque far more critical.
The most secure method of mating
a screw thread
in a plastics article is to mould in a nut insert, but
this is prohibitive in cost of insert and additional
moulding
cost. A cheaper method is to tap a female
machine screw thread in a hole moulded into the
article.
Taking the analysis one stage further, if
self tapping screws are used in the plain hole an
even cheaper assembly
results, as well as offering
the benefit of a snug fit between the screw and its
mating thread. This snug fit gives a vibration resis-
tant joint since the screw has formed an exact thread
with a frictional
grip being exerted by the thread
flanks, on to the screw. A self tapping screw for
use in plastics materials should possess the follow-
ing properties:
a. Low driving or tapping torque to form a thread
in the plastics.
b. High stripping torque, i. e. torque to shear the
thread from the plastics during driving.
c. High pull out strength in tension.
d. It should generate low radial forces during
screwing, to avoid bursting the plastics.
Thread cutting screws offer obvious advantages
over thread forming screws in the first require-
ment, because the driving torque is lowered by the
cutting action of the fluted screw.
The greatest
advantage in previously
discussed screw types is
with the
>Y and 'BT' types, especially the latter, as
these types have the coarse pitch thread which
gives high ratios of pull out strength and stripping
torque to driving torque. Hole sizes recommended
for different plastics for 'T' and 'B> type screws are
to be found in BS4174:1967,
but for some reason no
table of hole sizes for 'Y' type screws is included.
It is felt that the table for 'BT' type screws can be
used as a guide for 'Y' type screws.
Hole sizes for plastics other than the listed ones,
cellulose
acetate and nitrate, acrylic
and polysty-
renes, must be arrived at by experiment
and vary
with hardness and bursting
tendencies of the mater-
ials. The hole sizes listed for the above mentioned
materials can be used as a starting point if one
takes into account the similarity
between the pla-
stics being used and one of those listed.
It is usual to provide a counterbore or countersink
in the plastics to reduce or eliminate the tendency
126
to chip around the holes, which occurs in harder
plastics when no counterbore is provided.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
The foregoing comments apply to screw designs
which have been produced for many years and it is
not surprising that in such a vast market as that
existing for this type of product there have been
new developments in recent years. Special thread
forms have been designed to give greatly improved
performance in the role of thread forming or thread
cutting screws.
The 'Hi-Lo' screw
thread
The 'Hi-Lo
1
has been designed with the above men-
tioned requirements for plastics in mind.
Fig. 13 illustrates the form of the thread, which is
double start, with one thread being a high thread
about 1. 5 times the height of an 'A' type or 'B'
type thread, as shown. The low thread is approxi-
mately 80 per cent of the height of the 'A' type or
'B' type thread.
The 'Hi-Lo' screw provides greater thread engage-
ment than conventional self tapping screws with a
corresponding increase in pull out strength. Fig. 14
illustrates this feature, as well as the increased
volume of material contained between the threads of
the 'Hi-lo' screw. This increased volume of mat-
erial gives both improved pull out strength and
Stripping torque. The
high thread is designed with
a
30 thread angle to minimise radial forces pro-
duced during driving to approximately half the value
found with conventional thread forms. Fig. 15 com-
pares the force diagrams of the two thread forms.
The main purpose of the low thread is to provide
IT-
2P/10 APPROX
AMERICAN NATIONAL MACHINE
SCREW THREAD FORM
(COARSE & FINE)

1 H-P/8 APPROX
AMERICAN NATIONAL SPACED
THREAD FORM
(TYPES 'A' & 'B')
Fig. 13.
APPROX
HI-LO
THREAD (DOUBLE LEAD)
P
- THREAD PITCH
H
- THREAD HEIGHT
T
- THREAD THICKNESS
L
- THREAD LEAD
(ONE REV
.
)
GRIP OF TYPE 'B' THREAD
INCREASED GRIP OF .HI-LO THREAD!
Fig. 14.
Comparison
of contained
material
volume
.
HI-LO
TYPE "B"
I
F
R
1
R
2
I 7

"~^>
f (
^>
^-

"""l
8
'
)\
9
2
r-"^ >
30 -/ \ 60
F
= TOTAL CLAMPING FORCE
R
= RADIAL (BURSTING) FORCE
6 INCLUDED THREAD ANGLE
Fig.
15. Comparative
radial pressures.
HI-LO DRIVE TORQUE^
HI-LO STRIP TORQUE
TYPE B STRIP TORQUE
TYPE BDR1VE TORQUE
\
r + +
0.112 0.120 0.128 0.136 0.144
HOLE SIZE
- INCHES
Fig.16.
stability during the driving of the screw which
otherwise would have a tendency to tilt.
Fig. 16 shows that one important property of the
screw is its low driving torque, and being a two
start thread the speed of application is faster than
with conventional thread forms.
We have seen that the 'Hi-Lo' screw has all the
requirements mentioned as those of a self tapping
screw for plastics and shows improvement over
conventional threads by (a) lower driving toraue,
(b) higher stripping torque, (c) greater pull out
strength in tension and (d) reduced radial pressure.
The Taptite screw
The 'Taptite' screw (Fig. 17) has a tri-lobed thread
structure which enables it to virtually 'roll' a thread
in a prepared hole, compared with the cutting act-
ion of screws of type 'T', 'BT', 'D' or 'Y'.
The principal advantages of 'Taptite' screws are
as a direct result of this forming action, which
gives an uninterrupted grain flow within the mat-
erial, compacting and burnishing a female thread
into close fitting contact with the screw. As a con-
sequence of this, a stronger joint is obtained com-
127
pared with a simple machine screw into a tapped
hole, with the resulting firmness of fit enabling
the joint to resist vibration under which a machine
screw in a mating tapped hole would shake loose.
The higher stripping torque obtained with a 'Tap-
tite' screw can be av.

ibuted to the thread forming
action and the strength of the screw compared
with
machine
screws. Tint; strength emanates from the
case hardening
treatment after manufacture of the
screw, which consists of a controlled treatment to
give a
0. 004-0. 006 in. case and a toughened
core.
Minimum
torsional strength figures for various
sizes are shown in Table 1. Recommended hole
sizes are also shown. The stripping torque to driv-
ing torque ratio with 'Taptite' is considerably
higher
than conventional
types of self tapping screws, and
enables higher tightening
torque figures
to be used,
with more likelihood of correctly tightened
joints.
The performance is increased even more by the use
of extruded holes in Hun sheet metals to give an in-
creased length of thread engagement. The greatest
success
occurs when the material is thinned down
by between 40 and 50 per cent of its basic thickness.
Table. 1 . Taptite, torsional strength values and holt sizes
.
SCREW SIZE MINIMUM
TORSIONAL
MATERIAL
THICKNESS
HOLE SIZE
MILD STEEL ALUMINIUM SHEET
STRENGTH
SHEET (in.) ALUM.
& ZINC DIE
(lb. /in.) (in.)
CASTING (in.)
4-40
16 0.048
0.098 0.098
UNC
0.064 0. 102
0.100
0.125
0. 104
0.102
0.250
-
0.102
6-32
28 0.048
_
0.118
UNC
0.080 0.122
0.122
0.187
0.122
0.122
0.250 0.126
0.126
0.275
-
0.126
8-32
52 0.080 0.146
0.146
UNC 0.187 0.150
0.150
0.250
0.154 0.150
0.375
-
0.154
10-24
70
0.080
0.165 0.165
UNC 0.187 0.173
0.165
0.250 0.177
0.169
0.375
-
0.173
10-32
92 0.080
0.173 0.173
UNF 0.187 0.177
0.173

0.250 0.181
0.177
0.375
-
0.181
i
in . -
20 176 0.125
0.221
0.217
UNC
0.187 0.221
0.221
0.250
0.228 0.221
0.375 0.236
0.228
0.500
0.236 0.228
ft
in.
-
1
8
380 0.125
0.280
0.280
UNC
0.187 0.280
0.280
0.250
0.287
0.284
0.375 0.291
0.287
0.500
0.291
0.287
|
in. - 16
700 0.187 0.343
0.339
UNC
0.250 0.350
0.343
0.375 0.354
0.350
0.500 0.354
0.350
128
Table. 2. Taptite
,
extruded hole diameter (inches).
SCREW SIZE
6-32 UNC
8-32 UNC
10-24 UNC
10-32 UNF
iin.-
20 UNC
ft in.
-
18 UNC
lin.
-
16 UNC
MATERIAL THICKNESS (in.)
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.25 0.31 0.38
0.116 0.117 0.118 0.119 0.122
0.119 0.119 0.121 0.122 0.125
0.142 0.143 0.143 0.144 0.146 0.149
0.145 0.146 0.146 0.147 0.149 0.152
0.160 0.161 0.162 0.163 0.166 0.169
0.164 0.165 0.166 0.167 0.170 0.173
0.167 0.168 0.169 0.170 0.172 0.174
0.170 0.171 0.172 0.173 0.175 0.177
0.215 0.217 0.220 0.222 0.224 0.227 0.229 0.231
0.219 0.221 0.224 0.226 0.228 0.231 0.233 0.235
0.271 0.272 0.275 0.277 0.279 0.281 0.284
0.275 0.276 0.279 0.281 0.283 0.285 0.288
0.332 0.334 0.336 0.337 0.339 0.342 0.345
0.336 0.338 0.340 0.341 0.343 0.346 0.349
Recommended extruded hole sizes are shown in
Table 2. Accumulation of chips which occur with
thread cutting screws is not a problem with the
'Taptite' screw which is consequently ideally suited
for use in blind holes.
The torque characteristics of the screw are impro-
ved by the finish coating which consists of treating
the screw with a dry wax film after plating. The
wax assists in lubrication of the thread surfaces
during driving, thus preventing galling or seizing o
the threads.
The screw is available in many different head styles
and shank lengths.
^SELF DRILLING OR PIERCING SCREWS
The second category of screws to be examined is
that of self drilling or piercing screws, and three
types have been selected for this purpose:
1. "Shakeproof Type 17 screw.
2. 'Spat System' screw.
3. 'Teks' screw.
When considering this category of screws it is of
paramount importance to study the cost of providing
a fastener hole. Basic methods of providing holes
include:
(1)
punching, (2) drilling,
(3)
piercing and
(4) moulding. For the purpose of this Chapter,
punching refers to a hole provided by the use of a
punch and die, whilst piercing is the use of hand
tools to puncture a hole without removing metal.
Punched holes can be very expensive if one con-
siders the cost and maintenance of expensive dies,
but can also be quite inexpensive if many holes are
punched during one pressing operation, especially
if these holes are not distorted by subsequent form-
ing operations .
Drilled holes can be very accurate and clean but
can also be the most expensive method of providing
a hole.
Piercing is generally the most expensive method
of providing a hole because it is not normally auto-
mated. It normally involves the disproportionate
combination of cheap tools (a hammer and awl) and
high labour costs.
Moulded holes
can be provided in die castings or
mouldings of thermoplastic or thermosetting plas-
tics materials, fairly easily and cheaply. Problems
can occur with holes required at angles to the gen-
eral directional layout of the moulding, which neces-
sitates the use of more costly multi opening dies.
Thus, it can be seen that costs of providing holes
vary considerably and studies have shown that in
general it can be stated that the making of fastener
holes in a separate stage of manufacturing is an
expensive operation.
It is here that the self drilling or piercing fastener
comes into its own and should be studied in com-
parison with other fasteners on the very important
basis of installed cost and not. as'is too often the
case, on the basis of actual fastener purchase price.
They completely eliminate the cost of fastener holes.
Type 1 7 screw
The Type 17 self drilling screw consists of the spac-
ed thread with a gimlet point and a sharp, off cen-
tre, slot as illustrated in Fig. 18. It has advant-
Fig.18.
Type 1 7 screw
.
129
Fig. 19. Spat system gun.
ages over other screws when used in wood or plas-
tics, dispensing with the need for pilot holes and
decreasing assembly time.
The Type 17 screw is used for mounting gypsum
board to metal studding for internal wall construc-
tion in modern buildings.
In this application bugle
headed screws are used to sit snugly just below the
outer surface of the board.
The screwdriver used must be provided with a
'depth- setting' clutch which can be set to automatic-
ally cut out when the top of the screw head is driven
to a predetermined distance under the outer surface
of the board.
'Spat System" screw
The 'Spat (self piercing and tapping)
System' has
been fairly recently developed, coupling the use of
a special self piercing and tapping screw with a
special gun. The gun is dual purpose, providing
a high energy impact to pierce the sheet metal with
the point of the screw and then providing
the rota-
tion necessary to drive the screw into the locked
position, at up to 500 rev. /min. It operates off
standard air line pressure of 80 lb. /sq. in. and is
provided with an adjustable
clutch which allows
torque setting for different screw sizes and appli-
cation conditions. Fig. 19 illustrates the gun and
a 'Spat' screw being applied to the kick strap on an
automobile door surround.
The 'Spat' screw is illustrated in Fig. 20 as a coarse
pitch, dual start thread with a special point; the
point consists of four planes meeting at a designed
Fig. 20. Spat
system screw.
m
j
ui
5
a
a
2
SCREW SIZE: NO 8
._. SPAT SYSTEM STRIP-
PING TORQUE
SPAT SYSTEM TIGHT-
ENING TORQUE
'A' TYPE STRIPPING
TORQUE
METAL GAUGE
Fig. 21 . Screw size No. 8.
angle to give the most effective piercing action.
The piercing action produces a plunged hole with
greater effective panel thickness and, as a conse-
quence, 30 per cent greater pull-out strength when
compared with the equivalent
self tapping screw.
With the piercing and tapping action of 'Spat Sys-
tem' screws there is no problem of unwanted swarf
interfering with mechanisms.
The dual start thread gives balanced driving and a
faster screwing action than that experienced with
self tapping screws.
Fewer fasteners or -smaller fasteners can be used
because of the higher strength of 'Spat System'
screws so that "installed cost' is lower. Fig. 21
shows a comparison of a No 8 'Spat System' screw
with a No 8 'A' type self tapping screw. A limitation
of the screw is that It is unsuitable for the thicker
metals because of difficulty with the piercing action.
The 'Spat System' screw is available in a variety of
sizes, lengths and head styles.
1_
S A
L
- SCREW LENGTH
A
-
MIN. THREAO LENG I -I
B
- DRILL POINT LENGTH
D - DRILL POINT DIAML~FR
^
H
Fig. 22. Teks screw.
130
NOTE: THE DRILL POINT MUST CLEAR THE SHEET BEFORE THE
THREAD ENGAGES TO AVOID POINT BREAKDOWN
SCREW
ADVANCES
0.055 IN PER
REVOLUTION
WHEN
THREADED
TOTAL THICKNESS
TO BE DRILLED
THICKNESS OF
SHEET NO 2
DRILL POINT ADVANCES 0.005 IN PER REV WHEN CUTTING
Fig. 23. No.
8-1
8 Teks Fastener.
'Teks' self drilling fasteners
'Teks' is a self drilling screw which possesses a
true drilling action by virtue of its drill point des-
ign, except that, unlike a drill, no compromise is
necessary in its design to give optimum performance
between drill life and speed. With 'Teks', which are
normally required to drill only one hole, optimum
drill speeds are the criterian and consequently the
'Teks' screw drills faster than conventional drills.
Fig. 22 illustrates the general configuration of the
Teks' screw, which can be manufactured in coarse
pitch types of thread as 'A' or 'B' type screws or
in standard machine screw threads of Unified form.
The screws are applied using electric or pneumatic
hand power tools fitted with a standard adjustable
torque limiting clutch device. The most desirable
running speed is between 2000 and 2500 rev. /min.
,
and the average axial pressure applied by the oper-
ator is of the order of 25-30 lb.
In the selection of the correct 'Teks' for any parti-
cular application great care has to be taken to en-
sure that the point length is sufficient to permit
breakthrough of the leading edge of the drill point,
before the thread engages. Fig. 23 illustrates this
clearly; when drilling the screw advances at appro-
ximately 0. 005 in. per revolution and with, for
example, a No 8-18 thread, the screw advances at
0. 055 in. per revolution when the thread starts to
engage. It is obvious that such a rapid advance .and
a chip thickness of 0. 055 in. would cause the point
to burn and the screw to seize up. For this reason
also, 'Teks' cannot be used in blind hole applica-
tions. Once the correct selection has been made no
problems in driving should occur and the total dri-
ving time is normally less than 5 seconds.
'Teks' have been designed so that the stripping or
breaking torque is greatly in excess of the driving
torque for all conditions likely to be met in prac-
-50' BREAKING TORQUE
-45'
STRIPPING TORQUE
PEAK OF THREAD
CUTTING TORQUE'
DRILL POINT
BREAKTHROUGH
KDRIVING START
PEAK OF TIGHTENING
TORQUE
CLUTCHING OUT OF GUN
Fig.24. Teks driving torque profile.
tice. Fig. 24 illustrates the torque values obtained
when driving a No 8 - 18 'Teks' into a 0. 094 in.
thick steel sheet. It can be clearly seen that the
'Teks' gives a large safety margin between the
maximum applied torque and the stripping and break-
ing torque figures.
With the correct point length 'Teks' screws can drill
through steel plate up to iiin. thick; this is a rare
advantage in this type of fastener.
The 'Teks' screw is available in many sizes, lengths,
head styles and finishes with the normal standards
being Nos. 6, 8, 10, 12 and
\
in. with a maximum
panel range of 0.090 in. in the No. 6 and up to
0. 250 in. in the
|
in. size.
The screw offers the advantage of low 'installed-
cost' combined with a good quality high strength
application.
CONCLUSIONS
All the fasteners described in this Chapter are the
optimum under certain conditions: 'A' and 'B'
screws, where the provision of a hole is cheap and
no problems of alignment exist, 'U' type screws,
where holes can be provided in light alloy diecast-
ings, cast iron, brass, plastics and thicker sheet
metals, and thread cutting screws of 'T', 'BT',
'D' or 'Y' type, where low driving torque figures
are required in plastics, diecastings, fibre rein-
forced plastics, etc. The 'Hi-Lo' screw can be
specified for more critical applications, where
very high pull-out loads are required with low driv-
ing torque and bursting stresses, as in softer plas-
tics applications.
The 'Taptite' screw gives considerable strength ad-
vantages compared with machine screws in diecast-
ings and extruded holes.
Finally, the self drilling or piercing generation of
fasteners gives low 'installed- cost' compare with all
other systems, with the 'Spat System
1
showing ad-
vantages in thin metals compared with 'A' type
screws.
The 'Teks' self drilling fastener gives low 'installed-
cost' and can be used in a large variety and thick-
ness of materials.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
G.K.N. Screws & Fasteners, Linread Limited,
ITW Limited, Barber & Colman Limited.
131
18
Screws
-
set
by Dennis Troop and Barbara Shorter (Unbrako Ltd
.
)
.
A set screw is essentially a semi-permanent fasten-
er. Its purpose is to hold a collar, sleeve or gear
on a shaft against torsional or axial forces. In con-
trast to other fastening devices, the set screw is
primarily a compression device. It produces a
strong clamping action which resists relative mo-
tion between assembled parts through the forces
that are developed by the screw point on tightening.
Selection of the proper set screw will depend upon
finding the best combination of form, size and point
style to provide the required holding power.
Basically set screws can be divided into two cate-
gories, by their forms and by the style of point, as
required by British Standards 2470; 4168; 768; 4219
and 451. Basic forms and point types are displayed
in Fig. 1.
Form selection is based upon factors other than
tightening: for instance, the selection of the type
of driver. The square head screw may be tightened
much more, but obviously in many considerations
its protruding head :s a major disadvantage. Other
considerations such as compactness, weight saving,
safety and appearances may dictate the choice of
screw that is used.
SIZE SELECTION
The selection of size will, of course, be determined
by the holding power required. Fig. 2 shows a typi-
Fig.1 . Set screw types and standard points.
STANDARD HEAD FORMS
STANDARD POINTS
i lEXAGON SOCKET SLOTTED HEADLESS
(e) Cup. By far the most widely used. For
quick, permanent location of gears, collars,
and pulleys on shafts, when cutting-in action
of point is not objectionable. Heat-treated
screws of Rockwell C 45 hardness or greater
can be used on shafts with surface hardness
up to Rockwell C 35 without deforming the point.
(f) Flat. Used when frequent resetting of one
machine part in relation to another is required
.
Flat points cause little damage to the part
against which the point bears , so are partic-
ularly suited for use against hardened steel
shafts. Can also be used as adjusting screws
for fine linear adjustments. Here, a flat is
usually ground on the shaft for better point
contact. Also preferred where walls are thin
or threaded member is a soft metal
.
(g)
Cone . Used where permanent location of
parts is required. Because of penetration, it
develops greatest axial and torsional holding
power when it bears against material of Rock-
well C 15 hardness or greater. Usually spotted
in a hole to half its length, so that penetration
(e)
(a)
is deep enough to develop ample shear strength
across cone section
.
(h) Half Dog. Normally applied where perm-
anent location of one part in relation to another
is desired , spotted in a hole drilled in the
shaft . Drilled hole must match the point dia-
meter to prevent side play: holding power is
shear strength of point. Occasionally used in
place of dowels, and where end of thread must
be protected . Recommended for use with
hardened members and on hollow tubing
,
pro-
vided some locking device holds screw in place.
(i) Oval. Used when frequent adjustment is
necessary without excessive deformation of
part against which it bears . Also used for
seating against angular surfaces. Circular
U-grooves or axial V-grooves are sometimes
provided in the shaft :o allow rotational or
longitudinal adjustment. In other applications,
shaft is spotted to receive the point. However,
has the lowest axial or torsional holding power.
(j)
Full Dog. Same as half dog except for a
longer point.
132
FASTENINGS
Macnays of Middlesbrough
have in stock the widest
selection of Bolts, Set-
screws, Machine Screws,
Socket Screws, Nuts and
Studs in the United King-
dom, including new I.S.O.
metric standards. Delivery
from Stock can save Capital
Outlay, Storage Space,
Handling Costs and Spot
Losses. Free weekly deliv-
eries throughout the
country.
MACNAYS
Send for the "Guide to
Stock Range and Spec-
ifications" booklet to:

MACNAYS LTD
48-50 West Street
Middlesbrough
Teesside
Tel : Midd lesbrough 48144
Spring Lock
Washers
Standards Ex Stock We offer immediate service to
stockists and users. All types and materials available.
Specials As the largest U.K. manufacturer, we have
unrivalled experience in the design and production of
special purpose Spring Lock Washers for any application.
And don't forget Morlock for Brazing Preforms, Snap
Rings, Crinkle Washers, Disc Springs and all types of
Light Spring Presswork.
Write for full technical information and a list of Lock
Washer Stockists to:-
MORLOCK
Morlock Industries Limited
P.O. Box 2, Wombourn, Nr Wolverhampton, Staffs.
Telephone : Wombourn 2431
-4 Telex :
33276
133
Fig. 2. Shaft
and collar as-
sembly shows
forces devel-
oped in typical
set-screw in-
stallation.
cal shaft and collar assembly in which force F de-
veloped by the cup-face on the shaft, due to tighten-
ing, produces an equal reaction, force F,. This
clamping action results in two frictional forces.
One occurs between the shaft and collar (F
?
) and
the other between the shaft and point. These forces
provide most of the resistance to relative axial and
torsional movement of parts.
Some additional resistance is contributed by point
penetration. Cup point and cone point set screws
are used without a spotting hole. In these cases
they penetrate the shaft more than oval point of flat
point set screws because of their small face area.
The total static holding power of the cup point set
screw as shown in Fig. 2 is a function of the two
friction forces and the point penetration resistance,
and can be used as a single effective force acting
tangentially at the surface of the shaft. The magni-
tude of the single force equals the axial holding pow-
er of the set screw, or the resistance of the assem-
bly to relative movement along the longitudinal axis
of the shaft. Torsional holding power is determined
by multiplying the axial holding power by shaft rad-
ius. Axial holding power is generally specified as
a tangential force in lb. , since design considera-
tions may cause different sizes of shaft to be used
with a particular size of set screw.
In selecting a particular hollow set screw, engin-
eers are often guided by an old rule: set screw dia-
meter should be roughly equal to half the shaft dia-
meter. While the old rule is not without merit, its
range of usefulness is- limited. Table 1 has been
developed from experimental data and can be used
as a more scientific guide to size selection.
The holding powers, as indicated in Table 1, are
ultimate strength and should be coupled with spe-
cific safety factors appropriate to the given appli-
cation and load conditions. A safety factor of 1. 5
to 2. under static load conditions and 4. to 8.0
under various dynamic situations should bring good
results.
Table 1 was developed for a specific set screw form
and point style, but these values can be modified
by percentage factors to provide design data for
almost any other form and point style.
There are a number of other considerations involv-
ed in selecting the optimum set screw size for any
requirement.
These will include seating torque,
point style, relative hardness, flat on shaft, length
of thread engagement, thread type, type of driver,
number of set screws and plating.
Each of these factors are analysed below:
Seating torque
Extensive tests have shown that torsional holding
power is almost directly proportional to the seat-
ing torques of cup, flat and oval point set screws.
The graph in Fig. 3 shows a typical plot of this
characteristic. An increase of 50 per cent in the
seating torque will also increase the holding power
of the set screw by 50 per cent, obviously within
the strength limits of the assembly. For example,
the torsional holding power of a one inch diameter
set screw seated at 7000 lb. in. , on a one inch shaft,
as shown in Table 1, would be 3500 lb. in. , or one
half of the tabulated value.
Point style
A hollow set screw point is capable of contributing
as much as 15 per cent of the total holding power
which it accomplishes by its penetration. A cone
point set screw, which contains neither a spotting
hole nor a pre-drilled hole in the shaft, gives the
greatest increase in holding power because of its
deeper penetration. The oval point, because of its
lesser contact area, gives the smaller increase.
At the index where the cup point is taken as one,
the holding power values from Table 1 should be
multiplied by 1. 07 for cone point. It would be mul-
tiplied by 0. 92 for dog points or flat points, and by
0. 90 for oval points. These values assume the point
of the screw is not specially reset into the shaft
and that the penetration is the sole result of tighten-
ing. A dog point, for example, seated in a hole
drilled in a shaft acts only as a pin. In this case
the holding power must be determined by the shear
strength of the screw material.
Relative hardness
In some cases, hardness will be an important fac-
tor in set screw selection. An example is when
there is less than 10 Rockwell C-scale points dif-
ference between the set screw point and the shaf-
Fig.3. Torsional holding power is almost direc-
tly proportional to tightening torque. Set screw
used to obtain plot was ,-| in. knurled cup-point
type seated in one inch diameter shaft with hard-
ness Rockwell C-15.
2
28 SO 100
160 26
SCREW ShATING TORQUE (LB-IN)
134
0)
t
c
c
10
co
V
in
6
CO
(1)
i
i-
10
I
a
1
0)
s_
0)
EL
Dl
C
6
I
8
.
o
h
t
O O Q
Q O 5
o o_ o_
CO o t
O O
88
co o
-**
co
7,000 8,750
12,250
o o
o IO
5 l>
I-- CO
CO
4,500 6,000 7,500
10,500
4,500 6,000 7,500
CM
3,125 3,750 5,000 6,250 8,750
3,750 5,000 6,250
CM
1
,500
2,000 2,500 3,000 4,000 5,000 7,000
1
,500
2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000
<*
1
,310
1
,750
2,210 2,620 3,500 4,375 6,120
o o o o m
1-
10 CM O I
s-
ei r-- co_ in co
i- i- CM CO *t
o
10
oioowoooo
inCMQNIOQiniO
r--T-iOC0CMONCM
A * at n * A
t- t- i- CM CO CO 10
750
1
,125
1
,500
2,250 3,000 3,750
H*
r~-
in
O CM
CO (0
MONOOfflOOIC
ocmcoiocqi^qcmn
COCDOICMIOCOIOy-CO
t- y- t- CM CO ^f
307 625
937.
1
,250
1
,875
2,500 3,125

CO o
<* o
cm
m
246 500 750
1
,000
1
,250
1
,500
2,000 2,500 3,500
173 246 500 750
1
,000
1
,500
2,000 2,500
r*
Mil S
CD i- CO
CM ^
215 437 656 875
1
,095
1
,310
1,750 2,190
97
151 215 437 656 875
1
,310
1
,750
2,190
f t m
CO CO 1".
r- CO
d-iooior-iooin
cor-co.mcocMOr-
r-C9iOt~-0>i-IOC0
'tO'fiowoiooin
COCOCOMOIOWON
-T-p]iONt-mQ)
*
T- T T-
C
1
*
'
t
a.
Q)
u
0) >fr CM
CO 10 -
7-
CO
CO^-CMCOIOOr-Q
lOLOT-cDCMCocoin
7-
CO * 10 S 01 CM
69
108 154 312 468 625 937
1
,250
3)

*
CM CO
y-
CO CO CO
- CM
O CO f- - CM CM CO
lO CO CO CM CO o
jf
t- CIJ * 10 N 10
cm r~
co
7-
t- cm co
CD 01 CO CO CM CD T
r CM <t
lO CO
Q
u
u
d
o m co o
10
CM
10
CM 7- CM
co
^t co o m o m o

cm
io
r- o cm in
^t
r-
cu co in co r~
oiococoomoo

io co cm in n o
m
CM
*- CM co m I--
co
en -is
28.0 48.9
107 218
CO S CO N N m

O r-CJ co
t
CO i- CM CO 'T 10
co
O 01 CO I*
CO N h-

S
Oi- Ul CO
CO CO - CM CO "T
CM <tf
(M
16.0 24.0
41
.8
92
187
K>
SJ 2 P

oi co co r-
CO
7- CM CO
O co io cm r-- O
io
co oi co co r-
* i- - cm co
CM "t
IS
13.2 20.0 34.7
76
156
S CO (D f

r~
in co
I-- r- CM
CM
o r-
"* CD CD t
in
n
in co
o *t a
CM CO
-*
CO O CO CM
ID
CO CM
o co c- i-
r-
7-
CM
CM cm m

CO CM
CM
r-
CM
O CD CM cm m
...
CO CM
CD N CO r-
r- CM
*
H9
9.3
14.0 24.0
54
10
0)
14.0 24.0 37.8
54
"IS
8.0
12.0 20.4 46.4
CD t
ii
12.0 20.4 32.4 46.4
"IS 6.6
10.0 16.9
01
CO
10.0 16.9 27.0
-
CO o
id co
q
q
CO
"IS
O
q
<*
CO
o

CD
-e
CD
CM
CO CO 't CM Q
'va
C C C C C C
cccccccccc
5
t
m
1
55 z
*>
|S
-+ "IS "HS-*'"*
,(** ^"
M's^a
pub
-d
#
s'a
o
"
^ICDcOT--+"
l
^s
n'o -'N "*a,*
dodo
Z Z Z Z
_j-
N
pue
"O'N
135
30
4b
SHAFT
HARDNESS (ROCKWELL C)
Fig. 4. Considerable
loss in holding power is
experienced when the difference
in hardness
between shaft and screw is less than 10 Rock-
well C points. Set screw used to obtain plot
was ,-$ in. knurled cup-point type seated with
165 lb. in. against one inch diameter shaft with
hardness
as indicated
.
ting. The graph in Fig. 4 shows a typical plot. As
illustrated, there is a slight gradual decrease in
holding power, actually about 6 per cent with in-
creasing shaft hardness
up to 10 Rockwell points
below the hardness of the screw (Rockwell C 50).
At that point a loss of about 15 per cent holding
power is experienced. This 15 per cent loss re-
presents the amount of holding power contributed
by penetration of the point. Consequently, because
the hardness affects the ability of the screw to pen-
etrate, the lack of holding power is a function of
lack of penetration.
Fig. 4 is based upon a relatively hard Rockwell
C
50 screw point. Here the 10 Rockwell point differ-
ential can be applied generally. From this we ob-
serve that a screw hardness of Rockwell C 45, a
15-20 per cent loss in holding power should be ex-
pected if the shaft hardness is Rockwell
C 35 or
greater.
Flat on shaft
Only about 6 per cent more torsional holding power
can be expected when the screw seats on a flat sur-
face. Flatting does little to prevent the 0. 01 in.
relative movement which is ordinarily considered
as a criterion of failure. The axial holding power
will be the same.
Length of thread engagement
Assuming that there is sufficient engagement to
prevent stripping in the tightening process, the
length of thread engagement has no noticeable effect
on axial and torsional holding power. The length
of engagement depends upon such factors as the
amount of applied load, the type of material, type
of thread and screw diameter. In most uses, the
minimum length of engagement recommended is
the diameter of the set screw itself.
Ordinarily this will permit the development of re-
commended seating torques without danger of thread
stripping. The tabulated values for seating torque
were developed with the assumption that the engage-
ment length was long enough to prevent stripping.
Thread type
Experimental
work indicates that there is no differ-
ence in the performance of coarse and fine
s
threads
of the same class of fit. Consequently the values
tabulated in Table 1 apply to either thread type.
Type of driver
The values tabulated in Table 1 are for socket type
set screws. However, they apply equally well to
slotted and square head set screws provided the
indicated seating torque is developed. Whilst the
shape of the driver itself has no direct bearing on
the holding power, it does have an effect on the
amount of seating torque which can be attained.
For the slotted set screw, the maximum seating
torque is that which can be developed by a screw
driver. Deformation of the screw slot occurs at
a torque value much less than a torque which would
strip the threads.
The maximum torque which can be applied tq sock-
et or spline-head set screws is also lower than
that which would strip the threads, but it is higher
than that which can be developed by the driver.
Consequently the torque which can be applied, is
a function of the driver. Conversely square head
set screws can be tightened with a wrench until the
threads strip or the screw fails in torsional shear.
Table 2 lists typical recommended installation tor-
ques for square head set screws.
Number of set screws
Two set screws will give more holding power than
one, but not necessarily twice as much. The hold-
ing power is approximately doubled when the sec-
ond screw is installed in an axial line with the first.
It is only about 30 per cent greater when the screws
are diametrically opposed. The tabulated torsional
and/or axial holding powers (Table 2) can be mul-
tiplied by from 1. 30 r.o
2. 00 depending upon the
angle between the two screws. The graph in Fig. 5
shows how much to compensate for any angle bet-
ween. When the design calls for the two screws
to be installed on the same circumferential line,
an optimum displacement of
60
is recommended
as the best compromise between maximum holding
power and minimum metal between tapped holes.
This displacement gives 1. 75 times the holding
power of one screw alone.
"able 2
.
Recommended Tightening
Screw Size
Torques
lb. /in
i 212
1 420
1
828
ft 1 ,344
i
2,100
i
4,248
i
7,704
Recommended tightening torque for square head.
SCKS-^S . (Dfi)
Fig. 5. Angle between two set screws has a
straight-line effect on torsional holding power.
Plating
A soft plating, such as cadmium or zinc, will in-
crease the holding power by 5 to 10 per cent for
the same tightening torque. The plating acts as a
lubricant and less of the applied tightening energy
is dissipated in friction at the mating threads. A
comparable increase can be achieved by plating
the female tapped member or by using a thread
lubricant.
Set screws can also be plated purely for anti- cor-
rosion purposes or for decoration.
SCREW RETENTION
There is a significant difference in the perform-
ance of set screws and a nut and bolt assembly,
based upon their different functions. When a set
screw point disengages, the parts it has fastened
will normally separate. The nut and bolt assembly
will hold parts together for some time in spite of
becoming loose. The dog point set screw seated in
a drilled hole will hold parts together, but even
here failure will follow rapidly after initial loosen-
ing. Seating torque is essential to secure retention
of the set screw.
Referring again to Fig. 2, the shaft and collar as-
sembly, as the screw is tightened, the pressure on
the point forces the screw back against the flanks
of the thread in the tapped hole, where friction is
developed. It is this friction, plus the friction at
the point of contact of the screw and the shaft, that
hold the screw in place. The cup point is highly
efficient because of high point -to -surface friction.
A number of screw designs have special locking
features such as ratchet -like teeth on the face of
the point surface (knurled).
The diameter of the set screw is also a consider-
ation in developing vibrational holding power. How-
ever, it is difficult to develop an efficient quantitive
analysis of the set screw's capabilities in this re-
spect. Frequently a size or two larger set screw,
or an additional locking feature may be the solution
in applications where other means have failed to
develop satisfactory vibrational holding power. The
larger screw permits higher seating torque and
consequently develops greater clamping forces and
higher resistance to loosening.
MATERIALS
The statements in this Chapter apply to screws
made from alloy steel, but set screws are also ob-
tainable in many other materials, including stain-
less steel or brass.
PRICING
The pricing of set screws is based on the same
variety of considerations - design features, tooling
costs, the number of operations to completion
-
the
same factors that govern the pricing of any compo-
nent. Prices are usually quoted per 100. As an
indication small sizes of hexagon socket set screws
such as 8 BA have a basic price of 25s. per 100,
5
in. diameter are priced 20s. per 100 and
f
in.
diameter axe priced 50s. per 100. Very large
sizes, one inch diameter, are priced between 350s.
and 550s. per 100. Quantity of course, plays a
considerable part in the pricing of set screws, and
for this reason a system of quantity and single type
discounts is often employed. For example, socket
and set screws of %
in. diameter and smaller may
be subject to discounts ranging from 5 per cent
to 20 per cent and more, for ordered quantities
from 5000 to 99, 000 and more.
Order quantities and specials
If a customer orders direct from the manufacturers
normally a quantity of 10, 000 would be the likely
minimum economical quantity. However, set
screws, like other fasteners, are available from
engineers' suppliers who are geared up to supply
any quantity from a few off to thousands.
A minimum order for a special may be considered
at 250, but a customer would find that a more econ-
omical order number would be for 1000. For ex-
ample, one small special set screw
(\
in. BSW
x
i
in. ) would be priced 507s. 6d. per 100 for one
hundred only, 181s. a hundred for 500 quantity and
101s. a hundred for 1000 quantity.
137
19
Screws -wood
by J.M. Humphrey, C.Eng. .M.I.Mech.E. (G.K.N. Screws & Fasteners Ltd.)
Basically, there are two types of wood screw: the
conventional wood screw and the wood screw thread-
ed to head.
1. The conventional wood scre.w has a head, a
length of plain shank and a threaded portion term-
inating in a gimlet point (Fig. la). The thread form
and gimlet point have been developed over the years
to give good holding power and easy entry when
driven into wood. At least 60 per cent of the over-
all length of the wood screw is threaded, the plain
shank, between thread and head, acting as a dowel
in the wood when attaching thin components.
2. The wood screw, threaded to head, can have
either a single or two start thread running the full
length of the screw from the head and terminating
in a gimlet point (Fig. lb). Screws over one inch
long may have a relieved shank, i.e. the diameter
of shank is less than the outside diameter of the
thread but is greater than the core diameter.
The above types of wood screw are available in
three head styles: countersunk, round and raised
countersunk.
Wood screws are driven by engaging a driver in
the slot, or recess, in the screw head. The re-
cessed head wood screw, as mentioned in BS1210
'Specification for wood screws', offers many ad-
vantages over its slotted counterpart when driven
using either hand, spiral ratchet or power drivers.
MAIN ADVANTAGES
Wood screws are superior to nails and staples
where firm joints, between wood and wood, are
required and for attaching metal components, e.g.
hinges, brackets, latches, locks, decorative trim,
etc. , to wood.
Wood screws can be removed, and re-tightened,
if subsequent adjustment to the assembly is neces-
sary. Any adjustment is not possible in the case
of nailed joints particularly if the nails or staples
have been clinched. Unclinched nails and staples
can be subsequently removed but not without caus-
ing damage to the surface around the head of the
fixing.
The wood screw thread, as the screw head is rotat-
ed, draws the wood screw down into the wood and
creates a clamping force between the surface of
the wood and the screw head which, assisted by
friction between the mating surfaces of the com-
ponent and the wood, really grips the attachment.
Wood screws can carry higher axial loads, i. e.
loads tending to withdraw the screw from the wood,
than nails of a similar diameter inserted at right
angles to the wood grain.
Basic resistance to withdrawal in soft woods of:
10 sg. (0. 192 in. dia. ) wood screw
=
80 lb. per
inch of thread penetration
6 swg. (0. 192 in. dia.
)
round nail
=
25 lb. per inch
of penetration
6 swg. (0. 192 in. dia. ) ringed-shank nail
=
37 lb.
per inch of penetration
Note. When large changes in moisture content,
after nailing, are expected the loads quoted for
nails must be divided by four.
If loads in single shear have to be carried then the
length of nail required is much longer, diameter
for diameter, than the length of the wood screw
required, i. e. 10 sg. wood screw requires a pen-
etration depth of II in. and the 6 swg. round nail
a penetration depth of 2j in.
If glued joints are required in an assembly, e.g.
fixing plywood sheet to a wood framework, then
wood screws, because of their clamping action,
will pull the mating glued surfaces together and
a stronger joint will be obtained than if the glued
joints were nailed only. Wood screws are partic-
ularly useful, where glued joints are required, for
supplying temporary joint strength whilst an art-
icle, under construction, is proceeding through a
sequence of operations, since the glued joint itself
might take 24 hours to set or cure.
Wood screws are generally used in high class join-
ery and cabinet work, nails are primarily used in
heavy construction and rough work, e.g. fences,
sheds, pallets, roof structures, etc.
138
Wood screws are preferable to nails for vehicle
body or caravan construction when the framework
is liable to flex or bend in use.
MAIN
DISADVANTAGES
Wood screws cost more than nails or staples and
are more costly to apply.
TYPICAL
APPLICATIONS
The three basic head styles on wood screws have
particular uses:
The countersunk head wood screw (Fig. 2a) is prim-
arily used for fixing wood to wood and for fastening
metal to wood. The countersunk head is drawn, as
the screw is tightened, directly into the surface of
the wood attachment, if soft, or into pre-drilled
countersunk clearance holes, if the wood is hard
or the attachment is metal. This leaves the surface
of the attachment, or fixture, completely smooth,
e. g.
the inside faces on the leaves of a butt hinge
are free to close up flush with one another. The
countersunk head wood screw is the most commonly
used of the three head styles.
The round head wood screw (Fig. 2b) is primarily
for fixing metal components to wood, e. g.
metal
shelf brackets, gate latches and rough ironmongery
possessing punched clearance holes only.
The raised countersunk head wood screw (Fig. 2c)
is used for fixing costly attachments to wood and
which, from time to time, have to be removed for
adjustment or repair, e.g. wood strips retaining
glass panelling, wood panelling and high class
architectural ironmongery.
The screwdriver blade, engaging in the slot of a
raised countersunk head does not come into contact
with the expensively finished surface on the fixture
when the screw is finally tightened. These screws
can also, of course, be removed without causing
any damage to the surface close to the screw head.
If these screws are to be removed regularly to re-
lease a wood attachment, e. g.
ammunition box lids,
wooden access panels, etc.
,
then to ensure protec-
tion for the wood itself, as distinct from its sur-
face, screw cups should be let into the surface or,
alternatively, surface screw cups can be used.
Other head styles which have particular uses are:
Clutch head wood screw (Fig. 3a). This head style,
since it is non-removable, is thief proof. When
driving these wood screws into wood, i. e. turning
the screws in a clock-wise direction, the screw-
driver blade makes contact with the walls in the
slot. However, the wood screws cannot be un-
screwed, i. e. turned anti- clockwise, as the slot
walls have been removed.
Note. Test the application with a conventional head
first before attempting to drive the clutch head
wood screw!
Laying-in screw (Fig .3b). These screws are de-
signed to receive a moulded, or cast head, e.
g.
cast door knobs and screws with special decorative
heads usually brass or cast iron.
Headless screw (Fig.3c). The shank of the screw
can act as a moving part, or stop, in a mating slot
machined in a wood component.
Mirror screw (Fig. 3d). The chromium plated
brass dome top, screws into a tapped hole in the
top of a countersunk head wood screw.
Plastidome tops and retaining washers (Fig .3e)
.
These moulded plastics tops provide a decorative,
or protective, cap for use with wood screws and
are available in various colours.
Recessed head wood screws
The recess wood screw (Fig. 4), as mentioned in
BS1210, offers many advantages over its slotted
counterpart.
Am
=8#
4
Fig. 4.
The resulting benefits are:
1. Minimum damage to recess during driving,
which facilitates full tightening and lessens the
.
hazard of loose screws in an assembly. Higher
torques can be applied and tighter joints obtained
than with traditional slotted head screws.
2.
Reduced damage to work surfaces since the
driver will not slip out accidentally and damage
expensive finishes as present in top- grade architec-
tural ironmongery and pre-finished wood surfaces.
139
3. Reduced operator fatigue because negligible
end-load is required to keep the driver in the re-
cess.
4. The fit of recess drivers makes for easier
alignment and greater control in driving the screws
in near inaccessible positions; the screw and driv-
er behave as a single tool. Once the screw is pos-
itioned on the driver only one hand is required to
drive the screw home. The remaining hand is then
freed to hold the components being assembled or
to maintain the operator's balance if standing on a
ladder or scaffolding. Again, this is not possible
with the driver blade and slot combination.
WOOD SCREWS
-
CONVENTIONAL
THREAD
The general applications of this type of wood screw
have been discussed under the uses of its different
head styles.
of stops and starts
,
have also to overcome
static
friction,
i. e. the resistance to start the screw
moving.
Pilot holes and thread
lubrication
are
therefore more often
required when screws are
hand driven.
Conventional
wood screws
used with Fibre or plas-
tics wall plugs
The plain shank
on a wood screw should
never enter
the wall plug. Obviously, if one attempts
to bury
the shank of the wood screw into a wall plug, since
there is not the available space between the shank
and drilled
hole for ihe plug to expand,
the wood
screw will sieze or lock and further
turning will
break the wood screw at the thread shank junction.
Therefore, where there is a surplus length of shank
of the screw after passing through the article to be
fixed and which would otherwise enter the wall plug,
the latter should be sunk that much below the sur-
face.
Experience over the years has shown that the fol-
lowing summary of conditions contributes to opti-
mum wood screw performance.
Pilot hole size
In soft woods the diameter of the pilot hole is im-
portant and should be approximately 70 per cent
of the core diameter of the screw.
In hard woods the diameter of the pilot hole should
be about 90 per cent of the core diameter of the
screw.
Lubrication
Lubrication such as soap, tallow, beeswax or lano-
lin may be used, when necessary, for easy inser-
tion of the wood screw without any great loss in
holding power.
Holding power
For screws subjected to lateral loads the screw
thread penetration depth should never be less than
four diameters and should preferably be equivalent
to seven times the screw shank diameter. Wood
screws should never be loaded in tension, tending
to cause withdrawal, if driven into the end grain
of timber.
Design of timber structures
The permissible loadings on wood screws in hard
and soft timbers, their correct spacings, etc. , are
fully covered in the British Standard Code of Prac-
tice CP112:1967 'The structural use of timber'.
Power-driving wood screw into timber
It is possible to drive wood screws with power
tools into timber which, if they were hand driven,
would break; power driven screws have only to
overcome prevailing frictional resistance. Hand
driven screws, since they are driven in a series
WOOD
SCREWS -
THREADED TO HEAD
The most popular type of screw in this range has
a two start thread with parallel core diameter ter-
minating in a gimlet point. The screw is partic-
ularly suitable for use in low density chipboard,
block board and soft woods.
These screws can be driven home in half the time.
Splitting of the wood or board is minimised;
the
core
diameter/outside diameter possessing paral-
lel contours except, of course, the gimlet point.
The gimlet point functions like a drill point in that
there are two diametrically opposed
threads engag-
ing in wood, at the commencement
of entry, which
give symmetrical loading
conditions. In fact, these
screws can be driven without the assistance of pilot
holes straight into soft woods at
60
to the surface.
There are two types of two start threaded wood
screws; the shorter screws which are threaded to
head and the longer ones, over

