Subramanian
SOLUTION MANUAL
CHAPTER 10
Exercise 10.1 (Simply supported twoway slab)
The slab of a residential building of size 5 m x 6.5 m is simply supported on all the four sides on
230 mm walls. Assuming an imposed load of 3 kN/m
2
, and load due to finishes of 1.0 kN/m
2
,
design the floor slab. Use M 25 concrete and Fe 550 steel. Assume mild exposure.
Solution
Step 1: Thickness of slab and effective spans
Cover for mild exposure (Table 16, Note 1 of IS 456) = 15 mm
L
x
= 5 m , L
y
= 6.5 m
Since the aspect ratio, i.e., the ratio L
y
/L
x
= 6.5/5= 1.3 < 2, we should design the slab as a two
way slab.
L/D ratio of simply supported slab (as per Clause 24.1 of IS 456) for Fe 415 steel
= 0.8 x 30 =24
(Note that this is valid up to L
x
= 3.5 m only as per code)
Hence D = 5000/24 = 208 mm
Provide D = 200 mm.
Assuming 10 mm dia bars are used, from Table 16 of IS 456, cover for mild exposure and M 25
concrete = 15 mm. Hence, d
x
= 200 15 5 = 180 mm, d
y
= 18010 = 170 mm
Effective Span
The effective span of the slab in each direction = clean span + d (or width of support whichever
is smaller)
Thus effective Span
L
x
= 5000 + 180 = 5180 mm; L
y
= 6500 + 170 = 6670 mm
Hence r = L
y
/L
x
= 6670 / 4180 = 1.29
Step 2: Loads on slab
Selfweight of slab = 0.2 x 25 = 5.0 kN/m
2
Weight of finishes (Given) = 1.0 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 3.0 kN/m
2

Total load, w = 9.0 kN/m
2
Factored load w
u
= 1.5 x 9 = 13.5 kN/m
2
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 3: Design moments (for strips at midspan, with 1m width in each direction)
For L
y
/L
x
= 1.29, From Table 10.2 (Table 27 of the code)
x
= 0.0921
y
= 0.0554
Hence 36 . 33 18 . 5 5 . 13 0921 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u x x
L w M o kNm/m
07 . 20 18 . 5 5 . 13 0554 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u y y
L w M o kNm/m
Check depth for maximum B.M.
2
max
138 . 0 bd f M
ck
=
mm mm d 180 98
1000 25 138 . 0
10 36 . 33
5 . 0
6
< =


.

\

=
Hence the depth adopted is adequate and the slab is underreinforced.
Step 4: Design of Reinforcement
121 . 0
180 1000 25
10 36 . 33 68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
2
6
2
=
= =
db f
M
d
x
ck
u u
( ) mm
d
x
d z 94 . 170 121 . 0 416 . 0 1 180 416 . 0 1 = =

.

\

=
2
6
408
94 . 170 550 87 . 0
10 36 . 33
87 . 0
mm
z f
M
A
y
st
=
= =
We may also use the approximate formula,
421
550 180 8 . 0
10 36 . 33
8 . 0
6
=
= =
y
u
st
df
M
A mm
2
408 mm
2
From Table 96 of SP 16, provide 10 mm dia. bars at 190 mm c/c (A
st
= 413 mm
2
); spacing < 3d,
Hence crack width will be controlled.
Similarly for long direction
080 . 0
170 1000 25
10 07 . 20 68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
2
6
2
=
= =
db f
M
d
x
ck
u u
( ) mm
d
x
d z 34 . 164 08 . 0 416 . 0 1 170 416 . 0 1 = =

.

\

=
2
6
260
34 . 161 550 87 . 0
10 07 . 20
87 . 0
mm
z f
M
A
y
st
=
= =
From Table 96 of SP 16
Provide 8 mm dia. bars at 190 mm c/c (A
st
= 265 mm
2
)
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
The detailing is shown in Fig.10.54 with alternate bars bent up at 0.1L
x
and 0.1L
y
in the short
and long direction respectively. (Note at support in the long direction the 8 mm bars are provided
at 380 mm c/c; spacing 3 x 170 = 510 mm; Hence OK)
Fig. 10.54 Reinforcement detailing for slab of Example 10.1
Step 5: Check for deflection
Let us check the deflection in short direction, since it is critical.
% 234 . 0
180 1000
421 100 100
=
= =
bd
A
p
st
t
MPa f
s
8 . 237
413
408
415 58 . 0 = =
0 . 2
) / 1 log( 625 . 0 00322 . 0 225 . 0
1
s
+
=
t s
t
p f
k
Modification factor k
t
from Fig. 4 of the code = 1.68
Basic span to depth ratio for simply supported slab = 20 (Clause 23.2.1)
Allowable L/d = 20 x 1.68 = 33.6
Provided span / depth ratio = 5180/180 = 28.78 < 33.6
Hence assumed depth is enough to control deflection.
Step 6: Check for shear
Average effective depth d = (180 + 170)/2 = 175 mm
The maximum shear force occurs at a distance of effective depth from the face of support.
( ) ( ) m kN d L w V
xn u u
/ 54 . 32 18 . 0 18 . 5 5 . 0 5 . 13 5 . 0 = = =
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
MPa
v
181 . 0 ) 180 1000 /( 10 54 . 32
3
= = t
For p
t
= 0.234,
c
for M 25 concrete (Table 19 of IS 456) = 0.349 MPa
k
c
> 0.181 MPa
Hence slab is safe in shear
Note: It is clearly seen that shear will not be critical in twoway slabs subjected to uniformly
distributed loads.
Step 7: Check for cracking
Steel more than 0.12% in both directions.
Spacing of steel < 3d = 3 x 180 = 540 mm or 300 mm in both directions.
Diameter of steel reinforcement < 200/8 = 25 mm
Hence no calculation required for cracking.
Step 8: Check for development length
As shown in chapter 9, Example 9.1, as per clause 26.2.3.3(d)
Check should be made to see
0
1
3 . 1 L
V
M
L
u
n
d
+


.

