ntents
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
Preface
vii
INTRODUCTION
1
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Steps in Structural Design 1 Applied Loads and Temperahtres 2 Actual Stresses and Deflections 4
Allowable Stresses or Deflections 5 Comparison of Applied and Allowable Stresses and Deflections Sttmma1·y 7
References 7
Problems 8
\
STRESS AND STRAIN
10
21. 
Introduction 
10 

22. 
Stress: Definitions and Notations 
10 

23. 
Equations of Equilibn·um 12 
6
xi
_{x}_{l}_{i}
CON
N
S
24. 
Stress Tt·ansfonnations for Rotation of A x s 
16 

25. 
Principal Stresses and Maximum Shem· Stres es 

26. 
Dejlections and Strains 
20 

27. 
Straintransfonnation Equations 
24 

28. 
Compatibility Equations 
26 

_{2}_{}_{9}_{.} 
Summary 
27 

References 28 

Problems 28 
CHAPTER 3 
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 
31 

31. 
Introduction 
31 

_{3}_{}_{2}_{.} 
The Tensile Test 32 

33. 
Compression and Shear Tests 35 

_{3}_{}_{4}_{.} 
I dealizations 
of the StressStrain Curve 
36 

35. 
Threeparameter Representations of StressStrain Curves 
38 

_{3}_{}_{6}_{.} 
Effect of Temperature upon Shortlime Static Properties 
41 

37. 
Creep 42 

38. 
Fatigue 44 

39. 
Allowable M echanical Properties 
47 

310. 
M aterial Selection 49 References 56 

_{3}_{}_{1}_{1}_{.} 
Threedimensional Linearly Elastic StressStrain 

Relationships 51 

Problems 57 

CHAPTER 4 
INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY 
59 

_{4}_{}_{1}_{.} 
Introduction 
59 

42. 
Displacement Formulation 
_{6}_{0} 

43. 
Stress Formulation 
61 

44. 
Twodimensional Problems 
62 

_{4}_{}_{5}_{.} 
Stressfunction Formulation 
64 

_{4}_{}_{6}_{.} 
The 
Inverse M ethod 70 

47. 
The 
Semiinverse M ethod 
75 

_{4}_{}_{8}_{.} 
St. Venant' s Princip le 
75 

References 
76 

Problems 
77 

CHAPTER 5 
FINITEDIFFERENCE METHODS 
79 
51. Introduction 79 _{5}_{}_{2}_{.} Finitedifference Operators 80 53. Application to EqU?'librium Boundaryvalue Problems 85 54. Application to Eigenvalue P1·oblems 90 55. Solution of M atrix Eigenvalue Equations 93
References 
96 
Problems 
96 
t
t tr ~Il N 1'
xlii
R 6
INTRODUCTION TO WORK AND ENERGY PRINCIPLES
0 1. 
1ntroductton 
9 

0 2. 
Work and Energy 
99 
6:3.
Virtual Work and Equilibrium
101
_{9}_{8}
64. 
Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom 
104 

65. 
Stability 
105 

66. 
Small Displacements of a Conservat1've System 107 

67. 
Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy 110 

8. 
Potential and Complementary Potential of External Forces 
115 

69. 
The Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total Potential 
117 

610. 
The Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total 

611. 
Complementary Potential 118 De1'ivation of Equilibrium and Compatibility Equations 

by Va1'iational M ethods 
120 

612. 
The RayleighRitz M eth od 
122 

613. 
The Recip1'ocal Theorems of Betti and Maxwell 
127 

61 4. 
The Use of Virtual Work to Compute Dejlections Refe?"ences 131 Problems 131 
128 
1 A
TER 7
BENDING AND EXTENSION OF BEAMS
133
71. 
I 
ntroducUon 133 