in. long, which
are threaded at least 75 per cent of their overall
length (Fig. 5). The latter have a relieved shank,
the diameter of which is less than the outside dia-
meter of the thread, between the thread and head.
The screws which are threaded to head are partic-
ularly suitable for fixing thin attachments to chip-
board. They offer 25 per cent greater holding
power, because of the extra threaded length, than
the equivalent conventional wood screw. This in-
crease can be even greater in sandwich type chip-
boards when the extra threads beneath the head can
140
Table 1 . Availability of wood screws.
Material
Relevant
Specifications
Recess
or Slot
Head
Style
Range of
Gauges
Range of lengths
according to
diameter
Conventional Wood Screws
s.g.
in.
Steel
BS1210
Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
0-20
0-14
2-12
i
-6
*
-3*
6
-2
Steel
BS1210
Recess Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
3-14
3-12
3-10
i
-
34
I
-2
i
-2
Brass
BS1210
Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
0-20
1 - 16
2-12
4
-4
4-3
i
-
24
Brass
BS1210 Recess
Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
3-12
3-8
4-8
1
-2
i
-
14
1
-
14
Stainless Steel
18/8 Austenitic
BS970 EN 58 Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
2-18
2-14
2-16
i
-
4
1
-3
i-24
Stainless Steel
18/8 Austenitic
BS970 EN 58 Recess Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
4-12
4-12
4-10
4-2
4-2
4 -14
Aluminium Alloy BS1473 HB 15 Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
3-12
4-12
4-10
1
-3
4-14
4-14
Aluminium Alloy BS1473 HB 15 Recess
Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
Made to order
Silicon Bronze BS2873 CS 101 Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
4-20
5-18
4-8
4
-5
i
-2
J
-
14
Monel 500
(Trade name
-
Henry Wiggin & Co.
Ltd.)
BS3075
Slot Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
Msde to order
Wood Screws threaced to head
Steel
Recess Csk.
Round
Rsd. Csk.
4-14
4-10
4-10
8-24
i
-2
1
-2
engage in the denser layer of wood chips near the
board's surface. In this type of application it is
possible to replace conventional wood screws with
shorter wood screws possessing two start threads.
The longer screw, with the relieved shank, can be
driven more deeply into thin sections of soft wood,
or the edge of chipboard, than conventional screws
of the same size, before splitting occurs.
However, screws driven into the edge of chipboard,
or into wood end grain, should the necessity arise,
may
require pilot holes so that long screws may
be used without causing splitting.
Pilot holes in chipboard should be between 60 and
90 per cent of the thread core diameter dependent
upon board density. The larger pilot hole is neces-
sary if mimimum disruption of the surface layer
of wood chips is essential; all screws inserted
without pre-drilled pilot holes, tend to lift the sur-
face chips, and disrupt those beneath, so causing
a loss in holding power.
Wood screws threaded to head do not require double
drilling for shank and thread as does the conven-
tional wood screw, when fixing thin attachments to
laminated chipboards.
However, these wood screws require a clearance
hole in the attachment to ensure that the attachment,
on final tightening, is pulled down on to the surface
into which the screw is driven. Otherwise, the
head will pull down and lock against the thread form
generated in the attachments.
141
Table 2 .
Steel wood screws
Reference
note Nos.
Relevant
British
Standards
Protective
and
1
1
BS1706
BS1706
BS1224
BS1224
decorative finishes
Bright zinc plated
(electro galvanised)
Bright cadmium
plated
Nickel plated (bright
or dull)
Nickel chromium
plated
Decorative finishes
2
2
2 & 3
4
BS729
Copper plated
Brass plated
Bronzed
Blued
Japanned
Berlin blacked
Sherardised
Brass screws
BS1224
BS1224
decorative finishes
Nickel-chromium
plated
Nickel plated (dull
or bright)
Decorative finishes
2 & 3
Bronzed
Aluminium wood
2
BS1615
screws
Protective finishes
Anodised and
lanolin dipped

Protective and
2 BS1615
BS1615
decorative finishes
Anodissd and dyed
(colour anodised)
Bright anodised
Note 1 The protective value of zinc and cadmium
and their receptivity for paint or lacquer
can be increased by supplementary
pas-
sivation treatment.
Note 2 The durability of appearance and protec-
tion of many finishes can be improved by
application of lacquer or wax.
Note 3 'Bronzed' covers many decorative finish-
es applied to brass or copper plated sui

faces, e.g. florentine; bronze metal


antique; copper oxidised; steel bronzed;
antique coppered; antique brassed . Cor-
rosion resistance can be conferred by
specifying an adequate coating before
bronzing
.
Note 4 Sherardised screws tend to develop
a
rusty colour and stain if not painted prior
to weathering.
Wood screws, threaded to head, are particularly
suitable, when used in conjunction with plastics or
fibre wall plugs, for fixing
attachments to glazed
tiling in bathrooms; the plugs can grip into the tile,
as well as the brickwork beyond, without tending
to burst the tile when the screw is driven home.
MATERIAL,
SELECTION AND
SPECIFICATION
Wood screw materials
The range of sizes and gauges available in various
materials is listed in Table 1.
Selecting the correct material
The material selection is primarily based on a
choice bearing in mind the corrosion aspects of
the application, and the physical and chemical pro-
perties of the material from which the attachment
is made, the physical strength of the wood screw
being much stronger than the wood into which it
is driven. However, wood screws, threaded to
head, are generally available in steel only.
Selecting the correct
finish
The selection of wood screws for particular appli-
cations should be based upon the 'in-place
1
cost.
The fastener may cost more initially, but costly
replacement action, due to rusting, for instance,
will be eliminated. The quality of plated coating
depends largely upon the thickness of the deposit
but one should be careful to discriminate between
protective and decorative finishes, e.g. chrom-
ium plated brass screws are corrosion resistant
whilst bronzed steel screws are decorative only.
Protective finishes for wood screws are listed in
Table 2.
PRICES
These are dependent upon the type and size of the
screw and material. To keep costs down it is bet-
ter to select wood screws which are classified as
'preferred sizes', these are much cheaper than
the 'non-preferred sizes'. BS1210 lists the cate-
gory of each size and type of wood screw.
FUTURE TRENDS
The recessed head wood screw will, according to
current trends, gradually supersede the slotted
head wood screw.
Metrication will not directly affect wood screws in
the forseeable future, since they are already ac-
cepted internationally. Metric conversion tables in
BS1210 show the range of wood screws available
both in inch and metric units.
142
Table 3 . Principal dimensions of wood screws .
SLOTTED HEADS V __j
.^C
B
90 A
l\\V\%'
V\A\
COUNTERSUNK HEAD
RECESS HEADS
90
I
A
l\v\\n\M\\v\ii
COUNTERSUNK HEAD
If*
ROUND HEAD
RAISED HEAD
ROUND HEAD
Nom. Size Number of
Threads
per inch
Countersunk & Raised Heads Round Heads Slot Width Recess
&
Driver
Number
A B C D E H
S.G. Dec.
Max. Max. Approx. Max. Max. Min.
0.060 30 0.120 0.035 0.O20 0.116 0.045 0.016
-
1 0.070 28 0.140 0.041 0.O23 0.140 0.053 0.021
-
2 0.082 26 0.164 0.048 0.O27 0.164 0.062 0.026
-
3 0.094 24 0.188 0.055 0.031 0.189 0.071 0.030 1
4 0.108 22 0.216 0.064 0.036 0.215 0.081 0.032 1
5 0.122 20 0.244 0.073 0.O41 0.241 0.090 0.035 2
6 0.136 18 0.272 0.082 0.O45 0.267 0.100 0.040 2
7 0.150 16 0.300 0.091 0.O50 0.293 0.109 0.040 2
8 0.164 14 0.328 0.100 0.O55 0.319 0.118 0.045 2
9 0.178 12 0.356 0.109 0.059 0.345 0.127 0.045 2
10 0.192 12 0.384 0.117 0.064 0.372 0.136 0.050 2
12 0.220 10 0.440 0.135 0.073 0.424 0.154 0.055 3
14 0.248 9 0.496 0.153 0.O83 0.476 0.171 0.065 3
16 0.276 8 0.524 0.170 0.092 0.529 0.190 0.065 3
18 0.304 V4 0.608 0.188 0.101 0.580 0.207 0.075
-
20 0.332 7 0.664 0.205 0.111 0.632 0.226 0.075
-
24 0.388 6 0.776 0.241 0.129 0.743 0.265 0.085
-
28 0.444 5% 0.888 0.276
- - -
0.095
-
32 .500 5 1 .000 0.310

