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LAND5CAPE
PHOTOGRAPHY
LAND5CAPE
PHOTOGRAPHY


EXPEPTADVICEONTHE
E5TCAMEPA5ETTING5
TAKECONTROL
OFYOURCANON!
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All our experts are regular contributors to D|g|ta| S|P Pnotograpny nagazine. or expert advice
and inspiration to help you inprove your photo skills, pick up the latest issue, available on the
second 1uesday of every nonth. or further infornation, visit. www.digitalslrphoto.con
Meet our |andscapeexperts

'f you are passionate about shooting landscapes, then we hope


you'll nd this conprehensive guide helps you take your best ever
pictures. Millions of photographers around the world have discovered
the benets of capturing inages with a digital SLR - their ease of
use, wide choice of lenses and incredibly high inage quality are just
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with photo enthusiasts. 1ne Canon Cu|de to |andscape Pnotograpny
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their Canon canera outt. t's packed with essential advice, photo techniques, expert
guides and stunning photography and ains to deliver all the infornation, advice and
inspiration you need to inprove your photo skills. t's brinning with tutorials fron
nany of the U's favourite outdoor photographers, with enphasis on key in-canera
techniques, as well as essential and creative post-processing skills. Before heading
out with your Canon kit, be sure to read up and learn fronthe U's leading experts
before heading out to capture landscape inages like a pro. All the bestl
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CONTNT5
1ANNGUDL1LANDSCAPLPH1GRAPHY
7Introductonto|andscapes
Bepreparedtolearnandexploit the
fundanentals of landscapephotography
8Composton
1hekeytechniques youneedtonaster totake
perfect landscapes, includinglead-inlines,
foregroundinterest andnatural franes
20xposure
Master thesesinpletechniques andyou'll beon
your waytowell-exposedlandscapes
24 PPTTUTOPIL APLR1URL-PRR1Y
26XPPTTUTOPIL SHU11LRSPLLDS
28XPPTTUTOPIL WA1LRNLANDSCAPLS
31 5harpness
1hebest techniques for super-sharpscenics
32XPPTTUTOPIL HYPLRCALCUSNG
34XPPTTUTOPIL CUSRSHARPNLSS
36Lghtng
Learnhowtonakethenost of anylighting
condition, fronsunrisethroughtosunset
38XPPTVI 1MLDAY
40XPPTVI MAGCHURoSUNSL1S
42XPPTVI WLA1HLR
44XPPTVI SLASNALLGH1
48Raw8|andscapes
MaxiniseinagequalitybyshootinginRaw
50XPPTVI N1RDUC1N1RAW
52XPPTVI UNDLRS1ANDNGACR
54XPPTTUTOPIL PRCLSSNGRAWLLS
56XPPTTUTOPIL MLRGNGRAWLLS
58 XPPTTUTOPIL LXPSNG11HLRGH1
60F|ters
Uselters toinproveandenhanceyour results
62XPPTVI USNGANNDGRAD
64XPPTVI USNGAPLARSLR
66XPPTVI USNGANNDL1LR
68XPPTVI 1HL1LN-S1PNDL1LR
71Co|our
Learntherelationships of colour olandscapes
72XPPTVI CLUR1HLRY
74XPPTVI WH1LBALANCL
76|ack8whte
Master theart of shootingnonochrone
78XPPTVI 1HLBASCSBoW
80XPPTVI LGH1NGoWLA1HLR
82XPPTVI MNCHRMLCAS1LNLS
84XPPTVI LANDSCAPLS
86PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CNvLR1NG1BoW
88XPPTVI PRLD1NG1LCHNULS
91Landscapeprojects
antastictechniques leadingtostunningscenics
92XPPTTUTOPIL S11CHAPANRAMA
94XPPTTUTOPIL SUMMLRLANDSCAPLS
96XPPTTUTOPIL LAvLNDLRLANDSCAPLS
98XPPTTUTOPIL HLA1HLRLANDSCAPLS
100XPPTTUTOPIL CAP1URL1HL
102 XPPTTUTOPIL MS1YMRNNGS
104 XPPTTUTOPIL RCPLRLLLC1NS
106 XPPTTUTOPIL SH1RLALS1CWAvLS
108 XPPTTUTOPIL SH1RUNNNGWA1LR
110 XPPTTUTOPIL ABS1RAC1BLACHSCLNL
112 XPPTTUTOPIL SH1S1AR1RALS
114 XPPTTUTOPIL MNL1LANDSCAPLS
117Photoshoptechnques
SinplePhotoshopstep-by-steps that canbeused
toinproveandenhanceyour landscapeinages
118 PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL BS1CN1RAS1
120PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CN1RLCLUR
122PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL DRAWU1DL1AL
124PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL SLLLC1vLLD1NG
126PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL ADDMS1oMD
128PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CLURULSLS
130PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL DU1NL
132PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL RLPLACLASY
134PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL 1LN-S1PLLC1
136PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL SLASNALBLUR
TURNTOPAG90TOFINDOUTAOUT
OURFANTA5TIC5U5CRIPTIONOFFR5
136Landscapegear
1hebest equipnent for outdoor photography
136ILKIT5FOPPOUIPMNT5
142 OMPPHN5IVLN5T5T5
150XPPTTUTOPIL WDL-ANGLLLLNSLS
152XPPTTUTOPIL 1LLLZMS
154FILTP55TM5PN5
158HOO5INGTHPIGHTTPIPO
160 HOO5INGTHPIGHTG
162Perfect exposures
Cut out anduseour freegreycardl

OFEXPEPT
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CP1URLS1UNNNGLNDSCPLS -weall want tobeableto
doit. antasticlandscapes inspirenorephotographers thanany
other typeof inageandonthefaceof it, well, it shouldbeeasy to
do. indanawesonevista andpoint your canera at it, press the
shutter andthat shoulddothetrick. 1his sinpleapproachwill
probably bagyoua decent snap, but oftentheinageyoucapture
will not dojusticetotheglorious sceneinfront of you. We'veall
beena littlebit disappointedby a photothat doesn't quiteliveup
toour great expectations. 1hediherencebetweena decent snap
anda stunninginageis oftendowntoa fewversatileideas, sone
easily learnedexpert knowledge, theright equipnent choiceand
careful planning. 1his inspirational guidewill provideyouwithan
excellent graspof thesefundanentals andhelpyoutransforn
your shots frontheordinary intosonethingvery special indeed.
TH5IC5
Thebascs HCNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
hebascs: omposton

1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Thebascs: omposton
TheruIe-of-thirds
his is a sinpleway of organisingtheelenents inthe
franesothat they createa balancedconposition. s a
conpositional tool, it's beenaroundfor a fewcenturies
andis a sinpliedversionof the'goldensection', which
is usedinart andarchitecture.
naginetwovertical lines dividingtheviewnder into
thirds. Nowdothesanewithtwohorizontal lines. You
thenorganisethenainelenents of thepicturewithin
this grid. or exanple, witha sinplelandscape, place
thehorizonononeof thelines sothat youhave
two-thirds landandone-thirdsky, or viceversa.
f youhavea strongfocal point, suchas a treeor
building, youcanplaceit ononeof thepoints wherethe
horizontal andvertical lines intersect. his will nakea
nuchnoredynanicconpositionthanif youwereto
placethefocal point centrally, whichcannakea picture
look rather static. nexperiencedphotographers often
put thesubject right intheniddleandit rarely works.
Movinganelenent of a scenetoa diherent
intersectioncancreatea startlingly diherent inage,
suchis thepower of therule-of-thirds. on't beafraid
toexperinent withdiherent variations ona thene.
PULE-OF-THIPD5GPID: This imagefoIIows theruIe-of-
thirds quitecIoseIy. Thereis approximateIytwo-thirds Iandl
seaandone-thirdsky. TheIighthouseandobeIiskaredivided
bytheIeft verticaI, eachequidistant fromit.
MRNNYother factor, conpositioncanturnan
averageinageintoa nasterpiece. herearea snall
nunber of techniques that, oncelearned, will serveyou
well innany diherent situations.
onposingtheelenents inthefraneis aninportant
skill of takinggreat pictures. Youneedtocarefully
consider howpoints of interest arearrangedandhow
they relatetoeachother inthescene.
Placinga subject centrally inthefraneusually results
ina staticrather thandynanicconposition. Placingthe
subject oh-centreencourages theeyetonovearound
thefranenore. neway of dividingthefraneupto
achieveharnony is tousetherule-of-thirds (see
below). hereis researchtosuggest that our brains are
wiredtondthesearrangenents noreattractive.
omposton
earntheart of conpositionandyou'll be
halfwaytheretotakingbrilliant photos
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Thebascs: omposton
utt
s thewo s thee-nenson ut photogphs two-
nenson, oneo thennesons tht nscpenges s tht
they ont convey thesenseo epththt ou eyes see. otuntey,
theee ewconposton tcks tht wecnenpoy toget oun
ths the usttngttepoen.
vey ehectvewy toceteepthn photogphs toncue
stongoegoun, otennconunctonwth we-ngeens.
nphssngtheoegoun nths wy w epthtothepctuey
cetngnenty-pont o theeye, pungthevewe ntothescene
ngvngthepctue senseo stncensce.
e-ngeenses hepths technqueecusethey stetch
pespectve, exggetngtheeenents cosetotheens nopenng
uptheveweyontheoegoun.
But eceu, ths cnesut nthenestnceookngenpty
n ckngnnteest sothetck s toshoot onowe vewpont.
hs conpesses thenestnce, sotht theesnt toonuch
enpty spcentheconposton. ou soneetousesn petue
n ocus ceuy tonxnseepth-o-e, keepngoegoun
n stnt oects nocus (we expnhowtooths te).
Lead-inIines
Lines represent depthina pictureandcanbeusedtoleadyour eyeinto
thepictureandguideit aroundthescene. Lines areeverywhere.
nan-nade, suchas roads, paths andhedgerows, or natural, suchas
rivers or thecoastline. ll will adddynanisntoyour photographs. Lines
don't havetobereal, they canbeinpliedlikethepatterns createdby
waves over a longishexposure, or objects pointingintothefrane.
Lots of things canbringlinear energy intoyour work.
Straight, converginglines arevery dynanicandcangivea lot of inpact
toa picture, but thereis always thedanger that theeyefollows thelines into
andthenvery quickly out of thefraneagain. Pictures withonly converging
lines night haveinnediateinpact, but canstill beunsatisfying. t's a good
idea totry toplacesoneobject of interest withinthefrane-a gureor a
tree, for exanple-togivetheeyesonethingtosettleonwithinthescene.
Lines that curvegently inan'S' shapelack theinnediateinpact of
straight, converginglines, but canresult ina noresatisfyinginage.
1hey canleadtheeyegently throughthewholepicture, allowingthe
viewer totakeinother elenents withintheconposition.
Layers andpIanes
nother in-canera techniquethat canbeusedtoadddepthtoan
inageis thecreationof a layers. Layers inaninagecanbecreatedby
havinga series of overlappingshapes, likethehills inthis inage, right,
or by strongside-lighting, creatingalternatebands of light andshade
that cancreatetheehect of layers of light.
1his kindof techniqueworks particularly well withlonger lenses that
conpress perspectiveandstack overlappingforns. achlayer, or
plane, appears thinner andcloser tothenext, exaggeratingtheehect.
Just renenber longer lenses produceless depth-of-eldsoyou'll
needtousesnaller apertures, suchas fiI6, if elenents areinthe
foregroundor near theniddledistance.
1his shot was takenat dawnnear LyneRegis usinga/0-200nn
zoonat aroundI00nn. 1helonger focal lengthconpresses the
distances betweenthelayers andthestrong, directional light helps
enphasisethelayers -theearlynorningnist adds bags of atnosphere.
GETTINGITPIGHT: ThecowparsIeyandgorsemakeattractiveforegrounds to
IeadtheeyeintothesceneandprovidesuitabIeframes for theviewbeyond.
Awide-angIeIens andasmaII apertureof fl22providepIentyof depth-of-eId.
IGFOPEGPOUNDOP5MALLDETAIL: It's not aIways necessarytohavea
Iargeforeground, coIour, textureandpatterncanprovideforegroundinterest.
This carpet of owers is as ehectiveas thestrongshapes of rocks, opposite.

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Conpositionis all about
what youchoose toinclude
inthe frane -andalso
what youchoose toleave
out. ften, less is nore and
conpositions that are
unclutteredcanbe the
nost successful
Thebascs: omposton

eall rules, therule-of-thirds needs tobeappliedwith


judgenent rather thanas a natter of courseandthere
will always besituations whereit canbeignored. or
exanple, whenshootinga scenewherethesky is
refectedinwater, younight want toplacethehorizon
across theniddleof thefrane, givingthetwoelenents
of theshot -sky andrefection-equal weighting.
f thereis nointerest inthesky, placethehorizon
higher inthefraneor cropit out altogether. 1oincrease
a senseof enptiness andisolation, thehorizoncanbe
placedvery lowinthefrane. 1hebeauty of shooting
digitally is theeaseat whichyoucanreviewyour ehorts
andexperinent toensuretheperfect conposition.
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Thebascs: omposton
dnaturaI frames
itional deviceis touseelenents ina
scenetofranetheviewbeyond, suchas anarchway,
doorway, windowor theoverhangingbranches of trees.
1ry usingfrost-coveredplants andgateposts tocreate
a natural franefor thenainsubject of your shot. Use
thefranetoleadtheviewer's eyeintothescenefor
sonetruly eye-catchingresults.
Control your focus anddepth-of-eldcarefully
though. Whilea snall apertureoftenworks best,
blurringthefranesignicantly canhelpkeepattention
onthenainsubject. f youdowant torender your frane
out of focus, nakesureyoublur it enoughsothat the
ehect looks deliberateandnot likea nistakeinfocusing.
Experiment withviewpoints
indingtheright viewpoint is keytosuccessful landscape
conposition. Rather thanshootingeverythingfronhead
height, experinent withhighandlowviewpoints.
Higher viewpoints havetheehect of openingupthe
planes intheinageandareuseful whenusingstandard
andtelephotolenses. Whenphotographingwell-
knownlandnarks, it's tenptingtousetheestablished
viewpoints, but spendtinelookingfor a freshview, as
it's nuchnoresatisfyingtocapturesonethingoriginal.
Whilethere's nothingwrongwiththerst picture, it's
the'standard' viewof ldHarry Rocks inDorset. Without
havingtonovevery far, however, aless photographed
andnoredranaticviewpoint has beenfound.
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1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Thk dheret|y
LWCvs nnrov
tnt nttoyour ns
turs s w s nns
Wnyoutn of nns wt
ons tonn ows of ros snny
nvrnnro ny strn Wt
out sows footrnts ous t
ostn wnows rs rs ts or
ros st noonnon tou
nns onnnny uss son
ntur otrs nnn of tntn
totr tvwr nnout of t
turor towrs fo ont ttr
ntrfrros t ows t
ytosttwtntsn ut otn
wor w nnonttur
onof tnost tvnns
strt frontottonof tfrnn
ostrt ntotntrof ttur
r towrs torzon ut trr
nny vrtons tt nvjust s nu
nt nnontsn W
strt ns quy rwtytot
ont of ntrst urvns fort
vwr totnorsury journy
troutn rt ns sot fron
own tosonun
tnsontoturnon ns wor
w f ty trv frontottonft tot
tort of tur s tts wrt
unnyntury rvtts t osnt
vtosnntr nutns
ony strntntt of onn s
ons tyrry nnn
ntsnrton ts vry nortnt to
try totnnts wtnsn
onnt s ny r ntfowof the
linewill leavetheconpositionfeeling
disjointedandallowtheviewer's gazeto
wander ainlessly inandout of thefrane.
Youcanenhanceyour lead-inlines
dependingonwhat viewpoint andlens you
choose, as bothcaneither fattenor stretch
perspective. 1henost dynanicdistortionof
lead-inlines is convergingverticals.
Convergingdiagonal lines createapowerful
inpressionof distanceanddepth, especially
if they convergeintothecentreof thefrane
andrunparallel toeachother. By standingin
theniddleof then, you'll ndthat the
further thelines areaway fronthecanera,
thecloser they get toeachother, creating
what's knownas avanishingpoint when
they join. wide-anglelens cangreatly
enhancethis ehect as it stretches
perspective-sothelines seenwider at the
start andnarrower inthedistance-whereas
atelephotolens conpresses perspective
andhinders thefeelingof depth.
Lead-inIines don't haetobestraight or Iead
toafocaI oint: theIinecanaIsobetheinterest
intheicture. Notehowyour eyeis Iedthrough
thescenebythewintrytree-Iinedroad.
2) WhenusingconergingerticaIs, youneed
toget theentiresceneinfocus. 5et thecamera
onatriod, seIect asmaII aerture(fl11-fl22) and
focus onthehyerfocaI distancefor maximum
deth-of-eId.
3) 5imIecomositions cansometimes bethe
most ehectie. Thinkabout creatingagrahic
coastaI Iandscaewithnothingmorethan
groynes or aier as aIead-inIine. yconnecting
it tothehorizon, too, it means theiewer's gaze
is Iedintothefar reaches of thesceneandIed
out of theframebythehorizonIine.
4) DiagonaI Iines canbeusedtodrawthegaze
frombottomIeft totoright, wheretheeye
naturaIIygraitates, as inthis coastaI Iandscae
wheretheIines of rocks conergetowards the
stunningsunset sky.
5) Thefenceinthis ictureis usedas aneat
deicetodrawtheeyeintowards thefocaI oint:
theeIeatedcastIeinthedistance.
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1
Lead-|es
Master oneof thenost inportant
conpositional tools. lead-inlines
Thebascs: mst
2 3 4
1
5hadows Texture Footrints
1ryphotographinglead-inlines frondiherent
angles. Younayndthat photographingthelines
enteringthefraneat anangleworks better than
if youcapturedthenstartingwithinthefrane.
1heoppositecanbetrue, too. 1rydiherent
perspectives. get lowtothegroundfor extrene
convergingverticals. 1ilt thecanerauptosee
what vertical lines youcanndandtrytoelevate
your positionbystandingonabridge, for instance.
boveall, keepyour eyes andyour nindopenfor
less obvious linear aspects anddon't forget the
other guidelines for conposition, including
foregroundinterest andtherule-of-thirds.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

