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ntents

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 2

Preface

vii

INTRODUCTION

1

1-1.

1-2.

1-3.

1-4.

1-5.

1-6.

Steps in Structural Design 1 Applied Loads and Temperahtres 2 Actual Stresses and Deflections 4

Allowable Stresses or Deflections 5 Comparison of Applied and Allowable Stresses and Deflections Sttmma1·y 7

References 7

Problems 8

\

STRESS AND STRAIN

10

2-1.

Introduction

10

2-2.

Stress: Definitions and Notations

10

2-3.

Equations of Equilibn·um 12

6

xli

CON

N

S

2-4.

Stress Tt·ansfonnations for Rotation of A x s

16

2-5.

Principal Stresses and Maximum Shem· Stres es

2-6.

Dejlections and Strains

20

2-7.

Strain-transfonnation Equations

24

2-8.

Compatibility Equations

26

2-9.

Summary

27

References 28

 

Problems 28

CHAPTER 3

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS

31

3-1.

Introduction

31

3-2.

The Tensile Test 32

 

3-3.

Compression and Shear Tests 35

3-4.

I dealizations

of the Stress-Strain Curve

 

36

3-5.

Three-parameter Representations of Stress-Strain Curves

38

3-6.

Effect of Temperature upon Short-lime Static Properties

41

3-7.

Creep

42

 

3-8.

Fatigue

44

 

3-9.

Allowable M echanical Properties

47

3-10.

M aterial Selection 49

References 56

 

3-11.

Three-dimensional Linearly Elastic Stress-Strain

 

Relationships 51

Problems 57

 

CHAPTER 4

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY

59

4-1.

Introduction

59

4-2.

Displacement Formulation

 

60

4-3.

Stress Formulation

61

4-4.

Two-dimensional Problems

 

62

4-5.

Stress-function Formulation

64

4-6.

The

Inverse M ethod

70

 

4-7.

The

Semi-inverse M ethod

 

75

4-8.

St. Venant' s Princip le

75

 

References

76

Problems

77

CHAPTER 5

FINITE-DIFFERENCE METHODS

 

79

5-1. Introduction 79 5-2. Finite-difference Operators 80 5-3. Application to EqU?'librium Boundary-value Problems 85 5-4. Application to Eigenvalue P1·oblems 90 5-5. Solution of M atrix Eigenvalue Equations 93

References

96

Problems

96

t

t tr ~Il N 1'

xlii

R 6

INTRODUCTION TO WORK AND ENERGY PRINCIPLES

0- 1.

1ntroductton

9

0- 2.

Work and Energy

99

6-:3.

Virtual Work and Equilibrium

101

98

6-4.

Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom

104

6-5.

Stability

105

6-6.

Small Displacements of a Conservat1've System 107

 

6-7.

Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy 110

-8.

Potential and Complementary Potential of External Forces

115

6-9.

The Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total Potential

117

6-10.

The Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total

6-11.

Complementary Potential 118 De1'ivation of Equilibrium and Compatibility Equations

by Va1'iational M ethods

120

6-12.

The

Rayleigh-Ritz M eth od

122

6-13.

The Recip1'ocal Theorems of Betti and Maxwell

127

6-1 4.

The Use of Virtual Work to Compute Dejlections Refe?"ences 131 Problems 131

128

1 A

TER 7

BENDING AND EXTENSION OF BEAMS

133

7-1.

I

ntroducUon

133

7-2.

St1·ess Resultants

133

7-3.

Stresses Due to Extension and Bending

135

7-4.

M

odulus-weighted Section Propertt'es

139

7-5.

Accuracy of Beam-stress Equation

141

7-6.

I

dealization of Stiffened-shell St1·uctures

143

7-7.

Equilibrium Equations 152

 

7-8.

Beam Dejlections 157

7-9.

The Dijferential Equations of Beams, Ba1's, and Gables

158

7-10.

Energy Expressions for Beams 168 References 173 P1·oblems 174

 

UAPTER 8

THE TORSION OF SLENDER BODIES

178

8-1.

l nlroduction 178

 

8-2.