\

s
It is found that 10 mm dia. bar is satisfactory
Length of embedment available at support
= 230 clear side cover = 23025 =205 mm > L
d
/3
mm L
d
403
) 6 . 1 4 . 1 ( 4
10 415 87 . 0
=
= L
d
/3 = 135 mm < 205 mm
Hence development length is sufficient to develop bond.
Exercise 10.2 (Use of Marcus correction)
Compute the design moments for the slab analyzed in Exercise 1 using the Marcus correction.
Solution
Step 1: Moments with out Marcus correction:
From Exercise 10.1
For L
y
/L
x
= 1.29, From Table 10.2 (Table 27 of the code)
x
= 0.0921
y
= 0.0554
Hence 36 . 33 18 . 5 5 . 13 0921 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u x x
L w M o kNm/m
07 . 20 18 . 5 5 . 13 0554 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u y y
L w M o kNm/m
Step 2: Moments with Marcus correction:
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Marcus correction factor,


.

\

+
= =
4
2
1 6
5
1
r
r
C C
y x
= =


.

\

+
4
2
29 . 1 1
29 . 1
6
5
1 1 0.368 = 0.632
Hence M
x
= 33.36 x 0.632 = 21.08 kNm/m
M
y
= 20.07 x 0.632 = 12.68 kNm/m
Thus, 36% reduction in moment is possible by taking into account torsional effects and corner
restraint.
Exercise 10.3
Redesign the slab given in Exercise 1, assuming that the corners of the slab are prevented from
lifting up, by wall loads due to the floor above.
Solution
From Exercise 10.1,
L
x
= 5180 mm; L
y
= 6670 mm; d
x
= 180 mm and d
y
=170 mm, f
y
=550 N/mm
2
and f
ck
= 25
N/mm
2
Factored load w
u
= 13.5 kN/m
2
L
y
/L
x
= 1.29
Step 1: Design moment (considering 1m width in each direction at midspan)
As the ends of the slabs are restrained
2
x u x ux
L w M o = where
x
may be taken as per Table 26 of the code (case 9)
Hence 0783 . 0
2 . 1 3 . 1
2 . 1 29 . 1
) 072 . 0 079 . 0 ( 072 . 0 =

.

\

+ =
x
o
Hence 36 . 28 18 . 5 5 . 13 0783 . 0
2
= =
ux
M kNm/m
Note that, due to the restraints, the B.M. has reduced from 33.36 kNm/m to 28.36 kNm/m (as
obtained from Example 10.1), i.e. a reduction of 16%.
From Table 26, Case 9, we get,
y
= 0.056
Hence 29 . 20 18 . 5 5 . 13 056 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u y vy
L w M o kNm/m
(This value is slightly higher than the nonconstraint value of 20.07 kNm/m obtained in Example
10.1.)
Step 2: Design of Reinforcements
Short span
102 . 0
180 1000 25
10 36 . 28 68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
2
6
2
=
= =
db f
M
d
x
ck
u u
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
( ) mm
d
x
d z 36 . 172 102 . 0 416 . 0 1 180 416 . 0 1 = =

.

\

=
2
6
338
36 . 172 550 87 . 0
10 36 . 28
87 . 0
mm
z f
M
A
y
st
=
= =
From Table 96 of SP 16,
Provide 10 mm dia @ 230 mm c/c (A
st
= 341 mm
2
,
p
t
= 0.189 %)
Max permitted spacing = 3 x 180 = 540 mm or 300 mm > 230 mm
For Long span
081 . 0
170 1000 25
10 29 . 20 68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
68 . 6
44 . 1 2 . 1
2
6
2
=
= =
db f
M
d
x
ck
u u
( ) mm
d
x
d z 27 . 164 081 . 0 416 . 0 1 170 416 . 0 1 = =

.