1HL1, R1war photographer


Robert Capa oncesaid, 'f a picture's not
goodenough, youweren't closeenough. He
was talkingabout capturingthedrana of
hunanconfict, of course, andtheneedtobe
intheheart of theaction-anapproachthat
unfortunately eventually cost hinhis life.
However, thesanenaxincaneasily be
appliedtolandscapephotography becauseif
youwant tocapturethedrana of a great
scene, youneedtonoveincloseandnake
thenost of theforeground-it's oneof the
inportant elenents youneedtocreatea
dynanicconposition.
oregroundinterest is useful for a nunber
of reasons. irst andforenost, enphasising
theforegroundwill helptogiveyour
photographs a senseof distanceandscale.
1his is duetoperspective-features closeto
thecanera look nuchbigger thanthose
further way, soour braininnediately
registers that thesnaller features nust bein
thedistanceandweseetheinageas
three-dinensional, nakingit norerealistic.
Second, theforegroundprovides a
convenient entry point intotheconposition
for theviewer's eye, whichthennaturally
travels upthroughthescenetothefocal
point or thebackground. successful
conpositionneeds a 'hook' toenticethe
viewer andholdtheattention. With
landscapes, theforegroundis that hook.
1hird, theforegroundcontains nore
infornationthantherest of thescene, and
beingclosest tothecaneraallows youto
recordthenedetail that isn't ahectedby
haze, nist andfog. istant features will record
softer andundenedinsuchconditions.
Wide-anglelenses arethenost useful for
exploitingforegroundinterest as theyallow
youtoincludeelenents inashot that are
literallyat your feet. 1hewaywide-angle
lenses 'stretch' perspectivealsonakes those
elenents loonlargeinthefranewhile
everythingelseseens torushawayintothe
distance. 1helower theviewpoint youadopt,
thenoretheforegroundwill doninate.
Lenses withafocal lengthof I6-I8nn
(26-29nnonfull-franesensors) area
relatively safebet tobeginwithas they'rewide
enoughtoincludelots of foregroundinterest
without beingsowidethat youendupwithall
foregroundandnothingelse. nceyour
condencegrows, youcanproduceanazing
inages withultrawide-anglelenses fron
I-I5nn(I6-24nnfull-frane), but you
needtoget really closetotheforeground,
otherwiseit will seenniles away duetothe
excessive'stretching' of perspectivethat you
get withthesewider lenses.
1elephotolenses areless dynanicinthis
respect, as theforegroundinterest youinclude
is fornedbyelenents or features inthescene
that areobviouslyfurther away, whilethe
foreshorteningof perspective'squeezes' the
elenents together sothat youdon't get the
sanesenseof distanceandthree-dinension
as withawide-angle. Nevertheless, theehect
canstill bestrong, withasinglefeature
doninatingtheforeground.
What canbeusedas foregroundinterest
Pretty nuchanything-rocks, rivers, walls,
gates, fences, trees, nooredboats, sand
ripples, refections, people. eatures and
elenents inthescenethat createnatural or
assunedlines work thebest of all, as they
leadtheviewer's eyeintoandthroughthe
scene. Lines that travel vertically work well,
lines that travel diagonally fronbottonleft to
topright work evenbetter, andlines that
convergeintothedistance, suchas railway
tracks or straight roads, arethenost
powerful of all. 1onakethenost of vertical
andconverginglines, turnyour canera onits
sideandshoot inportrait fornat. iagonal
lines arebetter shot inlandscapefornat as
they havefurther totravel throughthe
conposition, holdingattentionfor longer.
Swot uponhowyoushoulduseforegroundinterest togiveyour
shots depthandscaleandinprovetheinpact of your inages
regroundnterest
awide-angIeIens to'stretch'
perspectiveandaIowviewpoint tomakethe
foregroundinterest moreprominent.
2) Trypickingsubjects that formdiagonaI Iines
IeadingfromthebottomIeft tothetopright of
theframe, Iiketheseboats do, as it draws the
viewer intothepicture.
3) Insteadof usingforegroundinterest as a
preIudetoadistant focaI point, trycomposing
pictures wherethedominant subject is inthe
foregroundandkeepthebackgroundsimpIe.
4) OnegoodreasonwhyyoushouIdn't Ieave
homewithout anarrayof NDgradIters is to
ensureyour foregroundis correctIyexposed.
InIow-Iight conditions, Iikeasunset, it's easy
torender theforegrounddarkanddistracting.
5) PracticaIIyanythingcanworkas foreground
interest, as Iongas it's composedweII andts
withtherest of thescene. Lookfor unusuaI
subjects or for objects that youmaynever
haveconsideredusingbefore, suchas
driftwood, sheIIs or wreckageremains.
6) Pocks arethemost popuIar subjects touse
inacoastaI Iandscapeandcanbethemost
ehectivewhenusedas aIead-inIine, aIso.
Jetties andpiers workweII, too, andhavethe
addedbonus of youbeingabIetointroduce
convergingverticaIs.
Thebascs: Composton
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xmsedepth-of-fe|d
1here's nopoint includingfantastic
foregroundif it's out of focus, what youneed
is enoughdepth-of-eldfor front-to-back
sharpness. s aruleof thunb, if youusea
canerawithanPS-Csensor withafocal
lengtharoundI6-I8nn, focus thelens ona
point I.5nfronthecanera, stopdownto
fiII andeverythingwill besharpfronaround
/5cntoinnity. or wider focal lengths inthe
I0-I5nnrange, focus onapoint onenetre
away, stopdowntofiII andeverythingwill
besharpfronaround50cntoinnity. or
full-franeDSLRs withafocal lengthinthe
24-28nnrange, focus onapoint I.5n
away, stopdowntofiI6anddepth-of-eld
will extendfronaround/5cntoinnity. or
wider lenses intheI6-20nnrange, focus
onIn, stopdowntofiI6andyou'll get
depth-of-eldfronaround50cntoinnity.
Basically, tonaxinisedepth-of-eldwith
wide-anglelenses, youneedtofocus ona
point relativelyclosetothecanera, nany
photographers focus further intothescene,
resultinginanunsharpinage.

, but theyaIways IendthemseIves
beautifuIIytoframeafocaI oint. It works
articuIarIyweII withthis churchbecausethe
detaiI intheframecomIements thesubject.
2) Thinkabout symmetrywhenIookingfor
naturaI frames, it is aIways Ieasingtotheeye.
Eventhemost simIeof arrangements can
createimact, as seenhere.
3) UsingnaturaI frames is agreat wayof adding
foregroundinterest toascene. WhiIethecastIeis
thefocaI oint inthis image, it's thedramatic
sikes that addimact for theviewer.
4) Your subject doesn't havetoII theframetobe
striking-heretheextrasaceinfact heIs to
frameanddrawemhasis tothesmaII chaeI. Try
usingsubtIebut grahicshaes intheIandscae,
suchas cIouds or hiIIs, toimroveyour
comosition-simIycentringthechurchwouId
faiI tocreatethesameenergyas it does here.
Thinkoutsidetheboxandyou'II begintosee
frames inthemost unIikeIyIaces.
5) Thedarkframehereis astrikingcontrast tothe
Iighter scenebeyond. Lookfor diherences in
coIour toemhasiseyour frameandaddimact.
ehectiveways to
produceatight, structuredconpositionis by
franingthesceneor subject you'reshooting.
Not onlydoes this helptodirect theviewer's
eyetowards thenost inportant part of the
picture, but franes canalsobeusedtohide
uninterestingareas, suchas abroadexpanse
of enptysky. Natural franes canbeusedin
all types of photography, but areaboundin
thelandscapeif youkeepyour eyes peeled.
Whenyouthink of natural franes, what
cones tonind 1heoverhangingbranches
of atreeareperhaps thenost obvious. gap
betweentrees that franes adistant focal
point Howabout overhangingclihs or the
entrancetoacave nthecoast, thegaps
betweenrock outcrops or clihs canbeused
tofranethebeachandseabeyond.
1heseareall fairly obvious options, but if
youstart tothink laterally, other ideas will
present thenselves. or exanple, theshape
of ahillsideor nountaincanbeusedto
franefeatures positionedinfront of it.
louds inthesky canact likeafrane, too
-containingelenents onthegroundand
forcingtheeyedowntowards then.
Whenshootingusingafraneandthesun
is behindyou, light will fall ontotheentire
scene, soeverythingwill beof asinilar
brightness andshouldrecordnoreor less as
youseeit. f you'reshootingintothelight,
however, or thesunis tothesideof the
canera's position, thenainpart of thescene
nay bewell lit, but littleor nolight will fall
directly ontothefraneandit will recorddark
or evenas asilhouette. f thefraneandthe
scenebeyondit is evenly lit, youshouldn't
experienceany problens obtaining
well-exposedinages. f you'restandingin
theshadowof thefrane, however,
overexposureis likely. f this proves tobethe
case, stepbeyondthefraneandout of the
shade, takeanexposurereading, set it on
your canerausingtheL-ock or by
shootinginnanual exposurenode, and
don't changeanythingonceyoureconpose
withthefraneincluded. lternatively, takea
shot fronyour shootingposition, check the
previewinageandhistogran, thenapply
negativeor positiveexposureconpensation
as requiredandretakeyour exposure.
inally, if youwant thefraneandthe
scenebeyondtoberenderedinfocus,
select a snall lens aperture, suchas fiI3, and
usehyperfocal focusingtonaxinise
depth-of-eld(seepage32for details).
lternatively, by settinga wideaperturesuch
as fi4andfocusingonthescenebeyondthe
frane, depth-of-eldwill bereducedso
that thefraneitself is thrownout of focus
andall attentionis directedtowards your
nainsubject.
or ideas, inspirationandinfornationonhowtoinproveyour
landscapepictures byusingenvironnental franes, readon...
Howoenaa| fame
Thebac: ompoon
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Wde-ang|eoe|ephoo?
1heehect thefranehas onthe
conpositionis partlydeterninedbyyour
lens choice. Wide-anglelenses stretch
perspectivesotheapparent distance
betweentheelenents inasceneis
increased. f younoveclosetoanatural
frane, youcanincludeit intheshot, but
you'll still get aclear viewof thescene
beyond. 1elephotolenses havethe
oppositeehect -theyconpress
perspectivesotheelenents inascene
appear closer together. 1his nakes then
less suitedtoshootingnatural franes,
thoughtheycanbehandyat tines if
you'reunabletoget closetoanehective
franeandyou'rehappyfor thescene
beyondthefranetobenoreselective.
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1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

Thebascs: xsure
xsure
LRs haveextrenelyaccurate, nulti-zoneneteringsystens withahistogranfunctiontohelpus
checkaccurateexposure, sogettingit right has never beeneasier. However, totakenorecreativecontrol,
youneedtotakethings intoyour ownhands. Hereareafewtechniques for perfect exposures
1 his is ha hecaeras Ii-eeer
caepih, ih heaid aIrai. he
sceeis highicras, adhecaerahas
srggIedcapreaII heaI irai.
p eer readigs rhease hecrss
adheskreeaIedadiereceirighess
a 4.5sps. eigaepsrer heIad,
I eda.9grad(hreesps adpIIedi
deIhehriheedge hedarkes
shadarea. I sedas gradsha i Id
c aIieihecrss. s hereis seIss
deaiI iherigher pars hesk, I redcedhe
epsrehirds aspadresh.
3 heresI is ha heiagehas ee
'epsedherigh (seeer hepager
deaiIs, ih 'cIippig hehighIighs. he
hisgrashs ha herearesiII darkes,
aIspIe iraiihepseci, ad
cIippedshads.
4 sraigh cersi heaIeIks dII,
hepicreIacks cras. r heaI ersi, Ie
rgh heepsredsIighIadadded
recras, especiaIIiheshads,
recreaehedraa herigiaI scee. IeaIs
eakedhehieaIaceaddarhad
icreasedhesarai.
5 r cparisprpses, I aIskash ha
as derepsedesp. s casee, is
Ie heshads ddadIackigideaiI.
Markaer
was lookingfor anunusual viewof
CorfeCastleinDorset, so sauntered
alongtothis graveyardinthevillage.
Havingfoundaconpositionbased
aroundoneof thecrosses, thenext
problenwas sortingout theexposure. Here's
how tackledthechallenge.
MI-TONMTRIN
Meteringsystens indigital caneras are
calibratedtoanI8grey nid-tone. Basing
exposurereadings onanid-tonesuchas grass
is agoodstartingpoint for accurateexposures
xse crrect|y
hads
1hesetwoexanples onthe
right showwhyit's not a
goodideatounderexpose
your shot andthentryto
openuptheshadows
duringpost-processing.
1henearest inageis around
onestopunderexposed(to
naintainhighlight detail)
andtheshadowcurvehas
beenpulleduptonatchthe
exposureinthecorrectly
exposedversiononthe
right. s youcansee, not
onlyis thereposterisationin
theshadows, rather than
snoothtonal transitions,
andtons of noise, but also
thesensor has recorded
signicantlyless detail.
Uderepsed rrec epsre
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
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posurefor ostI Indspes
chivinthcoct posuincoastal shots canba bit ticki
thanfo inlandlandscaps, as thasval thins that canfool th
canas ntinsstn-fo anpl, biht hihlihts onat o
biht hitfoan avs canladtoundposu. nthoth
hand, if ouhavchosna la, dak ock fo ou foound, this
couldcausthcana toovpos. oundtokpanout
fo an laaas of paticulal biht o dak tons andappl
posuconpnsationaccodinl. t is oodpactictochck th
histoanaft achshot andbppadtoshoot if ncssa.
1hcanalsobahuanof contast ithinan onscn, ith
biht skis, dak ocks andbiht hihlihts onat. utal nsit
() aduatlts assntial, anddpndinonthconditions and
thbihtnss of thsk andsalativtoou foound, ouna
ndtopull thaddonv lointhfan. 1his couldvnb
blothhoion, tothtopof ou foound. f oudont, ou
niht ndupithacoctl posdsk andfooundithaband
of ov-biht at inthniddlof thpictu. Sowhenneteringthe
scenetochoosethestrengthandplacenent of thelter, renenber to
takereadings frontheforeground, sky andsea.
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Longexposures
posingtocapturemovement
neof thegreat things about takingphotos
bytheseais theopportunities it gives for
capturingthenovenent of waves and
addingatnosphere. nlowlight, withthe
lens stoppeddowntoextenddepth-of-eld,
longexposures areanecessity. 1heynay
rangefronseveral seconds toninutes,
dependingonlightingconditions. s waves
washaroundrocks or upanddownthe
shorewhiletheshutter is open, theywill
recordas aronantic, nysterious nist. 1o
capturethedranaof waves breakingonthe
shore, speeds of Ii4secor slower workwell.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Tbac: xpu 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
ta: atccxpu
ranis a two-dinensional graph, oftenresenblinga rangeof nountain
peaks, whichrepresents aninage's tonal extent. While, at rst glance, histograns night appear
conplex andconfusing, they'reactually very sinpletoread. 1hey areanessential aidfor digital
photographers strivingtoachieveconsistently correct exposures in-canera andarea nore
accuratenethodof assessingexposurethanlookingat inages you'vetakenonthenonitor.
1herefore, if you'renot already inthehabit of regularly reviewingyour inages' histograns, it is tine
youdidso. Withour guide, youwill soonfeel condent assessinghistograns.
What is ahistogram?histogranis a visual representationof aninage's tonal range. 1he
horizontal axis indicates thepicture's extent fronpureblack (0, far left) topurewhite(225, far right).
1hevertical axis shows hownany pixels havethat particular value. ookingat aninage's
histogran, youcantell whether thepictureis nadeupof predoninantly light, dark or nid-tones.
lthoughits appearanceis alsodictatedby thecolour andtoneof thesubject, a histogranwitha
largenunber of pixels (or a sharppeak) groupedat either edgeis anindicationof poor exposure.
or exanple, a histogranwitha largenunber of black pixels (groupedtotheleft) oftensignies
underexposureandthat subject detail will beobscuredintheshadowareas. largenunber of
pixels groupedtotheright of thehistogrannornally indicates anoverexposedinage. 1heinage's
highlights will burnout (or 'clip') andthis detail is irretrievable. graphwitha narrowpeak inthe
niddleandno(or few) black or whitepixels indicates aninagelackingcontrast.
5owhat shouIdahistogramIookIike?1his is a tricky onetoanswer. espitewhat sonepeople
nay say, thereis nosuchthingas theperfect histogran. t sinply tells us howa pictureis exposed,
allowingphotographers todecidewhether -andhow-toadjust exposuresettings. 1herefore, a
histogranof a light scenewill bevery diherent frononewithpredoninantly black tones or one
witha nix of both. owever, generally speaking, a histogranshouldshowa goodspreadof tones
across thehorizontal axis, withthenajority of pixels positionednear totheniddle(I00,
nid-point). Nornally, it is desirabletoavoidpeaks totheright-handsideof thegraph, as this is
usually anindicationof 'burnt out' (overexposed) highlights, resultinginlost detail.
Whenassessinga histogran, it is inportant toconsider thebrightness of thesubject itself. or
exanple, a sceneor subject boastinga largepercentageof light or dark tones -likesnowor a
silhouette-will naturally haveanehect ontheoverall look of theresultinggraph. 1herefore, while
it is possibletonakereconnendations, it is inpossibletogeneraliseabout what is andisn't a good
histogran. Whileanevenspreadof pixels throughout thegreyscaleis oftenconsidereddesirable,
youwill alsoneedtouseyour ownknowledgegainedthroughexperience.
HowdoI checkanimage's histogram?Most anondigital SRs allowyoutoviewthehistogran
onthenonitor duringplayback. 1odothis, press theplayback buttontoviewtheinageand
thencyclethroughtheadditional photoinfoscreens until thehistogranis displayed. Makethis
your default settingsoyoucanquickly access thehistogranandassess exposureinnediately
after takingthepicturewhenrequired. f thehistogranindicates underexposure, apply positive
exposureconpensation. f pixels aregroupedtotheright-handsideandtheinageappears
overexposed, dial innegativeconpensation. Usingthehistogranis a far norereliablenethodof
assessingexposurethanlookingat inages onthe screen, particularly whentryingtoview
inages outdoors inbright light whenthelight refectingfronthecanprovedeceptive.
Peaks totheIeft: Thehistogramis skewedtothe
Ieft. Thedarkbackdropmeans manyof thepixeIs
areinshadowareas, but theimageis weII exposed.
Perfect exposure: typicaI Iandscapescenegives
aso-caIIed'perfect histogram' as it has agood
spreadof tones andpeaks throughthemid-tones.
Peaks totheright: weII-exposedshot of anoverIy
Iight scenegives ahistogramskewedtotheright,
muchIikethat of anoverexposedimage.
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Most SRs aredesignedwithaplayback
functionknownas the'highlights screen'.
Whilehistograns provideagraphic
illustrationof aninage's tonal extent,
helpingyouassess exposureoverall, the
highlights screen-or highlights alert -helps
photographers toavoidhighlights burning
out. Whiteor verylight subjects indirect
sunlight areespeciallypronetothis.
histogranwithasharppeaktothefar right
nornallyindicates areas of overexposure.
owever, thehighlights alert actually
identies thepixels that exceedthevaluefor
purewhite(255). 1hosepixels arenot givena
value, neaningtheycannot beprocessed
andareehectivelydiscarded, havingno
detail or infornationrecorded. Whenthe
inageis reviewedonthe, thepixels
fallingoutsidethecanera's dynanicrange
fashor blink, providingaquickandgraphic
illustrationof wherepicturedetail is 'burned
out' anddevoidof detail. 1orectifythis, set
negativeexposureconpensationsothat the
next inageis recordeddarker. canera's
highlights alert is not always switchedonby
default. onsult your nanual andswitchit
onwhenyoufeel this typeof exposure
warningwouldproveuseful, nornallyit's via
thecanera's PlaybackMenu.
Thebascs: xposure 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
xposetotherght
'Exposingtotheright' is fast becomingawidely acceptedapproachtohelp
maximiseimagequality -althoughit only applies if youshoot inRaw. Withthis
techniqueyouenectively pushexposuresettings as closetooverexposureas
possiblewithout actually clippingthehighlights. Theresult is ahistogramwith
themajority of pixels groupedtotheright of themid-point -hencethename
'exposetotheright'. So, whenyou'reconhdent youunderstandexposures
well enough, givethis techniqueatry andpushtheexposureas far totheright
of thehistogramas youcan, without clippingthehighlights. Theimagewill
probably lookalittlelight onceintheRawconverter, but this is easily
correctedwiththebrightness andcontrast controls, andwill givemuchbetter
results thantryingtolightenadarker image.
CCDandCMOSsensors count light inalinear fashion. Most digital SLRs
recorda12-bit imagecapableof recording4,096tonal values over six stops.
8ut thetonal values arenot spreadevenly across thesix stops, eachstop
records half thelight of theprevious one. So, half of thelevels aredevotedto
thebrightest stop(2,048, half of theremainder (1,024levels aredevotedto
thenext stopandsoon. As aresult, thelast anddarkest of thesix stops only
boasts 64levels. This might seemconfusingbut, simply, if youdonot properly
usetheright sideof thehistogram, whichrepresents themajority of tonal
values, youarewastinguptohalf of theavailableencodinglevels. If you
deliberately underexposetoensuredetail is areretainedinthehighlights -
acommonpracticeamongmany digital photographers -youarepotentially
losingalargepercentageof thedatathat canbecaptured.
ainimageinset: Exposuretotheright of thehistogramwiII
capturemaximumdetaiI andminimumnoise. OnceinthePaw
converter, theimagewiII IooktooIight andwashedout, sousethe
rightness andContrast controIs toadjust theimage's appearance.