Prandtl Stress-}unction Formulation

 

179

8-3.

The M embrar/e Analogy 185

 

8-4.

W

arping-.function Formulation

188

8-5.

Analytical Methods for Approximate Solutions

192

8-6.

Thin-walled Open Sections 198

8-7.

Thin-walled Closed Sections 202

8-8.

Accuracy of Torsion Theory 213

xlv

-0.

Differ ntial JJiqHa.tiontJ fm· References 220 Problems 220

Minl!lt• 'l'orqrw

21

NI

NI

CHAPTER 9

STRESSES DUE TO SHEAR IN THIN-WALLED

 

SLENDER BEAMS

224

9-1.

Introduction

224

9-2.

Open Sections 225

 

9-3.

Fluid-flow Analogy 236

 

9-4.

Shear Center

239

9-5.

Closed Sections 240

 

9-6.

Effects of Taper 247

9-7.

Transverse M ember Loads References 254

253

 
 

Problems

255

CHAPTER 10

DEFLECTION ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

258

10-1. Introduction

258

10-2. The Method of Virtual Work 258

 

10-3. Equations for ôU of Simple Elements 263

 

10-4.

Relative Displacements 273

 

10-5.

Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices 275

 

10-6.

Distributed Loads and Weighting Matrices References 282 Problems 283

 

280

CHAPTER 11

STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES

 

286

11-1.

Introduction

286

11-2.

Application of the Principle of the Stationary Value of the Total Potential 287

11-3.

Application of th e Princip le

of the Stationary Value of

11-4.

the Total Complementary Potential 290 Equations for ôU' of Simple Elements 294

11-5.

Notes on Bas~·c and Redundant-force Systems 295

11-6.

Elastic-center and Column-analogy M ethods 304 References 313 Problems 313

CHAPTER 12

INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX METHODS

 

OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

317

12-1.

Introductwn

317

12-2.

The Force M ethod 318

 

12-3.

Discussion of the Force Method

323

1 tlt~ Il N 1 j

1 tlt~ Il N 1 j R 13 1 ~ ~. A Jlplil·ntwn lo SlijJmNl 'h

R 13

1~ ~.

A Jlplil·ntwn lo SlijJmNl

'h

ll11

:l2

' l'lt1 · n; .~ pla cl'llt<'rtt M thod

1:2 o.

12-7.

a:3:~

/)iM'IIt~sion of the D1's pla em nt M ethod

Conr ludin(l Jl e·mark s

Nef •r nee.~

J>robl ms

34 5

346

344

THE BENDING AND EXTENSION OF THIN PLATES

J 3- 1.

Int roduction

34

13-2 . Geometry of the Reference Su1jace

349

348

xv

 

13-3.

Stress Resultants

354

13-4.

Equili brium Equations 354

 

13-5.

Stra~·n-displacement and Compatibility Equations

357

13-6.

Stress-Strain Equations 360

13-7.

Formulations of the Plate Equations 361

13-8.

Boundary Conditions

 

366

13-9.

The Differential Equations for Plates and Membranes

 

371

13-10.

The Navier Solution 377

 

13-11.

Strain Energy of Plates 379

 

13-12.

A pproximate M ethods References 388 Pr·oblems 389

 

384

c

UA

TER 14

PRIMARY BENDING INSTABILITY

 
 

AND FAILURE OF COLUMNS

391

14-1.

Introduction

391

14-2.

Small Dejlections of Lineady Elastic Perfect Columns

392

14-3.

App1·oximate Methods 399

14-4.

Small Dejlections of Imperfect Elastic Columns 407

14-5.

Large Dejlections of Columns 411

14-6.

Inelastic Columns 417

 

14-7.

Empirical Column Equations 426 References 428 Problems 428

c

IIAPTER 15

INSTABILITY AND FAILURE OF PLATES

430

15-1 .

Introduction

430

15-2.

Formulatio~f the Buckling Problem

430

15-3.