\

=
2
6
258
27 . 164 550 87 . 0
10 29 . 20
87 . 0
mm
z f
M
A
y
st
=
= =
From Table 96 of SP 16
Provide 8 mm dia bars @190 mm c/c (A
st
= 265 mm
2
)
Maximum permitted spacing = 3 x 170 = 510 mm or 300 mm > 190 mm
Step 3: Corner Reinforcement
As the slab is torsionally restrained, corner reinforcement as per clause D1.8 should be provided
for a distance of L
x
/5 = 5180/5 = 1036 mm in both directions in meshes at top and bottom (four
layers).
Area of torsion reinforcement = 0.75 of area required for the maximum mid span moment
= 0.75 x 338 = 254 mm
2
Provide 8 mm dia. bars @ 200 mm c/c (A
st
= 251 mm
2
) both ways at top and bottom at each
corner over an area of 1040 mm x 1040 mm, i.e., 6 U shaped bars as shown in Fig. 10.55
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Fig. 10.55 Reinforcement detailing of slab for Exercise 10.3
Step 4: Check for deflection control
p
t
= 0.189 %
f
s
0.58 x 415 = 240.7 MPa
Modification factor
0 . 2
) / 1 log( 625 . 0 00322 . 0 225 . 0
1
s
+
=
t s
t
p f
k
=
)
(L/d)
max
= 1.84 x 20 = 36.8
(L/d)
provided
= 5180/180 = 28.8 < 36.8
Hence the assumed depth is enough to control deflection.
Check for shear will not be critical as shown in Exercise 10.1
Step 5: Check for cracking
Steel more than 0.12% in both directions
Spacing of steel < 3d or 300 mm in both direction
Diameter of steel bar < 200 /8 = 25 mm
Hence cracking will be within acceptable limits.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Exercise 10.4
Find the bending moment coefficients
x
and
x
for a slab having two long edges discontinuous,
i.e. Case 6 in Table 10.4, with r =1.5, using Equations 10.1710.19.
Find the bending moment coefficients
x
and
x
for a slab having all edges continuous, i.e. Case
1 in Table 10.4, with r =1.75, using Equations 10.1710.19.
Solution
For this case, the number of discontinuous edges, N
d
=2
Hence from Eqn. 10.17 we get,
1000
) 5 . 1 2 24 (
2
d d
y
N N + +
=
+
o
= 034 . 0
1000
6 4 24
=
+ +
7/3 C C
s2 s1
= =
(continuous edges)
1 C C
l2 l1
= = (discontinuous edges)
From Eqn. 10.18 we get,
( )
078 . 0
) 1 1 (
) 055 . 3 )( 5 . 1 / 034 . 0 18 ( 3
9
2
) )( / 18 ( 3
9
2
2 2
2 1
2 1
=
(
+
=
(
(
+
+
=
+
+
l l
s s y
x
C C
C C r o
o
Thus the values of moment coefficients for this slab are as follows:
In the short direction
Positive at midspan = 0.078 (0.068)
Negative at edges = 0 (0)
In the long direction
Positive at midspan = 0.034 (0.035)
Negative at edges = (4/3) 0.034 = 0.0453 (0.045)
Note: The values given in brackets are those obtained from Table 26 of the code.
Exercise 10.5: Design of twoway slabs with two adjustment edges continuous
Design a rectangular slab panel of size 4.5 m by 6 m in which one long edge is discontinuous.
Assume that the slab supports imposed load of 4 kN/m
2
and a floor finish of 1 kN/m
2
. The slab is
subjected to mild exposure and is made of M 25 concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Solution:
Step 1: Thickness of slab and effective span
As the slab is subjected to mild exposure, from Table 16 of the code, for M 25, nominal cover =
20 mm. We shall use Canadian Code formula to estimate the minimum thickness of slab.
Assuming
m
= 2.0 and = L
y
/L
x
= 6/4.5 = 1.33
mm
f L
D
m
y n
150
2 33 . 1 4 30
) 1000 / 415 6 . 0 ( 6000
4 30
) 1000 / 6 . 0 (
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
o
also mm
Perimeter
D 150
140
) 4500 6000 ( 2
140
=
+
= >
Let us adopt D = 150 mm,
Using 10 mm bars, d
x
= 150205 = 125 mm, d
y
= 12510 = 115 mm
As the size of supporting beams are not given, assume effective spans as 4.5 m and 6.0 m
Step 2: Load on slabs
Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 kN/m
2
Weight of finishes = 1.00 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 4.00 kN/m
2

Total load = 8.75 kN/m
2
Factored load w
u
= 8.75 x 1.5 = 13.13 kN/m
2
Step 3: Design moments (for strips of 1m width at each direction)
For L
y
/L
x
= 1.33, From Table 26 of Code, row 3 (one long edge discontinuous),
x
for negative moment at continuous edge at short and long span is 0.059 and 0.037
respectively. Similar positive moment coefficients at mid span are 0.045 and 0.028 respectively
for short and long span.
Factored negative bending moments in the short and long span are
69 . 15 5 . 4 13 . 13 059 . 0 059 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u nx
L w M kNm/m
84 . 9 5 . 4 13 . 13 037 . 0 037 . 0
2 2
= = =
x u ny
L w M kNm/m
Required effective depth for resisting the bending moment
mm mm
b f
M
d
ck
u
125 67
1000 25 138 . 0
10 69 . 15
138 . 0
5 . 0
6
5 . 0
< =


.

\

=


.