R
TOPTIP
CoIour histograms
Sone SLRs allowyouthe
optiontoviewseparate
histograns for the red,
greenandblue channels.
You're better ohignoring
this optionandusing the
standardgreyscale
histogran
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

ts ts nnust
llows youtowprtur(inunr) youwnt
toustotk potorp wltnr
utontlly sts torrsponnsuttr sp
sonlt lvls tovtorrt xposur. n
otr wors t lts youprortstprturslton
nt ooss tsuttr spornly.
s tlns prturs tnost nfuential factor over
depth-of-eld(thezoneof focus) ina photograph,
aperture-priority nodeis thenost practical shooting
nodeif youarephotographinga subject or situationin
whichcontrol over depth-of-eldis inportant.
Landscapephotography is thebest exanple. Generally,
whenshootinglandscapes, you'll want tonakesureyour
depth-of-eldis broadenoughtorecordthewhole
sceneinfocus, frontheinnediateforegroundtoinnity,
whichneans that you'll needtoset a snall aperture, such
as fiII. perture-priority nodelets youdothis easily,
becauseyouhavetoactively set therequiredaperture.
Whenshootingportraits, theoppositetends toapply
-youwant shallowdepth-of-eldsothat your subject is
recordedinfocus but thebackgroundis thrownout of
focus. 1hat neans nakingsureyoutakethepicturewitha
wideaperturesuchas fi4or fi2.8, whichagainis easy
whenshootinginaperture-priority nodebecauseit's you
andnot thecanera that decides whichaperturetouse.
1hat said, youcanstill control whichapertureis set
usingother exposurenodes, but it just requires a slightly
diherent (andlonger) way of working. nshutter-priority
(1v) node, for exanple, youneedtochangetheshutter
speeduntil thecanera sets theapertureyouwant. n
progrannode, youcanusetheprogranshift functionto
changetheapertureandshutter conbinationthat the
canera has set until youget theright aperture.
Whereaperture-prioritynodetrunps other nodes is
that onceyou'veset anaperture, thecanerawon't change
it, evenif light levels fuctuate. nstead, theshutter speed
adjusts tonaintainthecorrect exposure. 1his wouldn't be
thecaseif youset shutter-priority-if light levels change,
your caneragives shutter speedpriority, autonatically
adjustingtheaperturetonaintaincorrect exposure, andso
your control over depth-of-eldis dininished. Sinilarly, in
progrannode, thecanerawouldchangetheaperturei
shutter speedconbinationinresponsetochanginglight.
perture-priority nodeis alsohandy for general use, ie
whenyou'rewandering, shootinganythingthat takes
your fancy, suchas architecture, details, abstracts or
candids. epth-of-eldrequirenents will vary depending
ontheshot -oneninuteyouneedlots, thenext as little
as possible-but youcanalter it quickly withthefick of
thecanera's input dial, andtheviewnder display will
keepyouinfornedof exactly whichaperture(and
correspondingshutter speed) you'reusing.
!
OFPEPTUPE5: Withdepth-of-eIdhaingsuchanehect onthenaI image, it's
nosurprisethat manyexperiencedphotographersrateaperture-prioritymodeastheir faourite
mode. Thesetwoshots showhowdiherent apertures canproduceerydiherent resuIts.
Sowhat is it that nakes aperture-priority
nodenoreuseful thananyof theother
exposurenodes for takingpictures of
landscapesReadon-all will berevealed
Howother
exposure
nodes work
We'vealready established
that inaperture-priority
node, youset thedesired
apertureandthecanera
sets theacconpanying
shutter speedtogivethe
correct exposure. Here's
a quick rundownof how
theother nodes work.
FuII-automode
1hecanerasets the
shutter speedand
aperturetoachievethe
correct exposure.
Youcan't changethe
conbinationtousea
specicapertureor
shutter speed.
Programmode
Progranworks ina
sinilar waytofull auto,
but youcanusuallyalter
theapertureishutter
speedconbinationif
youneedtousea
specicapertureor
shutter speed.
5hutter-priority
Youset theshutter
speedandyour
canerasets the
appropriateaperture.
f light levels change,
thesaneshutter
speedis usedandthe
aperturechanged.
MeteredmanuaI
Younanuallyset both
theapertureand
shutter speed
independentlyof
eachother, soneither
changes unless you
adjust then, evenif
light levels fall or rise.
5ubject modes
1heseprogran
nodes aretailoredto
suit aspecicsubject,
withvarious canera
functions likethe
, fashand
exposuresystens
set accordingly.
fl4 fl22
5ettgaerture-rrtymde
hoosingaperture-priority nodeis sinple-all youneedto
dois turnyour exposuredial (or insonecases pushthe
exposurenodebutton) andselect v. Your anonS SLR
will thenbeset toaperture-priority nodeandall youneedto
dois rotatethesnall adjustnent dial (foundeither onthe
handgripor onthetop-right corner of therear of your canera)
tochangeyour aperture. f youlightly depress theshutter
buttontoactivatetheexposuresysten, youcankeepa check
ontheshutter speedthecanera has selected.

R
t at fl22
ioritymode
aIIows photographers to
controI howmuchof the
sceneis sharpIyinfocus.
TOPTIP
pertureincrements
Most caneras allowyouto
change the apertures in
Ii2-stopincrenents. Check
the custonfunctionnenu
inyour canera -nany
nodels alsoallowyoutoset
it toIi3-stopincrenents
if yousowish
hebascs: xposure
LNDSCPP1RPRS understndly ivepriority to
apertures, but insonesituations, theshutter speedis just as inportant to
capturetheehect of novenent withina scene. Duetotherelationship
betweenapertures andshutter speeds, youcanprioritisea slowshutter
speedandstill naintainsharpness by naxinisingdepth-of-eldwitha
snaller aperture. 1ypically thenarrower theaperture, thelonger the
shutter speed. By settingyour canera toshutter-priority (1) node, you
canselect your desiredlengthof tine, whileyour canera adjusts the
apertureaccordingly for a correct exposure. Sowhy choosetheshutter
speedrather thantheaperture Well, settingtheslower speedneans
anythingnovingwhenyouretheshutter, suchas fowingwater or
foliageblowinginthewind, is capturedas a soft blur, whileanything
static, likea fenceor rock, renains infocus. 1heehect of settinga long
exposureis togiveinages extra depthanddinensionwhileillustratinga
senseof novenent. 1heresult is usually closer tohowyourenenber
thescene, rather thana lifeless inageof grass withevery bladeinfocus.
But renenber. evendigital caneras canbefooled. Becareful not to
overexposeaninagewhenshooting, for exanple, a eldof golden
sweepinggrass intheeveningsun. s youlower theshutter speed, the
canera's chosenaperturewill eventually fash, indicatingthat theinage
will beoverexposed. Youcan, of course, check theinageandthe
histogranontheLCDnonitor for blown-out highlights.
or evenslower shutter speeds andtoelevateyour photography to
another level, uselters. polariser cuts out refections anddarkens blue
skies togiveclouds that 'wow' factor, as well as reduces theanount of
light reachingyour sensor by twostops. Youcanenhancenovenent
andblur by usinga Neutral Density lter. a neutral grey lter that doesn't
ahect colour balancebut has theehect of reducingtheanount of light
passingthroughit, allowingyoutoselect slower shutter speeds.
or optinunresults, shoot at dawnanddusk andusea tripod. Shoot
ondarker, cloudy days, andlet naturework for you-less light neans
slower shutter speeds. nwindy days, hangyour canera bagfronthe
tripodtokeepyour outt stable, andusea renotereleaseiself-tiner and
nirror lock-uptoavoidcontact withthecanera duringtheexposure.
Wait for thewind, opentheshutter andwatchyoudon't get blownawayl
5hutter speeds
8|andscapes
ariser adNDgrad:
Here, apariser adaNDgradter
has beeusedthdbacthebright
syadesureawe-baaced, g
expsure. Thesef-tier was usedt
reducetherisf caerashae.
5hutter speedcparis:
Thees (10-22set t13) was
fcusedthegrass ithefregrud,
thetheshutter speedwas chagedi
asequecefr1l50sect1.6
secds. Ntehwthegrass gets re
burryas theshutter speedbeces
swer. Our favuriteiagefrthe
sequeceis thegest expsure, 1.6
secds, as it captures thest
reaisticsesef veet.
Fna| mage
DustaburghCaste, Nrthuberad.
Theveet ithefregrudadds
ttheipact f theiage. Usethe
histgraadtheiagetheLCD
previewscreetchectheexpsure
adfr aycippedhighights.
Expsure: I.3seconds at fi29(S0I00).
Learnhowslowshutters speedcanaddenergy
andnovenent toyour landscapeinages
1l50sec 1l20sec 1l10sec
l5sec 0.3sec 0.8sec 1.6seconds
hbscs pos 1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
1sutt spyouustocaptuwat wll
pnona nub o actos ts ovn,
owqucly ts ovn, owuco t t
s, anwt youwant tostopt ato
zts ovnt o lt t blu.
o bwatalls anbanwavs a
sutt spo IiI000Ii200scwll
uaantyouzvy oplt. o
astfownvs ansall watalls l
ts onpctu ty Ii200Ii500sc
wlo slow vs anstas
IiI25Ii250scsoulottc.
Wnt cos toblun onsconwll
ava ooct onbwatalls o ty two
scons o sall watalls. Rvs an
stas na slow spo twotoou
scons touyoucanoucslow
tnto20scons youl.
vxposucanba poblwnla
volus o wat aconcntatnctan
aas sopanyontstoaanus
a slow sp youstat toclptlts.
o coastal scns ontotwoscons wll
blu wavs wl20to30scons wll
pouca ly ct.
WLRLN1SURL youvv notc but t
ajoty o stunnnlanscapas usually
avsooo wat ntscn. Wt
ts as subtlas a sall v tclntouo
as obvous as a onatnsa na coastal
sascap wat psnts a y lnt n
any lanscapas.
no tanasons o ts s bcaus
wat s suca potoapcally plabl
lnt. By usnlts anio anpulatn
tsutt sp ts possbltocowat
nall ann o ways oznts
ovnt sooplts asuspnna
tousna lonxposutotansot ntoan
tal st. Wlpotntally causn
pobls wtou xposu tfctv
natuo wat alsoplays ts pat npovn
as too. nays wts lttlo no
wn by antoa la svo o any
ot laboy o wat ts possblto
pouca stnsult by captuna clan
fctono tscnonts suac. 1
possblts ont stoptvs canb
usas stonlanlns toutscn
o alonwttls o scluocpools
anannstas lttwtocs
canoly ctvoounntst.
1lst s nlss but wcov t
bascs o sutt sps wnsootnwat
as wll as ta tat soulat asy to
taonou lanscappojcts statnonpa
9I. Wat ayouwatno Gt xplon
hbscsk||sfor shootng
water n|andscapes
ts all about tcnquantt a wnsootnstunnnwat
scncs bppaboyouantotat outoos
ssenta| gear
hoosngshutter speeds
Tripod: Wn
sootnwat youll
bloontous
sall aptus
toaxspto
lantslowsutt
sps quyouto
ptcaa stabl
toavosa. Cc out tssntal t
sctonlat nts uo avcont
bst tpos tobuy o outoo potoapy
watv you but.
5pirit IeveI: you
tpot as a spt
lvl ust tonsu
ozons avnyou
ont want tospn
as nPotosop
lvllnt youcan
avot at tpctu
tansta. tws buy a bascI0
spt lvl toslpntoa otsoo tat
yousl toa uny 30Sculncton
vl (www.nto2020.co.u).
Wide-angIezoom:
nultawzool
a I22o sla s
al as t allows youto
ll toounwt
wat anlv plnty
o ptolo
scns tat asap
touout. 1Sa I020lns
costnaoun00 s uly popula u
tots xcllnt poancanvaluo
ony pcta.
Photobackpack:
Wnyouwalno
ls anls onn a
cnt potocat
bacpac s a a btt
(anco)opton
o potctnyou
pscous potot tan
a otall at ba. 1oswtan
allwat cov wll o supo
potctonowat antot
lnts. 1untopaI0o ou top
baconatons.
CIothing: 1s
notnwostan
slppnntoa v an
avntospntay
nwt clots. Wa
cnt ootwa o
putablbans sucas
Baus ancons
watpoo touss o ats
obans sucas Paao as ty
allowyoutostpntovs anstay y.
FiIters: you
sous about lanscap
potoapy tll pay to
nvst na slotnlt
syst. Cons Psyst
(www.nto2020.co.u)
psnts at valuo
ony wl qualty s
paaount lootolts supbI00
systtcoco tpossonals
(www.llts.co). polas lps
boost bluss anlv cla fctons
otwats suac. 0.o 0.9NDlt
(not NDa) s alsowotconsn as
t wll allowyoutouslonsutt sps n
aylt toblu ovnwat.
1l20sec
1l60sec
0.4seconds
water |ke a pro
iccoastIines aretheperfect
pIacetoput theoryintopracticewhen
it comes tophotographingscenes
withwater. FoIIowour adviceonthe
gear touse, thetechniques totryand
thesettings tomakeandyou'II soon
betakingIandscapeimages Iikeapro.

hss: hrpnss
hefundanentals of focusing, depth-of-eldandcanerashaketovastlyinproveyour photography