Elastic Buc

ing of a Simply Supported Plate in

Un iaxia l Co pression 43 2

 

15-4.

Buckling of Uniform Rectangular Plates with Simple

Edge Loadings

434

 

15-5.

Approximaie Methods

439

15-6.

Combined Loads and Interaction Curves

445

xvi

CO N

N

S

15-7.

Effecls of Large Dejlections and l n1.tial Imp erf ections

449

15-8.

Inelastic B uckling of Plates

455

15-9.

The Failure of Plates

462

CHAPTER 16

References

464

Problems

465

INSTABILITY AND FAILURE OF THIN-WALLED COLUMNS

AND STIFFENED PLATES

467

16-1.

I nt1·oduction

467

16-2.

S econdary Instability of Columns

468

16-3.

Crippling of Columns

474

16-4.

Failure of Thin-walled Columns

479

16-5. Compressive Buckling of Stiffened Panels 481

16-6.

Crippling of Stiffened Panels

488

16-7.

I nte1jastener

Buckling and W rinkling

490

16-8.

Failure of Stiffened Panels 497 References 500 Problems 502

Index

507

Theory and Analy i of Flight Structur

1

1 traduction

t. TEPS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN

' l 'lit

1he

pi'OC

s of design and analysis of flight structures may be divided into

following ste ps:

1, ' l ' IH d termination of the critical combinations of applied loads and 1, mperatures to which the structure is subjected.

htyo ut of the design in vvhich the arrangement, size, and materials

' 1 he

of th component parts of the structure are tentatively decided upon. ,1, ' l' he d term ination of the actual stresses and deformations in the HLructure due to the applied 1oads and temperatures. 1, ' l' he d term ination of the allowable stresses or deformations of the HLructure. 1, 'l 'li< ·omparison of steps 3 and 4 to determine whether the design of

Hl, 1 2 is adequate and efficient. If the design is either inadequate or· v rdesigned (and therefore ine:fficient), steps 2 tt> 5 must be r·cp ated until a satisfactory design is obtained.

Th steps form a successive-approximation procedure, for the loads 111d 1.1 rnp ratur es of step 1 are functions of the details of the structural

cl 1 11 , which in turn depend upon the loads and temperatures. In the • ' ' 11 HLnp; '. of the design process weights, loads, and temperatures are u llc 11 h t H •d upon crude estimates. These are continuously refined as the d" 1 n pmgrosses and more accurate information becomes available. l»11rin p; t.h ar l y phases, the methods of structural analysis are usually

l •11 1 d 11 pon 'Ïmplifie~theories, as the expense and time nece ssary for more

loads and temperature s are

1 " "" n mor· a curately. The structural analyst must therefore be capabl e 11 1 c 11 lll ' i np; th range from educated guesses to sophisticated analyses. ll11 d nHip; n Lhat finally ev olves is a compromise involving st ructur a l, aero- tl\ ll n ani o, fnbrication, maintenance, and operational considerations.

• h d 11 11'n Lc

m

thods ar~ ot justified until the

2

THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES

The substantiation of the final design is usually documented by the following comprehensive reports, which are submitted to the agency which is procuring or certifying the vehicle:

1. A weight and balance report, which gives the weights, centers of gravity, mass moments of inertia, and weight distributions of the vehicle and each of its major components.

2. A loads report, which contains the aerodynamic, weight, and inertial- force distributions for each of the critical load conditions. Shear,

bending-moment, torque, and axial-load curves are also given for major components. 3, A structural-tempe'rature report, which gives the temperature distribu- tions that occur simultaneously with the critical load conditions.

4. A stress-analysis report, which substantiates the actual and allowable stresses and defiections for each of the critical load-temperature conditions for all components of the structure.

5. An aeroelastic report, which gives the predicted speeds at which fiutter, divergence, and control reversai will occur. The effects that struc- tural deformations have upon air loads and control effectiveness are also contained in this report.

The structural-analysis group usually prepares the stress-analysis report and assists in the preparation of the other reports.