\

=
Hence the adopted depth is sufficient and the slab is underreinforced.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 4: Design of negative reinforcement
Approximate m mm
df
M
A
y
st
/ 348
415 125 8 . 0
10 69 . 15
8 . 0
2
6
=
= =
Alternatively, let us use Table 2 of SP 16,
with 00 . 1
125 1000
10 69 . 15
2
6
2
=
=
bd
M
u
From Table 3 of SP 16, for f
ck
= 25 N/mm
2
and f
y
= 415 N/mm
2
, we get
p
t
= 0.291% and A
sx2
= m mm / 364
100
125 1000 291 . 0
2
=
From Table 96 of SP 16, provide 10 mm dia. bars at 210 mm c/c (A
st
= 374 mm
2
), in the short
span direction at top face at support. Also spacing < 3d = 375 mm. Hence spacing is adequate.
Reinforcement in long direction
App A
st
= m mm
df
M
y
/ 258
415 115 8 . 0
10 84 . 9
8 . 0
2
6
=
=
Alternatively,
744 . 0
115 1000
10 84 . 9
2
6
2
=
=
bd
M
u
From Table 3 of SP 16, for f
y
= 415 N/mm
2
, we get
p
t
= 0.2142% and m mm m mm A
sy
/ 258 / 246
100
115 1000 2142 . 0
2 2
2
~ =
=
From Table 96 of SP 16, provide 8 mm dia. bars at 200 mm c/c (A
st
= 251 mm
2
)
Spacing < 3d = 345 mm
Step 5: Design for positive reinforcement
The area of reinforcement required for positive moment in short direction can be computed
proportionately, based on the bending moment coefficient, as the effective depth is same
m mm A
sx
/ 278 059 . 0 / 364 ) 045 . 0 (
2
1
= =
Provide 8 mm dia. bars at 180 mm c/c (A
st
= 279 mm
2
)
Similarly required area of steel for positive moment in the long direction
m mm A
sy
/ 186 037 . 0 / 246 028 . 0
2
1
= =
From Table 96 of SP16, Provide 8 mm @ 270 mm c/c (A
st
= 209 mm
2
/m)
180 100 / 1000 150 12 . 0
min ,
= =
st
A mm
2
/m (# 8 @ 270 mm c/c = 186 mm
2
/m)
Max. Spacing = 3 x 115 = 345 mm; greater than the adopted spacing.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 6: Detailing of reinforcement
The detailing of reinforcement using straight bars is shown in Fig.10.56.
Fig.10.56 Reinforcement detailing for Exercise 10.5
Step 7: Check for shear
From Table 10.5, shear force coefficient for L
y
/L
x
= 1.33 for one long edge discontinuous case is
vx
= 0.477
Shear force = 0.477 w
u
L
x
= 0.477 x 13.13 x 4.5 = 28.18 kN
The maximum shear force occurs at a distance d from the face of support ,
54 . 26 13 . 13 125 . 0 18 . 28 18 . 28 = = =
x
dw V kN
Nominal shear stress,
2
/ 212 . 0
125 1000
1000 54 . 26
mm N
bd
V
c
=
= = t
This stress is less than the min. value in Table 19 of IS 456 for M25 concrete(0.29 MPa)
Hence the slab is safe in shear.
Step 8: Check for deflection control
p
t
= 0.299%
f
s
= 0.58 x 415 = 240.7 MPa
Modification factor
0 . 2
) / 1 log( 625 . 0 00322 . 0 225 . 0
1
s
+
=
t s
t
p f
k
=
)
Basic L/D = 32 (clause 24.1), Max L/D = 32 x 1.49 = 47.68
(L/D) provided = 4500 / 150 = 30 < 47.68
Hence no additional calculation for deflection is necessary.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 9: Check for cracking
As the spacing of reinforcement are < 3d or 300 mm, steel more than 0.12% in both direction
have been provided, and diameter of bar < 150/8 = 18.75 mm. Hence additional calculation for
cracking is not required.
Example 10.6 Continuous twoway slab
Design a continuous twoway slab system shown in Fig.10.57. It is subjected to a imposed load
of 3 kN/m
2
, and surface finish of 1 kN/m
2
. Consider M 25 concrete, grade Fe 415 steel and
moderate environment. Also assume that the supporting beams are 230 x 500 mm.
Fig. 10.57
Solution
Due to symmetry only one quadrant of the floor system has to be designed i.e. slabs S
1
to S
4
Step 1: Thickness of slabs
Let us assume uniform thickness for all slabs it will be governed by the corner slab S
1
with two
adjacent edges discontinuous
m
y n
f L
D
o 4 30
) 1000 / 6 . 0 (
+
+
> or
140
perimeter
s s
b b
f
I E
I E
= o
For this calculation, let us take D
s
= 4200/30 140 mm
Considering an L beam, with a slab projection of 360 mm (500140) beyond the beam web,
The distance of centroid of beam from top of the slab
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
2
3
2
3
2
140
195 140 360
12
140
360 ) 195 250 ( 500 230
12
500
230

.

\

+ + + =
b
I
= 3.6135 x 10
9
mm
4
4 6
3
10 83 . 628
12
140
2
5500
mm I
s
=

.

\

=
; 75 . 5 10 83 . 628 / 10 6135 . 3
6 9
= =
f
o As
f
> 2, we may assume
m
= 2.0;
30 . 1 2 . 4 / 5 . 5 / = = =
x y
L L 
138
2 30 . 1 4 30
) 1000 / 415 6 . 0 ( 5500
=
+
+
> D mm or 139
140
) 5500 4200 ( 2
=
+
mm
Assume D = 150 mm
From Table 16 of IS 456, for M 20 and moderate environment with d
b
= 10 mm
Clear cover = 30 mm
Hence d
x
= 150  30 5 = 115 mm and d
y
= 115 10 = 105 mm
Step 2: Load on Slab
Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 kN/m
2
Weight of finishes = 1 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 3 kN/m
2