M
B
U
R
1

N
MGNLYU'vLCUSLDonanobject that is venetres away. How
sharpwill sonethingbeat sixnetresr evenve-and-a-half netres
1heanswer is governedbythedepth-of-eld. thedistanceeither sideof
thepoint of focus that is deenedtobeacceptablyinfocus. s longas
youcontrol theapertureyouareshootingat, you'reincontrol of
depth-of-eld, andyoucanuseit creatively. 1herewill beoccasions
whenyoudon't want nuchof it at all, andyou'll get that ehect by
shootingwithalargeaperturelikefi4. However, for nost of thetinethat
you'reshootinglandscapes you'll want tonaxinisedepth-of-eldto
get as nuchof asceneinfocus as youpossiblycan.
oregrounddetail is inportant andhas tobeinfocus, but sodoes the
rest of thescene. 1his neans usingsnall apertures toget good
sharpness either sideof thefocus point. But just consider this last phrase
for anonent, andthenthinkabout whereyounight focus when
shootingalandscape. Manynovicelandscapephotographers arehappy
focusingat innitywhenshootingalandscape, but don't forget that
depth-of-eldextends either sideof thepoint of focus. nfact, thearea
rnhowtopturshrpms|kpro
of depth-of-eldextends one-thirdinfront of thefocusedpoint and
two-thirds behind. inother words, youget noredepth-of-eldbehind
thesubject thaninfront of it. bviouslythereis nobenet tohaving
acceptablesharpness extendingbeyondinnity, but youcanpull the
point of focus backtowards you, soit's theendof thedepth-of-eld
zonethat is at innityinstead. 1his wayyou'll get noreof thescenesharp.
1his is calledhyperfocal focusingandhas beenusedbyprolandscape
photographers for decades. 1heoptinunpoint of focus for anyscene
relies onthechoiceof aperturesettingandthefocal lengthof thelens
youuse-andchanges for full-franeandPS-C-sensor DSLRsl 1here
arecalculators andpocket referencetables youcanstashinyour canera
bag, or youcanuseadependableruleof thunbthat suggests youaina
thirdof thewayintothepicturewithyour lens set toasnall aperture.
We'll becoveringbothfocusingtechniques, as well as providingyouwith
advicetoensureyounaxiniseinagesharpness. 1his includes revealing
whyusingthesnallest aperturewon't necessarilyproducethesharpest
results, eventhoughit gives thenost depth-of-eldl
1HNNGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

NL1HLfundaenals of landscapephoography
is beingableoconrol andassess deph-of-eldo
ensureha heiageis sharpfrofron obac.
perure-prioriy odehelps youoachievehis, no
only by forcingyouohin abou your aperure, bu
alsoby aingsureha oncese, heaperurewon'
changeif ligh levels fucuaeor if youuselers. f he
exposurehas obeadjusedwhenshooinginaperure-
prioriy ode, hecaeradoes i by changingshuer
speed, soheaperurereains consan. 1his is vially
iporan becauseachievingexensivedeph-of-eldis
no jus abou aperureselecion, bu alsofocusing
disance, andacareful balancingac beweenhewois
required. Youcouldalways shoo a fiwihhelens
se oinniy andos shos wouldbesharpfrofron
obac. Unforunaely, his sipleapproachwon'
always wor -soyou'reno goingoge hebes resuls.
Wide-angles andzoos endobea heir wors,
opically, a iniuaperureandheir bes around
fiII, soideally youshouldshoo as closeofiII as you
canfor opiuopical qualiy, andfocus helens a a
disanceha axiises deph-of-elda ha aperure.
y favourieechniqueis basedaroundsoehing
nownas hyperfocal focusing, whichinvolves focusing
onapoin nownas hehyperfocal disance, where
deph-of-eldis axiisedfor heaperureinuse.
Lenses usedofeaureahyperfocal disancescaleon
hebarrel bu virually nonedooday. 1hereis an
equaionfor calculainghyperfocal disancefor any lens
andaperure, soinrueBluePeer fashion, 'vecreaeda
hyperfocal disancechar, whichyoucancopy andrefer
owhenyou'reonlocaion. 1hedisances infee (f)
represen hehyperfocal disances for eachfocal lengh
andaperure. f youfocus your lens onha disanceand
se hecorrespondingaperure, deph-of-eldwill
exendfrohalf hehyperfocal disanceoinniy. So,
if you'reusingaCanonLSwihanPS-C-sizedsensor,
shooinga 4andfiII, focus onapoin 9f away
anddeph-of-eldwill exendfro4.5f oinniy -
orehanenoughdeph-of-eldinos siuaions.
Focusngwththehyperfoca| dstance
Leeros explains howousehehyperfocal focusingdisanceandaperure-prioriyfor super-sharpscenics
I I5 I 4 8 5 5 I I5
fi8 .f 5f .4f 8.9f I.f If f 55f I5f I8f 95f
fiII .f .5f 4.5f .f 9f If I9f 9f 5f I55f 8f
fiI I.f .5f .f 4.4f .4f 8.f I4.5f f 54f IIf I98f
fi I.f .9f .f .f 4.5f f 9.5f I9.f 8f f I4f
Hyperfocal distance: PS-Csensors
I 4 8 5 5 I I5
fi8 .8f 5.f 8.f IIf If 5f 8f I8f 5f
fiII .f .9f 5.8f .8f If 5f 48f 98f I8f
fiI I.9f .9f 4.f 5.5f 8.5f I.5f 4f f I5f
fi .4f .f .9f .9f f I.5f 4f 49f 89f
Hyperfocal distance: ull-fraesensors
fl2.8
fl11
fl4
fl16
fl8
fl22
Technque watch!
perture-priorityandmuIti-zonemetering:
Beforenallygoingdigial' bacinhespringof
8, 'dspen years shooingwihl
caeras ha hadnoinernal eering, so useda
handheldspo eer odeerinecorrec
exposure-whichhenhadobeanuallyse on
hecaera. 1hanfully, hosedays arelonggone.
DSLRs havefanasicinegral eeringsyses
ha arecapableof producingperfeclyexposed
iages inall bu heos deandingsiuaions,
so can' seehepoin inaingylifeore
coplicaedhani needs obe. 1hesedays y
digial SLRis se oaperure-prioriyodeand
uli-zoneeeringandgenerallysays ha way.
Cobinedwihhefeedbacprovidedbyhe
caera's previewiageandheiagehisogra,
'vego all needoensure ge perfec exposures
inanyshooingsiuaion. 1hesaeapplies oyou.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
na| mage
f you'reanabsoIutebeginner, start
ohbyshootingat fl11 if youcanto
optimiseimagequaIity, andonIyusea
smaIIer apertureif youneedtoget
moredepth-of-eId. Howeasyis that!
Exposure: Ii4secat fiII (SI00)
TOPTIP
f youwant toshoot
great landscapes ingood
light, without conpronising
inage quality, nount your
canera ona tripodsoyou
don't have toworry about
slowshutter speeds
causing canera shake
5harpness
|urry vewnder
henusingthehyperfocal distance
nethod, you'll noticethat the
viewnder inagelooks unsharp
whenyou'vefocusedathirdof the
way intothefrane. 1his is because
your lens is always set tothewidest
aperturetoprovideabright
viewnder inage-depth-of-eld
will benininal. Usethedepth-of-eldpreviewbuttonor takeashot at
your chosenapertureandyou'll seethat theinagereally has far nore
depth-of-eld, becausethelens has closeddownfor theexposure.

5OFTKGPOUN
FocusingonthecobbIes
ket theforeground
sharbut thebuiIdings in
thedistancearesoft.
Innityfocus
5OFTFOPGPOUN
Focusingoninnity,
as manybeginners do,
gives asoft-Iooking
foreground.
TKINGTH5HOT5: HeIensets uatriod, essentiaI for reventingbIurredshots
causedbyshake, thenuses LiveViewtocheckthedeth-of-eIdof theshot onher
Lmonitor whiIeseIectingtheaerture. fter takingtheshot, shecanthencheck
theimage's sharness ontheLmonitor bymagnifyingarts of theframe.
1HLNRMLPRC1CLfor beginners shootinglandscapes is toplacetheir
DSLRonatripod, focus oninnity andset avery snall aperturetogive
enoughdepth-of-eldtokeepnost or all of thesceneinfocus. t's a
tried-and-testednethodthat works well, but canbeinproveduponby
ne-tuningfocusingtechniqueandthechoiceof aperture.
Lookingat focusingrst, whenyoufocus on'innity' -ieonthedistance
-thedepth-of-eldwill extendathirdof theway infront of thefocusing
point andtwothirds behind. Sowhilepart of theforegroundis sharp, the
areaclosest toyounay well beout of focus. lso, you'll havewasted
two-thirds of theavailabledepth-of-eld, whichstretches beyondinnity.
nstead, by focusingpart of theway intothefrane, youcannaxinise
depth-of-eldsothat it covers theforegroundandthedistance.
1heoptinundistanceat whichyoushouldfocus is ternedthehyperfocal
distanceandtherearevarious elaborateways of calculatingit. 1hesinplest
nethodfor focusingbyfar (andonethat works 99of thetine) is tofocus
one-thirdof thewayintothescene. Bydoingthis, andsettingasnall
aperture, you'reensuringthat thedepth-of-eldinfront of thefocusing
point covers nost, if not all, of theforeground, whiletheareabehindis kept
sharpbytheother two-thirds of thedepth-of-eld. f youwant tobeas
precisewithyour focusingas possible, usethetableontheprevious page.
Withthefocusingtechniquetakencareof, we'll noveontoyour choice
of aperture. Whilesettingthesnallest aperture(egfi32) gives thenost
depth-of-eld, it doesn't necessarily givethesharpest results. 1hat's dueto
twonainreasons. nost lenses areoptically designedtogivethesharpest
results at apertures of aroundfi8tofiI3, whileat snaller apertures the
ehects of dihractionsoftentheinage, negatingany benets providedby
depth-of-eld. 1heoptinunaperturevaries fronlens tolens, sotheonly
way todiscover for yourself is throughtrial anderror, shootingat diherent
apertures andconparingthesharpness onyour LCDnonitor or ideally at
honeonyour conputer, whereyoucannagnify inages for closescrutiny.
or thesharpest results, usinghyperfocal distanceas explainedonthe
previous pages is best. But this process canbetine-consuningand, for
nost, ny techniqueis ideal. 1heseinages wereshot usingadoninant
foregroundtoenphasisetheehect of changingthefocusingdistance.
1heaperturewas fiI3for all threeinages.
Focusathrdof theway
nforsharpresu|ts!
Lnsuredepth-of-eldandsharpness withthis verysinple
andehectivetechnique, says HelenDixon
1HCNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

YPRALUS
singathirdof the
wayintothesceneand
usingfiI3ensured
naxinunsharpness.
BLS1ML1HD

cusingathirdof the
wayintothesceneand
usingfl13ensured
maximumsharpness.
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
N5P
LTN
LGHHsssta rt tat
aows us toratapotorapa.
But t atao ay ors t a
aror sot stroor wa waror o
aavaratoas aproout
ot oy otooaaratr o t
asap ut tsuss o vry
potorapwta. o ay a
watr otos arttwoaators
tat at tquaty o ayt. row
sasoa varatos ayouavsy
ss prutatos tat aroo
uttotxt. s aota
ssaaurs. Wts aro
topa ayt s tost aazt
sourtrs. But wyouraw out o
to tt rvtr
ours arss toraaoatoor
surs oy torty t ou
a rzzwyouay t tr t a
asotost rustrat.

Payour soot puts tos o


suss your avour as asr tavr
tsays tas tottrt. oua
twatr orast or txt w
ays stassursasust ts or
ay ay or oatotwor or
tts you'ratotoast.
ororatoyouatr ora
tory youartotrt
paat trt ttotaavatao
atastt. ts o't o
aortopa youay upta
potos tat arttr tayouaop
or tat's ausuxptas
twatr otprousptauar
otos tat a't paor, ay
o oato youataavatao
t. t's ot owtou tat top
asappotoraprs prouaaz
as oaruar ass t's owto
out t astt.
aty awss toaapt to
uorsotos w asopyouto
atost o t ausrt
ors o atura t sut rt suts.
at t o aovrast ay ay ot sut
raw-avws or xap ut t's
a or soottas tasap.
otr optos tosoot wtttto
o ovrtas toa owhite. in
whichcase, thequality of light isn't so
inportant. oucanalsousephotographic
techniques. Nonatter howdrabthe
weather is, if you'reonthecoast youcan
produceanazinginages usingaten-stop
Nlter torecordnotionintheseaand
contrast it withstaticelenents, suchas
rocks, groynes andjetties.
aylight is thenost accessibleandversatilelight sourceavailableto
photographers. Weexploreitsnanyforns, lookatthefactorsthatchange
it andtell youhowtonakethenost of it for successful landscapes
heright direction
hedirectionfronwhichlight strikes your
subject cannakea bigdiherencetothe
noodandinpact of your inages. rontal
light, wherethesunis toyour back, nakes
theworldlook lovely but, photographically,
it's not very ehectivebecauseshadows fall
away fronthecanera, nakingthe
landscapelook rather fat. Just after sunrise,
or just beforesunset, whenthesunis lowin
thesky andbathes thelandscapeingolden
light, that lack of depthcanbeforgiven
becausethelight is fantastic, thoughyou
nay ndthat youstruggletokeepyour own
shadowout of theconpositionl
ide-lighting, withthesunat roughly 90
tothecanera, works better becauseyou
canincorporateshadows, nakingthenan
Lghtng
ssenta| f|ters
NDgrad: heNeutral ensity (N)
gradlets youbalancethesky withthe
foregroundsothewholesceneis
perfectly exposed. Without a grad, you'll
endupwitha well-exposedsky and
underexposedforeground, or well-
exposedforegroundandblown-out sky.
his is especially trueat dawnor dusk,
whenthecontrast betweensky andland
is at its highest. ou'll needa 0.9density
(three-stop) Ngrad, whilea 0.6
(two-stop) is nefor theday.
PoIariser: hesecondlter is the
polariser, insunny conditions it can
nakea nassivediherencetoyour
landscapes, deepeningbluesky, cutting
throughglare, elininatingrefections
andboostingbothcolours andcontrast.
t's alsobrilliant for autunnal foliage
colour, evenondull days.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
fantastc!
et great resuIts onthe
cIoudiest of days if youknow
howtoworkthosebrief gIimpses
of Iight toyour best advantage.
part of theconpositiontoreveal
textureanddetail, andadddepth. gain, this
is nost pronouncedwhenthesunis low, as
shadows arevery longandweak. nother
optionis toshoot intothelight, a technique
knownas contre-jour. Sunriseandsunset
shots aretakeninthis way becausethenost
colourful area of thesky is generally where
thesun's about toriseor thenonents after.
Youcanalsoproducestunningshots when
thesunis higher, but youneedtochoose
theright kindof scene. oastal views or
scenes containingwater suit contre-jour
photography. Winter scenes arealsoideal as
sunlight refects ohthesnow, iceandfrost.
Mist andfogwork well, too, as thelight
burningthroughcancreateinages that are
incredibly atnospheric.
Ultinately, natural daylight is a lawunto
itself andnonatter howhardyoutry, you'll
never beabletocontrol it. Youcannaster it,
though, throughplanning, patience,
practiceandperseverance, andonceyou
naster light, younaster photography.
Lghtng