72. 
St1·ess Resultants 
133 

73. 
Stresses Due to Extension and Bending 
135 

74. 
M odulusweighted Section Propertt'es 
139 

75. 
Accuracy of Beamstress Equation 
141 

76. 
I 
dealization of Stiffenedshell St1·uctures 
143 

77. 
Equilibrium Equations 152 

78. 
Beam Dejlections 157 

79. 
The Dijferential Equations of Beams, Ba1's, and Gables 
158 

710. 
Energy Expressions for Beams 168 References 173 P1·oblems 174 
UAPTER 8
THE TORSION OF SLENDER BODIES
178
81. 
l nlroduction 178 

82. 
Prandtl Stress}unction Formulation 
179 

83. 
The M embrar/e Analogy 185 

84. 
W 
arping.function Formulation 
188 

85. 
Analytical Methods for Approximate Solutions 
192 

86. 
Thinwalled Open Sections 198 

87. 
Thinwalled Closed Sections 202 

88. 
Accuracy of Torsion Theory 213 
xlv
0.
Differ ntial JJiqHa.tiontJ fm· References 220 Problems 220
Minl!lt• 'l'orqrw
21
NI
NI
CHAPTER 9 
STRESSES DUE TO SHEAR IN THINWALLED 

SLENDER BEAMS 
224 

_{9}_{}_{1}_{.} 
Introduction 
224 

92. 
Open Sections 225 

_{9}_{}_{3}_{.} 
Fluidflow Analogy 236 

_{9}_{}_{4}_{.} 
Shear Center 
239 

95. 
Closed Sections 240 

_{9}_{}_{6}_{.} 
Effects of Taper 247 

97. 
Transverse M ember Loads References 254 253 

Problems 
255 

CHAPTER 10 
DEFLECTION ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES 
258 

101. Introduction 
258 

102. The Method of Virtual Work 258 

103. Equations for ôU of Simple Elements 263 

104. 
Relative Displacements 273 

105. 
Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices 275 

106. 
Distributed Loads and Weighting Matrices References 282 Problems 283 
280 

CHAPTER 11 
STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 
286 

111. 
Introduction 
286 

112. 
Application of the Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total Potential 287 

113. 
Application of th e Princip le of the Stationary Value of 

114. 
the Total Complementary Potential 290 Equations for ôU' of Simple Elements 294 

115. 
Notes on Bas~·c and Redundantforce Systems 295 

116. 
Elasticcenter and Columnanalogy M ethods 304 References 313 Problems 313 

CHAPTER 12 
INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX METHODS 
OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
317
121. 
Introductwn 
317 

122. 
The Force M ethod 318 

123. 
Discussion of the Force Method 
323 
1 tlt~ Il N 1 j
R 13
1~ ~.
A Jlplil·ntwn lo SlijJmNl
'h
ll11
:l2
_{'} l'lt1 · n; .~ pla cl'llt<'rtt M thod
1:2 o.
127.
a:3:~
/)iM'IIt~sion of the D1's pla em nt M ethod
Conr ludin(l Jl e·mark s
Nef •r nee.~
J>robl ms
34 5
346
344
THE BENDING AND EXTENSION OF THIN PLATES
J 3 1.
Int roduction
34
132 . Geometry of the Reference Su1jace
349
348
xv
133. 
Stress Resultants 
354 