0.095
-
143
20
Spring
steel fasteners
by H.D. Browne (Firth Cleveland Ltd.)
Spring steel fasteners were originally developed
in the United States in the early twenties. The in-
ventor was A. H. Tinnerman, President of a corp-
oration which pioneered the development of sheet
metal cookers. Problems associated with the in-
troduction of vitreous enamelled sheet metal fabri-
cation gave rise to the invention of the first spring
steel nut, which they called the 'Speed Nut' (Fig. 1).
These arched spring steel nuts gave the necessary
resilience to prevent cracking of the vitreous enam-
elled panels during transit and yet locked the screw
under firm spring tension. Ordinary nuts had to be
tightened very securely to ensure that they remain-
ed locked, whereas the new spring steel nuts ach-
ieved their locked position at a much lower tighten-
ing torque.
This principle is still used today in speed nuts
manufactured in Great Britain under Tinnerman's
licence and extensively employed in a wide variety
of industries. Many other variants of the range
are now available but they all employ a similar
principle to that invented by Tinnerman.
In spite of the success of spring steel fasteners in
the United States it was not until after the war that
they became available in the UK, although they
were manufactured in a small way, mainly for spec-
ific military applications, during the war.
MATERIALS
Spring steel fasteners are usually made from close
annealed carbon steel strip and after being formed
they are heat treated
-
hardened and tempered -
to
give them their characteristic resilience and tough-
ness. The hardness figure varies, being adjusted
within a range which will suit the duty of the partic-
ARCHEO PRONGS
COMPENSATING THREAD LOCK
ARCHED BASE
Fig. 2.
SELF-ENERGISING
SPRING LOCK
Fig. 3.
ular fastener. Spring steel fasteners are usually .
made on multi-stage progression tools on high speed
power presses, or four- slide presses.
THREADED FA; ENERS
These fasteners have been discussed in greater
depth in previous Chapters but are further mention-
ed in this Chapter due to their importance as a
fastening medium.
Spring steel fasteners can be divided into two main
categories: those that receive a threaded member,
such as a screw or a bolt, and others for non-
threaded members.
The basic threaded member has a double locking
action provided firstly by the arched base and sec-
ondly by the arched prongs, the principle is demon-
strated in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the nut tightened
down and locked by tiie self- energising spring lock
of the base and the compensating thread lock, as
the arched prongs engage the thread. This type,
which is normally available in rectangular or cir-
cular form, offers several advantages over con-
ventional fasteners.
1. It is self-locking and thus eliminates locking
washers.
2. Its relatively large surface distributes the
load over a greater area.
3. It is locked at a much lower torque than con-
ventional nuts and it is this resilience which has
great advantages when assembling glass, plastics
or vitreous enamelled components because it pre-
vents cracking or grazing, due to overtightening
or to shock in transit.
4. It is much quicker to use than conventional nuts
particularly if used with the coarse pitch screws
which are specially designed for the purpose.
The conventional sheet metal screw or self-tapping
screw can, however, ac used with this type of fast-
ener and they are usually made to suit a wide vari-
144
ety of threads from 6 BA up to
&
in. Whitworth,
UNC or ACME.
However, the finer the pitch of the screw, the thin-
ner the material of the nut must be and thus BA
sizes should be used for light duties only. If a
stronger nut is required, then a Whitworth or sheet
metal screw type should be chosen, or for very
heavy duties those designed for use with an ACME
bolt. Such bolts can achieve an ultimate tensile
loading of over 2000 lb. ,
whereas the 6 BA at the
other end of the scale will give a tensile load of
about 95 lb. only.
One of the most useful features of spring steel fast-
eners is their ability to overcome problems of
blind assembly, and the 'U' type nut (Fig. 4) is one
of the many spring steel fasteners which enable
very substantial savings in production cost to be
made, for the following reasons:
1. They can be assembled to the panels by hand,
by unskilled operators. No welding, no riveting
or staking, and no special tools being required.
2. They remain captive to the panel, anchored
by means of a sheared tongue on the lower leg,
which drops into the mounting hole, and while hold-
ing the nut in the screw receiving position, allows
a certain degree of 'float' to facilitate speedy as-
sembly.
3. This type of fastener can be fitted before or
after the panels have been painted because there
is no danger of clogging during the spraying opera-
tion.
4. If the panels are to be vitreous enamelled,
there is no problem of masking threads, or re-
tapping after enamelling. The nuts are merely
slipped on to the panels at any convenient point on
the production line after the enamelling process.
5. On finally inserting and tightening the screw
this type of fastener is securely locked and elimi-
nates the need for any other form of locking such
as special washers of various types. Furthermore,
the lock has been achieved at a much lower tighten-
ing torque than when using ordinary threaded fast-
eners, so minimising the danger of cracking the
vitreous enamelled surface.
6. If conventional fasteners are used and the
thread is stripped or crossed or found to be faulty
in some way, the cost of rectification may be quite
considerable, involving side-tracking the compon-
ent to have the fastener drilled out and replaced
or, in extreme cases, the whole assembly may
have to be scrapped. This is not necessary when
the 'U' nut is used because it can be quite easily
removed without damage to the panel and replaced
just as easily without any disruption of the produc-
tion line.
7. Spring steel fasteners are usually lighter than
conventional fastenings and in certain applications
-
such as aircraft, for example
-
this factor may
be very important.
The 'U' type spring steel fastener is today very
widely used in the major mass-producing indust-
ries but there are also hundreds of other variations.
Ezzzazg
Fig. 5. The expansion nut,
Fig.6. The heavy duty latching type nut.
Fig. 5 illustrates an expansion nut. This is used in
a square hole when the fastening position is remote
from the edge of the panel. As the screw is insert-
ed it expands the body of the nut, thus holding it
firmly to the panel. This type of fastener offers
all the advantages of the 'U' type with the exception
of the floating feature which is sometimes neither
necessary nor desirable.
Fig. 6 shows a latching type nut which is usually
used with ACME threaded bolts and produces a
very heavy duty fastener. A typical example of
an application is its use to fasten the top half of
a commercial vehicle cab to the lower half. This
enables the overall height of the vehicle to be con-
siderably reduced for shipping, and the simple,
virtually foolproof, fastener enables unskilled
labour to reassemble the cab on arrival both quick-
ly and easily.
145
Fig. 7. Assembly of the caged nut.
SSZ33
Fig. 8. The 'J' nut.
Fig. 7 is also used in' a square hole and replaces
costly welded cage nuts and fastenings of a similar
type. It is installed into the panel by hand where
it remains captive. The full threaded nut in the
cage - a nut of full depth - floats slightly to over-
come the problem of misaligned holes. The fast-
ener is fitted after the finishing process at any
convenient point on the production line and is avail-
able in three sizes of cage, covering threads from
6 BA up to
|
BSF/BSW or Unified threads.
Similar in concept to the 'U' nut, but with a shorter
leg designed to snap into a clearance hole, is the
'J' type (Fig. 8) which is easily started over the
edge of a panel and pressed into position with the
thumb. A typical application for the 'J' nut is the
replacement of reinforcing rings and blind bushes
on headlight assemblies in the automobile industry
where, clipped into screw receiving positions on
the wing aperture, tiie short leg on the front side
of the nut ensures a good seal between gasket and
wing, thus precluding mud leakage (Fig. 9).
These are just a few of the spring steel fasteners
which are available today for use with threaded
members. The full range includes specially de-
signed nuts to allow tightening by spanner; self
Fig. 9. A typical application of the 'J' nut.
retaining
types, such as those already described,
with two spring arms lo provide sufficient tension
for the nut to slide along the moulding channel and
hold it in place; weld nuts; multi-impression nuts
which are particularly useful for applications such
as securing hinges to domestic appliances and for
office furniture; locking nuts which permit fine
adjustment of the screw while maintaining a cons-
tant torque and vibration-proof locking and which
are often used as trimmer nuts and movement con-
trol on push-button switches; angle nuts, designed
to overcome the problem of attaching back panels
to cabinets and which can replace a flange or form
the corners of a complete assembly; latching nuts
- captive heavy duty nuts such as those already
described and which are positioned from one side
of the application and can have an ultimate tensile
loading of well over half a ton; and a variety of
wood anchor nuts for wooden structures and as-
semblies; captive nuts; expansion nuts as already
described; quick release nuts designed to speed
up assembly when it is necessary to run nuts down
a length of 2 BA studding; clamping nuts, suitable
for use as terminal nuts to make electrical con-
nections; beading nuis, designed to positively secure
radio and television cabinet backs; and a wide vari-
ety of caged nuts.
NON-THREADED
FASTENERS
Of those spring steel listeners not associated with
threaded members the most widely used is the push-
146
on fix. This takes many forms but the basic rec-
tangular or round type uses the same arched based
principle as the plate type of threaded fastener
(Fig. 10).
These fixes, unlike the nuts, are not pitched to
follow the helix of a thread; the two sheared arms
are of equal height. As the push- on fix is forced
over the plain stud the fixing legs bite into the sur-
face and, on finally depressing the arched base,
which of course reacts as soon as the pressure is
released, the fixing legs are given a strong upward
and inward pressure which firmly holds the fast-
ener in position. This reaction has the effect of
drawing the assembly together, thus removing any
possibility of rattle because it is held under spring
tension.
Various types of these fixes are used for a wide
variety of applications
-
from fixing decorative
trim to domestic appliances to retaining intricate
electrical components in computers and other elec-
tronic devices. They are extremely cheap and easy
to use and help to simplify many design problems.
However, it is very important when using push-on
fixes to ensure that the tolerance on the stud dia-
meter is held to within reasonable limits and to
get the best result from this type of fastener a tole-
rance of + 0.002 in. - 0.003 in. is recommended.
There are special parts made for fixing chromium
plated studs but it is usual to mask the studs during
the plating process, thus avoiding an excessively
hard surface.
Push- on fixes take many forms, from the simple
sheared type, still widely used, to the more mod-
Fig. 10. The push-on fix.
Fig.1 1 . The plastics capped push-on Fix.
ern blanked types; the multi-pronged type; fixes
for rectangular studs; and plastics capped types
(Fig. 11).
The plastics capped fix was originally used to sec-
ure glass fibre insulation to the bulkheads in naval
vessels, being pushed over studs which were pro-
jection welded to the bulkhead and protruded through
the neoprene covered glass fibre blanket. This pat-
ented capped fix is now used on washing machines
to hold hinges to spin drier lids, on toys to hold
wheels and in many other applications.
Fig. 12. The tubular type
.
To fix these type of fasteners it is, of course, nec-
essary to have access to the back of the panel. If,
however, assembly is possible from one side only,
the tubular type (Fig, 12) is used. This consists
of a small spring steel split tube which is pushed
on to a hole in the panel where it remains captive
and ready to receive the studs of the component to
be fixed.
These fasteners are made in two main types, lock-
ing and removable. The former are used for ap-
Fig.13. The elongated tubular clip.
147
plications not likely to be dismantled and the latter
are extremely useful for applications which require
to be dismantled from time to time for maintenance.
A problem associated with this type of fastener is
the difficulty of holding accurately the dimensions
between hole centres, or pin centres, when using
more than one stud, but an elongated tubular clip
(Fig. 13) has been developed which allows a useful
tolerance between centres.
The fixing of knobs to shafts by means of spring
clips is a long established assembly method, origin-
ally developed in the radio industry and now widely
used for the assembly of electric irons, cooker
controls, thermostats - in fact anything which has
knobs. There are several types of fastener avail-
able among them being the 'D' shaped device for
thermosetting materials (Fig. 14) and the compres-
sion ring type for thermoplastics. There is also
the leaf type and others covering a wide range of
knob styling and shaft diameters.
One widely used on car push-pull turn controls is
shown in Fig. 15. It engages with a stud which in
turn is located in a hole in the knob. This permits
a push-pull action for light or choke controls, for
example, and/ or a turning movement for wind-
screen washers. To remove, the stud is pushed
out of engagement with the knob by means of a
small peg and the knob withdrawn from the shaft.
This is a typical example of a special development
to meet specific applications which at the time
were not covered by the standard range available.
All these knob clips offer considerable advantages
over the grub screw method, the main one being
Fig. 15.
that they do not become loose and fall out. The
moulding of the knobs is simplified, no brass in-
serts or tapped holes or trapped nuts, no split tools
or side drilling to provide holes, and no sealing
of grub screw holes to avoid electric shock from
live shafts, being necessary.
The use of spring steel fasteners, selected from
the wide range of standard parts available, has
steadily grown throughout the years particularly
in the automotive and domestic appliance industries,
but in the radio and television industries, while
they too have extended the use of standard parts,
it has been necessary to develop many special parts
to meet their particular requirements. An example
is the coil former supports shown in Fig. 16. This
is designed to accept a plain wire wound tube con-
taining a free dust iron core, the core being adjust-
ed by means of a threaded brass stem which in turn
is engaged in a helix formed in the base of the fast-
ener. When the whole assembly is mounted to a
chassis it is possible io adjust the core as requir-
ed, the threaded stem being locked at the desired
setting by means of the two small arms protruding
from the base which exert a pressure against the
crest of the threads.
There is also a similar part available, designed
for internally threaded formers and threaded cores
which requires no brass threaded adjusting stem,
the dust iron core being adjusted by means of the
internal threaded tube, screw driver access being
through the base of the clip.
Other parts have been produced which are partic-
ularly applicable to printed circuits, these parts
being available in hot tin dip finish, enabling
the
use of spring steel where previously phosphor
bronze or beryllium copper was used.
Another type of specially developed fastener, shown
in Fig. 17, is used to fix the screening cans to a
printed circuit chassis, the three-fingered claw
effect gripping the edge of the square aluminium
can and producing a very good electrical contact.
The tongue passes through the printed circuit chas-
sis and is soldered automatically in a solder bath.
Other types of can fixing clips are available, such
148
as those which are attached to the side of the alum-
inium can and sprung into the chassis.
Illustrating the versatility of the spring steel fast-
ener, those shown in Fig. 18 are now widely used
by paint manufacturers who find it necessary to
have an additional means of securing the lids of
their cans to avoid accidental spilling should the
can be dropped during transit. Previously this was
accomplished by soldering, but there are now many
types of clips available to suit almost any type of
closure. The one illustrated is designed for the
standard type of Metal Box Company's paint can,
used by a very large part of the paint industry.
Another rather specialised fastening is shown in
Fig. 19, it was specially designed to secure the
glass fibre sealing tubes which are widely used on
the inside surface of cooker doors. This clip is
opened by means of a special tool, the glass fibre
tube is then inserted and upon release the clip firm-
ly holds the tube and is ready to be pushed through
the clip receiving holes prepared in the door liner.
The fitting of the clip to the tube is usually done
by means of a specially prepared jig, 10 or 12
clips being fitted to the glass fibre tube in one op-
eration. This method has the additional advantage
that replacement tubes can be provided with pre-
assembled clips, thus considerably facilitating
servicing.
In recent years the building industry has been turn-
ing more and more to the use of spring steel fast-
eners and a typical application is in the erection
of suspended ceilings. The fastener shown in Fig.
20 was developed to engage with the bulb of a T
section extrusion and to support at its lower end
M//l//t/lli
Fig.20.
Fig. 21.
a glass fibre or polystyrene foam tile, held by
means of the pointed legs which are forced into
the edge of the tiles.
The clip shown in Fig. 21 makes a different system
possible. Here the tiles or ceiling boards are sup-
ported on the T section and held down by the arms
of the clip, which is pushed over the vertical leg
of the T.
SPECIFYING
FASTENERS
SPRING STEEL
There are many other types of fastener available
and, besides this enormous range, manufacturers
offer a development service which is available if
a ready-made solution to a fastening problem can-
not be found. But since the development of specials
can be expensive it is in the designer's interest
to call in the fastening specialist at drawing-board
stage when it may be possible, by slight adapta-
tions of design, to employ selections from the many
standard parts available at considerable saving.
149
21
Washers
byR.M. Billington, M. Inst. M.S.M. (Mor-lock Industries Ltd.)
There are various applications where the use of the
many types of washers available today adds in some
way to the efficiency of the joint or bolted assembly.
Washers are normally used under the head of a
bolt or the nut end of a bolt assembly in order to
distribute load, act as a thrust surface, provide a
locking or sealing action or, in some cases, to in-
dicate the preload developed' in a bolted assembly.
To assist the design engineer in selecting the best
type of washer for any particular application, it is
intended to cover the whole range of washers avail-
able in separate groups: (a) plain and tapered wash-
ers, (b) lock washers, (c) seal washers and (d)
load indicating washers.
PLAIN WASHERS
Up until
1961, standard metal washers for general
engineering purposes had been covered by the re-
levant British Standard appertaining
to nuts and
bolts but, with the publication of BS341 0:1 961, a
new standard for all flat washers was introduced.
BS3410:1961
covers flat, square and tapered wash-
ers to suit both British and American threads, in
bright and black metals.
Tables
1 to 5 in the British Standard
cover five
different
standards of flat bright metal washers,
embracing
the old halfpenny and penny styles,
in
varying gauges of material.
It is not intended to
elaborate
on the sizes available
but these can be
ascertained from the British Standard, which is
readily available from the B. S. Institution.
In addition to comparable ranges of round washers
in black metal there is also reference to square
washers with round holes and round washers
with
square holes, specifically designed for use with
cup head bolts in wood to metal applications.
Fin-
ally there are taper washers,
which are available
in square or D-form and which are used to compen-
sate for taper, in steel sections of 3, 5 or
8
angles.
With the exception of taper washers, standard
metal washers are normally designed into an as-
sembly to distribute the load and, in addition to
considering the thickness and outside diameter of
the washer, it is imperative that the designer con-
sider the best finish for each application. Finish is
sometimes treated too lightly particularly in crit-
ical joints where tightening torques are specified
It can be easily demonstrated that for a given tight-
ening torque applied to a nut and bolt assembly
only approximately 10 per cent of the total torque
applied goes into the loading of the bolt and the
majority of effort is absorbed by overcoming both
thread and interface friction. Interface friction is
naturally affected by the protective finish used on
the washer. If zinc plating is used the interface
friction increases and as a result less is used in
(a) ROUND FLAT WASHER
(b) ROUND FLAT WASHER,
WITH
30
CHAMFER
'-5&tf-
^Oe
(c) SQUARE FLAT WASHER
(d) TAPER SQUARE WASHER
Fig.1 .
loading the bolt. In the case of cadmium plated
washers, the reverse is true and unless the lower
coefficient of friction is taken into consideration
when designing the joint there is a danger of over-
loading the bolt.
It is important to remember that once a joint has
been designed, the washer finish should not be
changed without reference,
as an alteration in re-
commended tightening torque may be necessary.
LOCK WASHERS
Lock washers can be best classified into three
types, i. e. tab washers, spring washers and tooth
lock washers. The former can be produced in any
material whilst the other two are normally supplied
in spring steel, phospor bronze or stainless steel.
There is no general purpose standard for tab wash-
ers, which are generally being replaced by other
types of lock washer requiring less investment in
tooling costs, but a standard covering straight,
right-angled and left-angled tab washers does exist
in aircraft quality -
SP 41 to SP 45 (BSF) and SP
107 - 109 (UNF). Designers requiring tab washers
150
(a) SINGLE COIL FLAT SECTION
'
SPRING WASHER
fb) SINGLE COIL SQUARE
SECTION SPRING
WASHER
(c) SINGLE COIL GIRDER SECTION
SPRING WASHER
(d) DOUBLE COIL SPRING
WASHER
(e) SINGLE COIL 'POSITIVE' TYPE SPRING WASHER
Fig .8.
are recommended to consult this standard, covering
from 2 BA
-
1 in. diameters before designing spe-
cial tab washers, which may entail a comparatively
high tooling cost.
Helical spring lock washers are the most commonly
used and fulfil the dual function of compensating for
loss of tension and developed looseness in a bolted
assembly, whilst also acting as a thrust surface to
facilitate assembly and disassembly of a bolted
fastening, by reducing interface friction.
Helical spring lock washers (Fig. 2) are available
in four basic types:
(a) single coil square section
(b) single coil rectangular section
(c) single coil girder section
and (d) double coil rectangular section
BS1082 and BS2061 are already in existence cover-
ing all types manufactured in spring steel
-
En42
-
and all except the girder section washers in phos-
phor bronze. In most cases, the British Standard
washers are suitable for the majority of jobs but
leading manufacturers usually have available at
least one range of cheaper, lighter section washers
which can prove adequate and more economical.
Girder section steel washers have in the past been
used in an attempt to save material and money.
However, the cost of manufacturing this special
section wire has made the finished washer more
expensive and it is now generally prudent to investi-
gate the use of lighter square section spring wash-
ers, which are more readily available and more
economical.
The motor car industry has adopted the American
Standard for helical spring washers - ASA B. 27.
1-
1965, which offers a wider range of qualities of
rectangular section single spring washers up to and
including bolt sizes of 3 in. diameter. It should be
appreciated that the wire section of a helical spring
washer, after coiling, becomes trapezoidal. That
is to say that the thickness at the inner periphery
is
somewhat greater than that at the outer. This
problem is largely overcome with American Stan-
dard Washers by producing them from keystone
wire to compensate accordingly.
It is normal practice to produce
rectangular sec-
tion spring washers with the width greater than
the height but because of the occasional necessity
to use helical spring washers with socket screws,
a range of Hi-collar washers is produced where
the rectangular section wire is coiled the reverse.
There is not yet a British Standard for metric heli-
cal spring washers but until one is published the
German DIN
Specifications are normally followed.
All of the single spring washers already mentioned
are normally produced so that they will not tangle
or link together, but where double coil washers
are used it is necessary to request the special
tangleproof type if required.
Helical spring washers, as previously mentioned,
rely upon the compensating action of their inherent
spring pressure to achieve their locking function.
However, a further factor is sometimes added by
shaping the ends of the washer into barbs which are
forced into both the nut and the parent material.
Whilst the inherent spring pressure keeps the as-
sembly correctly loaded the barbs tend to resist
the loosening of the nut, even in extreme vibration
conditions . This type of helical spring washer is
generally known as "the positive type
1
(Fig. 2e),
and is usually available in steel as a stock item in
sizes upwards of 6 BA.
Although the helical spring washer is the most pop-
ular spring washer used, there are sometimes
applications where a more even, and better con-
trolled, spring pressure is required. In these
cases the designer has a choice of several differ-
ent types of deformed flat washers manufactured
in spring steel. Probably the most simple of these
is the Belleville Washer (see Fig. 3a), which is
)*
(a) BELLEVILLE WASHER OR
DISC SPRING
(b)WAVE OR CRINKLE WASHER
Fig .3.
produced in a conical form and derives its locking
property from the inherent spring properties of the
material. Whilst normally used singularly, Belle-
ville washers are sometimes combined in series or
parallel to produce varying spring characteristics.
A derivation of the Belleville washer is the dished
washer which is dished internally rather than coned.
Neither of these types of washer are available to a
British Standard although most spring washer manu-
facturers are able to offer a comprehensive range
of their own.
Where spring washers are required to withstand a
comparatively low compression load, the designer
is offered either the simple single curved spring
151
washer or the multi-wave,
or crinkle washer (Fig.
3b). The single curved washer is best suited to
applications requiring
a maximum range of deflec-
tion using light loads, whilst the multi-wave
type
of washer exerts a greater reactive force with a
smaller range of deflection.
Multi-wave or crinkle washers are used in most
spring materials and are usually
designed for speci-
fic applications. However, the electrical and elec-
tronic industries have found it necessary to use a
washer having a high tensile and. fatigue strength,
whilst also offering a high degree
of corrosion re-
sistance and electrical
conductivity.
This has re-
sulted in the adoption
of the beryllium
copper crin-
kle washer which is covered by BS3401
: 1961 and
caters for sizes from 10 BA to fin. An added bene-
fit of all deformed types of spring washer is that
their design eliminates damage
to plated surfaces
and consequently
reduces the risk of corrosion.
Each of the spring washers covered has its own
particular advantages to offer and not one can be
selected as the best for any particular application
without first considering the following questions:
1. What is the function of this particular spring
washer?
2. How critical is the application?
3. What environmental conditions are likely to be
encountered?
4. What are the space limitations?
The remaining type of lock washer is the toothed
washer (Fig. 4),. normally available in the UK as
either 'shakeproof or 'fan disc' type. 'Shakeproof
washers derive their locking function from a corn-
ea) EXTERNAL TOOTH (b) INTERNAL TOOTH
(C) INTERNAL/
TYPE 'SHAKEPROOF' TYPE 'SHAKEPROOF' EXTERNAL
WASHER
WASHER TOOTH TYPE
'SHAKEPROOF'
WASHER
(g) COUNTERSUNK
'FAN-DISC
WASHER
(d) COUNTERSUNK
'SHAKEPROOF'
WASHER
(o) EXTERNAL
'FAN-OISC
WASHER
(f) INTERNAL
'FAN-DISC
WASHER
Fig.4.
bination of three separate actions
-
line bite, the
hardened tooth material cuts into the face of the
workpiece and nut or bolt head; spring reaction,
each tooth acts as a compensating spring; and strut
action, where the teeth individually oppose the ten-
dency to loosen by rotation. The teeth of standard
'shakeproof' washers- are usually located on either
the inside or outside periphery of the washer but
a range with both internal and external teeth is
available as is a range of countersunk external
tooth washers, specially designed for use with coun-
tersunk screws. 'Shakeproof washers are produced
in standard styles in sizes from 10 BA to 1^ in.
diameter and a wide variety of terminals and wash-
er plates having this patented locking
feature are
also available.
'Fan disc 'lock washers
are a similar
type of tooth-
ed washer
but have the added exclusive feature of
overlapping
teeth, which cannot flatten completely
even when excessive tightening
torques are applied.
All of the previously mentioned lock washers are
generally accepted as cheaper methods of insuring
against fastener loosening than the more
elaborate
forms of stiff nuts or bolts with self-locking fea-
tures. However, where mechanised assembly is
used the fact that a two-piece fastener is cheaper
than a one-piece fastener with an integral locking
element is not always ihe prime consdideration.
To assist in mechanical
assembly, whilst keeping
cos"ts to a mimimum, the designer can consider
the use of combined screw and washer assemblies
(see Fig. 5), which ensure that the correct screw
Fig. 5. Represen-
tation 'Sems' units
utilising 'shake-
proof washers
.
-and washer are used together at any assembly
point. These units arc available in a range of sizes
from
6 BA to lin. diameter and usually a com-
bination of metal thread screws with either helical
spring or toothed washers. In some cases, parti-
cularly on the large diameters, disc spring wash-
ers are also used. Pre- assembled nuts and wash-
ers are made but are not in general use.
To sum up this section on lock washers, screws
normally loosen because of either yield in the mat-
erial of the fastener, or of the workpiece,
or be-
cause of improper initial application.
Whilst the
latter can only be overcome by better education
and supervision of assembly staff, the former can
be compensated for by either spring action or add-
ed
interface friction.
SEALING WASHERS
The most simple forms of sealing washer are those
manufactured as basic plain washers of easily com-
pressed material such as rubber, plastics, leather
or, in some cases, soft metals, i. e. aluminium or
copper. There are, however,
applications requir-
ing a more reliable and efficient seal and in some
cases an added locking action. To satisfy these
specific applications a comprehensive range of
patented sealing washers is available and further
details of some of them are given below.
*Dubo' sealing washers
The 'Dubo' sealing washer (Fig. 6a) is basically
a
plain washer of special section manufactured of a
special nylon material having good flow characteri-