1-2

APPLIED LOADS AND TEMPERATURES

The loads imposed upon the structure may be divided into two classes, those encountered on the ground and those in fiight. Ground loads are those loads imposed during fabrication, assembly, shipping, storage, and handling. In the case of missiles they include launch operations, while for aircraft they involve the loads imposed by taxiing and landing. Flight loads are those loads applied to the structure during its fiight phase and include the lo ads imposed by maneuver, gusts, and wind shear. In missiles they also involve the forces encountered during boost and staging opera- tions. Temperatures are usually not significant in the ground-operations phase, but during the fiight phase they are often of equal or greater impor- tance than the loads. This is especially true for fiight in the supersonic or hypersonic regimes. In sorne cases the structure may have to withstand the aerodynamic loads imposed by passing through the subsonic, tran- sonic, supersonic, and hypersonic phases of fiight. At the same time it may be subjected to temperatures ranging from the extreme lows of cryogenie fuels and radiation to space, to the highs associated with aero- dynamic heating, hcat from the propulsion unit, and radiation from the sun.

Il

111111111 , 11

N

3

1 ,nr ~d H mny nl o be cat gorized according to how they act up

n th

11111 l.tll'c•. Surface j01·ces are those forces which act upon the surfac f

1111 Lt •twLw· , '.g., aerodynamic or hydrodynamic pressures, aerostatic or

l• 1hn t.n.t.i<:pr s ure ,orcontactpressuresfromotherbodies. Bodyjorce·

'"' 1 hnt·H for· s which act over the volume of the structure, e.g., gravita· 1 ••nJt,l nnd in rlial forces. No r~LL ntpt will be made here to define the loads and temperatures l•tt lit Id, HLructurcs quantitatively, since severa! volumes would be

'
'

q 11 t•nd f,o •ov •r the environmental conditions for

tlt H

HJ>It ·'

raft, etc.

airplanes, helicopters,

Such information can be found in Refs. 1 to 1

1 1l11 i nd of the chapter. In sorne cases, the applied loads which the llltc • Ltm lllll Ht withstand are specified by the procuring or certifying

' '1111 , lm H cl upon stat istical data obtained from operating experience lit tn1ilr~t· •raft. In other cases, especially if the design and its environ- lill rd nl't Ill\ onventional, it is part of the contractor's responsibility to tl d 11111 l'nt.ionn.l loads and thermal criteria. l't•w d •finitions of terms relating to loads should be mentioned at lit 1111i '' t, 1><eau e of their repeated use in the analysis of flight structures. 1 111111 lnwiN ar the largest loads which it is anticipated that the structure

11hj( ·t d to during its lifetime. It is usually impossible to specify

f l11 l11 l ' ct·d, loaù that a particular vehicle will be subjected to, but it is

"''' 11 1 II HH i hl• L predict statistically the number of times that an average

til '''

• Il 1 ''

1111

\

ill

n

unter certain load Ievels.

In specifying the limit loads,

11 tmlly impractical to set the loads at such a high level that none of

•• llwl< H will ever have a structural failure. Such a design would be

111 ll11t1 nt, from a weight standpoint. It is therefore necessary to set the 1 111 1 lo11,d H nL a level 'vhich results in an acceptable low level of failure. ll11 l'nilt11·c mLe for inhabited vehicles must, of course, be much lower t 11 1111 Lhn f, for uninhabited ones. ' ll11 li rn iLl ads are often prescribed by giving a limit-load factor, or lin 1ne• lm· hy which basic loads are multiplied to obtain limit loads. As 111 ' ' nnt pl<, Lho loads for 1g level flight are often taken as a basic load con- I 1 1111 lw· nirel't.tft. In a maneuver that imposes inertial and gravitational

ln11

' ''

tructure that are six times greater than those caused by

I lL i Ln.t,i< n l force in level unaccelerated flight, the limit-load factor

upon

Lh

''"'

"lltdd 1>

6.

ln cll'tl< t' L provide for a separation between the limit loads and the

1 tt 1 '' L \\Il ieh the st"ucture fails, a factor of sajety is specified. This

1 " l1 " '• \diÎoh mu.y vary""a_ccording to the mission of the vehicle, is usually

1 •

l111 '

inllnl>iL d craft and may be as low as

1.25 for missiles.

