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Topic 1:

Communication: - can be in oral / written form


- Is a learned skill
- way to exchange n get information

Elements in communication
- sender message channel receiver feedback
context

Problems/ Factors Affecting
1 status/role
2 personalities
3 noise
4 lack of feedback
5 cultural differences
6 disabilities

Written communication can tk place via:
1 letters
2 memos
3 email
4 reports
5 faxes
6 advertisements

Writing stage
1 planning
2 writing
3 editing

Pitfalls to Avoid
1 verbosity
2 confusing language
3 poor sentences structure
4 information overload

Topic 2:

A model is a snapshot of a phenomenon
Not a complete picture
Model Key Ideas
Claude Shannon The encoding n decoding of
information is of primary
importance
Roman Jakobson The contact is your medium of
communication
Ulric Neisser Perception is exploratory and
recursive
Michael Polanyi The meaning that the reader
discovers in the text may not be
that is intended by the writer





Meaning if emoticons
:-) happy
;-) Being cheeky
:-( sad

Shorthand Notation
g Grin
hug Hug
BTW By the way
FYI For your information
IMHO In my humble/ honest opinion
RTM Read the manual
LOL Laughed out loud
RSN Read soon now
ROTEL Rolling on the floor laughing
TIA Thanks in advance
TTFN Ta-ta for now

Topic 3:

4 stages in essay writing
1 pre-writing
- Think about essay topic
- gather information
- Scribble your ideas

2 draft
- Outline /plan for your essay

3 editing
- Reread and edit essay
- Check grammar, vocabulary, punctuation

4 final draft/ essay
- Rewrite your final essay neatly

Types of essays
1 explanation
- start with general statement
- followed by series of explanations to support
the statement

2argumentation
- persuasive in nature statement
- writers opinion argued out and restated
again in conclusion

3 discussion
- similar to the argumentation essay
- discusses both sides of the issue and lets the
reader decide themselves.

Essay consists 3 sections:
1 introduction
2 body
3 conclusion
Topic 4:

Types of evidence

1) Primary source
- 1
st
hand information

2 )Secondary source
- Information that created out of the primary
source

3) Form of evidence
- Facts
- Quotes
- Opinion of experts
- Anecdotes
- Examples
- Charts/Diagrams

Topic 5:

1) paragraphs

( topic sentence + supporting sentence +
concluding sentence)

Topic sentence
- Usually a general statement about the topic

Supporting sentence
- Support the topic sentence

Concluding sentence
- Summarises whole idea for the paragraph

2) bibliography
- list of writings with time n place of
publication in preparing a document
- 2 popular ways of writing bibliography: MLA,
APA style

3) Plagiarism
- stealing someone elses ideas/ word to be
your own

4 )Types of graphic aids
- tables
- line graphs
- bar graphs
- pictographs
- pie charts






Topic 6:

1) Struture of persuasive writing

- introduction
- body- assertion
- boby-concession/rebuttal
- body-proof
- conclusion

2) 2 types of reasoning processes

Deductive
- introduces a general principle and draws a
specific conclusion from it.

Inductive
- supports a general conclusion by looking at
specific facts

Topic 7:

1) Steps / tasks in writing a good report

- gathering the relevant data
- sorting n analyzing results
- planning n outlining the report
- drafting the report
- revising n editing the draft

2) good report style

- clear
- concise
- smooth flowing
- written from an objective point of view

3) arrange report systematically

- title
- abstract
- introduction
- methods/logistics
- results
- discussion
- conclusion

Topic 8

1)Proposal
- is intended to convince others that you hv a
research project worth doing n that u hv the
skills n competency to successfully complete it.




2)Element of proposal/ proposal should hv:
- Cover page
- Problem statement
- Limitations of study
- Literature review
- Research plan
- Time line
- Resources

3) formal proposal

- Written in a business-like manner
- Usually submitted by an organisation such
school, college n university

4) informal proposal

- Neatly like a formal proposal
- Usually done on a smaller scale n carries
weight than formal proposal

Topic 9:

1) steps in choosing a topic

- Brainstorm for ideas
- Read general background information
- Focus in a topic
- Make lists of useful words
- Be flexible
- Restate topic
- Formulate a thesis statement
- Discuss with your tutor/peers

2) steps to writing a good research paper

1. Choose a topic
2. Find information
3. State ur thesis statement
4. Make a tentative outline
5. organise ur note
6. write ur 1
st
draft
7. revise ur outline n draft
8. type final paper

Topic 10:

1) 3 stages of collaborative writing

Invention stage
- note sharing
- preliminary debating





Drafting stage

- chunk model
- blended model
- compiler model

Revision stage

- revise one anothers draft
- the best writer of the group bcome chief
editor
- others group members gv comments

2) effective team communication

- listen to each other
- team leader listens to group members
- group members free to voice up
- individual members seek the approval of the
team
- sharing information
- team members not bringing up problems
- communicate well with other groups