134. 
Equili brium Equations 354 

135. 
Stra~·ndisplacement and Compatibility Equations 
357 

136. 
StressStrain Equations 360 

137. 
Formulations of the Plate Equations 361 

138. 
Boundary Conditions 
366 

139. 
The Differential Equations for Plates and Membranes 
371 

1310. 
The Navier Solution 377 

1311. 
Strain Energy of Plates 379 

1312. 
A pproximate M ethods References 388 Pr·oblems 389 
384 

c 
UA 
TER 14 
PRIMARY BENDING INSTABILITY 

AND FAILURE OF COLUMNS 
391 

141. 
Introduction 
391 

142. 
Small Dejlections of Lineady Elastic Perfect Columns 
392 

143. 
App1·oximate Methods 399 

144. 
Small Dejlections of Imperfect Elastic Columns 407 

145. 
Large Dejlections of Columns 411 

146. 
Inelastic Columns 417 

147. 
Empirical Column Equations 426 References 428 Problems 428 

c 
IIAPTER 15 
INSTABILITY AND FAILURE OF PLATES 430 
151 . 
Introduction 
430 

152. 
Formulatio~f the Buckling Problem 
430 

153. 
Elastic Buc 
ing of a Simply Supported Plate in 

Un iaxia l Co pression 43 2 

154. 
Buckling of Uniform Rectangular Plates with Simple 

Edge Loadings 434 

155. 
Approximaie Methods 
439 

156. 
Combined Loads and Interaction Curves 
445 
xvi
CO N
N
S
157. 
Effecls of Large Dejlections and l n1.tial Imp erf ections 
449 

158. 
Inelastic B uckling of Plates 
455 

159. 
The Failure of Plates 
462 
CHAPTER 16
References 
464 
Problems 
465 
INSTABILITY AND FAILURE OF THINWALLED COLUMNS
AND STIFFENED PLATES
467
161. 
I nt1·oduction 
_{4}_{6}_{7} 

162. 
S econdary Instability of Columns 
_{4}_{6}_{8} 

163. 
Crippling of Columns 
_{4}_{7}_{4} 

164. 
Failure of Thinwalled Columns 
_{4}_{7}_{9} 
165. Compressive Buckling of Stiffened Panels _{4}_{8}_{1}
166. 
Crippling of Stiffened Panels 
_{4}_{8}_{8} 