stics under pressure. When used under a nut the
inner rim of the 'Dubo' washer is forced between
the threads of the bolt and nut, whilst also flowing
into the opening of the hole. The outer rim of the
152
(a) 'DUBO' WASHER (b) 'OOWTY' BONDED SEAL
(c) 'SELON' WASHER
'SELOC' WASHER
INCORPORATING
EXTERNAL TOOTH
SHAKEPROOF'
WASHER
Fig.6.
(o) ' WEATH-R-SEAL'
WASHER
washer simultaneously flows over the flats of the
nut, providing additional locking action to that al-
ready inherent in the spring property of the mat-
erial. These washers are available in sizes from
Jin. to 1 Jin. inside diameter and offer a compara-
tively cheap but efficient seal in temperature ranges
from -60C to +200C in varing load conditions. In
addition, they have excellent insulating properties
and are inflammable.
'Dowty' bonded seals
'Dowty' bonded seals (Fig. 6b) consist of a cadmium
plated steel washer, to which is bonded, under
heat and pressure, a synthetic rubber seal. They
provide a simple, efficient and
reliable means for
the face sealing of gases and fluids at low and high
pressures up to 10, 000 lb. /sq. in. The use of bond-
ed seals reduces
installation and
maintenance costs
and dispenses with groove cutting or special mach-
ining. The
presence of the steel washer enables
specific tightening torques to be applied.
'Selon' sealing washers
'Selon' sealing washers (Fig. 6c) are manufactured
in nylon and provide a similar seal to that achieved
with bonded seals, but at much lower working pres-
sures. In additon to a sealing lip on the internal
diameter, there is also a series of location tongues
which enable the 'Selon' washer to be used as a
captive washer for screwed assemblies. Used in
this way the washer ensures concentric location of
the seal. Sizes available range from 2 BA to lii
in. diameter and the properties of .the nylon elimi-
nate damage to the workpieces and the possibility
of electrolytic action between dissimilar metal
work surfaces.
Seloc' washers
The 'Seloc' washer (Fig. 6d) combines the locking
properties of a 'shakeproof washer with the sealing
properties of the synthetic rubber ring in which it
is encased. The toothed lock washer, which can be
either external or internal tooth type, bites into the
rubber itself, increasing interface friction whilst
not reducing the sealing property of the ring. Ex-
ternal tooth type washers are available in sizes
6 BA to \ in. and internal tooth type in the larger
sizes up to 1 in. When installed the 'Seloc' wash-
er gives an effective seal in most environmental
conditions.
'Weath-R-Seal' washers
Amongst the very wide range of plastics, nylon
and synthetic rubber washers available for roofing
applications, perhaps the most efficient is the
Weath-R-Seal' type (Fig. 6e)- which is a laminated
compressive washer of a metal backing layer bond-
ed to a neoprene washer. When compressed by
the tightening of the
assembled screw, the neoprene
provides a seal around both the outside diameter
of the metal washer and the screw shank. It can
be designed to provide a wide bearing area and the
even distribution of the neoprene provides a posi-
tive, long term
protection from leaks.
LOAD INDICATING WASHERS
Load indicating washers are designed to provide a
simple, accurate check that the required pre-load,
or bolt tension, has been achieved in any particu-
lar application. They are usually used with high
strength friction grip bolts and one of their main
features is that they require no elaborate installa-
tion equipment.
The 'preload indicating washer' (Fig. 7a) is avail-
able in sizes from No. 10 to \\ in. diameters, for
use with bolts of 125, 000 lb. /sq. in. and 160, 000
tensile strength. It is, in fact, a four piece as-
sembly, consisting of two concentric steel rings
sandwiched between two close tolerance, hardened
steel washers. The inner ring is smaller in dia-
meter and higher than the outer one by a controlled
amount and a known preload is indicated when the
Fig.7a. The action of the 'preload indicating
washer'
.
Fig .7b. The 'Coronet' load
indicating washer (By court-
esy of Cooper & Turner Ltd.
,
Sheffield.).
153
inner ring is compressed to a point where the outer
ring can no longer be freely rotated.
The 'PLI
1
washer is used where a controlled preload averag-
ing
80 per cent is required in the bolt and it is con-
sidered accurate to within
10 per cent.
Perhaps the most well-known,
and widely used
washer of this type is the 'Coronet' load-indicating
washer (Fig. 7b), which not only provides an indica-
tion of correct tension in a bolt, more accurately
and reliably than by either the part turn or torque
control methods, but also provides a permanent
witness of bolt tension when inspection is neces-
sary at a later stage. The 'Coronet' washer is
basically
a flat washer with a number of protru-
sions, from 4 to 8 depending on the size and quality
of bolt being used, formed on its upper surface.
It is, wherever possible,
used under the head of
the bolt and as the assembly is tightened the pro-
trusions are flattened. By gauging the gap between
the underside of the bolt head and the top surface
of the washer a controlled measurement of bolt
tension can be ascertained. In order to obtain the
required
preload in the bolt it is necessary to re-
duce this gap to 0. 015 in. A simple feeler gauge
should be used for this purpose.
154
22
Structural
adhesives
by E.B. McMullon and D.T.S.Ilett (Bonded
Structures Div., CIBA (A.R.L.) Ltd.)
How do you assemble load- carrying structures
fabricated from sheet metal? The most popular
methods in use today are riveting, and the many
variations on the welding-brazing- soldering* theme.
Another alternative which is gaining in popularity,
but which is still far less widely used than it de-
serves to be, is structural adhesive bonding. This
is not a new process
-
it first gained acceptance
for use in aircraft primary structures (the toughest
test of them all) during World War II, a quarter of
a century ago. The technical and economic argu-
ments in favour of bonding are sound and well prov-
en. It is not a difficult technique. In many cases
it offers considerable advantages over the more
popular alternatives mentioned above. So why isn't
it more widely used?
The authors of this Chapter believe that the main
reason, perhaps the only reason, why so many
engineers neglect the possibilities of this process
is the mistaken belief that it is an 'exotic' tech-
ique that only the aircraft manufacturer can afford
tb use. It is true that the most adventurous use of
structural bonding methods is made by companies
in the aerospace industry or with a background of
aerospace experience. But this does not mean that
it is necessarily expensive. Aircraft quality work
will always be relatively costly because of the safe-
guards which must be built in, but in a competitive
market the healthiest manufacturers will be those
who can manufacture cheaply without compromis-
ing this quality. We feel it is significant that one
of the healthiest of all European aircraft manu-
facturers is the one which is most totally commit-
ted to the use of bonding as its main component
assembly method, and is even using adhesives to
improve the mechanical properties of joints which
must be riveted - Fokker, the makers of the out-
standingly successful F. 27 Friendship.
What are the advantages of adhesive bonding? For
straight-forward metal-to-metal jointing they can
be summarised as follows:
1. Lower production costs, particularly on large
area panels where assembly labour costs are large-
ly independent of size.
2. Reduced weight
-
the better load distribution
made possible by bonding enables the designer to
use lighter gauge materials.
3. Increased stiffness
-
distribution of the ad-
hesive over the whole joint area stabilises the
metal in the vicinitv of the joint.
4. Improved fatigue resistance
-
no stress con-
centrations (at rivets or spot -welds) or local metal-
lurgical modifications (encountered with brazing or
welding).
5. Smooth external finish.
6. Efficient integral sealing of joints.
7. Protection against galvanic corrosion in joints
between dissimilar metals.
A significant advantage which is not listed above
is the opportunity to explore the merits of sand-
wich construction, which cannot be achieved eco-
nomically by any other assembly process. Realisa-
tion of all these advantages starts at the drawing
board. It requires some understanding of adhesives
and what they can do, with some reorientation of
thinking by everyone associated with the process.
You can take a design intended for riveting and
adapt it for bonding. You may even improve it in
the process, but you won't get the best results that
way. They only come after design, planning, pro-
duction and inspection staff have acquired new habits
of thinking centred on the use of bonding.
WHERE CAN
BONDING?
WE LEARN ABOUT
A very valuable source of information is the com-
pany manufacturing the adhesives. They will ad-
vise on the selection of suitable adhesives, design
techniques, stressing, manufacturing and inspec-
tion methods. They may also be equipped to carry
out pilot or even production assembly runs.
As a modest substitute for such expert advice, or
as an armchair preliminary to seeking it, this Chap-
ter presents a brief account of what adhesive bond-
ing may be able to do for you.
WHAT CAN ADHESIVES DO?
A good bond between two pieces of metal will sus-
tain high loads in shear or in tension where the
joint is suitably proportioned. A typical shear
loading case is shown in Fig. 1; shear strengths
up to 8000 lb. sq. in. can be obtained, which would
cause failure in the metal in a
J
in. overlap speci-
men using 16 swg. 2L73 aluminium alloy with the
minimum specified UTS of 27 ton/sq. in. This is
the optimum loading condition for an adhesive bond-
ed joint.
*See Design Engineering Metals Handbook for in-
formation on these joining methods
.
The adhesive will also sustain a high loading in a
direction normal to the plane of the bond. This
155
Fig.1 . Lap joint with
adhesive in shear
.
Fig.2 . A skin
/ stringer
under compressive load.
Fig.3. Metal -metal joint
with adhesive in peel
.
would be impractical with the configuration shown
in Fig. 1, but it is frequently encountered in the
type of situation illustrated in Fig. 2. In this case
a skin/stringer combination
is shown buckling
under a compressive load, with the bond failing,
first in a tensile mode, then continuing at the edges
of the failed section where the bond is subjected to
cleavage loads. Excessive distortion in this case
would change the cleavage loading to peel loading,
where the tensile load is concentrated along a nar-
row line, as shown in more exaggerated form in
Fig.
3. Adhesives have only moderate resistance
to cleavage loads, and poor resistance to peel loads,
and the designer should always strive to avoid these
types of loading in bonded structures.
This question of low peel strength is often cited by
anti- bonding propagandists
as the ultimate proof
that adhesives are useless in a structural
context.
How much truth is there in this? Consider
the al-
ternatives. Would you design a riveted,
spot-weld-
ed, brazed, welded or soldered
structure that in-
volved peel loading except as a secondary
result of
failure from some other cause ? Surely the answer
must be "No", whatever the method of assembly
used. There is a great deal of loose talk and loose
thinking on this subject by those who wish to con-
demn or ignore bonding as an engineering
technique.
All adhesives have some resistance to peel loads,
some more than others; none have enough to justify
taking advantage of it in design. Does a high peel
strength make one adhesive better than another?
This is a matter of opinion, but our opinion is that
we would ignore peel strength to gain an advantage
in shear strength. Good peel strength will retard
the disintegration of a structure
that has failed;
good shear strength will retard the failure -
or
prevent it.
HOW DOES THE ADHESIVE WORK?
There has been much discussion on this subject,
but few agreed conclusions have yet emerged from
it. It is generally agreed that adhesion is a result
of intermolecular forces acting between the adhe-
sive and adherend surface molecules. The strength
of the force is dependent
on intimate contact be-
tween both groups of surface molecules. The bond
is made when the adhesive is liquid, and is im-
proved if the adhesive has good 'wetting
1
proper-
ties. Some materials can generate greater sur-
face forces than others, or produce more 'active'
surfaces Metal surfaces are particularly
active
-
a lucky break for the engineer.
A practical joint consists of a thin layer of adhesive
between two pieces of adherend material. To trans-
mit loads through this joint the adhesive, which was
fluid to give good wetting characteristics,
must now
be modified to create a strong mechanical 'bridge
1
.
This is done by 'curing' the adhesive, which involv-
es the transformation from a liquid state to the
solid state. The strength of the cured adhesive to
resist failure within itself when under stress is
called its 'cohesive strength'.
Structural adhesives are broadly divided between
'cold curing' and 'hot curing' systems.
Cold curing
systems are mostly epoxy based, and the basic
resin is usually cured by the addition
of a 'hard-
ener'. The resin and hardener must be mixed to-
gether in appropriate proportions, thus triggering
the curing reaction. There is then a limited time
available for applying the adhesive between mixing
and the point where the reaction has proceeded too
far for the adhesive to be worked. After making
the bond, there is a further period before the ad-
hesive has enough strength to withstand handling
or working loads. The time scale depends on the
chemical relationship
between the resin and the
hardener, but at normal room temperatures
the
overall time required before the assembly
can be
safely put to work may be several days. This can
be dramatically reduced by heating the assembly;
for example, a typical epoxy system which requires
24 hours to cure at room temperature can be cured
in 20 minutes at 100C.
Hot curing systems are those which rely on the
application of heat to complete the cure, and will
not cure at normal temperatures.
All phenolic-
based systems and many
epoxy-based systems re-
act only on heating. There are many variations
in curing requirements;
the general run of bonding
work is done with adhesives requiring
a curing
cycle typified by that for Redux* -
30 minutes at
150C. This is the optimum cure cycle for this
system to ensure maximum
strength and reliability;
much more rapid cures are possible where a com-
promise is acceptable.
*Registered Trade Mark.
156
When bonding with either hot or cold curing adhes-
ives it is usually necessary to apply pressure to
the assembly, partly to prevent relative movement
between the adherends, but chiefly to maintain inti-
mate contact between the joint surfaces and the
adhesive whilst it is fluid in the earlier stages of
the curing process. With phenolic-based adhesives
it is essential to apply sufficient pressure to pre-
vent 'blistering' arising from the evolution of vola-
tile products of the curing reaction.
WHAT FORM DO ADHESIVES TAKE?
Structural adhesives come in several forms: solu-
tions, liquids or pastes which may be single - or
multi- component, and dry films. One very import-
ant form has already been mentioned
-
the two-part
cold curing adhesive, typical of epoxy resin systems.
This classification covers an enormous range of ad-
hesive systems, many developed for special pur
-
poses, which are, perhaps, outside the scope of this
Chapter in the context of engineering structures; they
qualify from the point of view of their high strength
but are mostly used in small scale applications.
Structural applications in which bonding is com-
petitive with other assembly methods typically in-
volve relatively large areas and large quantities
of adhesive. Consequently, the most popular sys-
tems are those in which the mixing ratio is not
critical, or which avoid careful mixing altogether.
A 'two-part system' that meets this requirement
is the liquid + power adhesive, widely used for
metal-to-metal bonding on an industrial scale. This
is, in fact, a hot curing vinyl phenolic system. To
use it, the prepared joint surfaces are coated with
the liquid resin, and a thermoplastic powder is
spread over the tacky wet resin. Loose powder is
simply shaken off, leaving a suitable quantity ad-
hering to the resin. It's simple and it works - that
is the adhesive system that was used to hold the
Comets and the Friendship together, among others,
and none of them have fallen apart due to failure of
the adhesive.
This same adhesive system is also available with
the two component parts processed to produce a
dry film of adhesive sandwich between two easily
removed polythene protective sheets. To apply
this, simply cut the film to size and shape, peel
off the protective covers, and lay it between the
parts to be bonded. It has the virtues of keeping
the proportions of the two parts constant and of
giving an even spread of adhesive, as well as being
extremely simple to use. For this reason, most
new developments in structural adhesive systems
now appear in film form.
Another class of adhesives that justifies considera-
tion in a structural context are the heat activated
paste adhesives. These are used widely in sand-
wich structures, for splicing segments of honey-
comb core materials and for filling gaps around
inserts or at panel edges. Particularly interesting
are those which expand due to a controlled foaming
action when heated, and set hard to maintain struc-
tural integrity at these otherwise vulnerable points.
HOW ARE THEY USED?
The process starts with the pre-treatment of the
parts to be bonded
-
the
preparation of the adher-
ends to obtain surfaces of controlled quality for
maximum adhesion strength and reliability. The
usual first stage is degreasing, using suitable vola-
tile solvents which afterwards evaporate to leave
a clean surface. The best method is to use a sol-
vent vapour bath, but this will not remove heavy
grease deposits
- these need the more robust atten-
tion of liquid solvent degreasing or an alkaline bath.
Adhesive systems which, are compatible with some
protective greases have been developed, and are
now being used in automobile mass-production as-
sembly processes.
Degreasing is followed by chemical or mechanical
cleaning to expose a fresh active surface. Chemi-
cal processes (pickling or etching) can be closely
controlled to give consistent results. Mechanical
abrasion is a simple and cheap way to prepare oc-
casional bonding jobs, but may be less consistently
reliable. It always creates dust, which, if not
properly extracted, will not help to promote the
cleanliness which is required in the bonding pro-
cess.
Chemical processes usually turn out to be
cheaper in the long run. Which process to use de-
pends on the material to be cleaned and the volume
of work being handled
-
this is a case where it pays
to consult the adhesive manufacturer.
The next stage is to apply the adhesive, which may
be done by brushing, combing, spraying or mach-
ine extrusion for fluid systems, or by cutting and
laying for film adhesives. The parts are then as-
sembled ready for curing. If the adhesive is cold
curing the assembly need only be clamped to keep
the parts in suitable contact, and then set aside
for sufficient time for the adhesive to cure.
Hot curing adhesives require the application of
heat as well as pressure. How is this done? The
popular choice for the general run of production
bonding is fairly evenly divided between the heated
platen press and the autoclave. Both of these in-
volve capital expenditure, but then, most produc-
tion techniques require some capital investment,
and most involve at least as much as bonding. For
the cautious, however, it is worth mentioning that
there are other ways of applying heat and pressure,
and some extremely ingenious techniques have been
devised in cases where the job could not be done in
a press or autoclave. Much excellent production
work is done with clamping fixtures in a suitably
controlled-temperature oven, or by using radio-
frequency heating. Of the popular choices mention-
ed, the platen press is ideal where the bulk of the
work is concerned with flat parallel panels, or
assemblies based on flat panels. Where there is
a large turnover of similar flat panels it is worth
considering the use of a multi- daylight press to
bond several panels simultaneously.
The more versatile autoclave can handle flatwork
or curved assemblies with almost equal ease. It
is essentially a large oven with provision for pres-
surising the shell and for evacuating a sealed flex-
157
ALUMINIUM
ALLOY 2024 -
T3
'
AFTER
!S HOUR AT
TEMPERATURE
a
-SO $ * i&j 15 150
TEMPERATURE C
10 10
2
10
3
10
4
EXPOSURE AT 150C - HOURS
Fig. 4. Shear strength against temperature curves. Fig. 5. Ageing characteristics for two high-
temperature resistant adhesives.
ible bag placed immediately around the assembly
being bonded. Heat is usually supplied by live
steam, or may be provided by electric radiant ele-
ments. The assembly is mounted on a jig or table,
and covered with an impermeable flexible blanket
(rubber or very pure aluminium, for instance) and
clamped around the edges to form an airtight seal.
Flexible tubes allow the inside of this bag to be
evacuated or vented to the atmosphere while the
shell of the autoclave is pressurised.
This creates
the required pressure differential to hold the as-
sembly firmly while the adhesive is cured. It also
permits free escape of any volatile products of the
curing reaction. For rapid cycling of the autoclave
some degree of automatic control is usually incorp-
orated; it would be feasible for this to be extended
to enable the autoclave to be completely automated
where it could be justified by the volume of work.
SELECTING AN ADHESIVE
The first step is to define the anticipated
operating
conditions:
1. General operating temperature range.
2. Extremes of temperature.
3. Life (a) at the general operating temperatures
and (b) at the extremes of temperature
4. Environment.
In that condensed list, the word 'temperature'
oc-
curs four times - it is the one factor which affects
the choice of adhesive most critically. This can
be seen from the curves showing the variation of
shear strength with temperature
presented in Fig.4.
Between them, the adhesive systems shown can
cope with the full range of temperatures
for which
light alloy structures would be appropriate, as
shown by the equivalent curves for suitably pro-
portioned 2024-T3 alloy adherends. Which par-
ticular system to use depends on the part of this
range in which the structure will be most likely to
operate. Since some adhesives are more sensitive
than others to changes in temperature it is also
important to consider the probable extremes of
temperature even if these are only transient
ex-
posures.
The effect of prolonged exposure at extreme temp-
erature is illustrated in Fig. 5, which shows the
ageing curves for two systems which have initially
similar strength at 150C. One system retains
its strength up to 30 , 000 hours with no sign of de-
terioration; the other has become dangerously de-
graded after 1000 hours.
Expected environment is also an important factor.
Not all structural adhesive systems are suitable
for use in the continued presence of water or water
vapour, for instance. The ability of others to re-
sist this type of environment, however, is demon-
strated by the continued success of the SRN fam-
ily of hovercraft
manufactured by the British Hover-
craft Corporation, in which adhesive bonding has
played an increasingly vital role with each genera-
tion. A useful guide to environmental resistance
is provided by the ability of an adhesive system to
meet the requirements of the official specifications
such as DTD5577 (British), MMM-A-132
(USA),
MIL-A-25463 (ASC) (USA), which include a number
of environmental resistance tests. Other proper-
ties are also included in these specifications
-
re-
sistance to creep and fatigue, and the various mod-
es of loading applicable to honeycomb sandwich
structures.
Such considerations will help the designer to make
his choice of system or systems appropriate to his
needs. If technical considerations permit, the pro-
duction engineer should also have an opportunity to
express his opinion. His co-operation will be need-
ed later on. He will be interested in several prac-
tical factors: cost of the adhesive; the work involv-
ed in preparing it for use; the curing requirements
for the system; its handling properties; and storage
requirements.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The design of adhesive bonded joints involves the
proportioning of joint geometry to suit the physical
characteristics of the adherend
materials, the ad-
hesive, and the bonding process. These factors in-
fluence the allowable stress upon which the design
will be based. For hot cured adhesive systems the
allowable stress can be taken as 60 per cent of the
158
DOUBLE LAP JOINT
(SYMMETRICAL)
JOINT FACTOR t/l
Fig.6. Variation of shear
strength with joint factor.
nominal failing stress at the desired operating tem-
perature. A severe operating environment, the need
for a long fatigue-free life, or creep considera-
tions, may make it necessary to reduce the allow-
able stress still further. Even this assumes that
quality control in production will maintain consis-
tent bond strengths; relaxation of these controls
will necessitate the application of a larger than nor-
mal 'variability factor' at the design stage. Each
design team must arrive at its own best compro-
mise when determining the allowable stress for
each adhesive.
We have said that all bonded joints should be loaded
in shear. In sheet metal fabrications this nearly
always involves simple overlap joints as the best
working compromise between theoretical and prac-
tical requirements. At near-limiting loads there
is a small element of cleavage caused by the asym-
metry of the joint, but this would probably exist in
any practical configuration. All technical data
about adhesives relates to the simple overlap joint
as the standard for comparisons of 'shear' strength.
In our own company test data is based on the single
overlap joint made from 16 swg. (0. 064 in.) alum-
inium alloy to BS2L. 73, 1 in. wide, with i in. over-
lap. The strength data presented in Figs. 4 and 5
was obtained from specimens of this type.
It is important to appreciate that the stress dis-
tribution in the joint is not uniform, and that the
maximum load that can be carried is not, there-
fore, proportional to the overlap. Whilst an. in-
crease in overlap will allow more load to be taken,
the gain is not linear. When considering variations
in joint proportions it is more instructive to talk
in terms of the ratio t/l or 'Joint Factor'. Typical
curves showing the relation between shear strength
and joint factor, based on. laboratory test results,
are given in Fig. 6. These curves enable the de-
signer to predict, for this adhesive system and
adherend material, the best joint proportions for
a particular stress level.
SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION
The versatility of adhesive bonding as an assembly
technique enables the designer to explore new ways
of using his materials to increase the efficiency
with which they do their work. A striking example
of this is the honeycomb sandwich structure, which
is a practical way of realising the advantages of the
mass distribution of the I-beam in large panel de-
sign. Sheet metal (or other) facing skins are separ-
ated, but structurally connected, by means of a low
density core bonded between them. The skins corre-
spond to the flanges of the I-beam and carry the ten-
sile and compressive stresses. The core corre-
sponds to the web and carries the shear loads and
helps to prevent buckling and wrinkling of the faces.
By varying the skin thicknesses, core density and
panel depth, the designer can achieve a very close
approximation to the optimum distribution of his
material for any purpose, and can produce structur-
es of very high efficiency. Sandwich panels have
been made with skins of thin plywood, decorative
laminate, fibre-glass, etc. , and more convention-
ally from most metals including aluminium alloy,
steel, titanium, copper, etc. Skin thicknesses
may vary from 0. 0025 in. to 0. 25 in. The range
of application of simple sandwich panels is exempli-
fied by the solar- cell support trays for Ariel 3 at
one extreme, to the most heavily loaded deck panels
for the SRN4 hovercraft at the other. Shaped sand-
wich structures are widely used in aircraft work
where full advantage is taken of their very high
resistance to fatigue, particularly at acoustic fre-
quencies.
Example is always more convincing than precept,
and we are very happy to conclude this brief outline
of bonding technology by quoting what we consider
to be a superb example of integrated design for
bonding at its best. It is particularly satisfying
to be able to say that it is a British design which
uses British adhesives and materials - the SRN4
hovercraft. A section of the internal structure of
the buoyancy tank, which is in effect an optimised
flat plate of very large proportions on which the
superstructure is supported, is shown in Fig. 7.
The vertical shear webs are all stiffened by bonded
Z- stringers, and the upper and lower surfaces are
3in. thick bonded honeycomb sandwich panels to
carry the face stresses of what is, in effect, a
large sandwich panel with a rectangular- cell core.
On top of this, the bulkheads, roof beams and roof
plating all make optimum use of metal-to- metal
bonding for rapid production and minimum weight.
Examples of the use of structural bonding can be
found in every industry ranging from mass-pro-
duction of bonded brake and clutch linings through
Fig. 7. Views showing the internal structure
of the SRN4 Hovercraft.
"
H i i i i r
U44XUJ
1
1
1
1 l l "^
Fig. 8.
Couple
introduced
by eccentric
loading
.
sandwich construction for bulk containers to the
advanced primary structures for aerospace appli-
tions. We hope that, in the space of a few thousand
words, we have shown that structural bonding is an
acceptable technique for general application in in-
dustry, with many technical and economic merits.
It is the view of the authors that this technique
should be much more widely used than it is; indus-
try cannot afford to neglect technical advances for
a quarter of a century just because their first field
of application is in aircraft construction.
APPENDIX: ANALYSIS OF THE
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE
SIMPLE LAP JOINT
The predominant stress in the simple lap joint is
shear, but there is a tension component due to the
couple introduced by the eccentric loading (see
Fig. 8).
The adhesive joint may be considered as one in
which an elastic medium
-
the adhesive -
is sand-
wiched between two less elastic pieces of metal;
by tensioning the joint a strain gradient is estab-
lished. Of necessity ihe stress in the sheet mat-
erial is zero at point O, increasing to a maximum
at A. The strain differential is therefore greatest
across the section OA, and it is this differential
that causes the stress in the adhesive to reach
maximum values at each end of the joint. This
peak of shear stress causes the adhesive to fail
locally, initiating complete failure of the joint.
Since the load transmitted by the adhesive must
be equal to the load applied through the adherend,
the relationship between joint overlap and adherend
thickness (for a given adherend/
adhesive combina-
tion) is:
Tlw =e tw
where t =
the mean shear stress in the adhesive
E =
the mean tensile stress in the adher-
ends
1
=
the length of joint overlap
w
=
the joint width
and t
=
the adherend thickness
The relationship between mean shear strength and
t/1 or 'Joint Factor' may be established from test
results
-
see Fig. 6.
The Design Engineering Guide to Adhesives, which
gives the properties and principal uses of over 450
different engineering adhesives from 50 manufac-
turers, has been prepared to aid the designer in
selecting the best adhesive for his application.
A
REALLY FIRST CLASS
SERVICE EVERY TIME
FOR QUICK DELIVERIES OF RIVETS IN
ALUMINIUM
BRASS COPPER AND ALL
NON-FERROUS METALS,
%2
"
to
%"
DIAMETER
CLEVEDON RIVETS & TOOLS LTD.
REDDICAP TRADING ESTATE SUTTON COLDFIELD