L
L

L
S
.
L
L
L

S
1
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
of day
irst light usually appears
30-40ninutes beforesunrise. deally, arrive
anhour beforesun-uptonda viewpoint,
set upyour gear andstart shootingas soon
as colour appears. ny light onthelandscape
is refectedfronthesky, soit's soft and
shadowless, andtends tohavea strong,
cool cast. 1his contrasts well withthewarn
glowover theeasternhorizon.
Water, wet sandandwet rocks pick upthe
colour inthesky, sopredawnis great to
shoot coastal or lakeviews. deally, therewill
besonebrokencloudaddingcolour tothe
sky, but clear nornings canalsobehighly
productive. Light levels arelow, soexpect
longexposures. 1hecontrast betweenthe
sky andlandis highduetothelack of direct
light, sousea 0.9Ngraduatetoretaindetail
andcolour inthesky.
LYIGncethesunis up, you
haveninutes tocapturethelight at its peak
quality beforeit loses warnth. uringthe
sunner, daylight is neutral incolour twohours
after sunriseandits colour tenperature
renains constant for about I2hours. uring
springandautunn, any warnthinthelight will
havegoneby 8anandthecolour tenperature
renains steady until 4pn. nwinter, however,
thecolour tenperaturehardly ever reaches
5500, evenat nidday, becausetheangle
betweenthesunandearthis shallowall day.
1herst twohours after sunrisearethebest
for landscapephotography as theintensity of
thelight is reasonably low, andlongshadows
adddepthandnodelling. polariser is also
ehectivewhenthesunis lowinthesky andat
90 tothecanera.
UIEBy thetinethesunpeeps over
thehorizon, any colour inthesky nay have
gone. nclear nornings, thesunwill be
dazzlingonceit rises, but you'll beableto
shoot intoit for a fewninutes as thesea and
wet sandrefects thelight tokeepcontrast
nanageable. eatures suchas piers, castles
andlighthouses canalsobecapturedin
silhouette. nland, contrast will betoohigh
oncethesunrises intoa clear sky. t this
point, turnandcapturethegoldenlight on
thelandscape. deally, let thesunside-light
thescenesoyoucanincludelong, raking
shadows toadddepthandreveal texture.
1helight is warnat sunrisebecausethe
rays pass throughtheatnosphereat a
shallowangleandthelight is scattered, with
nany of thewavelengths at theblueendof
thespectrunlteredout.
HEIDDLEHUncethesunhas
beenupfor twohours, thequalityof thelight
inclear, sunnyweather begins totail oh. 1he
higher thesunclinbs, thenoreharshand
intensethelight andtheshorter anddenser
theshadows. By9aninsunner, thesunis at
its 'zenith' -its highest point -andstays
thereuntil at least 4pn. 1helandscapelooks
fat, contrast is highandthelight isn't
attractive. 1heurbanlandscapeis better
suitedtostronglight. shoot nodern
architecture, usingapolariser todeepenthe
sky, andlookfor abstracts andcolourful
details. nthecountryside, capturetrees
against theskyfronalowangleandlookfor
refections inwater. nfraredphotography
works inharshlight, especiallyinspringand
sunner whenthere's lushfoliagearound.
LEFEncethesunbegins
its slowdescent andthelight begins to
warnup, its intensity is reduced, and
shadows beconelonger andweaker. Shape
andcharacter returntothelandscape, and
thelonger youwait, thebetter it gets. nthe
norning, thelight falls onacoldearth, but in
theafternoon, theearthis warnsoshadows
appear neutral, not cool. 1heatnosphereis
alsodenser intheafternoon, solight can
appear redder thanit didat thestart of the
day. 1hehour beforesunset is oftenreferred
toas 'thegoldenhour' duetotherichness of
thelight. Longshadows reveal textureand
nodellingtogiveyour pictures depth, and
becausethesunis sinkingandnot rising, it's
easier topredict howthelight is goingso
youcanchooseasuitablelocation.
ronthenonent rst light appears tothetinewhendarkness takes
over, thequalityof light undergoes anyriadof anazingchanges and
nakes ahugediherencetoyour photographs
Lghtng
enasunset seens likely, get to
your location45ninutes beforesoyoucan
choosethebest viewpoint, get set upandtake
avariety of pictures as thesundips. Capture
thelandscapebathedingoldenlight. f the
scenery is relatively fat, thelight will perforn
its nagicliterally until thenonent thesun
sets, whereas inhilly regions, younay losethe
sunhalf anhour before. Shootingintothesun
will recordanythingbetweenthesunandthe
canerainsilhouette. agoodtechniquewhen
shootingwater becausethesun's glowand
colour inthesky will berefected, creatinga
backdroptosilhouettes of boats, islands, piers
andsoon. f fareis aproblen, hidethesun
behindsonethinginthesceneor wait for it to
set. f youwant torecorddetail inthe
foreground, usea0.9NDgrad.
ILIGHTncethesunnally
disappears belowthehorizon, light levels
quicklyfadeandthelight onthelandscapeis
againrefectedfronthesky. f you'relucky,
therewill beavividafterglowinthesky
createdbythesunas it under-lights the
clouds abovethehorizon, but eventhis will
fadequickly. You'll ndthat colours are
nuted, thelight is soft, shadows fadeandlight
levels fall away. Headtothewater's edge
wherethepastel colours left intheskylook
stunningrefectedinlakes andrivers. r use
thosecolours as abackgroundtosilhouettes.
Longexposures recordnovenent. the
swayingof trees inthebreeze, thenovenent
of clouds across thesky, thenotionof thesea
or water fowinginrivers andstreans. eep
shootinguntil thosecolours fade.
MOONLIGHT1henooncanbealovely
natural sourceof light. Winter scenes work
well becausesnowandfrost refect the
noonlight. Coastal views alsowork if you
capturetheshinneringsilver ribbonof light
fronthenoononthesea. By increasing
exposure, youcancreatesurreal shots that
looklikethey'vebeentakenindaylight. 1hey'll
look nornal, but thelight will haveastrange
quality. Youcaneventry recordingstar trails
inthesky createdby therotationof theearth
whilethecanera's shutter is open. bviously,
exposures will belonginlowlight, sousea
tripod, andkeeptheSlow-400or less -
for highinagequality. Whatever youshoot,
unless thenoonis obscuredby cloud, you
shouldkeepit out of franetoavoidit
recordingas anoverexposedwhitesnudgel

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rythng's rosy
ThecoIours andtextures in
theskycanbespectacuIar,
especiaIIyif youpickthe
moment as thesunrises above
or faIIs beIowthehorizon.

NGCPLLf u beforesunrise, which
is oftenintheniddleof thenight, is not nost
people's idea of fun. But if you'repreparedtonake
theehort, youwill reaptherewards. Planningis
essential. Check theweather forecast andthe
sunrisetines ontheinternet. ndcheck thetide
tines if youaretravellingtothesea -a lowtideis
usually thebest tinetovisit. f thelight fails to
naterialise, youcanalways dobeachclose-ups.
try tobeonlocationat least half anhour before
thesunrises -if not earlier -becauseit's often
beforethesunappears that thereal nagic
happens. 1his alsogives netinetoset upthe
canera andtondthebest viewpoint. Don't just
look for clear days, it's better tohavecloudaround
as this creates wonderful colours inthesky as the
cloudrefects thelight of thesun. 1ry topre-visit
andresearchyour locationbeforetheday of the
shoot. userdnanceSurvey naps for detailed
infornationonrights of way andparking. Look for
appealingplaces wheretherewill beopportunities
for shots that includeforegroundinterest.
Mist nainly develops duringa coldnight andit
only lingers for a short tineduringthenorningor
until theheat of thesunburns it away. Sonething
tobear innindis that, duringnisty conditions,
your canera's neteringsystenwill often
underexposethescene, resultingina dull, lifeless
landscape. 1oconpensate, alter theexposureby
+Ii2or +I stop. Check thehistogranonthe
canera's LCDnonitor for overexposure.
1heuseof Neutral Density graduatelters is
pretty nuchstandardinlandscapephotography.
1hey helptocontrol thebrightest part of the
inage, whichis usually thesky. Larly intheday,
thereis a noticeablediherencebetweenthelight in
thesky andthelight ontheland.
Beawareof lens fareif thesunis includedinthe
frane. 1ohelpelininatethis, nakesurethat your
lters andlens optics arespotlessly clean. rarely
useawarn-uplter as theselters nornally nake
any greenfoliageappear ayellow-browncolour.
nstead set ny canera's WhiteBalancetoCloudy
or Shadetohelpwarnupthescene. 1ry toavoid
usingtheutoWhiteBalance(WB) settingas you
aresuretocool downthelight, unless, of course,
this is theehect youwant. 1hereareanunber of
reasons why personally prefer dawnlight over
sunset. liketocaptureatnosphereinny shots if
can, andearly norningis thebest tinetodothis as
youarenorelikely tohaveanisty or frosty start to
theday. 1helight is oftendihusedandsofter at this
tine, but it's alsonoreof achallengetoincludethe
suninthepicture, too, duringthenorningthanin
theevening, becauseat sunset thepollutionlevels
haverisenthroughout theday, whichhelps
todihusethebrightness slightly. nother great
advantageof early norningis that it's sopeaceful,
rarely seeanother soul. 1heworldbelongs tone
-it's sosatisfyingtowatchtheday unfoldand
witness thenagical light of dawn.
ncethesunhas risenandbeconetoostrong
tophotograph, turntothesideor put your back to
thesun, beingcareful not tocast a shadowinthe
foreground. Nowstart usingthewarnlight that's
illuninatingtheland. Light is never staticbut
continually changes -it's thenainingredient that
allows us tocreatesonethingbeautiful.
Get upear|for 'magchour' |ghtng
5hnng through
wit or thsuntorisbovethe
horizon-I usedthesmaII cIumpof
trees toheIpdihusethesunIight.
Exposure: 0.5seconds at fi22(SI00)
Dawnis thebest tineof dayfor takingbeautiful, atnosphericshots, says landscapeexpert HelenDixon
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Mirror Iock-up
Many digital SLRs have a
facility that allows the
nirror tobe raisedprior to
the exposure, tonininise
shake whenthe shutter is
red. You'll nost likely nd
this is activatedvia a
Custonunction
Ktwatch!
HeIen's magic-hour kit
Whenconsideringwhat
equipnent youwill need,
a necessity is a sturdy
tripod, as at this tineof
theday you'reworking
withlongexposures.
usea ManfrottoM4
carbon-brewith
322RC2head-it's
a lightweight but
stablesupport and
canhangny bag
fronthecentrepost
for extra stability on
really windy days.
always usea renote
releasebut if youdon't
haveone, usethe
self-tiner tostopany
vibrations anduse
nirror lock-upif your
DSLRhas this facility.
ndny ultra
wide-anglezoonand
ny /0-200nntelezoon
particularly useful. 1hese
cover nost of ny requirenents.
usethewide-anglezoonwhen
shootingforegroundelenents. nd
thetelephotozoonis especially good
for conpressingperspectiveand
creatinglayers onnisty nornings.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
L
5a aa
LHGHpoltotklnp
potop t not tn o t y tto
tn nnot lnp tlt ll
vtt ult tt nlt ou o t
y. Wt nk ttn o ypl tt
tlount lono nlp topk
out t tu o tlnp. youout
pno potunt younlo
ptul k tlou lt onlo.
lt utnl t ttn o y n
you pnotnpn onton
o lt ut you ut. o xnpl tout
ot nnt look t t t no t y
t tnt ttt. Hvntt tlt n
tnl ou o t y tn ton n
tunt tlnp otntn
olnlo. lo lt not ot tntn
out unt onptoun tt youont
vtooyoul out o t ulou
ou tonktnot o t. Lt ont not
vyon tllpo n ntuno
un HlnDxon(oppot)
lnot nytypo lnplook oont
nou ut on tu llynt lk
tonuln o okyl. Wntloun
n vytnupnpk out ttxtuo
oknton n tt nt lookull t ny
ot tno ynltout o tony.
Wt lonxllnt ut t t tn
u youvnnttnky youn
oultnpt yunfton. Movn
t npkllk non o ntolu
unlonxpou. n tnount ntyp
o lt llnont tnn tult.
tono tlt nvton
nfunontnoonu o ptu
tknt tnnno no t y. ont
ltn o ntn nlookft t tono
to ont lptopkout t tl o
tlnp. Wttuntoon ov
o lptot ptntptun
vl onntxtu. ltn t you
nt toupol totutolou too t
ll vt tont t tn 90to
tun. Bkltnnvynt ll
ut xpou ult toontol nyoull v
toul tovoln f lt ll tly
ontoyou lt o t ont lnnt o you ln.
Wtll t toon ntt
notooulyunptl onyoutll t
nou ll lvuptoyou xptton
Looknt t ot oo
.nto.ov.uk llnyount
tl ot o pon. nn
tt tlon tno t ot tl
llt ll . Cknt ot tnt
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youvtoyou loton ltntolol o
tton nt t tnntonl on n
kpnyont ppnnntky. o
unt youll ntolooktott t
tunll t nou. Mot o ou
t ont on ontt too oy
kpnnyntt ton t polto
lou lklytokupo tkn. Bno
n ton tpont o tonp n
t pttn ll lpnonoulynyoull
tt toontn o nnonnt.
G c


NDgrad, angIedsoas not tocut
intothecIih, heIps retaindetaiIs inthesky.
Exposure: i5t i(00)
ot nou t unt ppnyoull vl MkBu
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TOPTIP
WhiteaIance
Wt Bln yout
no t ont
nl ult. voun t
WBttn. youoot n
younty out ll t
ttn lt onyou
onput noo
you vout
Kac
Mark's magic-hour kit
Wnlln tnot
popul o lnpok ut lon
ln nlouul o pkn
out tkno pttn ntxtu
tt tnou vl.
polnlt ll lpyounk
tnot o ltny npovn
ovll tuton ut plly
tvnutluk.
tuy tpo not ntl.
youootnntpo
t unt lt lvl ll lo
nnolnll out o t
uton. But t oopttou
tpotv tltnonton
t ll loyouon t nk you
tnk nt nl youtonknll
ut otnvtl n toonpoton.
Nutl Dnty utlt
lonpotnt plly lou
lt onlont no
t lt ontln. ND lp
ontol ontt.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
htheweather
1LRL' UCthigas badeather,
oy iappropriatecothig, sosaid
coediaBiy Cooy, adheas right f
thesuis't shiigadthesky is't bue,
etedtorefer totheeather as bad', but
photographicay, bad' cabegood
becauseit gives us variatios itheuaity of
ight toork ith, adds draa adcreates
atosphere o-caedgood' eather is
actuay ot sogoodfor photography
becausetheight is badadtheadscape
ooks picture-postcardperfect, hichgets
borigafter a hie
Couds havea draaticehect othe
uaity of dayight becausethey softead
spreadit soitesity is reduced, cotrast
fas adshados becoeeaker Couds
asoadditerest tothesky, adthesky ca
akeor break a great adscape
Days hethesky is a baket of
ootoous grey coudareprobaby the
east excitigfor adscapephotography as
coours appear du aduted, ada ack of
shados eas sceery teds toook fat
aduivitig oever, overcast ight is
idea for capturigdetais itheadscape.
thepatters adtextures irocks, the
soothshapes adsoft coours isea-
orbouders adpebbes, therichcoours
of autua foiageor baks of sprig
foers trogcoours ook itesei
dihuseight becausethere's ogareto
diutesaturatio Du days areasoidea for
soshutter speedshots of aterfas -just
keeptheborigsky out of theshot ad
you' get soegreat resuts
Whitecouds itheir ay shapes ad
fors arehighy photogeicagaist bue
sky, adyouca akethestadout eve
oreby usiga poariser todeepethe
bue eepthesutoyour sidefor the
strogest ehect Watchout for coud
patters otheadscape, too-they ca
addaextra eeet that akes a good
sceegreat, adareeasiest tospot if you're
shootigfroaeevatedviepoit
tory eather creates theost
draaticcoditios for adscape
photography -agry, dark couds rushig
across thesky, strogids boigad
oetary breaks that aorays of
suight tofoodthroughadiuiatethe
sceebeo Youca't pafor such
coditios, but if youvetureoutdoors i
story eather, there's aays thechace
that you' beitheright pacetocapture
the dit i bea bessigif youdo
f thesudoes break throughduriga
stor, theadscapeeds upbrighter tha
thesky, hichis a reversa of theor
What this eas ipracticeis that youca
get aay ithout usigaDgradas the
sky o't overexpose oever, it's sti
orthusiga Dgradtoakethesky
ook eve oredraaticthait reay is
oethigesetoatchout for istory
eather is a raiboarchigacross thesky
Raibos arecreatedhethesushies
throughfaigrai, soif that happes hie
you'reout, turyour back tothesuad
check thesky ahead 1orevea thecoours
of theboat their best, try tocatchit
agaist dark couds adusea teeooto
hoeiopart of thebo terativey,
usea ide-ageooadicudethe
hoebo
ist adfogreducetheadscapetosoft
shapes adhay outies 1hreediesios
becoetoadaeria perspectiveeas
that toes becoebrighter ithdistace
1height is dihuse, shados do't exist ad
edetai is ost cees aresipiedad
your iages shoudrefect that
1eephotoeses ephasisetheehects of
ist adfogbyagifyigthesceead
copressigperspective, sothey'regreat for
shootigtheoverappigfors of his ad
outais, or pickigout eeets ikea
sigetreeor churchspirefadigitothe
goo f youat toreegateist or fogto
thedistace, theuseaide-agees -
visibiitycosetothecaerai beuch
better thafarther aay, soyoucacapture
petyof foregrouddetai adet therest of
eIowIet Far romruininteimae cIous
canaaIIimportant interest tocoastaI views
eIowrit impIescenes suit amistyoutIook
anareivenanetereaI twist
Pight: Pays of Iight shiningthroughstormcIouds
canhaveareaIIydramaticehect.
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Chages ieather haveaevegreater ifueceotheuaity
of ight thathetieof day, soif youat totakestuigshots
everytie, youeedtobepreparedtotakeotheeeets
thesceefadeaay Desefogis heavyad
dap t suhs out coour adturs theord
togrey, soyouaydecidetocovert your
foggyadscapes tobackowhite. Mist is
noredelicate, soinsteadof destroyingcolour,
it tends tonergeall colours together to
createverysoft hues. Mist is alsoneenough
tolet thelight through, soshoot contre-jour
at sunrise, whenyou'renorelikelytondnist
inwoodlandor over water, andcapture
goldenrays of light bleedingthrough. Such
conditions aren't all that connon, but the
qualityof light whenyouget nist andsunrise
coincidingis hardtobeat.
Lghtng
5unny Mist
heck the web
f you'replanninga landscapeshoot,
whether it's toheadout early inthe
norningfor sunriseor togoohintothe
wilds for a week, usetheinternet to
gather infornationthat will helpyou
nakethenost of thelight. Hereare
sonewebsites worthbooknarkingfor
futurereference.
Weather forecast
www.netohce.gov.uk
www.bbc.co.ukiweather
www.xcweather.co.uk
www.netcheck.con
5unrisesunset times
www.tineanddate.coniastrononyi
Tidetimes
www.tidetines.org.uki
http.iieasytide.ukho.gov.uk
PIanningyour shoot
noresophisticatedtool is the
Photographer's Lpheneris (www.
photoepheneris.con). 1his is availableas
afreedownloadfor MacandPC(plus as a
paid-for appfor theiPhone) andallows
youtodeterninesunriseandsunset
tines for anywhereintheworld, anyday
of theyear, as well as theangleof the
sunriseisunset soyoucancheckif the
sun's orbwill beblockedbyhills, say.
Moonriseandset tines arealsoprovided.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
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onditions CoIour temp(K) CoIour cast
(DayIight W)
a bl 0000 bl
a at cl /500 Blue
vercast weather 6000 Slightly cool
veragenoondaylight 5500 None
Morningieveningsunlight 3500 Warn
Sunriseisunset 2000 very warn
ghtng
5tormyskies
xpose correct|y
CoIour temperatureandWhiteaIance
1hecolour of light is referredtoas colour tenperature, whichis neasured
inelvin(). 1hewarner thelight is, thelower its colour tenperature, and
thecooler thelight is, thehigher its tenperature.
ur eyes adapt tochanges inthecolour tenperatureautonatically, so
natural light always looks noreor less white-this is knownas chronatic
adaptation. 1hephotographicequivalent is your canera's utoWhite
Balance(WB) setting. f youuseWB, youwill ndthat it produces pleasing
results innost daylight situations, but theWhiteBalancedoes fuctuateso
younaynot recordthecolour of thelight as it reallyis. f youwant todo
that, youshouldset WhiteBalancetotheaylight preset, whichis 5500.
1his is thecolour tenperatureof 'neannoondaylight', soinnornal
daylight situations, your inages will coneout lookingneutral. owever, at
sunriseandsunset thelight is nuchwarner (lower colour tenperature), so
byusingtheaylight WhiteBalancepreset, your canerawill recordthat
warnth. Sinilarly, if thelight is cool, as is oftenthecaseduringpredawnor
inbadweather, usingtheaylight preset will recordthat coolness.
Renenber, also, that if youshoot inRaw, youcanadjust thecolour
tenperatureof theinagelater. Soif youdon't likethecool cast, you
sinply get ridof it, or if a warninageisn't warnenough, youcanadjust
thecolour tenperaturetonakeit warner.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