167. 
I nte1jastener Buckling and W rinkling 
_{4}_{9}_{0} 

168. 
Failure of Stiffened Panels 497 References 500 Problems 502 
Index
507
Theory and Analy i of Flight Structur
1
1 traduction
t. TEPS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN
' l 'lit
1he
pi'OC
s of design and analysis of flight structures may be divided into
following ste ps:
1, ' l ' IH d termination of the critical combinations of applied loads and 1, mperatures to which the structure is subjected.
htyo ut of the design in vvhich the arrangement, size, and materials
' 1 he
of th component parts of the structure are tentatively decided upon. ,1, ' l' he d term ination of the actual stresses and deformations in the HLructure due to the applied 1oads and temperatures. 1, ' l' he d term ination of the allowable stresses or deformations of the HLructure. 1, 'l 'li< ·omparison of steps 3 and 4 to determine whether the design of
Hl, 1 2 is adequate and efficient. If the design is either inadequate or· v rdesigned (and therefore ine:fficient), steps 2 tt> 5 must be r·cp ated until a satisfactory design is obtained.
Th steps form a successiveapproximation procedure, for the loads 111d 1.1 rnp ratur es of step 1 are functions of the details of the structural
cl 1 11 , which in turn depend upon the loads and temperatures. In the • ' ' 11 HLnp; '. of the design process weights, loads, and temperatures are u llc 11 h t H •d upon crude estimates. These are continuously refined as the d" 1 n pmgrosses and more accurate information becomes available. l»11rin p; t.h ar l y phases, the methods of structural analysis are usually
l •11 1 d 11 pon 'Ïmplifie~theories, as the expense and time nece ssary for more
loads and temperature s are
1 " "" n mor· a curately. The structural analyst must therefore be capabl e 11 1 c 11 lll ' i np; th range from educated guesses to sophisticated analyses. ll11 d nHip; n Lhat finally ev olves is a compromise involving st ructur a l, aero tl\ ll n ani o, fnbrication, maintenance, and operational considerations.
• h d 11 11'n Lc
m
thods ar~ ot justified until the
1
_{2}
THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES
The substantiation of the final design is usually documented by the following comprehensive reports, which are submitted to the agency which is procuring or certifying the vehicle:
1. A weight and balance report, which gives the weights, centers of gravity, mass moments of inertia, and weight distributions of the vehicle and each of its major components.
2. A loads report, which contains the aerodynamic, weight, and inertial force distributions for each of the critical load conditions. Shear,
bendingmoment, torque, and axialload curves are also given for major components. 3, A structuraltempe'rature report, which gives the temperature distribu tions that occur simultaneously with the critical load conditions.
4. A stressanalysis report, which substantiates the actual and allowable stresses and defiections for each of the critical loadtemperature conditions for all components of the structure.
5. An aeroelastic report, which gives the predicted speeds at which fiutter, divergence, and control reversai will occur. The effects that struc tural deformations have upon air loads and control effectiveness are also contained in this report.
The structuralanalysis group usually prepares the stressanalysis report and assists in the preparation of the other reports.
12
APPLIED LOADS AND TEMPERATURES
The loads imposed upon the structure may be divided into two classes, those encountered on the ground and those in fiight. Ground loads are those loads imposed during fabrication, assembly, shipping, storage, and handling. In the case of missiles they include launch operations, while for aircraft they involve the loads imposed by taxiing and landing. Flight loads are those loads applied to the structure during its fiight phase and include the lo ads imposed by maneuver, gusts, and wind shear. In missiles they also involve the forces encountered during boost and staging opera tions. Temperatures are usually not significant in the groundoperations phase, but during the fiight phase they are often of equal or greater impor tance than the loads. This is especially true for fiight in the supersonic or hypersonic regimes. In sorne cases the structure may have to withstand the aerodynamic loads imposed by passing through the subsonic, tran sonic, supersonic, and hypersonic phases of fiight. At the same time it may be subjected to temperatures ranging from the extreme lows of cryogenie fuels and radiation to space, to the highs associated with aero dynamic heating, hcat from the propulsion unit, and radiation from the sun.
Il
111111111 , 11
N
_{3}
1 ,nr ~d H mny nl o be cat gorized according to how they act up
n th
11111 l.tll'c•. Surface j01·ces are those forces which act upon the surfac f
1111 Lt •twLw· , '.g., aerodynamic or hydrodynamic pressures, aerostatic or
l• 1hn t.n.t.i<:pr s ure ,orcontactpressuresfromotherbodies. Bodyjorce·
'"' 1 hnt·H for· s which act over the volume of the structure, e.g., gravita· 1 ••nJt,l nnd in rlial forces. No r~LL ntpt will be made here to define the loads and temperatures l•tt lit Id, HLructurcs quantitatively, since severa! volumes would be
q 11 t•nd f,o •ov •r the environmental conditions for
tlt H
HJ>It ·'
raft, etc.
airplanes, helicopters,
Such information can be found in Refs. 1 to 1
1 1l11 i nd of the chapter. In sorne cases, the applied loads which the llltc • Ltm lllll Ht withstand are specified by the procuring or certifying
' '1111 , lm H cl upon stat istical data obtained from operating experience lit tn1ilr~t· •raft. In other cases, especially if the design and its environ lill rd nl't Ill\ onventional, it is part of the contractor's responsibility to tl d 11111 l'nt.ionn.l loads and thermal criteria. l't•w d •finitions of terms relating to loads should be mentioned at lit 1111i '' t, 1><eau e of their repeated use in the analysis of flight structures. 1 111111 lnwiN ar the largest loads which it is anticipated that the structure
11hj( ·t d to during its lifetime. It is usually impossible to specify
f l11 l11 l ' ct·d, loaù that a particular vehicle will be subjected to, but it is
"''' 11 1 II HH i hl• L predict statistically the number of times that an average
til '''
• Il 1 ''
1111
\
ill
n
unter certain load Ievels.
In specifying the limit loads,
11 tmlly impractical to set the loads at such a high level that none of
•• llwl< H will ever have a structural failure. Such a design would be
111 ll11t1 nt, from a weight standpoint. It is therefore necessary to set the 1 111 1 lo11,d H nL a level 'vhich results in an acceptable low level of failure. ll11 l'nilt11·c mLe for inhabited vehicles must, of course, be much lower t 11 1111 Lhn f, for uninhabited ones. ' ll11 li rn iLl ads are often prescribed by giving a limitload factor, or lin 1ne• lm· hy which basic loads are multiplied to obtain limit loads. As 111 ' ' nnt pl<, Lho loads for 1g level flight are often taken as a basic load con I 1 1111 lw· nirel't.tft. In a maneuver that imposes inertial and gravitational
ln11
' ''
tructure that are six times greater than those caused by
I lL i Ln.t,i< n l force in level unaccelerated flight, the limitload factor
upon
Lh
''"'
"lltdd 1>
6.
ln cll'tl< t' L provide for a separation between the limit loads and the
1 tt 1 '' L \\Il ieh the st"ucture fails, a factor of sajety is specified. This
1 " l1 " '• \diÎoh mu.y vary""a_ccording to the mission of the vehicle, is usually
1 •
l111 '
inllnl>iL d craft and may be as low as
1.25 for missiles.
The
rably lower than those used in civil or machin truc
consid rabl ub
f such low factors of safety requires
and test.
hy 1tnu.ly i
'liu 'ltltimate load (sometimc ln wn as the design load) i d fin u.1:1
_{4}
THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES
the product of the limit load and the factor of safety. The failing load (ultimate strength) of the structure should be only slightly greater than the ultimate load. It should be noted that in fiight structures the limit load is conventionally multiplied by the factor of safety. On the other hand , in civil and machine structures the ultimate strength is usually divided by the factor of safety to give a working strength. Both methods, of course, give the same result. The ultimate load is often specified by giving an ultimateload factor nua, which is equal to the product of the limitload factor and the factor of safety. The ultimate loads are then obtained by multiplying the basic loads by the ultimateload factor.
13
ACTUAL STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS
The major portion of this book is devoted to methods of analysis for pre dicting the stresses and deflections of structural components under applied loads and temperatures. In the mechanics of deformable bodies it is usually necessary to introduce simplifying assumptions to arrive at a solution to the problem. The results achieved by using these assump tions must therefore be regarded as approximate, and it is possible to assess the degree of approximation only by knowing the nature and significance of the assumptions. Considerable effort is made in this text to underscore the assumptions and limitations of the theories discussed. In practice it is seldom that all the assumptions will be fulfilled, but it is only by an intimate knowledge of the development of the theories that the equations can be intelligently applied to situations which do not pre cisely follow the conditions of the theory. The approximations can be divided into physical and mathematical categories. Physical approximations are simplifying assumptions regard ing the mechanical behavior of the material, the shape and proportions of the body, the manner in which it deforms (or how the stresses are dis tributed), and the nature of the loading. :Yiathematical approximations are often necessary in order to arrive at simple solutions or, in sorne cases, to obtain a solution at all. In many cases these mathematical approxima tions will also imply physicallimitations. For instance, if it is assumed for mathematical convenience that the sine of an angle may be replaced by the angle, the results will be acceptable only for small angles. In the physical approximations we usually replace the real deforma ble body and loads by a simple conceptional modeZ which embodies the signific ant characteristics of beh avior of the real system. F or instance,
we may idealiz e th e forcedi placeme nt beh avior of t h e materi al b y one qf the m ethods disc u scd in hap. 3. We may also make assump t ions on
f r mat i 11 o f th o y. 1 or xamples, in Chap. 7 we
ass u m t h at }l a n ' t 'OHH H< ·Li ns f u. b am r oma in p l a n e a nd normal to
t h e mod e
of
d
Il t IIHIIHJC
1ON
_{5}
1111 
11 . i H of a am as it bends, and in Chap. 13 we assume that normal to 
1111 
tnid:~urfn. r main normal to that surface as a plate deforms. In the 
lttd , or st iff ncdshell structures we shall find it convenient to replace
1111 not. ual Hiructure by an idealized
one having longitudinal stiffener
lltt•h t'oHÏHi,
nly axial forces and thin webs which resist only shear forces.
ltt' nluai • the accuracy of these assumptions it is necessary to compare
t' t •MtdL:; with those of more acc urate theories or \vith experiments.
!11 eomplex structures we shall subdivide the structure into simp ler
'1 '"' rd ,H for which methods of analysis exist. We view the composite ltttf •Lun 1 H nn assemblage of beams, shear webs, plates, shells, etc., and d, 1 lop m il d of analysis for these simpler structural shapes. W IH 11 v r possib le we shaH treat the stresses and deformations
litt
distributions along with those resulting from
•ppllc •d l'ot·e \ . We shall include these effects from the outset, rather than ltr ul in,.,; (,h •m as an appen dage to the theory, so that the stresses and d, lie c•l ion Hr sulting from loads or temperatures alone will be special cases
'" 1111 r11or ~ neral theory, which includes both.
1
tll ' llt.Lt•<l
wiih thermal
1OWABLE STRESSES OR DEFLECTIONS
li Hill 1 erii ria for the allowable loads of flight structures are:
' l'l11 lond which produces a collapse of
the structure
l ' ht 
Joad 
which prod uc es a limiting petmanent deformation 
1n the 
lrlldut· 
afier removal of the load 