Total load, w = 7.75 kN/m
2
Factored load w
u
= 7.75 x 1.5 = 11.63 kN/m
2
Step 3: Design Moments
Moments = Moment coefficients (,) x w
u
x L
x
2
Where and are moment coefficients from Table 26 of IS 456 for slabs S
1
to S
4
. They are
shown in Fig.10.48 (S
1
case 4, S
2
case 3, S
3
case 2, S
4
case 1)
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Fig. 10.58 Moment coefficients and moments
Note that the negative moments at the common edges of slabs are not equal. For more accurate
design, we should distribute the unbalanced moments in proportion to the relative stiffness of
slabs meeting at the common edge and also modify the span moments by adding half of the
distributed moments, as shown in Example 10.6 of the book. In design offices, the design
negative moment in the common edges is usually taken as the larger of the two values obtained
from either side of the support. Even though this may increase the reinforcement slightly, it
simplifies the calculations considerably.
Step 4: Design of Reinforcement
The bending moment and corresponding area of required reinforcements are tabulated below
Slab S
1
d
x
=115 mm
d
y
=105 mm
B.M./kNm M
u
/bd
2
p
t
%
Table 3 of
SP 16 with
min 0.12%
A
s
mm
2
Reinforcement
(a) Short direction
+10.05 0.760 0.219 252 #8 @ 190 (265
mm
2
)
13.33 1.01 0.2942 338 #8 @ 150 (335
mm
2
)
(b) Long direction
+7.18 0.651 0.1863 196 #8@250 (201
mm2)
9.64 0.874 0.2532 266 #8 @ 190 (265
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
mm
2
)
Slab S
2
(a) Short direction
+9.03 0.683 0.196 225 #8 @ 220(228
mm
2
)
11.69 0.884 0.2412 277 #8 @ 180 (279
mm
2
)
(b) Long direction
9.64 0.874 0.2532 266 #8 @ 180 (279
mm
2
)
+5.74 0.521 0.1488 156 #8 @ 300 (168
mm
2
)
Slab S
3
(a) Short direction
10.46 0.791 0.2283 263 #8 @ 180 (279
mm
2
)
+8.00 0.605 0.1725 198 #8 @ 240 (209
mm
2
)
(b) Long direction
+5.74 0.521 0.1488 156 #8 @ 300 (168
mm
2
)
7.59 0.688 0.1974 207 #8 @ 240 (209
mm
2
)
Slab S
4
(a) Short direction
9.64 0.874 0.2532 291 #8 @ 170 (296
mm
2
)
+7.39 0.559 0.1587 182 #8 @ 270 (186
mm
2
)
(b) Long direction
6.56 0.595 0.1695 178 #8 @ 270 (186
mm
2
)
+4.92 0.446 0.1259 132 #8 @ 300 (168
mm
2
)
Area of steel in edge strips = 0.12% of gross sectional area
= m mm / 180 1000 150
100
12 . 0
2
= (say #8 @250 mm c/c, A
st
= 201 mm
2
/m)
Torsion Reinforcement
Torsion reinforcement when both edges are discontinuous,
= x Midspan reinforcement = 252 = 189 mm
2
, provide #8 @ 250 c/c, (A
st
= 201 mm
2
)
Torsion reinforcement when only one edge is discontinuous
= 3/8 x Midspan reinforcement = 3/8 225 = 84 mm
2
, provide #8 @ 300 c/c (A
st
= 168 mm
2
)
This reinforcement should be provided for a length of L
x
/5 = 4200/5 = 840 mm
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 5: Check for Shear
From Table 10.4, shear force coefficient for L
y
/L
x
= 5.5/4.2 = 1.3, for two adjacent sides
continuous is
vx
= 0.50
kN L w V
x u vx sx
42 . 24 2 . 4 63 . 11 50 . 0 = = = 
Maximum shear force at a distance 135 mm (d) from the face of support
V =24.42 0.115 x 11.63 = 23.08 kN
Nominal shear stress,
2
/ 20 . 0
115 1000
1000 08 . 23
mm N
bd
V
v
=
= = t
This stress is less than the minimum value in Table 19 of IS 456 for M 25 concrete
Hence slab is safe in shear.
Step 6: Check for deflection
p
t
at mid span = % 23 . 0
115 1000
100 265
=
f
s
= 240.7 MPa
Modification factor
0 . 2
) / 1 log( 625 . 0 00322 . 0 225 . 0
1
s
+
=
t s
t
p f
k
=
)
Max L/D = 28 x 1.67 = 46.7
L/D provided = 4000 / 150 = 28 < 46.7
Hence deflection will be within limits.
Step 7: Check for cracking
Spacing of reinforcement are less than 3d (3 x 115 = 345 mm) or 300 mm and steel provided is
more than 0.12% of gross crosssection in both directions. Dia. of bars < 150/8 = 18.75 mm.
Hence no separate check for cracking is required.
Step 8: Detailing of reinforcement
Detailing of reinforcement in various middle stirrups and edge strips should be done as per
Fig.10.21 and 10.23 of the book. Note that for practical convenience only two bar spacing may
be adopted.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Exercise 10.7
Design a circular slab of diameter 5.5 m subjected to an imposed load of 5 kN/m
2
. Assume that
the slab is simply supported and is in severe environment. Use f
ck
= 25 MPa and f
y
= 415 N/mm
2
.
Solution
Step 1: Compute the loads
The usual span/depth ratio will be in the range 25 to 40.
Let us adopt L/D =32.5
Thickness of slab, D = 5500/32.5 = 169.2 mm
Adopt 200 mm thickness
Self weight = 0.20 x 25 = 5.0 kN/m
2
Floor finish (assumed) = 1.0 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 5.0 kN/m
2

Total load = 11.0 kN/m
2
Factored load = 1.5 x 11.0 = 16.5 kN/m
2
Step 2: Calculation of Bending Moment
Assuming = 0, as per Eqn.10.27,
( )
2 2
16
3
a r
w
M
r
=
( )
2 2
3
16
a r
w
M
t
=
B.M. at edge (a = r)
M
r
= 0 and M
t
= 2/16 wr
2
B.M. at centre (a = 0)
2
16
3
wr M
r
= and
2
16
3
wr M
t
=
Hence max. moment at centre = 4 . 23 75 . 2 5 . 16
16
3
2
= kNm/m
Note: According to yield line theory,
Ultimate moment = 8 . 20
6
75 . 2 5 . 16
6
2 2
=
=
r w
u
kNm/m
Hence by using yield line theory we will achieve economy.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 3: Check depth of slab
For f
y
= 415 N/mm
2
Required depth mm
kbf
M
d
ck
u
78
25 1000 138 . 0
10 8 . 20
5 . 0
6
=


.