P



fully short, withthesunrisingwell
after 8anandsettingbefore4pninJanuary.
Photographically, however, winter is a
fantasticseason. 1herearefewsights nore
nagnicent thanalandscapecoveredin
freshly fallensnowandbathedincrisp
norningsunlight. But evenif you'renot
lucky enoughtoget that, iceandfrost area
certainty at sonepoint as tenperatures
dropwell belowfreezing.
1heshort days areabenet, too, because
youcanshoot sunriseandsunset at civilised
tines. Plus thesunnever clinbs nore
thanabout 2 abovethehorizon, sothe
quality of light renains highfrondawnto
dusk, withlong, weak shadows addingdepth
-onaclear winter's day youcanget eight
hours of goodlight.
eepaclosewatchontheweather
forecast andif aclear night is predicted,
preparefor anearly start thenext day
becausethat usually neans iceandfrost
conethenorning-and, if you'relucky,
freezingnist for thesuntoslowly burnaway.
ncrediblepictures areguaranteed.
Woodlandandwater locations areyour best
bet. s well as shootingwide-angleviews,
look for winter details. cobwebs coveredin
icy beads, thepatterns iniceover ponds and
puddles, frosty leaves ontheground, andso
on. awnonafreezingnorningcanbe
nagical, withthesky full of pastel colours
andthesunrisinglikeagiant orangeball. ts
intensity is oftenreducedby nist or haze, so
youcanincludeit inyour shots without any
risk of fare. Usealonglens tonakeit nice
andbiginyour shots.
Snowis best photographedwhenit has
just fallensoit's pristineandfresh, andideally
insunny weather -aglisteningsnowy
landscapeunder abluesky is hardtobeat.
ndyouneedn't headtonagnicent
countrysidetotakegreat snowshots -avisit
toyour local park canbejust as productiveif
youconcentrateonsinplescenes, likea
singletreestandingintheniddleof a
snow-lledeld.
lthoughseasonal changes havenoreof aphysical ehect onthelandscape, thequalityof daylight also
varies throughout theyear. ere's our guideonhowtohandlelandscapes indiherent seasons.

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Wnter O8
What shouIdI consider when
shootingsnowscenes?
xposurel ll that whiteness inthe
sceneis likely tofool your canera's
neteringsystenintounderexposure, so
takea shot thencheck thepreviewinage
andthehistogran. Youwill alnost
certainly needtodial inextra exposure
usingtheexposureconpensationfacility
-dothat inIi3-stopincrenents until the
highlight warnings onyour previewinage
start tofashtoindicatetheinageis
overexposed. eletethat shot -the
onebeforeit shouldbeperfect.
Is it okaytouseapoIarisingIter
duringwinter?
enitely, but carefully. Bluesky is
bluer inwinter andbecausenoreof it is
polarised, theehect of a polarisinglter is
noreobvious thanat any other tineof
theyear. nextrenecases, thesky cango
alnost black if youfully polarise, soyou
nay needtowindback theehect a little.
WiII mycameraworkokayin
freezingwinter weather?
Yes, but batteries drainfaster sonake
sureyours is fully chargedandideally
carry a spare. lso, avoidbreathingon
your lens or any lters you'reusingas
they will nist upandtakeages toclear.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
NG
s seasonnarks thedawnof newlifeas
thelandscapeawakens fronthedornant
nonths of winter. Barrentrees burst with
buds andblosson, woodlandfoors,
hedgerows andriverbanks arecarpetedwith
colourful wildfowers, whiledesolateelds
turnintobeautiful patchwork quilts of green.
cenes that lookedgrey anddrabduring
winter aretransfornedwithinafewshort
weeks -especially if theweather turns andis
nildtowards theendof winter. pringis also
tinefor tulips, dahodils, buttercups and
bluebells, turninggardens andneadows
intodazzlingdisplays of colour.
heweather duringspringis changeable
andunpredictable-but this has its
advantages for thephotographer. Brief
showers cleansetheatnosphereandcreate
rainbows archingacross thecountryside,
shafts of sunlight burst throughstorny skies
toilluninatethelandscapebelow, andlight
nists hangover rivers andlakes or invalley
bottons at dawn.
s theweeks pass, thedays alsogrow
longer. hesunrises at around6anduring
theearly days of springandsets at 8pn, but
by nid-June, sunrisecanbeas early as
4.I5anandsunset after I0.30pninthe
northof cotland. onakethenost of
springconditions, riseearly andstay out late.
awnonaperfect springnorningis hardto
beat, withachorus of birdsongperneating
thecool air andtherst rays of sunlight
slowly burningaway thenist. he
opportunity for anazinginages is onethat
shouldn't benissed, andnothingquitebeats
that feelingof gettingintouchwithnature.
heintensity of colour inthespring
landscapecanbeinprovedby usinga
polarisinglter tocut throughatnospheric
hazeandglareonthefoliage. f youwant to
capturecarpets of springfowers, ideally wait
for abright but overcast day whencontrast is
lowandshadows weak. his nakes it easier
torecordthedelicatecolours andne
details of thebloons, especially whentaking
pictures inwoodlandwherethelight is
patchy duringsunny spells.

HowdoI shoot springmist?


Mist oftenoccurs whena nildday with
rainis followedby a clear night andcold
tenperatures. f that's predictedinthe
weather forecast, set your alarnearly and
headout beforesunrise. Mist is connon
near water andwetlands, andin
woodland. et toa decent locationready
for sunrise. if you'relucky, thelight fron
therisingsunwill burst throughthenist,
creatingwarnrays of light that radiate
fronbehindtrees andbuildings. straight
exposureshouldcapturethis ehect
perfectly, but, if necessary, increasethe
exposureinincrenents uptoonestop.
What's thebest shutter speedtouse
whenshootingwaterfaIIs?
shutter speedaroundonesecondis
usually slowenoughtoblur thewater, but
alsorecordsonetexture-thoughyou
canexperinent withslower speeds. What
youdon't want todois overexposethe
water soit cones out white.
HowdoI get backIit shots of owers?
Youneedtoshoot whenthesunis low
inthesky, soduringearly norningor late
afternoon, norningis oftennore
atnospheric. et downlow, usea
telezoontoisolatea groupof fowers and
try tocapturethenagainst a dark
backgroundsothecolours glow.
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
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hil ncetherainsubsides, crisp, clean
light will oftenbathethelandscapeand
rainbows canappear.
1helight is at its best at theextreneof the
day, soget toyour locationvery early or be
preparedtostay out late. 1hedays doget
shorter as sunner progresses, but 3an
starts andIIpnnishes arenot unconnon.
Youcanalways graba sleepintheafternoon
whenthelight's nogoodl
Wildlandscapes canstill look dranatic
duringthesunner, andby early Septenber
start toturnquiteautunnal, soscout out the
locations nearest youthat will befull of
colour. Rocky, barrencoastlinealso
changes littleduringthesunner andcan
bethesourceof great shots -especially at
dawnanddusk whenthelight is warn.
Lghtng
H
L
L
L
N
D
X

N
5ummer O8
anI doanythingabout hazyskies
Not really. Hazy skies andovercast grey
skies lack textureor drana -they'rejust a
blanket, boringtone. UsinganNDgrad
nerely darkens that tone, but rarely
nakes it noreinteresting. Lxcludethesky
fronyour conpositions, naybeusea
telezoontoshoot selectivelandscapes or
concentrateonsnaller details.
Is thesummer agoodtimetousemy
infraredmodiedcamera?
Denitely. 1here's plenty of foliageto
showtheghostly infraredehect, andit
doesn't natter howharshthelight is
becauseinfraredphotography suits it. Use
your Rcanera inparks, gardens and
woodland, as well as thecountryside. or
thosewithout anR-nodiedcanera, try
usinganinfraredlter liketheHoya R/2.
Mysummer Iandscapes oftenhavean
unsightIybIuecast. What causes it?
Highcolour tenperature-ona sunny
blue-sky day, thecolour tenperaturecan
hit I0000. f youuseDaylight White
Balance, set for 5500, your canera will
recordthecoolness inthelight. Setting
WhiteBalancetoShadewill get ridof the
cast -evenutoWhiteBalance(WB)
nay work. r, if youshoot inRaw, youcan
correct thecast duringinageprocessing.

M
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utumnO8
Wat auss oIatoan
oIour nautumn?
Deciduous trees droptheir leaves in
readiness for winter whenthere's toolittle
light for photosynthesis tooccur, andthey
liveohsugar reserves storedthroughthe
sunner. Chlorophyll, whichgives leaves
their greencolour, is necessary for
photosynthesis totakeplace, but as the
days growshorter andthehours of
darkness increase, theproductionof
chlorophyll slows downandthat's when
thecolour changes start tooccur.
utunnal colours reachtheir peak
whenall thechlorophyll has been
destroyedandother chenicals inthe
leaves arerevealed, suchas carotenoids
andanthocyanins.
Canourommnsomtop
autumnIoatons ntUK?
f thecolours aregood, youcantake
great autunnshots literally anywhereyou
nddeciduous foliage, but check out
Westonbirt rboretuninGloucestershire,
GlenhricinScotland, Stourhead
Gardens inWiltshire, 1heNeworest in
Hanpshire, GrasnereandRydal Water
intheLakeDistrict, Gwydyr orest in
NorthWales andielder orest,
Northunberland.
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
|andscapes 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Raw8|andscapes
n't realiseit yet, producing
top-notchinages is easier nowthanat anystageintheentire
historyof photography, thanks todigital technology. Chances are
nanyof youwill haveconeintophotographyduringthedigital
era, inwhichcaseyou'll havelittleor noexperienceof what life
was likepre-pixels. Well takeit fronus -shootingpictures using
digital is awalkintheparkconparedtotakingthenwithln.
Beingabletoseeyour shots seconds after captureis thefast
tracktosuccess becauseyoucanlearnas yougo, correcting
nistakes andnakingchanges sothat youneednever niss agreat
shot. 1his innediacy, andthefact that everypress of thecanera's
shutter buttondoesn't cost noney, alsoencourages youtotake
creativerisks, whichis byfar thebest waytonaster new
techniques andne-tuneyour skills as alandscapephotographer.
f course, trippingtheshutter is just therst stageinthe
creativeprocess as, oncehone, your inages arethen
downloadedtoaconputer whereyoucanturnthosenillions of
coloureddots intoanazingworks of art withtheaidof thelatest
editingsoftware. Successful digital inagingthereforerequires a
conbinationof solidcaneraworkandsynpatheticprocessing.
or nanycreativephotographers, there's onlyonewayto
achieveboth. shootinginRaw. f you'vefavouredJPGuntil now,
andcan't seehowswitchingtoRawwouldbenet you, readonas
weexplainthenanybenets you'll gaingoingRaw.
RW8LN5P5
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
1HLMNDLRLNCLbetweenaRawleand
aJPLGis that whenyoushoot inRawfornat,
theinages recordedonyour canera's nenory
cardconsist of therawdatafronthesensor.
Nothingis added, takenaway or changed. f you
shoot inJPLG, thecanerarecords all theraw
datathendevelops thelein-canera, applying
preset paraneters tohiteBalance, sharpening
andcustoncanerastyles etc, deletingany
unnecessary infornationandthenerasingany
renainingrawdataas well.
nlnterns, aRawleis abit likeanegative,
whereas aJPLGis sinilar toacolour slide. Slides
areconvenient becausetheyconebackfron
theprocessinglabnishedandreadytoview.
1hesanecanbesaidfor JPLGs, whichare
supposedlyreadytoprint straight fronthe
canera. However, this convenienceneans that
youneedtoget everythingright in-canera, so
there's less roonfor error. Negatives arenore
tine-consuningthanslides as youneedto
developthenhowyouseet inthedarkroon,
but arenuchnoreversatilewithnorelatitude
for error. Rawles arethesane. 1heyalways
requireprocessingusingsuitablesoftware
beforethey'reconsiderednished, but this
allows youtonakechanges toenhancethe
inages andcorrect in-caneranistakes.
1hekeyparaneters youcancontrol inRaware.
Colour tenperaturecanbeadjustedtoget rid
of unwantedcasts or tochangethenoodof an
inage. 1his canbedonewithJPLGs in
Photoshop, but not withthesaneprecision.
Lxposurecanbecorrected-or adjustedfor
creativereasons -without conpronising
inagequality. hereas if younakeaJPLG
lighter or darker, inagequalitywill beahected.
Youcanalsooptiniseinagequalityby
overexposingRawles in-caneratojust before
thehighlights beconeblown, as shadowdetail
is increasedandtheehects of noisereduced.
1heexposurecanthenbe'pulledback' while
processingtheRawle. 1his is onlypossible
becausetheRawlecontains noredatathan
youneed, whereas aJPLGis already
conpressed, soresidual datahas beendeleted.
f youdoaccidentallyoverexposeaRawleso
thehighlights 'blowout', youcanrecover detail
duringprocessing. 1his isn't possiblewithJPLGs,
soblownhighlights appear whiteandif youtry
todarkenthentheysinplygogrey.
Sharpeningcanbeappliedusingthe
sharpeningtools inRawleprocessingsoftware
or viathird-partyapplications. JPLGs, however,
arealreadysharpenedsoextraworknust be
donecarefullytoavoidspoilingtheinages.
nychanges younaketoaRawleare
nondestructive, becausewhenit's convertedto,
ideally, a1le, theoriginal Rawinage
renains unchanged. 1his neans youcanreturn
tothesaneRawleinthefuturetoprocess it
again. Rawles alsocontainsonuchdatathey
canbeprocessedseveral tines thenconbined
either toaddress exposureandcontrast
problens, or usedas thebasis for creative
techniques suchas HDR(HighDynanicRange),
whichwe'll showyouhowtodolater.
Ultinately, if optinuninagequalityis what
youwant, your best chanceis toshoot Raw.
Rawles support I6-bits of dataper colour
channel, whereas JPLGs support 8-bits. 1he
diherenceininagequalitywon't beobvious
initially, but heavyeditingreduces qualityand
8-bit les will showthis norereadilythanI6-bit.
Manyphotographers areput ohshootingRaw
as theyassuneit's conplicated. But usingRaw
processingsoftwareis veryintuitive(seepanel)
andanychanges younakecaneasilybe
reversedor cancelled. JPLG, ontheother
hand, whileseenas thenoreconvenient fornat
for beginners, actuallyleaves noreroonfor
nistakes, whichbeginners will surelynake.
hat arethedownsides toshootinginRaw
ell, asidefronspendingnoretineat your
conputer processingles, therearen't nany.
ndif youget as nuchright in-caneraas you
can, aRawlecanbeprocessedinanatter of
seconds. Rawles arearoundfour tines bigger
interns of negabytes thanJPLGs, sotakeup
norestoragespace. However, nenorycards
andexternal harddrives arecheapthesedays, so
if you'vespent afortuneonyour canera, it's
falseecononytochooseaninagefornat
sinplytosaveonstoragespace. Bigger inage
les alsoneanyour canera's buher will ll up
faster if youshoot inRaw. hilethis night prove
frustratingwhenshootingsubjects suchas
sports andwildlife, wherelots of shots aretaken
inquicksuccession, it isn't areal concernfor the
landscapephotographer.

f naxinundetail andcontrol is what youneed, thenshootingin


Rawis theanswer. ecover thebasics youneedtoget started
8|andscapes
Troub|eshootng
Rawprocessngsoftware Rawprocessngsoftware
5hoot8processRaw
I can't openthePawIesfrommynewD5LP?
You'rehavingaproblenopeningRawles onyour newDSLR
becausecanerananufacturers keepchangingRawlefornats as
theylaunchnewcaneras. dobereleases regular upgrades for
dobeCaneraRaw(CR) for newcaneras. Gotowww.adobe.
conandseeif thelatest upgradeincludes your canera.
I processedsomePawIesandsavedthemasTIFFs, but the
IesarereaIIysmaII. What happenedtothemandwhat canI do?
f you'reusingCR, openaRawleandbelowthelenunber for
thepreviewinageyou'll seealineof text. Clickonit anda
orkfowptions windowopens. 1oavoidtheles beingtoo
snall, choosedobeRGB(I998) for Space, I6BitsiChannel for
Depth, 300pixelsiinchfor Resolutionand, for Size, choosethe
closest sizethat natches your canera's naxinunpixel resolution.
Youneedspecial softwaretoprocess
Rawles. henyoubuy a CanonLS
digital SLR, it cones witha CD-RM
containingvarious softwarepackages,
includingCanon's Digital Photo
Professional processingsoftware.
However, thenajority of photographers
prefer tousea third-party Rawprocessor.
By far thenost popular is dobeCanera
Raw, foundinall versions of dobe
PhotoshopfronCS2onwards,
PhotoshopLlenents sinceversion3.0and
all versions of dobeLightroon. pple
perturealsohas its ownRawconverter,
whileCapturenefronPhaseneis
popular withsonephotographers.
SilkyPix is lesser knownbut worthtrying
thefreetrial download.
dobeCameraPaw
www.adobe.coniproductsiphotoshopifanilyi
ppIeperture
www.apple.coniuk
CaptureOne
www.phaseone.coni4i
5iIkyPix
www.isl.co.jpiSLYPienglishi
Settingyour canera toshoot inRawis easy.
sinply select thenageuality settingvia
theLCDnenuscreenandchooseRaw(or
Raw+JPLG). nterns of howyouuseyour
canera andits controls, that renains pretty
nuchthesane. 1heonly diherenceis that
whenshootingRaw, yougivetheinageas
nuchexposureas youcanwithout clipping
or overexposingthehighlights. By doingthis
you'll recordas nuchshadowdetail as
possibleandbetter inagequality as a result.
t does neanthat theinages intheir raw
stateappear overexposed, but this is easily
resolvedduringRawleprocessing, which
you'll nda step-by-steptutorial for later in
this guide. You'll alsonotethat thenunber
of shots youcant onyour carddrops
dranatically, socarry sparesl
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