litt 
lo1 d which produces a limiting total deformation of the loaded 
lt 'IIOLIII'
l •'e~t ' 1,11( firsi criterion it is required that the stresses imposed by the 1111rlc• lo ndH hould not result in a failure of the structure. Such a 1 ' lu tt cnttld b th result of rupture of the material or buckling instability 1 lire lt 'llc•Lut· . The latter mode of failure usually establishes the design 1 1111 lllii.,Î<II' portion of flight structures because of the thinshell con ''''' l1n11 LhaL iH c mmonly used. It is for this reason that a large portion
t d to the study of the buckling of structural elements.
Titi' noond •riterion is usually interpreted to mean that the stresses
"'l'" 'tl lt , U1c limit loads should not exceed the 0.2 percent offset yield
lu111k i H <1 v
Lht 1\liLL rial 'œcc. 32). Such a criterion limits the permanent
litt Hiru tur~fo 0.002.
As this requirement is arbitrary, it i
Il•"' 11 1 nd l'or uninhabited craft, and the only requirement on d forma
LoLn.ld formation
·ri
ri
n r
uire
criterion. that d flections at the limit l
rf r
Lho
whi h ini
_{6}
THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES
mission of the vehicle, e.g. , those which prevent the free motion of moving parts or produce adverse dynamic or aeroelastic effects. It is usually specified that the material properties used in determin ing the allowable stresses and defiections be taken from Ref. 19 or that the properties be substantiated by tests made by the materials manufacturer or the contracter. These properties should refiect the temperature of the structure and the duration of the load.
1·5
COMPARISON OF APPLIED AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS
As mentioned earlier, it is necessary to compare the applied and allowable stresses and defiections to determine whether the structure is effi.ciently designed. This is done by computing the margin of safety, defined as
l\1:S = allowable load _ applied load
_{1}
(11)
For the limitload condition this becomes
L"
.t MS
Inu
=
yield load applied limit load
^{_}
1
and for the ultimateload condition
Ultimate l\18 =
~ollaps.eload
apphed ult1mate load