The

''"' ' I,IH u H t fit il od .ion
''"'
' I,IH
u H
t fit il od .ion

rably lower than those used in civil or machin truc-

consid rabl ub-

f such low factors of safety requires

and test.

hy 1tnu.ly i

'liu 'ltltimate load (sometimc ln wn as the design load) i d fin u.1:1

4

THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES

the product of the limit load and the factor of safety. The failing load (ultimate strength) of the structure should be only slightly greater than the ultimate load. It should be noted that in fiight structures the limit load is conventionally multiplied by the factor of safety. On the other hand , in civil and machine structures the ultimate strength is usually divided by the factor of safety to give a working strength. Both methods, of course, give the same result. The ultimate load is often specified by giving an ultimate-load factor nua, which is equal to the product of the limit-load factor and the factor of safety. The ultimate loads are then obtained by multiplying the basic loads by the ultimate-load factor.

1-3

ACTUAL STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS

The major portion of this book is devoted to methods of analysis for pre- dicting the stresses and deflections of structural components under applied loads and temperatures. In the mechanics of deformable bodies it is usually necessary to introduce simplifying assumptions to arrive at a solution to the problem. The results achieved by using these assump- tions must therefore be regarded as approximate, and it is possible to assess the degree of approximation only by knowing the nature and significance of the assumptions. Considerable effort is made in this text to underscore the assumptions and limitations of the theories discussed. In practice it is seldom that all the assumptions will be fulfilled, but it is only by an intimate knowledge of the development of the theories that the equations can be intelligently applied to situations which do not pre- cisely follow the conditions of the theory. The approximations can be divided into physical and mathematical categories. Physical approximations are simplifying assumptions regard- ing the mechanical behavior of the material, the shape and proportions of the body, the manner in which it deforms (or how the stresses are dis- tributed), and the nature of the loading. :Yiathematical approximations are often necessary in order to arrive at simple solutions or, in sorne cases, to obtain a solution at all. In many cases these mathematical approxima- tions will also imply physicallimitations. For instance, if it is assumed for mathematical convenience that the sine of an angle may be replaced by the angle, the results will be acceptable only for small angles. In the physical approximations we usually replace the real deforma- ble body and loads by a simple conceptional modeZ which embodies the signific ant characteristics of beh avior of the real system. F or instance,

we may idealiz e th e force-di placeme nt beh avior of t h e materi al b y one qf the m ethods disc u scd in hap. 3. We may also make assump t ions on

f r mat i 11 o f th o y. 1 or xamples, in Chap. 7 we

ass u m t h at }l a n ' t 'OHH H< ·Li ns f u. b am r oma in p l a n e a nd normal to

t h e mod e

of

d

Il t IIHIIHJC

1ON

5

1111

11 . i H of a am as it bends, and in Chap. 13 we assume that normal to

1111

tnid:-~urfn. r main normal to that surface as a plate deforms. In the

lttd , or st iff ncd-shell structures we shall find it convenient to replace

1111 not. ual Hiructure by an idealized

one having longitudinal stiffener

lltt•h t'oHÏHi,

nly axial forces and thin webs which resist only shear forces.

ltt' nluai • the accuracy of these assumptions it is necessary to compare

t' t •MtdL:; with those of more acc urate theories or \vith experiments.

!11 eomplex structures we shall subdivide the structure into simp ler

'1 '"' rd ,H for which methods of analysis exist. We view the composite ltttf •Lun 1 H nn assemblage of beams, shear webs, plates, shells, etc., and d, 1 lop m il d of analysis for these simpler structural shapes. W IH 11 v r possib le we shaH treat the stresses and deformations

litt

distributions along with those resulting from

•ppllc •d l'ot·e \ . We shall include these effects from the outset, rather than ltr ul in,.,; (,h •m as an appen dage to the theory, so that the stresses and d, lie c•l ion Hr sulting from loads or temperatures alone will be special cases

'" 1111 r11or ~ neral theory, which includes both.