Iook imgs o
hohphoogph pso
mhiI ihs oo
shooigipIyigp

hoo P
re initially uneasy about
shooting aw, why not set
your canera torecordevery
inage inbothawandJ
1hat way, while youget used
toprocessing awles, you
knowyou've alsogot Js
of the sane inages, for
reassurance

ZoomTooI: Magniy thinag
tosit innortail.
2) andTooI: Navigataroun
thnagniinag.
3) WhiteaIanceTooI: llows
youtoorrt anst a uston
hitBalany likingon
nutral aras inthprviwinag
suhas whit.
4) oIor 5ampIer TooI: llows
youtoslt a olour toajust y
likingonthat ara o thinag.
5) ropTooI: Ustoropinags.
t thtop-lt ornr o thintraarvarioussynols ahwithaustoit your piturs. CShasawnw
aitionstothCSarsnal whihwoutlinlow ut thnaintoolsyou'll usor vryayRawitingarth
Zoon, Hand, RotateandWhiteBalancetools. thers, suchasColor Sanpler, Crop, StraightenandRetouchtools,
workwell, but unlessyou'reeditingsolelyinRaw, arebest left toPhotoshoponcetheRawleisprocessed. Red-eye
renoval ishandyif youneedit, but you'reunlikelytoprocessnanyportraitsshot inRawthat suher fronred-eyel
6) 5traightenTooI: Correct a
wonky horizonor rotate.
7) PetouchTooI: Gets ridof
sensor spots andother
unwantedblenishes.
8) Ped-EyePemovaI TooI. Click
ontheeyetorenovered-eye.
9) Preferences: Click here
toaccess theCanera Raw
Preferences dialoguebox.
10) PotatecountercIockwise
PotatecIockwisetooIs: Rotate
anti-clockwiseor clockwiseby90.

nceyou'vedoneall
your necessary Raw
editing, press snft to
turntheOpenbutton
toOpenObject to
process your Raw
leinPhotoshopas
a Snart bject. 1he
benet of a Snart
bject is that youcan
double-click onthe
layer inPhotoshop
toreopentheRaw
leandcontinueany
Rawedits inCR.
lternatively, hold
downat toturn
theOpenbuttonto
OpenCopy (soyou
don't work onthe
original Rawlein
Photoshop) andthe
Cance buttonto
Reset torevert your
inageback toits
original state.
11) Targeteddjustment TooI:
nsteadof usingthesliders,
dragthis tool ontheinageto
nakeedits (CS5).
12) djustment rush: Usethis
tool tonakelocalisededits to
theinage(CS5).
13) raduatedFiIter: Drawa line
across your inagetorecreatethe
ehect of a Graduatedilter. You
canthenadjust theLxposure,
Brightness, Contrast, Saturation,
Clarity, Sharpness andColor of the
lter tosuit your picture(CS5).

14
1 2 3 4 11 5 6 7 8 12 13 9 10
15
16
17
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Understandyour Rawconverter
cess seens conplicted
ndduntingwhenyoutry it for therst tine.
Renenber tkingyour rst digitl photogrph
or 'Photoshopping' your rst inge Chnces
reyoudidn't hvecluewht youwere
doing, but throughtril nderror ndnking
lots of nistkes, yougot thereintheend. t's
thesnewithprocessingyour Rwles in
softwrelikedobeCnerRw.
1heninresonwhy photogrphers stick
toshootinginJPLGis becuseit's quick, esy
ndsfe. thecner does theconplicted
stuhndll you'releft withre fewtweks in
Photoshopor Lightroontonishthejoboh.
ShootinginRw, ontheother hnd,
involves nother steeplerningcurve
becuseevery shot youtkeneeds tobe
workedon. t's thedigitl equivlent of going
frontkingyour lns to high-street lbfor
processingndprinting, tosettingup
drkroonnddoingthejobyourself. Doyou
think it's relly worthll thehssle
n word, yesl 1oreliseyour full potentil
s photogrpher, youneedtotkecontrol
of your photogrphy ndtheonly wy to
relly dothis is toshoot ndprocess Rwles.
ver thenext fewpges, we'll giveyou
rundownof thenincontrols ndtools
vilbleinPhotoshop's Rwconverter
-dobeCner Rw-withnexplntion
of wht they dondhowtousethen, strting
withtheBsics tbwhichfetures everything
youneedfor sinpleconversion.
1ogofronnoriginl Rwletonl inge, 'process' it usingRwconverter likedobeCnerRw
Vibranceand5aturation:
1his tool is nlterntivetotheSturtionslider,
whichdjusts ll thecolours inningeeqully.
1hevibrnce1ool, ontheother hnd, hects
colours tht needboosting, hvingless ehect on
thecolours lredy highinsturtion.
WhiteaIance: ShootinginRwnens tht
youcncontrol theWhiteBlncein
post-production, rther thnhvingtoselect
theright WhiteBlncepreset in-cner.
Under theBsics tb, youhvell thein-
cner WBpresets vilblein drop-down
nenutopick fron(eguto, Dylight, Cloudy
etc). Youcnlsousethe1enperturend
1int sliders tocreteyour ownCustonWB.
lterntively, youcouldusetheWhiteBlnce
1ool, foundinthetoolbr.
Pecovery: 1his is ningesver for nyone
whohs slightly overexposedtheir highlights.
1his nifty tool shouldobviously not be
reliedupon, but is denitely oneof thenost
invlublefetures inCRs it cnrecover
nid-tonedetil fronclippedhighlights. t's
not nircleworker, though. thedetil hs to
betheretobeginwith.
FiII Light: ill Light ttenpts torecover
detils fronshdows without brightening
ny blcks. Sinilr tousingll-infsh, this
tool will cst sonelight intoyour foreground.
Useit longsidetheBlcks slider toddnore
punch, but berelly creful not tooverdoit
for unnturl results.
The basc too|s for
Rawconverson
djustment paneIs: 1henincontrols
you'regoingtousewhenprocessingRwles
retobefoundontheright sideof theRw
nterfce, betweenthehistogrnndthe
control sliders. 1herereeight icons covering
thefollowingset of options (fronleft toright).
Bsic, 1oneCurve, Detil, HSLiGryscle,
Split 1oning, Lens Corrections, Cner
Clibrtions ndPresets.
Most of dobe's Rwcontrols redjusted
vi sliders, nkingthenfst ndesy touse.
Hererethekey fetures loctedunder the
Bsics tb.
Exposure: oundt thetopof theBsics
tb, under WhiteBlnce, theLxposureslider
djusts theoverll brightness of theinge,
withgreter focus onthehighlights. 1he
vlues reinincrenents equivlent to
fistops. or nny photogrphers, this tool is
their svinggrces it llows thentocorrect
their in-cner exposure. Wtchout for noise
ndrtefcts creepinginwhenyoupushthe
exposuretoofr. Useinconjunctionwith
Recovery toreducethehighlight vlues.
Iacks: 1his slider shifts theleft prt of the
histogrnevennoretotheleft, nkingthe
blcks intheinge lot noredoninnt, ndis
useful wy of incresingtheoverll contrst.
rightnesslontrast: Brightness works in
sinilr wy toLxposure. However, insted
of clippingthehighlights ndshdows, it
conpresses ndexpnds theinforntion.
Set theoverll tonl rngerst usingthe
Lxposure, Recovery ndBlcks sliders, then
djust Brightness. 1heContrst slider ninly
hects nid-tones, cusingthentobrighten
or drkentoincresecontrst.
Iarity: dds depthtoningeby
incresinglocl contrst, withthegretest
ehect onthenid-tones. t works sinilr to
lrgerdius UnshrpMsk inPhotoshop.
ZoonintotheingeI00toseetheehects
ndstopwhenyoustrt toseehlos pper
ner theedges intheinge.
Rawnterface
Whenyouopen Rwlein
dobeCner Rw, you're
presentedwiththis interfce.
1hepreviewingeshows the
Rwingeinits originl stte.
14) Zoom: Youcnvry thesizeof
thepreviewingendlsozoon
intoit usingthetbs inthebotton
left-hndcorner of theinterfce.
15) WorkowOption: t the
bottonof thescreenis the
Workfowption. f youclick on
this, diloguebox opens, giving
youvrious options. or Space
(colour spce), AdobeRG8(998
is nost widely used. or Depn,
choose68/s/Cnanne/. or S/e,
gofor theonetht ntches the
pixel resolutionof your cner (no
point pyingfor thosenegpixels
thennot usingthenl). ndfor
Resolution, enter 300pixelsiinch.
16) Histogram: nthetop
right-hndcorner is theinge's
histogrn, whichshows the
distributionof tones intheRed,
GreenndBluechnnels. Where
youseeCyn, it indictes
crossover betweenthegreen
ndbluechnnels, Yellowis the
crossover betweentherednd
greenchnnels, ndMgent
is cross betweenredndblue
chnnels. Whiteshows wherell
threechnnels cross over. Usethe
histogrntojudgetheexposures
youdjust thesliders.
17) Iippingwarning: 1hetwo
tringulr tbs inthetopleft nd
right of thehistogrntell youif
therehs beenny clippingof
thehighlights or shdows. f the
tringles reblck, noclipping
hs occurred. f thetbs chnge
colour, thecolour tells youtht
colour chnnel or conbintionof
chnnels hvebeenclipped. f the
tringleis white, ll threechnnels
reclipped. f youclick onthetbs,
res inthepreviewinges will be
highlightedtoshowwhereclipping
hs occurred-clippedshdows
shows fshingbluendclipped
highlights s fshingred.
Raw8|andscapes 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

entheIe1 in w ownw opno awl i o


ow ioanloo wi al ana awin W can
a cona i aily lowwi bl o inonaiono i
ina iin in nil 1 ina loo i nanwolbn
onxa cona oacolo an ail

ssess thehighIights i cc i ' any ili ail a


ni b clippby clicin on ianl on opi o
ioanonon ili clippin iplay Wnaci any clipp
aa a 1 wi o ian lio a clipp wic
nan w ni ponially lo on ili ail

PescuethehighIights ocanco i ili inonaionin


coy li b i wolb a xpn o ili
lw wicwolcily c cona 1 nall anon o
clippinonaionin' a inpoan ow ci ola in b
xpo loo po onow on' n oaj i li i

oost thebIacks 1 ina pobably loo a lil a ai on


cana li i on o j blac nil ioanpa
owa a l i by olin ownat/optonannoin 8acs
li nil aa owpblac on wi bacon o' nowca
p blac inyo ina b b cal no oooi

Watchfor cIippingo'nonally loo oaoiclippin any ili o


aow b onin i' ncay ino onn a
on aninpo cona o inanc w woln' xpc o
ail in oc ac cac W alo ona o60toboost contrast
further without clipping toonuchnore shadowdetail.

oost thecoIour Nowadjust the vibrance slider (here we set it to30), or


the Saturatonslider if your software doesn't feature vibrance, topunpup
the colour a little. Press l toaccess the Wnte 8aance Too andcheck that you
have got the correct White Balance by clicking ona neutral white or grey area
-the lighthouse is goodhere.
Rawf|e
LukeMarsh
1hebest thingabout shootinginRawis that youcanprocess theletogiveafar
better result thanif youhadcapturedthesceneas aJPLG. 1hepreviewof aRaw
leonyour canera's LCDnonitor nay look identical toaJPLGas all the
additional infornationis hiddenwithinthele, andit's inpossibletodisplay on
your canera's screen. t's only whenyouopentheRawleonyour conputer that
you'll seethewonders retainedinthis purest of inagelefornats. ur guideshows how
processingRawles inPhotoshop's dobeCaneraRawallows youtoextract ananazing
anount of infornation, leadingtoafar superior result thanif it hadbeencapturedinJPLG.
Get thenost froneveryinagebyprocessingindobeCaneraRaw
Raw8|andscapes
PawIe
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
9
negotiate the Dea// tabanduse the Zoom
buttons tozoonin!X. Work withthe Snapness slider toget the inage
looking crisponscreen. We settle onnount I00, Radius I.0andDetail 30.
Sharpening tooexcessively cancause artefacts andnoise toappear, whichis
why it's inportant totake pictures at the lowest Srating possible.
10
nce you're nished, youcaneither openthe inage
tocontinue enhancenents inPhotoshopor save it for later. By saving
the inage as a .1 or .PSDfornat youwill leave yourself witha I6-bit le as
opposedtoconpressing the inage toan8-bit JPLG, whichreduces the
anount of infornationandthus fexibility whenediting inthe future.
7
WhiteaIancef you're not happy withthe inage's colour tone
(White Balance), adjust the Tempeae slider a little. Youcanstrengthen
contrast further if youfeel it's necessary by clicking fronthe 8as/c tabtothe
Tone Ce tab. Select Po/n rather thanPaame/c andchange the
drop-downnenufronMed/mtoSongConas.
8
ddimpact 1oenphasiseareas of colour intheinage-inthis casethe
sky andsea -nakeselectiveSaturationandLuninanceadjustnent.
ChoosetheHSL/Gasca/etab, select Saa/onrst andtweak therelevant
sliders (weset Blues to+40). 1henchoosetheLm/nanceanddothesane
thing(weset Blues to+40here, too) until you'vereachedyour level of inpact.
Fna| mage
It's cIear toseethebenets of
shootingyour images inPaw,
as it's possibIetoextract far
moredetaiI thanif youhad
takentheshot as aJPEG.
LueMsh






hcient asyouareonlyworkingwith
inagedatacapturedinasingleexposure, soyoucanrevisit anyof your oldRawlestotryit.
1
OpentheeWhenyouopena Rawle inlenents the inage appears in
the Rawcontrol window(above). s the foregroundinthe original Rawle
is well exposed, little work is neededat this stage onthe inage. Sinply click
en, leaving the settings as they are, thengotoF//e>Sae As andcreate a
Photoshople (.PS) as we are going tobe working withlayers.
2
Pepet Reopenthe original Rawle, andagainthe Rawcontrol
windowappears withthe inage. 1his tine nove the Eposre slider
(circled) left tounderexpose the inage, pulling back the hiddendetail fron
the original Rawle's overexposedsky. Whenyou're happy withthe results,
click Opentotake the inage intolenents.
3
opypsteYounowhave twoles open. ne contains the original
exposure andthe other is the newunderexposedinage. Withthe
underexposedle active, click Se/ect>A// tnenEd/t>Cop, placing the inage
intothe pasteboardnenory. Nowyoucanclose this le anduse Ed/t>Paste
toplace this inage intoa newlayer onthe original le.