1
(12)
(13)
The smaller of these t" o margins of safety controis the design. In many cases the stresses are directly proportional to the loads (or are assumed soin the linear theories), and the word "load" can therefore be replaced by "stress" in these equations. It is seen from Eq. (11) that an effi.ciently designed structure vvould have a very small positive margin of safety. Hm:vever, in sorne cases it may be desirable to have relatively large positive margins of safety to provide a growth potential for the craft so that increased performance or payload could be accommodated without redesigning the structure. It has been pointed out that the design process is one of successive approximations until a satisfactory margin of safety is reached. In most cases, and especially if the structure is unconventional, tests are performed to substantiate the analysis and prove the strength and stiffness of the structure. A reduction in the structural weight of a fiight vehicle per mits an increase in payload or performance. It is therefore economically feasible to use expensive materials and fabrication methods and to expend many manhours of analy is and testing if it results in a decrease in struc tural weight.
Il
Il
111111
liON
IMMA
Y
1111 1 1 di "K d i H ·us ·i
only a cur ory introduction to the consid
lthnL ont, r into the evolution of a structural design. 1 ro
Tho
ps
de HoripLion s of th
n giv
process may be found in Refs. 7 to 11.
of LhiH L xt will addre s itself to the third and fourth
H<•e. 1 l, i.
., th
t
determination of the actual and the allowabl
d< ft ction ·. Even with this limited scope, it is impossible to
Llmn nn introduction to the theoretical
v n here completeness is not possible. Inevitably, the
methods that are used
11111 Llll 't t.l nnnly sis . Additional references ·will be given at the end of
11 lt 1 lt npLc r·, 1)\1 L
1 111 l,rlf •nl nnn.lyst find that he must refer to the technical journa ls of
litt l"'"' t·donnl engineering societies orto the reports of research organi ''" '" lunhl.ain th olutions to his problems. It is hoped that this text Il l"" ' tele l.h< r ader with an introduction to basic theory suffici ent to ''"" l.o ,. nd and understand the more advanced theories that are
1 t llllt llfi HH HLandards: Normal,
Utility,
and Acrobatie Category Airplanes,
l ',tl, ttl ll t1iut ·ion Agency Rept. 23, Feb. 1, 1965.
t 
'"'''"" 'HH ~Lnndards: Transport Category Airplanes, Federal Aviation Agency 