WARKS.
TEL: 021-354
5238 GRAMS: 'CLEVEDON' SUTTON COLDFIELD
160
23
Selected
special fasteners
Compiled by A. Griffiths (Consultant Editor)
The actual definition of a fastener has been dis-
cussed in several other Chapters in this handbook.
However, it is worth remembering that a fastener
may be simple or complicated, cheap or inexpen-
sive. For instance, a dressmaker's pin or a paper
clip must be classified as a fixing. At the other
end of the scale a hydraulically operated lock-nut
is also a fastener.
In this Chapter, which is carefully illustrated, re-
ferences have been made of fixing ideas that may
not be covered in the more exact headings of the
preceding Chapters. Undoubtedly there are many
other special fixings that could be included in our
list and we invite readers to submit their ideas
for subsequent incorporation in this Chapter.
Since most special fasteners are known by typical
trade-names, these have been used to aid identifi-
cation. In some instances there may be competi-
tive products of equal merit to those that have been
described.
are moulded from nylon or acetal resins which,
besides being corrosion free and self lubricating,
are also resistant to vibration as well as squeak
and rattle proof.
Other advantages of the system are that the two
mating fasteners need not be perfectly aligned and
that the device does not wear or lose its holding
power.
At the present this unique system is only available
in a restricted range of sizes, but full information
regarding possible new developments can be obtain-
ed from the manufacturers.
/
Applications that have already been explored in-
clude the mounting of trim panels in automobiles
and aircraft, access panels for electrical appara-
tus, interchangeable displays and signs, interior
and exterior fixings in caravans and boats.
Manufacturers: Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing
Co. Ltd. New Products Group.
3M
Mechanical fastening
system
Fig. 1 shows a typical application for this new type
of mechanical fastener. The principle of the fixing
being in the unique design of the identical
pin-head
shaped stems on the modules.
These fasteners, which are available in a wide vari-
ety of shapes and fixing, are interchangeable, thus
providing the designer with considerable scope to
achieve the most satisfactory fixing arrangements.
The pads may be fixed by a number of methods
-
screwing, riveting or adhesives. The fasteners
Fig.1 .
Double sided adhesive tapes
Whilst all readers will accept that cellulose tape
and its many derivatives are in fact fastener med-
iums, much use has recently been made of double
sided tapes (Fig. 2).
The carrier for the adhesive film can either be in
the form of thin and mechanically weak tissues or,
alternatively, the sandwich can consist of a strong
flexible member. This part of the 'tape' is often
made from a cellular material which is similar to
foam plastics or rubber.
Fig. 2.
161
Ultrasonic
assembly.
Dawe Sonic Welders
*
The new solution to an old problem.
*
Weld plastics: join metal to plastic.
*
Ultrasonics for quick action.
*
Ultrasonics is clean.
*
Ultrasonics gives consistent results with less rejects