\

= =
Selected overall depth is 200 mm. The slab is underreinforced.
The slab is in severe environment, Hence cover = 45 mm (Table 16 of IS 456)
Let us assume diameter of bar = 12 mm
Provided effective depth in one direction = 200  45 6 = 149 mm
Effective depth in the other direction = 149 12 = 137 mm
Step 4: Calculate area of reinforcement
The bending moment in the circumferential direction is same as that of the radial direction.
The area of reinforcement is
m mm
df
M
A
y
u
st
/ 420
415 149 8 . 0
10 8 . 20
8 . 0
2
6
=
= =
The same result may be obtained by calculating M
u
/(bd
2
) and using Table 3 of SP16.
From Table 96 of SP 16, provide 12 mm dia. bars @ 260 mm c/c (Area = 435 mm
2
) in both the
directions.
Maximum allowed spacing: least of 411 mm (3 x d ) or 300 mm. Hence spacing is within limits
to control cracking.
Overall diameter of slab is chosen as 5.7 m and reinforcement details are as shown in
Fig.10.24(c) of the book.
Step 5: Check for Shear
The critical section for shear is at a distance d from support. The shear force at critical section is
kN d
R
w V
u
43 . 20 137 . 0
2
75 . 2
5 . 16
2
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
The actual width of slab at a distance d from support is slightly less than a unit width at the
support because of the radial coordinates. However, let us check the shear stress using unit width
as an approximation.
Thus nominal shear stress of
2
3
/ 15 . 0
137 1000
10 43 . 20
mm N
bd
V
u
v
=
= = t
This is less than (min)
c
t
as per Table 19 of IS 456, for M 25 concrete. Hence slab is safe in
shear.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Exercise 10.8 Design of Circular Well cap
Design of well cap to support a circular pier of diameter 2 m. Assume that the internal diameter
of well is 7 m and that the load on the pier is 600 kN. Use Fe 415 steel and M 35 concrete
Fig. 10.59 Well cap
Solution
Step 1: Calculations of loads
As the well cap will be subjected to alternate wetting and drying, we assume that it is subjected
to severe exposure and hence minimum cover as per Table 2 and 16 of IS 456 is 45 mm. As we
are using M 35 concrete, it may be reduced by 5 mm. Hence use cover = 40 mm. Assume L/D =
20; hence D = 7000/20 = 350 mm. With 20 mm bars, effective depth d = 350 40  10 = 300
mm, effective radius of slab, R = 7/2 + 0.30 = 3.80 m
Let the overall outside dia = 2 3.80 = 7.6 m
Factored self weight w
c
= 1.5 x 0.35 x 25 = 13.13 kN/m
2
Factored imposed load, w
I
= 1.5 x 600 = 900 kN
Step 2: Calculate Bending Moment
The maximum radial bending moment for this case at the face of concentrated central load as per
Timoshenkno and Krieger, 1959 (pp.67) is
The diameter of pier = 2 m; Hence, a = 1 m
(


.

\


.

\

+ =
2
2 2
1
4
1
4 16
3
R
a
a
R
Log
W R w
M
n
I c
r
t
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
=
(

.

\


.

\

+
2
2
8 . 3
1
1
4
1
1
8 . 3
4
900
16
8 . 3 13 . 13 3
n
Log
t
= 35.55 + 71.62(1.335  0.233) = 35.55 + 78.93 = 114.48 kNm/m
The maximum circumferential bending moment at the edge of pier support, that is 1000 mm
from the centre is given by
(


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
2
2 2
3
4
1
4 16
3
R
a
a
R
Log
W R w
M
n
I c
t
t
=
(

.

\

+

.

\

+
2
8 . 3
1
3 25 . 0
1
8 . 3
4
900
55 . 35
n
Log
t
= 35.55 + 71.62 (1.335 + 0.733) = 183.66 kNm/m > M
r
Step 3: Check depth for bending
Required depth for a balanced section
mm
bf
M
d
ck
195
35 1000 138 . 0
10 66 . 183
138 . 0
5 . 0
6
5 . 0
=
(
=


.

\

=
However provide an overall depth of 400 mm in order to resist the shear due to the pier. Using
20 mm bars, d = 400 40 10 = 350 mm
Step 4: Calculate reinforcement
Area of reinforcement
1581
415 350 8 . 0
10 66 . 183
6
=
=
st
A mm
2
/m
Provide 20 mm bars at 190 mm c/c spacing (A
st
, provided = 1653 mm
2
) in the circumferential
direction
The effective depth of reinforcement in the radial direction = 350  20 = 330 mm
Required A
st
= 1045
415 330 8 . 0
10 48 . 114
6
=
mm
2
/m
Provide 20 dia. bars at 300 mm c/c (A
st
, provided = 1047 mm
2
) at 1000 mm from centre
Minimum reinforcement =
2 2
1045 480 1000 400
100
12 . 0
mm mm < =
Maximum spacing = 3d > 300 mm
The reinforcement should be provided as shown in Fig. 10.24(b) of the book.
Note: As the depth of slab is greater than 200 mm, provide minimum steel, i.e., 12 mm @ 230
mm at the top of the slab also as temperature and shrinkage steel.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 5: Check for shear
Shear force = 24 . 143
0 . 1 2
900
2
=
=
t ta
p
kN/m
Nominal shear stress = 273 . 0
) 350 1000 (
10 5 . 95
3
=
N/mm
2
Design shear strength
c
for M 35 with minimum steel, from Table 19 of IS 456,
= 0.29 N/mm
2
> 0.273 N/mm
2
Hence the slab is safe for shear.
Step 6: Check for punching shear (clause 31.6.2 and 31.6.3):
Critical section for punching is located at d/2 from the column, Hence the critical diameter
= ( )
Punching shear stress =
N/mm
2
Limiting punching shear stress,
=1.47 N/mm
2
Hence the slab is safe for punching shear
Example 10.9
A simply supported semi circular slab of 3.5 m radius is subjected to a uniformly distributed
imposed load of 3 kN/m
2
and floor finish of 1 kN/m
2
. Assuming moderate environment, design
the slab with Fe 500 steel and M 20 concrete.
Solution
Step 1: Conversion to equivalent rectangle
The semi circular slab can be idealized by rectangle as shown in Fig.10. 60. The short side of the
rectangle may be selected as 0.867 times the radius of the circle; i.e. = 0.867 x 3500 = 3035 mm
Fig. 10.60 Semicircular slab
Hence we need to design a rectangular slab of size 7000 x 3035 mm as L
y
> 2L
x
, we need to
design it as a oneway slab.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 2: Calculate Loads and B.M.
L/d = 20 (Simply supported slab as per Clause 23.2.1)
D = 3035/20 = 151.75 mm, we may reduce this by taking into account the reinforcement ratio.
Hence, assume D = 140 mm, effective depth with 10 mm bars, with moderate environment, d =
140305 = 105 mm
Self weight = 0.14 x 25 = 3.5 kN/m
2
Floor finish = 1.0 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 3.0 kN/m
2
_____________
Total = 7.5 kN/m
2
Factored load w
u
= 1.5 x 7.5 = 11.25 kN/m
2
Let effective span = 3.035+ 0.105 =3.14 m
86 . 13
8
14 . 3 25 . 11
8
. .
2 2
=
= =
L w
M B
u
kNm/m
Step 3: Check depth for bending
Required depth for resisting bending moment
mm
bf
M
d
ck
u
71
20 1000 138 . 0
10 86 . 13
138 . 0
5 . 0
6
5 . 0
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
Hence slab is underreinforced.
Step 4: Calculate reinforcement
Required area of steel
m mm
df
M
A
y
u
st
/ 330
500 105 8 . 0
10 86 . 13
8 . 0
2
6
=
= =
Provide 10 mm bars at 230 mm c/c in short direction. (Table 96 of SP 16) A
st
, provided = 341
mm
2
Minimum reinforcement for shrinkage = 0.12 x 105 x 1000/100 = 126 mm
2
/m
Provide 6 mm @ 220 mm c/c in long direction (A
st
provided = 128 mm
2
)
Check for cracking: provided spacing 3 x 105 = 315 mm or 300 mm
Hence cracking will be controlled.
Step 5: Check for shear
Maximum shear force at a distance d from the face of support
48 . 16 105 . 0
2
14 . 3
25 . 11
2
=