lt' 
Jtf ' ^{1} _{,} _{,} J•'tb. 1, Jû65. 

t 
tttllt tii 'HH , 'Landards: Normal Category Rotorcraft, Federal Aviation Agency 

" '' , , lt , ' " lldllt •HH Htnndards : Transport Category Rotorcraft, Federal Aviation J•' l'l l. 1, 1965. 
Agency 

u,'" 1 ' ^{1} 11, 1 ^{1} ' t h. j , 1965. 
1 • 111 11 111 Hpt t•ifi c ntion for Airp lane Strength and Rigidity, M ilitary Specification
1 \ '
Ill ,
,
\
HHIIO ( AR A), May 18, 1960.
Hlt·w·tu•·nl Airworthiness, in "Handbook of Aeronautics, no. 1, Struc
ltttlll J', lttt •ipl H nnd
Il l h,
1Il,•.
ata, pt. 1," 4th ed ., Pitman Publishing Corporation, New
llttd tll ,
1111
'
l
1(
,o.
1•'.: "Analysis and
Design of Flight Vehicle Structures,"
)in ·innati, Ohio, 1965.
Tristate
'''""'d, <. (J.: ^{1}^{1} pac craft Structures," PrenticeHall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, ' 

· 
11100. 

1 1 ttt llll \', 
Ill. A., '. W. Zucrow, and C. W. Besserer: "Principles of Guided Missile 

11 , 1 tt , • l'od y na,mics, Propulsion, Structures, and Design Practice," D. Van 

lt 'llltd C o111pan y , New York, 19 56 . 