1

tll ' llt.Lt•<l

wiih thermal

1OWABLE STRESSES OR DEFLECTIONS

li Hill 1 erii ria for the allowable loads of flight structures are:

' l'l11 lond which produces a collapse of

the structure

l ' ht

Joad

which prod uc es a limiting petmanent deformation

1n the

lrlldut·

afier removal of the load

litt

lo1 d which produces a limiting total deformation of the loaded

lt 'IIOLIII'

l •'e~t ' 1,11( firsi criterion it is required that the stresses imposed by the 1111rlc• lo ndH hould not result in a failure of the structure. Such a 1 ' lu tt cnttld b th result of rupture of the material or buckling instability 1 lire lt 'llc•Lut· . The latter mode of failure usually establishes the design 1 1111 lllii.,Î<II' portion of flight structures because of the thin-shell con- ''''' l1n11 LhaL iH c mmonly used. It is for this reason that a large portion

t d to the study of the buckling of structural elements.

Titi' noond •riterion is usually interpreted to mean that the stresses

"'l'" 'tl lt , U1c limit loads should not exceed the 0.2 percent offset yield

1 litt
1 litt

lu111k i H <1 v

111 r Ir • '' i11 I "' 1 ll11 11 Lh 1 ltt Lltit·d
111 r
Ir
• ''
i11
I "'
1
ll11 11
Lh
1 ltt
Lltit·d

Lht 1\liLL rial 'œcc. 3-2). Such a criterion limits the permanent

litt Hiru tur~fo 0.002.

As this requirement is arbitrary, it i

Il•"' 11 1 nd l'or uninhabited craft, and the only requirement on d forma-

LoLn.l-d formation

·ri

ri

n r

uire

criterion. that d flections at the limit l

rf r

requirement on d forma- LoLn.l-d formation ·ri ri n r uire criterion. that d flections at

Lho

whi h ini

requirement on d forma- LoLn.l-d formation ·ri ri n r uire criterion. that d flections at

6

THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES

mission of the vehicle, e.g. , those which prevent the free motion of moving parts or produce adverse dynamic or aeroelastic effects. It is usually specified that the material properties used in determin- ing the allowable stresses and defiections be taken from Ref. 19 or that the properties be substantiated by tests made by the materials manufacturer or the contracter. These properties should refiect the temperature of the structure and the duration of the load.

1·5

COMPARISON OF APPLIED AND ALLOWABLE STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS

As mentioned earlier, it is necessary to compare the applied and allowable stresses and defiections to determine whether the structure is effi.ciently designed. This is done by computing the margin of safety, defined as

l\1:S = allowable load _ applied load

1

(1-1)

For the limit-load condition this becomes

L"

.t MS

Inu

=

yield load applied limit load

_

1

and for the ultimate-load condition

Ultimate l\18 =

~ollaps.eload

apphed ult1mate load

-

1

(1-2)

(1-3)

The smaller of these t" o margins of safety controis the design. In many cases the stresses are directly proportional to the loads (or are assumed soin the linear theories), and the word "load" can therefore be replaced by "stress" in these equations. It is seen from Eq. (1-1) that an effi.ciently designed structure vvould have a very small positive margin of safety. Hm:vever, in sorne cases it may be desirable to have relatively large positive margins of safety to provide a growth potential for the craft so that increased performance or payload could be accommodated without redesigning the structure. It has been pointed out that the design process is one of successive approximations until a satisfactory margin of safety is reached. In most cases, and especially if the structure is unconventional, tests are performed to substantiate the analysis and prove the strength and stiffness of the structure. A reduction in the structural weight of a fiight vehicle per- mits an increase in payload or performance. It is therefore economically feasible to use expensive materials and fabrication methods and to expend many manhours of analy is and testing if it results in a decrease in struc- tural weight.