.

\

=

.

\

= d
L
w V
x
u u
kN/m
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Nominal shear stress =
2
3
/ 157 . 0
105 1000
10 48 . 16
mm N
bd
V
u
=
=
Min. shear strength as per Table 19 for M 20 concrete = 0.28 N/mm
2
> 0.157 N/mm
2
Hence slab safe in shear.
Example 10.10 Slab with opening
A simply supported slab with effective short and long spans of 4 m and 6 m respectively is
subjected to an imposed load of 3.0 kN/m
2
. An opening of 500 mm x 500 mm is to be provided
in the slab as shown in Fig.10.55. Design the slab using M 25 concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Fig. 10.61 Slab with opening
Solution
Step 1: Assume depth of slab
Assuming mild environment, cover = 20 mm (Table 16 of Code)
L/d ratio for simply supported slab (Clause 24.1) = 28
Hence, d = L/28 =4000 /28 = 143 mm
Assume overall depth of 150 mm
With 10 mm bars, effective depth = 150 20 5 = 125 mm
Step 2: Calculate loads & B.M.
Self weight of slab = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 kN/m
2
Floor finish (assumed) = 1.00 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 3.00 kN/m
2
_____________
Total load = 7.75 kN/m
2
Factored Load = 1.5 x 7.75 = 11.63 kN/m
2
L
x
/L
y
= 6 / 4 = 1.5
From Table 27 of the code,
x
= 0.104,
y
= 0.046
M
x
=0.104 x 11.63 x 4
2
= 19.35 kNm/m
M
y
=0.046 x 11.63 x 4
2
= 8.56 kN/m
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 3: Check depth for bending
Required depth mm mm
bf
M
d
ck
u
125 75
25 1000 138 . 0
10 35 . 19
138 . 0
5 . 0
6
5 . 0
< =


.

\

=


.