11
1 lt tt N, 
: " ( luicl ed Mi ss ile Configuration Design," McGrawHill Book Company, 

, 
, 
' u, l , 1on 1 . \"' 

t t ' '' '" 
'" "' • 1•• 
Il. : ^{1}^{1} ' iru'etural Design of Missiles and Spacecraft," Mc 
rawIIill 

l lttt 
tl 
< ^{1} 0i11pn.ny, N w York, 1962. 
ll tt ll , N, ,1,: ^{1}^{1} 1li p; h T mp rature Effects in Aircraft Structures," P rgamon Pr sa ,
N•
1 11
Il ,
1' ' '" \,
\ n t'l ,
1\l f>H.
1/
W , : " l•' uml am n tals of Aerodynamic Heating," The
Nt w York, 1000.
onald Pre ss
om
8
THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES
14. Glaser, P. E.: "Aerodynamically Heated Structures," PrenticeHall, loc., Engle wood Cliffs, N.J., 1962.
15. Bisplinghoff, R. L., H. Ashley, and R. L. Halfman: "Aeroelasticity," Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, Mass., 1955.
16. Fung, Y. C.: "An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity,'' John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955.
17. "Manual on Aeroelasticity," NATO Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development, 1959.
18. Bisplinghoff, R. L., and H. A. Ashley: "Principles of Aeroelasticity," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962.
19. Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, Military Hand book MILHDBK5A, Feb. 8, 1966.
PROBLEMS
11. A 600lb satellite is mounted in the upper stage of a launch vehicle. During the boosted verticalflight phase, a peak acceleration of 9g is reached. The satellite is mated to the booster by four bolts loaded in shear, each of which has an ultimate shear strength of 2126 lb. The specified factor of safety is 1.25. Determine (a) the limit load per bolt, (b) the ultimate load per bolt, and (c) the ultimate margin of safety. [Ans. (a) 1500lb; (b) 1875lb; (c) 0.135.]
12. The fuel tank of a vertically launched rocket contains kerosene (specifie gravity 0.8) and is pressurized to 100 psig at a sealevel pressure of 14.7 psia. The peak boost acceleration of 9g occurs at an altitude where the ambient pressure is 5 psia and at
a time when the depth of the unexpended fuel is 100 in. Determine the ultimate
bursting pressure at the bottom of the tank at this time assuming an ultimate factor
of safety of 1.25. [Ans. Putt = 173 psi.]
13. The nose of a cargo airplane is at a body station (BS) of 0 in. The loaded plane weighs 150,000 lb, and its center of gravity is at BS 250. The centers of pressure of the aerodynamic forces on the wing and tail are respectively at BS 200 and 550. The fuselage is 600 in. long and together with its contents weighs a constant 150 lb/in. The tail weighs 2000 lb and has a center of gravity at BS 560. Determine the ulti mate shear and bending moment in the fuselage at BS 200 for a limit trimmed (no pitching acceleration) maneuver load factor of n = 3g including gravity. Assume
a 1.5 factor of safety.
[Ans.
Vult =
115,000 lb, Mult = 8.7 X 10 ^{6} in.lb.]
B.S.
0
Fig. P13
200
wn
1
250
550
600
14. A 96,600lb transport airplane has a mass moment of inertia of 48,300,000 lbin.
During landing, when
sec2 about a pitch axis passing through its center of gravity.
flllllllllf(, JI 
N 

l•
f
11d
(/1)
'' 111d ynu rni e lift Îli O.û (11) t.ho limit 1 , 1' '''"''" tim ad fa s th t 
r 
w ight, it is rti in th v 
uhj t al dir 
dt Lion at th th groun l 1 ads s h c nt r wn. f gravity r ·ond. [Ans. 

t,l11 
lirnit 
pitcbing accel rati n in radians 
p 
second per s 

:1./i(l; (b) 
0 = 
O. 89 rad/ ec ^{2} .] 
Fig. Pl4 and 1·5
250,000 lb
11 1 Ir Pt r·o ni s package weighing 100 lb is located 400 in. aft of the center of gravity
the ultimate verticalload that the package
664lb.]
11
litt
rt ll 'plnn
f Prob. 14.
Determine
tlfiJIIII 1 ltr'JI.(•I
ts are subjected to during landing.
[Ans.
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