Il

Il

111111

liON

IMMA

Y

" '''"'' L• , lt ll t 11d1 l ' , 1 l11 11 i
" '''"'' L•
, lt ll t
11d1
l
'
,
1
l11 11 i 11
'''
nnd
' ttlttl ' t
,

1111 1 1 di "K d i H ·us ·i

only a cur ory introduction to the consid-

lthnL ont, r into the evolution of a structural design. 1 ro

Tho

ps

de HoripLion s of th

n giv

process may be found in Refs. 7 to 11.

of LhiH L xt will addre s itself to the third and fourth

H<•e. 1- l, i.

., th

t

determination of the actual and the allowabl

d< ft ction ·. Even with this limited scope, it is impossible to

Llmn nn introduction to the theoretical

v n here completeness is not possible. Inevitably, the

methods that are used

11111 Llll 't t.l nnnly sis . Additional references ·will be given at the end of

11 lt 1 lt npLc r·, 1)\1 L

1 111 l,rlf •nl nnn.lyst find that he must refer to the technical journa ls of

litt l"'"' t·donnl engineering societies orto the reports of research organi- ''" '" lunhl.ain th olutions to his problems. It is hoped that this text Il l"" ' tele l.h< r ader with an introduction to basic theory suffici ent to ''"" l.o ,. nd and understand the more advanced theories that are

l.o ,. nd and understand the more advanced theories that are 1 t llllt llfi HH

1 t llllt llfi HH HLandards: Normal, t llllt llfi HH HLandards: Normal,

Utility,

and Acrobatie Category Airplanes,

l ',tl, ttl ll t1iut ·ion Agency Rept. 23, Feb. 1, 1965.

t

'"'''"" 'HH ~Lnndards: Transport Category Airplanes, Federal Aviation Agency

lt'

Jtf

' 1

,

,

J•'tb. 1, Jû65.

t

tttllt tii 'HH , 'Landards: Normal Category Rotorcraft, Federal Aviation Agency

" '' , ,

lt

, ' " lldllt •HH Htnndards : Transport Category Rotorcraft, Federal Aviation

J•' l'l l.

1, 1965.

Agency

u,'" 1 ' 1 11,

1 1 ' t h.

j

,

1965.

1 • 111 11 111 Hpt t•ifi c ntion for Airp lane Strength and Rigidity, M ilitary Specification

1 \ '

Ill ,

,

\

HHIIO ( AR A), May 18, 1960.

Hlt·w·tu•·nl Airworthiness, in "Handbook of Aeronautics, no. 1, Struc-

ltttlll J', lttt •ipl H nnd

Il l h,

1Il,•.

ata, pt. 1," 4th ed ., Pitman Publishing Corporation, New

llttd tll ,

1111

'

l

1(

,o.

1•'.: "Analysis and

Design of Flight Vehicle Structures,"

)in ·innati, Ohio, 1965.

Tri-state

'''""'d, <. (J.: 11 pac craft Structures," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, '

 

·

11100.

 
 

1

1 ttt llll \',

Ill. A., '. W. Zucrow, and C. W. Besserer: "Principles of Guided Missile

 

11 , 1 tt , • l'od y na,mics, Propulsion, Structures, and Design Practice," D. Van

 

lt 'llltd C o111pan y , New York, 19 56 .

 
11
11

1 lt tt

N,

 

:

"

( luicl ed Mi ss ile Configuration Design," McGraw-Hill Book Company,

,

,

'

u, l

,

1on 1 .

\"'

t t

' '' '"

 

'" "' • 1••

Il. : 11 ' iru'etural Design of Missiles and Spacecraft," Mc

raw-IIill

l lttt

tl

< 1 0i11pn.ny, N w York, 1962.

ll tt ll , N, ,1,: 11 1li p; h T mp rature Effects in Aircraft Structures," P rgamon Pr sa ,

N•

1 11

Il ,

1' ' '" \,

\ n t'l ,

1\l f>H.