\

=
Hence depth assumed is sufficient.
Step 4: Calculate reinforcement
Area of reinforcement is short span m mm
df
M
y
u
/ 466
415 125 8 . 0
10 35 . 19
8 . 0
2
6
=
= =
Provide 10 mm at 160 mm c/c (A
st
, provided = 491 mm
2
)
Area of reinforcement in long direction =
( )
m mm / 224
415 10 125 8 . 0
10 56 . 8
2
6
=
Provide 8 mm @ 220 mm c/c (A
st
, provided = 228 mm
2
)
Spacing of bars < 3 x d = 3 x 125 = 375 mm or 300 mm
Hence cracking will be within permissible limits.
Minimum renforcement = (0.12 / 100) x 125 x 1000 = 150 mm
2
< 228 mm
2
Step 5 : Check for shear
Load transferred to short span,
u
y x
y
x
w
L L
L
w
2 2
2
+
= m kN/ 05 . 8
4 6
) 63 . 11 ( 6
2 2
2
=
+
=
Maximum shear force at a distance d from the face of support
m kN d
L
w V
x
x u
/ 1 . 15 125 . 0
2
4
05 . 8
2
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
Nominal shear stress =
2 2
3
/ 29 . 0 / 12 . 0
125 1000
10 1 . 15
mm N mm N
bd
V
u
< =
=
(Table 19 of IS 456)
Hence slab safe in shear.
Alternate bars should be bent up at 0.2 x span to resist any secondary bending moment occurring
at support.
Step 6: Detailing at opening
The size of opening is 500 mm and the thickness of slab is 150 mm. The opening is not at the
critical zone of the slab. In short span, 500 / 160 = 3 numbers 10 dia. bars will be intercepted by
the opening and in the long span, 500/220 = 2 numbers 8 dia. Bars. Hence provide 2 Nos. 10 mm
bar at each edge along the long and short span direction. Similarly provide two 8 mm bar at the
four diagonal corners of the opening as shown in Fig.10.62.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Fig. 10.62 Reinforcement around opening
Example 10.11
A twoway continuous slab of size 4 m by 8 m, and 300 mm thickness has a central point load of
85 kN due to some electrical equipments of size 0.9 m by 1.8 m. Determine the BM and shear
due to the concentrated load using Pigeauds method. Assume a wearing coat of thickness 40
mm.
Solution
Step 1: Calculate u and v
) 04 . 0 3 . 0 ( 2 9 . 0 + + = u = 1.58 m
) 04 . 0 3 . 0 ( 2 8 . 1 + + = v = 2.48 m
Step 2: Determine the coefficients using Pigeauds curves
4 . 0
4
58 . 1
= =
x
L
u
;
31 . 0
8
48 . 2
= =
y
L
v
;
0 . 2
4
8
= =
x
y
L
L
Using Fig.10.29 of the book, m
x
= 0.142; m
y
= 0.06
Step 3: Calculate the moments
( ) ) 06 . 0 2 . 0 142 . 0 ( 85 + = + =
y x x
m m P M v = 13.09 kNm
( ) ) 142 . 0 2 . 0 06 . 0 ( 85 + = + =
x y y
m m P M v = 7.51 kNm
Allowing a reduction of 20% for continuity, we get M
x
= 10.47 kNm and M
y
= 6.01 kNm per
meter width
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 4: Calculate maximum shear force:
Short span: V = P (L
y
v/2)/(uL
y
) = 85(81.24)/(1.588) = 45.46 kN/m
Long span: V = P (L
x
u/2)/(vL
x
) = 85(40.79)/(2.484) = 27.51 kN/m
Example 10.12
Consider a rectangular slab of size 8 m by 6 m with one of its longest sides free and other three sides
simply supported. The reinforcement in two perpendicular directions are such that m
x
= 12 kNm/m
and m
y
= 15 kNm/m. Find its collapse load.
Solution
m
x
= 12 kNm/m and m
y
= 15 kNm/m. Hence = 15/12 = 1.25.
Ratio of short side to long side, = 6/8 =0.75, L = 8 m
For Mode 1 failure (see Table 10.6)
(
(

.

\

+ = 2
9
4
24
2
2 2
o
o L w
m
u
u
u
w
w
479 . 3 2
75 . 0
25 . 1 9
4
25 . 1 24
8 ) 75 . 0 (
12
2
2 2
=
(
(

.

\

+
=
Hence w
u
= 3.45 kN/m
2
For Mode 2 failure,
2
2
2
2 4
3
24
(
(

.

\

+ =
o
o
L w
m
u
u
u
w
w
041 . 3
75 . 0 2
25 . 1
75 . 0 4
25 . 1
3
24
8
12
2
2
2
=
(
(

.

\

+ =
Hence w
u
= 3.95 kN/m
2
We must take the lower value of the ultimate load, since we are using an upper bound approach.
Hence the first mode of failure with two positive yield lines govern the failure, with w
u
= 3.45
kN/m
2
. Note that it has been shown already by Jones that when , 2 /
2
> o the first mode will
govern; otherwise the second mode of failure will govern. For our case,
2 22 . 2 75 . 0 / 25 . 1 /
2 2
> = = o ; hence, the first mode governs, which is evident by the calculations
also.
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Example 10.13
Design the rectangular slab given in Exercise 10.1 using the yield line theory and compare the
results.
Solution
Given: L = 6.5 m; B = 5 m, I.L. = 3 kN/m
2
; Load due to finishes = 1.0 kN/m
2
; M25 concrete and
Fe 550 steel. Mild exposure.
Step 1 Assume depth of slab
As per clause 24.1 of IS 456, L/d ratio for simply supported slab = 35 x 0.8 =28
Hence depth of slab = L/28 = 5000/28 =178.5 mm
Let us adopt D = 180 mm, Assuming cover = 25 mm, and dia. of bars used as 10 mm,
d =180 255 = 150 mm
Step 2 Calculate Loads
Selfweight of slab = 0.1825 = 4.5 kN/m
2
Imposed load = 3.0 kN/m
2
Floor finish (say) = 1.00 kN/m
2
Total service load = 8.5 kN/m
2
Design factored load, w
u
= 1.5 x 8.5 =
12.75 kN/m
2
Step 2 Calculate B.M. and shear
Ultimate bending moment as per yield line theory
24
2
L w
M m
u
u
= = = 28 . 13
24
5 75 . 12
2
=
kNm/m
Ultimate shear, 875 . 31 5 75 . 12 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = = L w V
u u
kN
Step 3 Check limiting moment capacity of slab
= = =
2 2
lim ,
150 1000 25 138 . 0 138 . 0 bd f M
ck u
77.62 kNm
M
u
< M
u,lim
. Hence the section is under reinforced.
Step 4 Calculate Reinforcement
59 . 0
150 1000
10 28 . 13
2
6
2
=
=
bd
M
u
From Table 3 of SP 16, we get for M 25 concrete, p
t
= 0.168%
252 150 1000
100
168 . 0
= =
st
A mm
2
Provide 10 mm diameter bars at 300 mm c/c bothways (A
st
= 262 mm
2
)
Note that we obtained 10 mm dia. bars at 190 mm c/c in Exercise 10.1
Design of RC Structures Oxford University Press India DR. N. Subramanian
Step 5 Check for shear stresses
Nominal shear stress = =
=
150 1000
31875
bd
V
u
0.213 N/mm
2
150 1000
262 100 100
= =
bd
A
p
st
t
= 0.175
From Table 19 of IS 456,
=
c s
k t k
s
0.30 N/mm
2
Hence the slab is safe in shear.
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