more profit.
*
Ask for details of latest techniques from:-
Concord Road Western Avenue London W3 Tel : 01 -992 6751
^stblmemtsumtted
Cab| es
.
DAWINST LONDON

W3.
Pv>
Fig.3. Disconnect fast-
ener installation with
extension under wing
.
Engineering application for the foamed tape are
numerous. The material is easy and clean to app-
ly; it also overcomes many of the objections of
applying liquid adhesives. The tape can be pur-
chased ready cut to length so that it is economical
and swift to apply. With foamed double sided tape
the main advantage is that a secure fix can be ach-
ieved where the mating surfaces are uneven or un-
dulating.
There are many manufacturers of this tape but we
are indebted to Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co. Ltd.
for the illustration.
Disconnect fasteners
In recent years, with the considerable usage of
uniter plus or multiple pin connectors on a whole
host of electronic devices, it became necessary to
provide a suitable method of both engaging and re-
leasing these plug and socket units.
The fastener required for such a purpose had to
be capable of overcoming the insertion and with-
drawal forces (which can be in the order of 30 lb.
or more), provide instant location in guiding the
pins into engagement, be fast acting in closure and
release, yet resistant to accidental disconnection
under vibration.
The Dzus Universal quadruple thread fastener sys-
tem, originally developed for load carrying pur-
poses on aircraft cowling panels, was found readily
adaptable to meet these requirements. By adaptation
the quadruple thread stud was housed in a heavy
duty aluminium alloy shell and made to engage, close
tolerance wise, on to a male spigot projecting from
a similarly modified heavy duty receptacle.
In operation the two parts are closely guided to-
gether providing the degree of accuracy and rigid-
ity required to meet the various conditions of ser-
vice and capable of closure and release within ap-
proximately one and a half turns of the threaded
stud. Alternative head style methods of stud opera-
tion are provided, viz. hand operated large wing,
socket recess (for hexagon wrench) and hexagon
bolt head style. All too meet varying needs and
conditions of access.
These Disconnect Fasteners, as they are called,
became widely used and
developments in various
forms have since been applied to additional appli-
cations. This involved further tailored specials
for securing panel modules, printing circuit trays
etc. , all of which incorporated jack-plug connectors
for making circuit contact on attachment of the mod-
ule unit.
The applications now range from regular connector
socket fixings in electronics to ground control cub-
icle modules used in guidance systems for civil
and military aircraft.
From the foregoing a good example can be- seen of
a fastener, originally designed for a conventional
purpose, being developed into a special, the result
of which has provided a service in a field which,
hitherto, had not been intended.
Quarter turn fastener
Although there are many types of efficient quarter
turn fasteners, the Vibrex type is shown in detail
in view of its particular properties. Fig. 4 shows
the fastener in the locked and open position. Fig. 5
shows the variety of heads which can be applied to
suit particular applications. This type of quarter-
Fig.4. The fastener in the open position (left)
and locked position (right).
Fig. 5.
turn fastener can be assembled without special
tools, riveting or spot welding operations. Only
two round holes are needed
-
one in the removable
panel and one in the base. Since the fastener de-
pends on the unique action of the rubber it is both
firm and flexible in operation. It discourages ratt-
les and is particularly suitable for fixing glass and
plastics panels.
Manufacturers: Silentbloc Ltd.
Cold forged fasteners
Whilst this Chapter has been devoted to interesting
fastening systems, some mention must be made to
Fig. 6.
advanced manufacturing techniques in metallic fast-
ener production. Sintered and cold forged compo-
nents are of particular interest.
Fig. 6 shows a switch button which would normally
be turned from the solid. This actual example has
been forged by the GKN Dynoflow method and the
only secondary operation needed, to give the part
an excellent surface finish is to submit it to mild
barrelling. In this case the material is an alumi-
nium alloy and the material saving alone is 75 per
cent.
Fig. 7 shows a special screw made by the same
process but from mild steel.
Manufacturers: GKN Screws and Fasteners Ltd.
Liquid thread locking
Many screw threads can be effectively locked by
applying a liquid sealant which remains fluid when
in contact with air
-
but when placed between metal
surfaces cures automatically. One brand, known
as Loctite, sets without shrinking into an extreme-
ly tough, impervious and non-toxic solid. The
joint is not affected by vibration but the bond can be
broken by using a spanner.
In addition to locking nuts, bolts and threaded
studs, the solutions can also be used for fitting
bearings retaining components in the correctly as-
sembled position and also as a locking/sealing med-
ium on pipework.
Manufacturers: Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
Fig.8. 1 .Thread locking; 2. Bearing fitting;
3. Parts retaining; 4. Pipe and tube sealing.
Self locking inserts
Fig. 9. shows a self locking, threaded insert. The
unit is made from a corrosion resistant steel and
the locking element from a suitable thermoplastic.
To install the insert the holes must be tapped with
a regular tap and the device installed by using a sim-
ple applicator. The locking element works by pre-
venting the inset from disengaging from the tapped
hole at the same time securing the mating bolt.
Manufacturers: Long-Lok Ltd.
High torque heads for screws
Many different head designs for screws have been
developed to facilitate the speedy assembly and
installation of threaded fasteners.
The new 'Torque-Hed' detail (Fig. 10) is a six wing
self-centring arrangement for screw heads. This
design is particularly suitable where high torque
driving is required. The head does not easily 'cam-
out' thus preventing undue damage to screwdriver
bits. If painted over, the heads are easier to clean
than many other recess headed screws. It should
also be noted that in emergency the head can be
turned by using a conventional screw driver blade.
Manufacturers: The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Touch and close fasteners
Fig. 11 shows a greatly enlarged view of a touch
and close fastener which is sold under the name of
'Velcro'. The fastener consists of two nylon strips,
one with thousands of liny hooks and the other with
many tiny loops. When pressed together the hooks
grip the loops to give a tight, secure closure.
To
separate the fastener, the two strips are simply
peeled apart.
The fastenings are flexible and can be washed, dry-
cleaned and ironed. Being plastics they will not cor-
rode or jam. Most applications for Velcro are to
be found where flexible materials have to be fixed
in position.
Manufacturers: Seleetus Ltd.
Ultrasonic plastics assembly
In the last two or three years the assembly of plas-
tics components by means of ultrasonic energy has
emerged from the laboratory to become a recog-
nised - and increasingly accepted -
industrial tech-
nique. Already it is estimated
*
that 200-300 ultra-
sonic assembly equipments are being used indus-
164
Fig. 10. (Right).
Fig.
11 . (Below).
Fig . 1 2 . (Bel ow right)
Special multiple ultra-
sonic welding head
designed for a large
assembly task. Each
horn is powered by
a separate generator.
LARGE
LARGE
DRIVING
.DRIVING
AREA
/ RADIUS
DRIVER WING
SECTION XX
DRIVING FEATURES
RECESS APPROACH PACE
DRIVER ENGAGEMENT
' '
'':
.
trially in Britain and it is safe to predict that the
number will rise rapidly as realisation of the ad-
vantages of ultrasonics spreads.
Ultrasonics cannot handle all plastics assembly
jobs but, where it can be used, joints are produced
rapidly and automatically and are reliable, incon-
spicuous and indeed attractive. Basically there are
three techniques for ultrasonic assembly
,
welding,
staking and metal-to-plastics insertion.
Whatever technique is used in a particular applica-
tion, the equipment and the method of applying ul-
trasonics are substantially the same. The ultra-
sonic vibrations are initiated by an electronic gen-
erator which converts the 50 Hz mains electricity
supply into electrical energy of the required ultra-
sonic frequency
-
generally 20, 000 Hz. This elec-
trical energy drives a transducer (converter) built
into the head of a column-mounted probe. The
transducer converts the electrical energy into mech-
anical vibration, which is imparted to the work-
piece by the probe tip, known as a 'horn'. The
vibration is transmitted to the extremities of the
workpiece, where it is either internally reflected
or transmitted to the adjacent medium.
Typical standard equipment for ultrasonic assembly
-
the Dawe Sonic Welder Type 1133 - uses a genera-
tor rated a 1700 inch-pounds per second. A similar
unit (Type 1134) has a generator- rated at 3200 inch-
pounds per second.
>
Several transducers and probes may be mounted
together in a combined unit, as shown in Fig. 12, to
enable comparatively large workpieces to be ultra-
sonically assembled; the associated generators may
be rack-mounted if required.
Welding
Mechanical vibration from the transducer, imparted
to the workpiece by way of the horn, spreads through
the workpiece. At a joint line, the adjacent med-
ium is solid and unable to respond to the high-fre-
quency vibration of the workpiece in contact with
the horn. This results in high-frequency rubbing of
the workpiece against its companion, causing the
ultrasonic energy to be dissipated as frictional
heat. The result is local heating and melting of
the plastics in the immediate vicinity of the joint
line, giving a strong thermal weld.
The principle is similar to spin welding except that
the relative motion is reciprocating instead of ro-
tary and joints of many shapes may be made. To
obtain the best joints in practice the joint profile
should be specially designed, with a raised ridge
on one joint surface to act as an energy 'director'
(Fig. 13), concentrating and localising the heating
165
THREADED BORE-
ENERGY DIRECTOR
effect. On the application of ultrasonics this ridge
rapidly melts and the molten material spreads
evenly across the joint profile. Handling of work-
pieces may be mechanised and horns and joint pro-
files may be specially designed. Joints which are
virtually homogeneous can be produced very rapidly
and automatically with almost zero rejection rate.
Ultrasonic welding of rigid thermoplastics is al-
ready widely used for automatic assembly of pla-
stics bowls, cosmetic jars, flash cubes and many
other components, where adhesives, solvents and
directly applied heat are at a disadvantage.
In the case of flash cubes
-
a particularly good ex-
ample - the use of ultrasonics is virtually essential.
It is necessary
to seal the cover to the base of the
flash cube with a joint of high strength, since a
force of about 3 lb. is typically required to extract
even a correctly fitted flash cube from its socket
and some allowance must be made for faulty fitt-
ing. An adhesive
would be too messy
-
it would have
to be kept away from the reflectors and non-join-
ing surfaces,
to preserve both the properties
of the
reflectors
and the pleasing, even sparkling, appear-
ance of the cube, which accounts for at least part
of its attraction to the buying public. In any case
an adhesive would hardly be suitable for high-vol-
ume production and heat could not be directly ap-
plied because of the proximity of the flash bulbs.
Fig. 14. Plastics tubes are easy to seal ultrason-
ically since the vibrations decontaminate the
joint zone .
Fig. 13. (Far left) Suitable
profile for ultrasonic
butt
wold showing recommended
relative dimensions of
energy director.
Fig.16;. (Left) Suitable
proportions for plastics
head and metal insert
designed for ultrasonic
assembly.
The four-bulb flash cube was, in fact, designed
for
ultrasonic
assembly right from the start. Ultra-
sonic energy is applied around the circumference
of the base, immediately above the welding line.
In other applications, where this can be arranged,
it minimises energy
requirements and gives the
most economical joint. In the case of rigid thermo-
plastics it is also possible to weld remotely, since
the ultrasonic energy is transmitted by the work-
piece to the joint line. The range at which it is
possible to carry out remote welding depends on a
number of factors,
such as the power imparted
to
the plastics by the horn and the sound-transmitting
properties of the plastics. With good horn-plastics
coupling and suitable
thermoplastic
materials
a
range of six inches or more is practicable.
With non-rigid plastics,
generally in the form of
film, sheeting or tubing, the horn must be applied
directly above the joint line. Since the ultrasonics
has the secondary effect of cleaning the joint zone
of contaminants
and extraneous matter, ultra-
sonics is particularly suitable for sealing plastics
tubes (Fig. 14), sachets and similar non-rigid con-
tainers which are filled via the joint prior to sealing.
Most commonly
used injection-moulded
plastics
can be ultrasonically
sealed or welded without the
use of solvents, heat or adhesives.
Weldability
depends on their melting temperature, modulus
of
elasticity, impact resistance,
coefficient of friction
and thermal conductivity.
General-purpose
styrene
is the best material for ultrasonic
assembly be-
cause of its high modulus and low melting
tempera-
ture. Conversely, fluorocarbon
resins, which can-
not be welded, have a low modulus, high melting
temperature
and low coefficient of friction.
Gen-
erally, the softer the plastics, the more difficult
it is to weld the part remotely
(where the horn is
more than
i
in. from the joint). Low-modulus
mat-
erials such as polyethylene,
polypropylene and buty-
rate can be welded, provided
the horn can be posi-
tioned close to the joint area.
Both similar and dissimilar thermoplastic
mat-
erials may be welded if their melting
temperatures
are of the same order. Higher power and longer
weld times are needed for materials with a high
melting point and, if one material melts before
the other, it becomes extremely difficult to obtain
a satisfactory joint.
166
Manufacturers of PHILLIPS
"POZIDRIV"
SCREWS
ADVANTAGES:
the driving faces of the recess are vertical, which
"fc" Eliminates cam-out, or driver disengagement
"At Reduces operator fatigue
"A" Reduces wear on driver
"A" Reduces damage during driving
"^T All resulting in overall reduction in costs
With the recess being shallower there is an increased head to
shank strength.
BISSEL STREET
BIRMINGHAM 5
Telephone:
021-692 1135 (10 linesl
Telex: 33474
London Office: 212,
CHEAM COMMON ROAD, WORCESTER PARK, SURREY
Telephone: 01-337 0017. London Telex: 'Fraimfil' London 25514.
Metric
!
We specialise exclusively in metric fasteners ex stock:
HI-TENSILE, MILD STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL, BRASS ETC.
BOLTS, SCREWS, NUTS, STUDDING, WING NUTS,
SELF-LOCKING NUTS,
DOWEL,
TENSION & TAPERED PINS, ETC., ETC.
THREADS TO I.S.O., D.I.N, and
SYSTEME-FRANCE
METRIC
ALLSCREWS LTD.
PEASE POTTAGE
SUSSEX
Telephone
CRAWLEY (OCY3) 25811/2
167
0.5D RADIUS
0.5D RADIUS
Hh
Jjvjb:
Jf
1
^
STANDARO
LCW PROFILE
Fig.16. Relative dimensions oF horn and stud
profiles For standard and low-proFile staked head
Forms .
Insertion
In the case of insertion, a hole (not necessarily
circular) of slightly smaller dimensions than that
of the insert to be received is first pre-moulded
in the plastics, to provide an interference fit and to
guide the insert into place. For a fully interlock-
ing assembly, the metal insert is generally knurled,
undercut, or otherwise shaped to resist the loads
imposed on the finished assembly.
Ultrasonic energy may be applied to the metal or
the plastics, but is generally applied in practice to
the metal if it is an insert since it has a smaller
volume, better sound-transmitting properties and
consequently wastes less energy. The ultrasonic
vibration gives rise to frictional heat at the joint
or interface, causing momentary melting and flow-
ing of the plastics and allowing the insert to be driv-
en home. The ultrasonic energy is generally ap-
plied for less than one second but during this time
the plastics flows around the knurls, flutes, under-
cuts or threads to encapsulate the insert.
A typical example is the assembly of a steel insert
into a knob of impact styrene (Fig. 15) for use as a
locking device. The insert should be threaded or
knurled because the finished assembly has to with-
stand torque and axial shear forces when pressure
is brought to bear both on the plastics and insert
surfaces.
Insert/hole design varies with each application
but
in all cases a sufficient volume of plastics must be
displaced to fill the voids created by knurled or
undercut areas of the insert. A slight excess of
molten material is generally
preferable to insuffi-
cient interference,
which may result in a joint of
inadequate strength.
Staking
Ultrasonic staking of metal to plastics employs the
same principles as welding and insertion but joint
design is very different.
In staking, a hole in the
metal receives a plastics stud which is then formed
into a head by ultrasonic energy to hold the metal
in place. The process is very similar to riveting.
Staking requires ultrasonic energy only at the sur-
face of the plastics stud so that the initial contact
area between horn and plastics must be kept small.
The horn is specially designed, and usually under-
cut to the shape of stud head required. One of two
head forms, having a high or low profile (Fig.
16),
will suit the majority of applications.
Unlike welding or insertion, staking requires that
out-of-phase vibration should take place between
horn and stud surfaces. Light initial contact pres-
sure is therefore applied over a very small initial
area. The progessive melting of the plastics under
this light but continuous pressure forms the re-
quired stud head. As with welding and insertion,
some trial and error may be necessary to obtain
the optimum settings of pressure, hold time and
weld time but the result, when set up, is an opera-
tion suitable for rapid production with very low
rejection rate.
REFERENCES
1. Stafford,
R. D. 'Ultrasonic assembly techniques
for plastic components'.
Paper 2, session 5, 'Plas-
tics and the production engineer', conference pre-
print. The Plastics Institute and the Institution of
Production Engineers, June 1967.
2. Kolb D. J. 'Designing plastic parts for ultra-
sonic assembly'. Machine Design. The Penton
Publishing Co.
, Cleveland, Ohio. March 16, 1967.
168
Suppliers
of
Fasteners
CIRCLIPS
Acme Spring Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Automotive Engineering Ltd.
Baileys of Aldridge.
British Lock Washers Ltd.
George Cotton & Sons.
Cross Manufacturing Co. (1938)Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
Charles E. Greehill Ltd.
Helical Springs Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Lid.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Morlock Industries Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spring Washers Ltd.
Wellworthy Ltd.
EYELETS
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Copper & Asbestos Washer Co. Ltd.
E. J. Francois Ltd.
Ross Courtney & Co. Ltd.
Ceo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.
Clifford Whatmoufih Ltd.
THREADED INSERTS
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Anglo-Swiss Screw Co. Ltd.
Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.
The Automatic Standard Screw Co. (Halifax) Ltd.
Avdel Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove)Ltd.
Cranes Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Cross Manufacturing Co. (1938) Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners I-td.
Expandite Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
E. J. Francois Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Harris & Edgar Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Instrument Screw Co. Ltd.
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
Jesse Haywood & Co. Ltd.
Jukes Coulson. Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
Long-Lok Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Precision Screw Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Prestincert Ltd.
Screw Machine Products Ltd.
Segmatic Ltd.
Tappex Thread Inserts Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Woodberry Chillcott & Co. Ltd.
Crompton
Parkinson Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
NUTS
- BLACK
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd..
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd.
)
John Bullough Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Samuel Marden & Son Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Wm. Motherwell & Co. Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Nuts & Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Benjamin Priest & Sons Ltd.
Charles Richards & Sons Ltd.
G. H. Smith & Co (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Swinnerton & Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
NUTS
- LOCKING
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.
Avdel Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
H.J. Barlow & Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
Benton Engineering Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges ( Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crew & Sons Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltlght Industries Ltd.
:)avid Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Tirth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Samuel Marden & Son Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Stephen Newall & Co. Ltd.
Nuts & Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
Palnut Co. Ltd. , The
R.A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
Preswich Parker Ltd.
Benjamin Priest & Sons Ltd.
Charles Richards & Sons Ltd.
G.H. Smith & Co. (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
Swinnerton & Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chillcott & Co. Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
NUTS
- CLINCH ft ANCHOR
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Avdel Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
Barton Rivet Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
Benton Engineering Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd.
)
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.

Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C.J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Instrument Screw Co. Ltd.
Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
C. Undley & Co. Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Spirol Pins Ltd.
Tappex Thread Inserts Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
NUTS - CAGED
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
Cranes Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Tappex Thread Inserts Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
NUTS
-
SINGLE THREADED
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd. ).
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C.J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Arnold Kinnings & Son Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Metric AUscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spirol Pins Ltd.
Ucan Products Ltd.
Thos W. Ward Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
NUTS -PLAIN
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Automatic Standard Screw Co. (Halifax) Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B. A. R. Fasteners Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
N. J.
Barlow & Co. Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd.
)
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
John Bullough Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crew ft Sons Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Thos. Eaves Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
E. J. Francois Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
169
Thomas Haddon & Stokes Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Lid.
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
Jukes Coulson. Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
C. W. Juby Ltd.
Arnold Kinnings & Son Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
I
s
. 6, W. MacLellan Ltd.
Samuel Harden & Son Ltd.
Metric Allsc-ews Lid.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Motherwell & Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Stephen Newall & Co. Lid.
R. A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Charles Richards & Sons Ltd.
Screw & Rivet Co. Ltd.
Simpson-Turner Ltd.
G. H. Smith & Co. (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Lid.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
E. H. Thompson & Son (London) Ltd.
Ucan Products Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chillcott & Co. Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Lid.
NUTS -
WELD
Alder Hardware Ltd.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
G. I'. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C. J, Fox & Sons Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
P. &. W. MacLellan Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Lid.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Stephen Newall Ac Co. Ltd.
Screw & Rivet Co. Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
KSM Siud Welding Ltd.
PLASTICS FASTENERS
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
Black & Luff Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
British Screw Co. Ltd.
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Dzus Fastener Europe Ltd.
Expandite Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C.J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
E..7. Francois Ltd.
CKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
ITW Ltd., Fastox Division.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Ross, Courtney & Co. Ltd.
Simpson-Turner Ltd.
Tower Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Geo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.
t. can Products Ltd.
Moulded Fasteners Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Lid.
BOLTS
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
The Auto Machinery Co. Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B.A.R. Fastener* Ltd.
Berber & Colman Ltd.
H.J. Barlow & Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
John Bullough Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
Chalfont Aluminium Roofing Supplies Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Cooper & Turner Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crew & Sons Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Thomas Eaves Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
H. Fordsmith Ltd.
E. J. Francois Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
Harris & Edgar Ltd.
Harrison (Birmingham) Brassfoundry Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
Jesse Haywood & Co. Ltd.
Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
Arnold Kinnings & Son Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
Long-Lok Ltd.
Macnays 'Ltd.
Samuel Marden & Son Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Stephen Newall & Co. Ltd.
Nuts & Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Price & Orphin Ltd.
Charles Richards & Sons Ltd.
Screw & Rivet Co. Ltd.
Simpson-Turner Ltd.
G.H. Smith & Co. (Bankhail) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
Swinnerton & Co. (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
E. H. Thompson & Sons (London) Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Unbrako Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Warne Wright Engineering Ltd.
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chillcott & Co. Ltd.
Nyloy
Screws Ltd.
PINS -
SOLID & TUBULAR
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Anglo-Swiss Screw Co. Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
Barton Rivet Co. Ltd.
G. E. Bissell & Co. Ltd.
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Exors. of James Mills Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
H. Fordsmith Ltd.
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
Grover & Co. Ltd.
Harris & Edgar Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Jesse Haywood & Co. Ltd.
Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
Ltandaff Engineering Co. Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Marples & Beasley Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Stephen Newall & Co. Ltd.
Nuts &. Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
Precision Screw Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Spirol Pins Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Trinity Engineering Co.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Ucan Products Ltd.
Unbrako Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry fhiUcott & Co. Ltd.
Crompton Parkinson Ltd.
QUICK OPERATING FASTENERS
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Avdel Ltd.
Howard S. Cooke & Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Dzus Fastener Europe Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
ITW Ltd. Fastex Div.
170
Isaac, .lackson
& Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Ross, Courtney & Co. Ltd.
Silenlblock
Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
RIVC I S
-
BUN
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Avdel Ltd.
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr Kas:ener Co. Ltd.
Chalfon: Aluminium Roofing Supplies Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
Llanda:T Engineering Co. Ltd.
Metric A:iscrews Ltd,
Tappcx Thread Inserts Ltd.
Geo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.
Thos W. Ward Ltd.
Clevoilmi Rivets & Tools Ltd.
RIVETS -
SOLID & TUBULAR
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Avdel lad.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
Barton Kivet Co. Ltd.
Baxters ; Holla, Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
Bifurcaa.:) & Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd.
Black & Luff Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Cooper & Turner Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Everbnghi Fasteners Ltd.
Hall fc Mice Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Jesse Hc,> wood & Co. Ltd.
James *. l'a:ten Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
Llandaff IJr.gmeering Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. & \\ . MacLellan Ltd.
Metric A.lscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Motherwe.l & Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd,
S. & 0. Rivet Co. Ltd.
Screw tv J^vet Co. Ltd.
Tower Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Trinity Kr.gineering Co.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Thos. \\\ Ward Ltd.
Williams Hros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Cleve-lun Rivets & Tools Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
SCRFWS - MACHINE
Peter Abhott & Co. Ltd.
Aircraf* Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Anglo-Suiss Screw Co. Ltd.
Annfieit Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Arcon Lugi-ieering Co.
Automa-ic Standard Screw Co. (Halifax) Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B.A. R. /.isteners Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
Barber & Colman Ltd.
H.J. Barlow
& Co. Ltd.
Baxters Mioks. Screws & Rivets ) Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Krioges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Brown Hros (Aircraft) Ltd.
Carr c* \i<:tiols Ltd.
George : coper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltigh; Industries Ltd.
Thos. Lr.ves Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
E.J. Francois Ltd.
GKN Screws
& Fasteners Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
Thomas Haddon & Stokes Ltd.
John Hlt-fctou & Co. Ltd.
lndustr.al Fasteners Ltd.
Irlam Kngir.eering Co. (1942) Ltd.
Jesse Hitywood & Co. Ltd.
Jukes Couison, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
James ^ fallen Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
Linread Lid.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
Long-Lok Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Motherwell fit Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford {Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Stephen Newall & Co. Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co (Sutton) Ltd.
Screw Machine Products Ltd.
Screw & Rivet Co. Ltd.
Segmatac Ltd.
Simpson-Turner Ltd.
G. H. Smith fit Co (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
Swinnerton fit Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
E.H. Thompson & Son (London) Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chilicott & Co. Ltd.
Ephraim Phillips Ltd.
Holo-Krome Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
SCREWS
-
SELF TAPPING & SIMILAR
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
Barber fit Colman Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts, Screws fit Rivets) Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Crane's Screw fit Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
GKN Screws fit Fasteners Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
ITW Ltd. Fastex Div.
James fit Tatten Ltd.
C. Lindley fit Co. Ltd.
Linread Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. fit W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co (Sutton) Ltd.
Screw Machine Products Ltd.
G.H. Smith fit Co (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Tappex Thread Inserts Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chilicott fit Co. Ltd.
Ephraim Phillips Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Lid.
SCREWS -SEX
Peter Abbott fit Co. Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Automatic Standard Screw Co (Halifax) Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
H.J. Barlow & Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts, Screws fit Rivets) Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd.
John Bullough Ltd.
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Crane's Screw fit Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crew & Sons Ltd.
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Thos. Eaves Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
H. Fordsmith Ltd.
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
John Hickton fit Co. Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
Irlam Engineering Co (1942) Ltd.
Jukes Coulson, Stokes fit Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
James fit Tatten Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Arnold Kinnings fit Son Ltd.
C. Lindley fit Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. & W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
James Mills Ltd.
Motherwell fit Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold fit Moser Ltd.
Stephen Newall fit Co. Ltd.
Nuts fit Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
R.A. Poole fit Co (Sutton) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Price fit Orptain Ltd.
Benjamin Priest & Sons Ltd.
Charles Richards fit Sons Ltd.
Screw Machine Products Ltd.
Screw fit Rivet Co. Ltd.
Simpson-Turner Ltd.
G.H. Smith & Co (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
Swinnerton & Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Unbrako Ltd.
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chilicott fit Co. Ltd.
Holo-Krome Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
SPRING STEEL CUPS
Acme Spring Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
British Lock Washers Ltd.
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Howard S. Cooke St Co. Ltd.
George Cotton fit Sons.
Crane's Screw & Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Cross Manufacturing Co (1938) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
Charles E. Greenhill Ltd.
Hall & Rice Ltd.
Helical Springs Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
ITW Ltd. . Fastex Division,
James & Tatten Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing fit Railway Supplies Ltd.
Morlock Industries Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spring Washers Ltd.
Swinnerton &. Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
WASHERS
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd.
Acme Spring Co. Ltd.
Adams fit Benson Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Anderton (Spring Pressings) Ltd.
Anglo-Swiss Screw Co. Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Bailey's of Aldridge.
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
Barber & Colman Ltd.
H.J. Barlow fit Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts, Screws & Rivets) Ltd.
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
British Lock Washers Ltd.
G. fit S. Brough Ltd.
Carr fit Nicholls Ltd.
Chalfont Aluminium Roofing Supplies Ltd.
Charles (Wednesbury) Ltd.
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Copper fit Asbestos Washer Co. Ltd.
George Cotton fit Sons.
Crane's Screw fit Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crew fit Sons Ltd.
Cross Manufacturing Co. (1938) Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings fit Fasteners) Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
E. J. Francois Ltd.
GKN Bolts fit Nuts Ltd.
GKN Screws fii Fasteners Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
John fit Joseph Goodare Ltd.
Charles E. Greenhill Ltd.
Grover fit Co. Ltd.
Thomas Haddon fit Stokes Ltd.
Hampton fit Beebee Ltd.
John Hickton fit Co. Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
International Engineering Concessionaires Ltd.
Jukee Coulson. Stokes & Co. Ltd.
Isaac Jackson fit Sons ( Fasteners) Ltd.
James fit Tatten Ltd.
C.W. Juby Ltd.
Richard Klinger Ltd.
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
C. Lindley fit Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. fit W. MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Samuel Marden fit Son Ltd.
Marples fit Beasley Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Moorside Machining Co. Ltd.
Morlock Industries Ltd.
Wm. Motherwell fit Co. Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettlefold fit Moser Ltd.
Stephen Newall fit Co. Ltd.
Nuts fit Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
The Positive Lock Washer Co. Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Price fit Orphin Ltd.
Benjamin Priest fit Sons Ltd.
Charles Richards fit Sons Ltd.
Ross. Courtney & Co. Ltd.
Screw fit Rivet Co. Ltd.
G.H. Smith fit Co (Bankhall) Ltd.
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd,
Spring Washers Ltd.
Swinnerton fit Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
E.H. Thompson fit Son (London) Ltd.
Toledo Woodhead Springs Ltd.
Tower Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
Ucan Products Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
John Williams (Wishaw) Ltd.
Woodberry Chilicott & Co. Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
STRUCTURAL WASHERS
AdamB fit Benson Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Arcon Engineering Co.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Bailey's of Aldridge.
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution Ltd).
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
Cooper fit Turner Ltd.
Everbright Fasteners Ltd.
GKN Bolts fit Nuts Ltd.
Arthur Gise Ltd.
John fit Joseph Goodare Ltd.
Hampton fit Beebee Ltd.
John Hickton fit Co. Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
James fit Tatten Ltd.
Richard Klinger Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P. fit W. MacLeUan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Samuel Marden fit Son Ltd.
Metric Allscrews Ltd.
The Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Nettlefold & Moser Ltd.
Nuts fit Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
Prestwich Parker Ltd.
Benjamin Priest & Sons Ltd.
G.H. Smith fit Co (Bankhall ) Ltd.
Swinnerton fit Co (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
Williams Bros (Sheffield) Ltd.
John Williams (Wishaw) Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
SCREWS - WOOD
Peter Abbot fit Co. Ltd.
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
Alder Hardware Ltd.
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
U. A. R. Fasteners Ltd.
C. P.
Bridges (Glywed Distribution Ltd.
Deltight Industries Ltd.
Kphraim Phillips Ltd.
Kverbright Fasteners Ltd.
GKN Screw & Fasteners Ltd.
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
James & Tatten Ltd.
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
P & W MacLellan Ltd.
Macnays Ltd.
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
Nettleford & Moser Ltd.
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
R. F. Overton Ltd.
R.A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
G.H. Smith & Co. (Bankhall) Ltd.
Swinnerton fit Co. (Stourbridge) Ltd.
Telco Ltd.
Ucan Products Ltd.
William Hros. (Sheffield) Ltd.
Woodberry Chilicott fit Co. Ltd.
PROJECTION WELDED FASTENERS
Alder Hardware Ltd.
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd.
Barton Rivet Co. Ltd.
Baxters (Bolts Screws fit Rivets) Ltd.
Black fit Luff Ltd.
John Bradley fit Co. Ltd.
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
Crane's Screw fit Colgryp Castor Co. Ltd.
Crompton Parkinson Ltd.
David Etchells (Forgings fit Fasteners) Ltd.
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
C.J. Fox fit Sons Ltd.
Thomas Haddon fit Stokes Ltd.
John Hickton fit Co. Ltd.
Jesse Haywood fit Co. Ltd.
KSM Stud Welding Ltd.
Linread Ltd.
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
Screw fit Rivet Co. Ltd.
The Torrington Co. Ltd.
Trinity Engineering Co.
171
Mtmetouts'i
FAST AND RELIABLE DELIVERIES
of Socket Screws contribute in no small
measure to the efficiency of British
Industry. This type of service is a Holo-
Krome speciality, because Holo-Krome
Distributors and Stockists all over the
country carry large and comprehensive
stocks . . . and are backed by the
efficiency of Holo-Krome's customer-
orientated production methods.
Indeed, Industry can always depend on
the Quality and Fast Delivery of Holo-
Krome Thermo- Forged Socket Screws.
AND
ORDER
NUW
iSSl%^2S2
If you would like a free Holo-Krome
Socket Screw Selector, or Samples, or
Price Lists of Standard Sizes of Socket
Screws having British, American and
Metric Thread Forms, please write on
yourcompany letterhead to Holo-Krome.
HOLO-KROME
Head Office r Factory Holo-Krome Limited, Kingsway West, Dundee. Tel. No. 69261, Telex 76241.
Sales Office & Stock DepotHolo-Krome Limited, Park Lane, Birmingham 21. Tel. No. 021 553 1037, Telex 338140
172
Suppliers
Addresses
Peter Abbott & Co. Ltd. .
191 Francis Road,
Leyton. E. 10.
01-539 0631
Acme Spring Co. Ltd.,
Bull Lane Works.
West Bromwich,
Staffs.
021-553 0756
Adams & Benson Ltd.
,
Union Lodge.
Albion,
West Bromwich,
Staffs.
021-553 0561
Aircraft Materials Ltd.
,
Midland Road.
N.W. 1.
01-387 6151
Alder Hardware Ltd.
,
Beaconsfield Road,
Hayes,
Middx.
01-573 7766
Anderton (Spring Pressings) Ltd.
.
Hithercroft Road,
Wallingford.
Berks.
Wallingford 2081
Anglo-Swiss Screw Co. Ltd.,
Trout Rood.
West Drayton.
Middx.
West Drayton 3644
Annfield Metal Fasteners Ltd.
.
Overton Mill.
Overton,
Basingstoke,
Hants.
Overton 303
Arcon Engineering Co.
,
Wallsuches,
Horwich.
Bolton,
Lanes.
Horwich 68215
Armstrong Patents Co. Ltd.
,
Eastgate,
Beverley,
Yorks.
Beverley 882212
Auto Machinery Co. Ltd.,
Aldermoor Lane.
Coventry,
Warks.
Coventry 52261
Automatic Standard Screw Co. (Halifax) Ltd.
Charles Street,
Halifax,
Yorca.
Halifax 65967
Automotive Engineering Ltd.
.
The Green.
Twickenham,
Middx.
01-894 1161
Avdel Ltd.
,
Welwyn Garden City,
Herts".
Welwyn Garden 28161
Avon Manufacturing (Warwick) Ltd.
,
Montague Road.
Warwick.
Warwick 41737
B.A.R. Fasteners Ltd..
Brinton Division.
Wednesbury.
Staffs.
021-556 0951
Bailey's of Aldridge,
Redhouse Industrial Estate,
Aldridge.
Nr. Walsall.
Staffs.
Aldridge 52288
Bar Production (Bromsgrove) Ltd.
.
Sherwood Road,
Bromsgrove.
Wores.
Bromsgrove 3241
Barber & Colman Ltd.
.
Marsland Road.
Sale,
Ches.
Sale 2277
H. J. Barlow & Co. Ltd.,
Mounts Works,
Wednesbury,
Staffs.
Wednesbury 0906
Barton Rivet Co. Ltd.
.
Hampton Road,
Droitwich.
Wores.
Droltwich 2021
Baxters (Bolts, Screws & Rivets) Ltd.,
Sheepcote Street.
Birmingham, IS.
021-643 0105
Benton Engineering Co. Ltd.
.
Tonbridge Road.
Harold Hill.
Romford.
Essex.
Ingrebourne 43864
Bifurcated & Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd.
,
MandeviUe Road.
Aylesbury.
Bucks.
Aylesbury 5911
G. E. Bissell & Co. Ltd.,
Crown Works,
Malt Mill Lane,
Halesowen.
Worcs.
021-599 2241
Black & Luff Ltd.
,
Pershore Road South.
Birmingham, 30.
021-458 4371
John Bradley & Co. Ltd.
,
101-111 Holloway Head,
Birmingham, 1.
021-643 4781
G. F. Bridges (Glynwed Distribution) Ltd.
Bordesley Green,
Birmingham. 9.
021-772 5511
British Lock Washers Ltd.
,
Bridgnorth Road.
Wombourn,
Wolverhampton.
Staffs.
Wombourn 2431
The British Screw Co. Ltd.
.
153 Kirkstall Road,
Leeds, 4.
Leeds 30541
G. & S. Brough Ltd,
,
25/29 Commercial St.,
Birmingham, 1.
021-643 3574
Brown Bros (Aircraft) Ltd...
Bedford Road,
Northampton,
Northants.
Northampton 35181
John Butlough Ltd.
.
Bag Lane,
Atherton,
Manchester,
Lanes.
Atherton 4151
173
Camloc Industrial Fixings (UK) Ltd.,
12 Hampton Court Parade,
East Molesey.
Surrey.
01-979 7363
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd.
,
Stapleford.
Nottingham.
Sandiacre 2661
Carr & Nichols Ltd.
,
Bolton Road,
Atherton,
Manchester.
Atherton 2431
Chalfont Aluminium Roofing Supplies Ltd.
,
Newcastle upon Tyne, 4,
Northumberland.
Newcastle 35226
Charles (Wednesbury) Ltd.,
Bridge Works,
Wednesbury,
Staffs.
021-556 2261
Howard S. Cooke & Co. Ltd.
,
Arrow Road,
Redditch,
Worcs.
Redditch 3231
George Cooper (Sheffield) Ltd.
,
Sheffield Road,
Sheffield, 9,
Yores.
Sheffield 41026
Cooper & Turner Ltd.
,
Vulcan Works,
Vulcan Road,
Sheffield, 9,
Yores.
Sheffield 42091
Copper *t Asbestos Washer Co. Ltd.
,
Northgate,
Aldridge,
Walsall.
Staffs.
Aldridge 52951
George Cotton & Sons.
Lockfield Avenue.
Brimsdown,
Enfield.
Middx.
01-804 3033
Crane's Screw & Colgyrp Castor Co. Ltd.
72 Floodgate Street,
Birmingham. 5.
021-772 3274
Crew & Sons Ltd.
.
Newey Street.
Dudley,
Worcs.
Dudley 57231
Cross Manufacturing Co. (1938) Ltd.,
Combe Down.
Bath BA2 5RR.
Somerset.
Combe Down 2355
Datim Screw Co. Ltd.
,
Brooker Road,
Waltham Abbey,
Essex.
01-97 24738
Deltlght Industries Ltd.
,
Fairfield Street.
Wandsworth,
S.W. 18.
01-870 3262
Dzus Fastener Europe Ltd.
Farnham Trading Estate,
Farnham,
Surrey.
Farnham 4422
Thos. Eaves Ltd.
,
58 Holloway Head,
Birmingham, 1,
021-692 1481
David Etchells (Forgings & Fasteners) Ltd.
Blaenau Ffestiniog.
Merioneth.
N. Wales.
Blaenau Ffestiniog 493
Everbright Fasteners Ltd,
,
162 Colne Road,
Twickenham.
Middx.
01-894 7553
Exors. of James Mills Ltd..
Bredbury Works,
Woodley,
Stockport,
Cheshire.
061-430 2231
Expandite Ltd.
,
Plilplug Div.
.
Western Road,
Bracknell,
Berks.
RG12 1-RH.
Bracknell 3200
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd.
,
Treforest,
Glam.
Treforest 2633
H. Fordsmith Ltd.,
Hadfield Street Works,
Combrook,
Manchester, 16.
061-872 1615
C. J. Fox & Sons Ltd.
,
117 Victoria St.,
London.
S.W. 1.
01-834 0204
E. J. Francois Ltd.
.
62/68 Rosebery Avenue,
London,
E.C.I.
01-837 9157
GKN Bolts & Nuts Ltd.
,
Atlas Works.
P.O. Box -No. 12.
Darlaston.
S. Staffs.
021-526 3100
GKN Screws & Fasteners Ltd.
,
Heath St. Div.
,
P.O. Box No. 61.
Heath St.
Smethwick,
Warley.
Worcs.
021-558 1441
Arthur Gise Ltd.,
Cooksey Road.
Small llcalh,
Birmingham, 10.
021-772 4961
John & Joseph Goodare Ltd.
,
Noose Lane,
Willenhall,
Staffs.
Willenhall 66553
Charles E. Greenhill Ltd.
,
Enterprise Works,
Queen Street,
Redditch,
Worcs.
Redditch 2657
Grover & Co. Ltd.
,
Britannia Works.
Carpenters Road,
Stratford,
E. 15.
01-534 4342
Thomas Haddon & Stokes Ltd.
,
Globe Works,
Deritend,
Birmingham, 12.
021-772 2312
Hall & Rice Ltd.,
Old Meeting Street,
West Bromwlch,
Staffs.
West Bromwich 1287
Hampton & Beebee Ltd.
,
Franchise St.
,
Kings Hill,
Wednesbury.
Staffs.
021-526 2801
Harris & Edgar Ltd.
,
Progress Works,
222 Purley Way,
Croydon,
CR9 4JH,
Surrey.
-01-686 4891
Harrison (Birmingham) Brassfoundry Ltd.
Bradford Street Works,
Birmingham. 12.
021-772 3421
Helical Springs Ltd.
.
Dock Road,
Lytham St. Annes,
Lanes.
Lytham 7971
John Hickton & Co. Ltd.
,
Stourbridge Road,
Halesowen,
Birmingham.
021-550 1169
Industrial Fasteners Ltd.
,
Hempsted Lane,
Gloucester.
Gloucester 25171
Instrument Screw Co. Ltd. ,
206 Northolt Road,
South Harrow,
Middx.
01-422 1141
International Engng. Concessionaires Ltd.
,
Walton- on-Tnames
.
Surrey.
Walton-on-Thames 22211
Irlam Engineering Co. (1942) Ltd.
,
Grosvenor Street,
Ashton-under-Lyne,
Lanes.
061-330 5291
Jesse Haywood & Co. Ltd. .
Foundry Lane,
Smethwick,
Birmingham, 40.
021-558 3027
Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co. Ltd.
,
Howards Works,
Second Avenue,
E. 13.
01-472 2283
ITW Ltd. , Fastex Div.,
470-474 Bath Road.
Cippenham.
Slough.
Bucks.
Burnham 4333
Isaac Jackson & Sons (Fasteners) Ltd.
,
Glossop,
Derbys.
Glossop 2091
James & Tatten Ltd.
,
P.O. Box No. 5,
Berryhill,
Stoke-on-Trent.
Stoke-on-Trent 24724
C. W. Juby Ltd.,
Alpha Works,
White House Road,
Ipswich.
Suffolk.
Ipswich 41222
Douglas Kane Group Ltd.
,
Swallowfields.
Welwyn Garden City,
Herts.
Welwyn Garden 21261
Arnold Kinnings & Sons Ltd.
,
Norwood Road,
Southport.
Lanes.
Southport 3182
Richard Klinger Ltd.,
Klingerit Works,
Sidcup.
Kent.
01-300 7777
174
Lamp Manufacturing & Railway Supplies Ltd.
Vinceni I.ane,
Dorking.
Surrey.
Dorking 4411
C. Lindley & Co. Ltd.,
34 K.ngleiield Road,
London.
N. 1.
01-254 6431
Linread Ltd.
,
P.O. Box No. 21,
Cox Street,
Birmingham, 3.
021-236 9822
Llanda.T Engineering Co. Ltd.
,
Paper Mill Road.
Canton.
Cardiff.
Wales.
Cardiff 563242
London Metal Warehouses Ltd.
,
Summer Road,
Thames Ditton,
Surrey.
01-398 4121
Long-l,ok Ltd.,
Buckingham Ave.
,
Trading Estate.
Slough.
Bucks.
Slough 26741
P. fcW. MacLeUan Ltd.
,
120 Cornwall St.
.
Glasgow SI,
Scotland.
041-427 4061
Mscnays-Ltd.,
48-50 West Street.
Mlddlesborough.
Yoris.
Middlcsborough 48144
Sanvje: Marden & Son Ltd.,
Wellington Road.
Ashton-under-Lyne,
Lanes,
Ashlon 5136
Marples ^ Beasley Ltd.
,
Marhee Works,
South Road.
Birmingham, 19.
021-55-i 8471
Metric Ailscrews Ltd.,
Pease i'ottage,
Sussex
.
OCY 3 25811
Midland Screw Co. Ltd.
.
46 Floodgate St.
,
Birmingham. 5.
021-772 3513
James Mills Ltd.
,
Knights Road,
Tyse;ey.
Birmingham, 11.
Acocks Green 1175
Moorside Machining Co. Ltd.
,
Ebor .Mills,
Dubb Lane,
Bingley.
Yorks."
Bing.ey 2211
Morloc'x Industries Ltd.,
P.O. Box Mo.
2,
Wombourn.
Nr. Wolverhampton,
Staffs.
Wombourn 2431
Wm. Motherwell & Co. Ltd.
.
32-42 Partisan Street,
Glasgow, s. 1,
Scotland.
041-429 1047
Fredk. Mountford (Birmingham) Ltd.
,
Abberley Street,
Smethwick,
Warley.
Worcs.
021-658 3101
Nettleiok: & Moser Ltd.
,
170-194 Borough High St.
.
London,
S.E.I.
01-407 7111
Stephen Newall & Co. Ltd..
James Street.
,
Helensburgh,
Scotland.
Helensburgh 2121
Nuts & Bolts (Darlaston) Ltd.
,
Foster Street,
Darlaston,
Staffs.
021-526 2201
R. P. Overton Ltd.
,
Ashley House,
Spokes Road,
Wigmore,
Gillingham,
Kent.
Medway 32191
Palnut Co. Ltd.,
Arthur Street.
Hove,
Sussex.
Brighton 70427
R. A. Poole & Co. (Sutton) Ltd.
,
Mantis House,
Willow Walk,
Sutton,
Surrey.
01-644 1251
Positive Lock Washer Co. Ltd. ,
34 Dalmarnock Road,
Glasgow,
S.E.
041-556 1873
Precision Screw Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Longacres.
Willenhall.
Staffs.
Willenhall 65621
Prestincert Ltd.,
540 Great Cambridge Road.
Enfield,
Middx.
01-363 5393
Prestwick Parker Ltd.
,
Bag Lane,
Atherton,
Manchester,
Lanes.
Atherton 2561
Price & Orphin Ltd.
.
Canal Road.
Newtown.
Mont.
.
Wales.
Newtown 6644
Benjamin Priest & Sons Ltd.,
Old Hill Works.
P.O. Box No. 38.
Cradley Heath,
Warley,
Worcs.
Cradley Heath 6G501
Charles Richards & Sons Ltd.
.
Darlaston.
Wednesbury,
Staffs.
James Bridge 3188
S. & D. Rivet Co. Ltd.
.
Temple Road,
Leicester.
Leicester 36541
Ross. Courtney & Co. Ltd.
,
Ashbrook Road,
Upper Holloway,
N. 19.
01-272 0551
Screw Machine Products Ltd.
.
Wooburn Green.
Nr. High Wycombe.
Bucks.
Bourne End 22741
Screw & Rivet Co. Ltd.
.
Penn Street Works,
Wolverhampton
,
Staffs.
Wolverhampton 29041
Segmatac Ltd.
,
Priory Road,
Kenilworth.
Warks.
Kenilworth 52358
Silentblock Ltd.
,
Manor Royal.
Crawley,
Sussex.
Crawley 27733
Simpson- Turner Ltd.,
Irvine Industrial Estate,
Irvine,
Scotland.
Irvine 2922
G. H. Smith & Co. (Bankhall) Lid.
,
Bankhall Bolt Works.
Stanley Road,
Liverpool, 5.
051-922 2128
Spafax (1965) Ltd.
.
Box, Chippenham,
Wilts.
Box 721
Spensall Eng. Co. Ltd.
.
Great Wilson Street,
Leeds, 11.
Yorks.
Leeds 34803
Spirol Pins Ltd.,
Windmill Road,
Sunbury-on-Thames,
Middx.
Sunbury-on-Thames 86165
Spring Washers Ltd.,
Smestow,
Wornbourn,
Wolverhampton,
Staffs.
Wombourn 2431
Swinnerton & Co. (Stourbridge) Ltd.
,
Hall Street,
Stourbridge,
Worcs.
Stourbridge 4255
Tappex Thread Inserts Ltd.,
Masons Road.
Stratford-on-Avon.
Warks.
Stratford-on-Avon 4081
Telco Ltd.
,
Alma Road.
Enfield.
Middx.
01-804 1282
E. H. Thompson & Son (London) Ltd.
Skelton Works,
Chaucer Road,
Forest Gate,
E.7.
01-472 7094
Toledo Woodhead Springs Ltd.
,
Aycliffe Ind. Estate,
Darlington,
Co. Durham.
Aycliffe 2371
The Torrington Co. I td.
,
Torrington Avenue,
Coventry,
Warks.
Coventry 74241
Tower Manufacturing Co. Ltd.,
Central Works,
Shrub Hill,
Worcester.
Worcester 27272
Trinity Engineering Co.
,
Hampton Road,
Droitwich,
Worcs.
Droitwich 2426
Geo. Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd.,
Walsall Road.
Birmingham, 22b.
021-356 4811
Geo. Tustin Ltd.
,
New Street,
West Bromwich,
Staffs.
021-553 1784
Ucan Products Ltd.
,
27 Lyon Road,
Hersham,
Walton on Thames.
Surrey.
Walton on Thames 40111
Unbrako Ltd.
.
P. O. Box No. 38,
Burnaby Road,
Coventry,
Warks.
Coventry 88722
Thos. W. Ward Ltd.
.
Albion Works.
Savile Street.
Sheffield, 4.
Sheffield 26311
Warne Wright Eng. Ltd.
,
Warne Wright House.
Keeley Street,
Birmingham, 9.
021-772 2921
Wellworthy Ltd.
,
Stanford Road,
Lymington,
Hants.
Lymington 2231
Clifford Whatmough Ltd.
,
Vesta Street,
Manchester, 4.
061-273 2624
Whitehouse Industries Ltd.
,
Monkhill,
Pontefract,
Yorks.
Pontefract 4141
Williams Bros. (Sheffield) Ltd,
,
Green Lane,
Sheffield, 3.
Sheffield 27868
John Williams (Wishaw) Ltd.,
Excelsior Iron Works,
Wishaw.
Scotland.
Wishaw 2466
Woodberry Chillcott & Co. Ltd.
Atlas Street.
Feeder Road,
Bristol, 2.
Bristol 70407
ADDENDUM
Clevedon Rivets & Tools Ltd.
Reddicap Trading Estate.
Sutton Coldfield,
Warks.
021-354 5238
Ephraim Phillips Ltd.
,
212, Cheam Common Road,
Worcester Park,
Surrey.
01-337 0017
KSM Stud Welding Ltd.
,
1, Farnham Trading Estate,
Farnham,
Surrey.
Farnham 2 1 101
Moulded Fasteners Ltd.
,
Vestry Estate,
Otford Road,
Sevenoaks.
Kent.
Sevenoaks 56176
Holo-Krome Ltd.
.
Kingsway West,
Dundee.
Dundee 69261
Crompton Parkinson Lid.
Crompton House,
Aldwych,
W.C.2.
01-242 3333
Nyloy Screws Ltd.
274, King Street,
Hammersmith,
W.6.
01-748 9973
175
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Avdel Ltd. i07
Bifurcated & Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd. 109
British Screw Co. Ltd. 4
Carr Fastener Co. Ltd. 55
Clevedon Rivets & Tools Ltd. i60
Crompton Parkinson Ltd. 85
Dawe Instruments Ltd. 162
Dzus Fastener (Europe) Ltd 96
Ephraim Phillips Ltd. 167
Fox & Sons Ltd. , C. J. 53
Firth Cleveland Fastenings Ltd
(insert)
Holo-Krome Ltd. 172
Instrument Screw Ltd. 27
I.T.W. Ltd. (ii)
K. S. M. Stud Welding Ltd. 92
Long-lok Ltd. 39
McNays Ltd.
133
Metric Allscrews Ltd. 167
Morlock Industries Ltd. 133
Nyloy Screws Ltd. 34
Salter & Co. Ltd., George. 17
Telco Ltd. 59
Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd., George. 99
Unbrako Ltd.
21
176
RARE
BIRD
ctronicpata Library is a series of
reduced for engineers who need the latest
niormatiort on e ectronic techniques,
aniwy
rarely read by such attractive young ladies
^^
Oiscussrng both components and systems, with
chapters from leading engineers, these books are an
up-to-date and in-depth appraisal of their subject.
They fill the information gap with researched and
needed electronic data.
Other titles in this six volume library include.
Video Techniques, Audio Frequency
niques, Modular Constructions and
'niputer Techniques. Each may be purchased
parately or as part of the complete library.
:
V0L1 DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS. This book covers
digital techniques from AD converters through to
digital analysers. Chapters have beer contributed by
such leading companies as Avo, Racal. GEC-AEI and
Solartron,
Published December 1968. 42s.
iinqwitl VOL.2 SERVOSYSTEMS. Startinpyfoith servo
components and progressing tBftcmplete systems
and system requirements, such as solid state control
of servomotors, this bonk provides complete coverage
of the electronic servo field.
Published March 1969. 42s,
Electronic Data Library Order Form
Books Division of Morion-Grampian [Piiblisnersl Lid.,
Summit House, Gieo Wsv, West W>ck>wro. Kcni B8*. 0$L'
Please supply the following books at 42s. per copy
or six volume library at the special price of 9 gns.
Digital Instruments AF Tachniquas D
Seivcsysiems Modular Constructions
Vidao Techniques D
Computer Techniques
D
Six volume library D
I ervriose cash with otdor please hvoice me.my company
tpostaje and
packaging etia nn invoiced orders).
NAME
ADDRESS
J
/
'RINT6C 3V HEWLE* B^OTHfS LTD *SMFORO KENT
Published by the Books Divi&on of Morgan- Grampian
(PuoiisbwaJ
Summit House. Glebe Way. West Wickham, Kent P