1/

W , : " l•' uml am n tals of Aerodynamic Heating," The

Nt w York, 1000.

onald Pre ss

om-

8

THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT STRUCTURES

14. Glaser, P. E.: "Aerodynamically Heated Structures," Prentice-Hall, loc., Engle- wood Cliffs, N.J., 1962.

15. Bisplinghoff, R. L., H. Ashley, and R. L. Halfman: "Aeroelasticity," Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, Mass., 1955.

16. Fung, Y. C.: "An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity,'' John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955.

17. "Manual on Aeroelasticity," NATO Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development, 1959.

18. Bisplinghoff, R. L., and H. A. Ashley: "Principles of Aeroelasticity," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962.

19. Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, Military Hand- book MIL-HDBK-5A, Feb. 8, 1966.

PROBLEMS

1-1. A 600-lb satellite is mounted in the upper stage of a launch vehicle. During the boosted vertical-flight phase, a peak acceleration of 9g is reached. The satellite is mated to the booster by four bolts loaded in shear, each of which has an ultimate shear strength of 2126 lb. The specified factor of safety is 1.25. Determine (a) the limit load per bolt, (b) the ultimate load per bolt, and (c) the ultimate margin of safety. [Ans. (a) 1500lb; (b) 1875lb; (c) 0.135.]

1-2. The fuel tank of a vertically launched rocket contains kerosene (specifie gravity 0.8) and is pressurized to 100 psig at a sea-level pressure of 14.7 psia. The peak boost acceleration of 9g occurs at an altitude where the ambient pressure is 5 psia and at

a time when the depth of the unexpended fuel is 100 in. Determine the ultimate

bursting pressure at the bottom of the tank at this time assuming an ultimate factor

of safety of 1.25. [Ans. Putt = 173 psi.]

1-3. The nose of a cargo airplane is at a body station (BS) of 0 in. The loaded plane weighs 150,000 lb, and its center of gravity is at BS 250. The centers of pressure of the aerodynamic forces on the wing and tail are respectively at BS 200 and 550. The fuselage is 600 in. long and together with its contents weighs a constant 150 lb/in. The tail weighs 2000 lb and has a center of gravity at BS 560. Determine the ulti- mate shear and bending moment in the fuselage at BS 200 for a limit trimmed (no pitching acceleration) maneuver load factor of n = 3g including gravity. Assume

a 1.5 factor of safety.

[Ans.

Vult =

115,000 lb, Mult = 8.7 X 10 6 in.-lb.]

B.S.

0

Fig. P1-3

lb, Mult = 8.7 X 10 6 in.-lb.] B.S. 0 Fig. P1-3 200 wn 1 250

200

wn

1

250

550

600

1-4. A 96,600-lb transport airplane has a mass moment of inertia of 48,300,000 lb-in.-

During landing, when

sec2 about a pitch axis passing through its center of gravity.

flllllllllf(, JI

N

l• f 11d (/1)
l•
f
11d
(/1)

'' 111d ynu rni e lift Îli O.û

(11) t.ho limit- 1

, 1' '''"''"

tim

ad fa

s th

t

r

w

ight, it is

rti

in th

v

uhj

t

al dir

dt

Lion at th

th

groun l 1 ads s h

c

nt

r

wn.

f gravity

r

·ond.

[Ans.

 

t,l11

lirnit

pitcbing

accel rati n in radians

p

second per s

:1./i(l; (b)

0 =

O.

89 rad/ ec 2 .]

 
:1./i(l; (b) 0 = O. 89 rad/ ec 2 .]   Fig. Pl-4 and 1·5 250,000

Fig. Pl-4 and 1·5

250,000 lb

11 1 Ir Pt r·o ni s package weighing 100 lb is located 400 in. aft of the center of gravity

the ultimate verticalload that the package

664lb.]

11

litt

rt ll 'plnn

f Prob. 1-4.

Determine

tlfiJIIII 1 ltr'JI.(•I

ts are subjected to during landing.

[Ans.