PeoefoegoundWiththe twoexposures inplace, we nowwant to


conbine the correctly exposedforegroundwiththe newly exposedsky.
Withthe sky layer active andusing the Rectang/ar Marqee Too/, select a
large area of foreground, just short of the horizon. Next, click Ed/t>De/ete to
renove the area, noting the ehect inthe Layers palette preview(inset).
5
CIeanupNowit's tine totidy upthe horizon, sowiththe Eraser Too/ set
toa nediun-sized, soft-edgedbrushandthe Opac/t set toaround55,
gradually erase areas of the newly exposedlayer along the horizon, revealing
the original foregroundinage. 1he slight feathering betweenthe twolayers
creates a nisty ehect that enhances the inage's nood.
6
Enhance1he initial layer work is conplete, sotosave your work sofar,
gotoLaer>F/attenlmage thenF//e>Sae As tocreate a newle. With
bothlayers nerged, it's tine for sone overall enhancenent, soclick on
Ennance>Adjst L/gnt/ng>Lee/s tolightenupthe inage andinprove the
denition. lick OKtoapply the changes.
omnngw|s
et theperfect inagebynergingtwoshots for ultinatequality
w|nss
PawIe
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
9
eIet sky1he inage is predoninantly blue inhue andwe'dquite like to
inject a diherent tone tothe sky area. Using the Recang/ar Marqee
Too/, select the area above the horizonandgoSe/ec>Feaner, entering an
anount of 50pixels tosoftenthe selection, before clicking Ed/>Cop then
Ed/>Pase, placing the selectionintoa newlayer.
10
just Iur Change the 8/endMode of the newlayer toSof L/gn,
andthengotoEnnance>Adjs Co/or>Adjs He/Sara/on. n
the window, start by clicking the Colorize box andinnediately see the
ehect inthe preview. inally, adjust the He andSara/onsliders until you
are happy withthe colour, andthenclick OK.
7
HigPss 1he HighPass lter is a far nore forgiving way toenhance detail
thansharpening. 1ouse it, rst gotoLaer>Dp//cae Laer topreserve
the original inage. 1hengotoF//er>Oner>H/gnPass, adjusting the Rad/s
toaroundpixels before clicking OK. Nowyouneedtochange the 8/end
Mode inthe Layers palette toSof L/gn.
8
rkenres Use Laer>F/aenlmage again, saving a copy if required.
Now, using the 8rnToo/ (inset) witha large soft-edgedbrushandthe
Opac/ set toapproxinately 5X, darkenthe exposure of specic areas,
whichhelps toinprove the depthof the inage. ocus onthe edges of the
frane andgradually buildthe ehect up.
Fna| mage
tryskies vere! It's
cIear toseethebenets of
shootingyour images inPaw,
as it's possibIetorescuemore
detaiI thanif you'dcaptured
thesceneas aJPEG.
Raw8|andcae
wl yun
tlrntusyur nr's histgrn.
singthprviwingtjugxpsur
isn't thst rrn. histgrn nth
thr hn prvis ll thinrntinyu
ntrtthultintwl. t shws
thistriutin tns in igitl ing
rnthrkst shws nthr lt th
histgrntthrightst highlights nth
r right. hgnrl rulwhnxpsingn
ingis tnksurtns ll withinth
xtrns thhistgrntrtintil.
tnuhinrntinis tthr lt sn
shws lk til ni it's tthr right
snhighlights ny lwut nrrs
purwhit. kingsurnithr xtrns r
lippgivs nptlwl.
rrnxinuntnl til hwvr yu
nt'xpstthright'. hy us
snsrs rrnrtns inthhighlights
thnthshws.
st snsrs rr rightnss rng
vr six stps. st histgrns rivi
intvstins whihrprsnt thv
stps inrightnss it rrs. thr thnth
tnl vlus ingiviqully rss
thsvstps 0 thttl nunr r
rrinthrightst stp hl this
nunr inthnxt hl s nny gininth
nxt stp nsn nningtht th
rightst 20 thhistgrn nthr
right ntins I6tins nrtnl vlus
thnthrkst 20nthr lt. y
'xpsingtthright' yu'rnxinisingth
inrntinrr. hnyuhk th
prviwsrn ings xpstthright
lk vrxps syur nturl rtinis
truthxpsurnrsht ut n't
trust thhistgrn unthnjust th
xpsurnntrst whnprssingyur
sht rtiningthinprtnt tnl vlus n
giving nrtilingwithlss nis.
'xongohegh' whRaw
nrstnhwyur nrrrs tnl inrntinnhwtrwhistgrn
1
hout for cIippingh rightst
highlights inth wtr nsky hv n
xpstth pint tht thy'v strttls
til inity th rhighlights. h
ing lks gnrlly wshut.
2
PeveaI thedetaiI rius ntrls n
usttn wnth ing ntrst
rightnss xpsur ut th n urv
slirs r nst tiv. r th rk tn
ws nvt-3nit lks ttr lry.
3
Pecover highIights lthughyushultry
tvilipping th highlights yunus
th vry slir trsu thnut n
nr thnut 20shul pplis it
tns tfttnth whl ing.
4
djust tonaIityh ighlight slir ws nvtth right t vlu
+26nth ights slir tth lt t vlu -I4. uns hw
th n urv hs hngrn stright lin t shllw'' shp.
5
ImprovethecoIours liking k nth si t th lks slir
is nvtth right t vlu I4rnits ult stting whil
irnis st t+22nturtint+tst thlurs inthing.
Inceangheexoue
hsist wy t'xpstthright' is
ttk tst rnnthnssss th
histgrn. thgrphis ntr(iwll
xps) r tthlt inrsth
xpsury +Ii3stpvi xpsur
npnstin tknthr sht n
hk thhistgrn. pt until th
highlight wrningstrts tfshnth
prviwing initingtht th
highlights hvn'lipp' ntht
yu'vtknthxpsurtr. h
rnr whryugvIi3-stp
lss xpsur is thltwrk n.
) his is wht thhistgrnr n
unrxpsinglks lik thtnl
grphis pushvr tthlt whr
thrrwr tnl vlus. yutk
sht likthis ntritrvr til
yu'hvprlns withnis.
) hris nthingwrngthnilly with
this ingr histgrn thtnl grphis
ntrl nnithr highlights r shws
hvnlipp. yuswthis sht n
thprviwsrn yu'prly
hppy. wvr.
) Lxposingtotheright will recordfar
noretonal values intheawles than
correctly exposingit. his is what the
previewinagewill look likeif youdo.
overexposedandwashedout. But it's the
best awleof thethreeexanplesl

1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

tr savtrossPaw
as a6t TIFF awa
twas wraotoso
ars tsa-
rather moreimpressivethanthe
originaI PawIeit camefrom.
ILTR5
MGNLU'RLBU1beshpwree eser
slhepf hevessel hs gvesr
srs h l ehreelers verbr
wh , s's rher exreeser, b he
wrsehgs hvehppee se 1heqess, whh
hreewle
s hlf heCer, gess relers
hr vergeer shp hbs f pls ,
, Cres) h lferbws ges,
r perfel es b rg b, ree
rvesees pressssges, rbrgh
ps f lgh brll explss f lr, perfr
ll srs f her werwerfl rs ever sehe
hgs, f rse, beses f heees werehrrble
B were' prper phgrpher less rre
les zef heeverwhere, f hewrs e
hewrs, he wereel fr g sw's er fr sl
prse 'veg href exples prve
rel, fer ers fleeps ge
C, s we ll helers h
were' essel whhll lef ver few Ler sll,
jpehegl bwg, whhe l
jeseverel helr rre
verslers h hvebeerepleb heBle
lr eperrejses)
1 'lef whl hreeler pes Nerl Des
ND) grs, plrser slNerl Des ND) lers
r lspegeerl phgrph, he'rell ee,
ll hreebese vll r b
helpge hes fr see
Sef behg, h bher whlers ll
wheheees bee Phshp' ell, f 're
hgh, hes re'veever sehe, bese
whleheees selers hvebereple
Phshp, hers ' w, evef he lll
be, srel 's beer ge r phgrphs s lse
pleer s pssble, rher hspegges
r per rgsr he pspr
r frler sses, e l hepel
belw, hereseeheeree hreefvre
lers ler lspeges
ther e mst
ery, drama, atmosphere.
usingIters inyour photography
canmakeyour goodshots great.
Leers revels hepref lers
fr lspephgrphers
F|ters
Whch|ter system?
5CPEWIN: 1hesehghql
lers srewrelheler
href r les, ghefs
esse 'll ers
plrsers NDsrewlers
lgB+'s espND) b
vrllNDgrs hleerg
exelle pl ql, srew
lers hveebgsvge f
hveers leses, 'll
s leleebseverl szes
f srewlers Brs ser
leB+, H1e
5LOTIN: r bes hewhe
vesgler sses hesl
vre brgs h srew
r leses hler h slps
hesergs hs wl
eeeler Plrsers, NDs
NDgrs rell vlbles sl
lers CPr Pr) r
Heh) regrs sses, whle
Leelers s heprfessls' he
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
duates




























hcult as thereareonly
threenaindensities tochoosefron.
0.3, 0.6and0.9, whichreducethe
brightness of theskybyone, twoand
threestops respectively. Sone
nanufacturers alsoproduceaI.2
grad, whichtones downtheskybyfour
stops. 1heweakest, 0.3, is onlyof
usewhenyouneedaverysubtleehect,
whilethestronger 0.9is nainlyused
at dawnandduskwhenthesky's really
bright but there's nodirect light onthe
landscape. 1hat just leaves the0.6
grad, whichis thebest choicefor
general use. f indoubt, takeatest shot
witha0.6grad, checktheinageon
your canera's previewscreen, then
switchtoeither a0.3or, norelikely,
a0.9if theehect isn't right.
F|ters
NDgrads 8exposure Choosetherght densty
Beforenulti-zoneneteringwas
introduced, exposurereadings hadtobe
takenwithalightneter andset nanually
onthecanerabeforeattachingan
gradtothelens inorder toavoidgettingan
overexposedinage. Meteringsystens
thesedays arenuchnoreintelligent, now
youcanconposeyour shot, alignthe
gradreadyfor useandneter withit onthe
lens. 1hereasonfor this is that anulti-
zoneneteringpatterntakes anunber of
exposurereadings frondiherent parts of
theinagearea, thereforethedarkness of
thelter doesn't infuencethenal
exposureinanegativeway. nfact, it helps
your caneraobtainanaccuratereading,
as whenangradis tted, theeutral
ensitypart of thelter darkens thesky
areasothat thecontrast betweenthesky
andforegroundis reduced. eypresto. a
perfectlyexposedlandscape.

eh for th sy
rncIanca
trar cnr an
raatanntaI t
annt antnaI accr
F|trs
A
L
L

A
G

S
.
L
L
L

S
1
|gnngnDgr
ror soft grs?
1hekey tosuccess witha gradis correct
alignnent, soit does its jobwithout leaving
telltalesigns. Many photographers struggle
andassunetherenust bea nagicfornula,
but it's just a caseof takingyour tine.
1
5ItfItr
Mount your
canera ona tripodand
conposethefrane.
Next, placeanNDgrad
lter inthelter holder
onyour lens, andwhile
peeringthroughthe
viewnder, slowly
pushthegraddown
intotheholder.
2
atccarfII
As youslidethe
graddownyoushould
seethetoppart of the
pictureappear toget
darker. t won't be
obvious, evenif you're
usinga strongNDgrad,
sowatchcarefully and
whenyouthink you've
got theNDgradinthe
right position, stop
novingit down.
3
nt tfar
Aconnonnistake
is topushthegradtoo
far intotheholder. 1he
gradwill thenact likea
solidNDlter and
increasetheexposure
but it won't balancethe
diherenceinlight
betweenthesky and
foreground. Younay
alsoseetheline
of thegrad.

Vw
f youstruggleto
alignthegradusingthe
viewnder, try using
Liveview. Younay nd
it sinpler todothis as
you'reseeingthe
exact ehect thelter is
havingontheinage,
nakingit easier to
accurately alignit.
1herearetwotypes of NDgrad. hardandsoft. 1his
refers tothewayinwhichtheNeutral Density(grey)
part of thelter graduates downtoclear. withhard
grads thechangeis quitesudden, whereas with
soft grads it's gentle. Newconers toNDgrads
assunethat soft grads areeasier tousebecauseif
youalignthenincorrectlyit's less likelythat you'll
seethelineof thegradinyour picture. However,
hardgrads arealsoquiteforgivingandgiveanore
denedehect, nakingthenthebest choice.
5ft ar
5ft ar
Po|arser
WHLNLGH1S1RLS sur sono th
rys sttr inll irtions thus oning
polris usingrtions nglrtht
ruolour sturtionprtiulrly on
shiny surs suhs pintwork nolig.
Polrisingltrs prvnt this ronhppning
y only llowinglight rys tontr your lns
tht rtrvllingrononirtion
tivly lokingout polrislight. Doing
this ors thristint vntgs or
lnspphotogrphy.
1hnost ovious nt is tht thluo
sky is pnusit ontins lot o
polrislight. Usingpolrisr llows youto
visul inpt toings y proviing
strong punhy lukrop. nothr
nt is tht glronnon-ntllisurs
is ru sotholours insnppr
rihr nnorsturt. 1hthir
vntgtousingpolrisrs is tht
rtions rlinint soyouns
throughwinows nintorivrs.
Using polrisr is sy usyoun
stht it hs sinply y rottingit
slowly inits nount onyour
lns whillooking
irulr polrisr will your
st rin oostingolour
inpt nruingrtions
throughthnr's viwnr. Blusky
gos rkr nwhitlous stnout
rtions onngo nglr
ispprs. Whnyou'rhppy withwht
yous sinply stoprottingnr.
1ogt thst possilrsults
howvr youshoullsor in
ninrtintors.
lthoughpolrisrs
gnrlly work st inright
sunny wthr whnthr's
norpolrislight roun
thy nusinull
ovrst onitions too in
orr tornovglrn
rtions. utunnl
woolnsns usully look
nuhttr i youshoot thn
through polrisr s glris
ru sothriholours o th
oligrlly onthrough.
Whnusing polrisr topnlu
sky kpthsunt right ngltoth
nr soyou'riningtowrs thr o
sky whrnxinunpolristionours.
1ht wy you'll gt thstrongst t. th
sunis hinyou or you'rshootingintoth
sun polrisr won't nknuhirn.
Polristioninthsky lsotns tottr
whnthsunis lowinthsky sorly
norningnvninggivttr rsults thn
inthnilo thy.
Polristionis unvnross thsky
sotkrwhnusingultr wi-ngl
lnss or zoons with ol lngthwir
thn2nn(InnonPS-snsors) s th
sky inyour ings ny rorrkr onon
sithnthothr. tht nlook vry
o. 1his norrtinPhotoshop
ltr ut it's triky. Youshoullsonottht
glrwill only rnovronnon-ntlli
surs suhs pintwork olign
plsti. 1ornovrtions ronsurs
suhs wtr nglss thngltwn
thrtivsurnthlns xis nust
roun30. Youcanndthis by naking
slight adjustnents toyour positionthen
rotatingthepolariser toseewhat happens.
inally, polarisinglters cangiveyour
pictures a slight bluecolour cast whenused
inbright, sunny weather. 1orenovethis,
either adjust your canera's WhiteBalance
settingor correct thecast whenyouprocess
theRawleonyour conputer.
rcu|ar or |near?
Po|arsers 8exposure
1herearetwotypes of polarisinglters
available. linear andcircular. void
linear. Youneedtousea circular
polariser withyour digital canera as
linear polarisers areusedoncertain
older nanual focus lnSLRs. Bothtypes
doexactly thesanejob, but a circular
polariser is nanufactureddiherently to
ensurecorrect exposurewhenused
withautofocus DSLRs andCSCs.
Whenyouuseapolariser, it reduces the
light enteringyour lens bytwostops. 1his
neans if youhaveanexposureof
IiI25secat fiII without apolarisinglter
inplace, theexposurewoulddropto
Ii30secat fiII onceyouttedit. Your
caneraaccounts for this light loss
autonatically, soyoudon't needto
conpensate, but youneedtobeawareof
it becausetheshutter speedcaneasily
beconeveryslowwhenusingapolariser
-eveninbright sunlight -sotheriskof
canerashakeis increased. 1hat said, this
light loss canbeabenet whenyouwant
touseaslower shutter speed, as the
polariser acts likeatwo-stop(0.6) ND
lter (coveredoverleaf). Whenshooting
waterfalls, for exanple, thepolariser not
onlygives youaslower shutter speedto
blur thewater, but alsorenoves
refections fronwater andglarefronwet
rocks andfoliage, givingabetter result.
oIter
NoIter WithpoIariser
WithpoIariser
F|ters 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
ue sky thnkng
upyour usy
vsu mpt toss
yuspors

utr Dnsty(D) trs


NDL1LRSARLspecially nadetoreduce
theanount of light enteringyour lens without
changingthecolour balance-hencethenane
Neutral Density. 1hey doasinilar jobtoND
gradlters, but insteadof ahectingjust part of
theinage(usually thesky withNDgrads), they
haveaunifornehect onthewholeinage.
NDlters arenainly usedtoincreasethe
exposurerequiredfor aninage, soyoucanuse
aslower shutter speedtorecordnotion. 1he
classicsubject that they'reusedfor is waterfalls,
recordingthenovingwater as agraceful blur.
ut they canbeusedtointroduceor increase
notioninall kinds of subjects -crowds of
connuters pouringohatrain, trahcnoving
alongbusy roads, trees blowinginthewind,
waves washingover rocks andsoon.
1hey'reideal for useinbright conditions
whenthelowest Sratingandsnallest
aperturearen't enoughtogiveyoutheslow
shutter speedthat youdesire.
Lengtheningexposuretines withaNeutral Densitylter is oneof thesinplest
ways tobecreativewithyour canera, producinggreat novenent ininages
TDEN5ITIE5
1heanount of exposureincreaseanND
lter requires depends onits density. 1he
weakest NDworthbotheringwithis a 0.6ND
(4x), whichrequires a two-stopexposure
increase. Apolariser alsorequires an
exposureincreaseof twostops socanbe
usedlikea 0.6NDlter. Next upis a 0.9ND
(8x), whichrequires a three-stopexposure
increase, followedby a I.2ND(I6x) that
requires a four-stopincrease. 1his is where
thedensity of conventional NDlters ends,
thoughyoucanconbinetwoor norefor a
cunulativeehect -a 0.6NDanda 0.9ND
together will requirea ve-stopexposure
increase, for exanple.
1healternativeistouseanoreextreneND
lter, withadensityof I.8(sixstops) or nore.
1heselterswereoriginallydesignedfor
photographingindustrial processesthat
involvedextrenebrightnessbut arenow
popular withphotographersastheyallow
exposuresindaylight of several ninutes. 1urn
over for our favourite. the3.0ND, which
requiresanexposureincreaseof tenstops-
that'sI000xnorethantheunlteredexposurel
trs
xposurcrt
cnquwtc
f you'reusingweaker NDlters, uptoaI.2density,
your canera's 11Lneteringwill beabletogive
accurateexposurereadings withthelter onthe
lens. ncedensitygoes beyondI.2, however, you
nayndthat underexposureoccurs becausethe
lter densityfools thecanera's netering.
1oavoidexposureerror, takea neter reading
without theNDlter onthelens, thencalculate
therequiredexposurewithit inplaceandset the
exposureonyour canera nanually. f youhave
aniPhone, there's a useful appcalledNDalc
that will dothis for you.
Alternatively, refer tothetablebelow. ncethe
requiredexposuregoes beyond30seconds you
will havetoset your canera toits ulb() node
andtinetheexposureusingthetiner onthe
canera or snartphone, a renoterelease, your
wristwatchor by countingelephants -you
decidel We'dreconnendthat youphotocopy
andcut out theexposurechart belowandkeepit
alongwithyour NDlter for easy reference.
NofiIter With0.6ND With0.9ND With1.2ND
Ii500sec IiI25sec Ii60sec Ii30sec
Ii250sec Ii60sec Ii30sec IiI5sec
IiI25sec Ii30sec IiI5sec Ii8sec
Ii60sec IiI5sec Ii8sec Ii4sec
Ii30sec Ii8sec Ii4sec Ii2sec
IiI5sec Ii4sec Ii2sec nesecond
Ii8sec Ii2sec nesecond 1woseconds
Ii4sec nesecond 1woseconds our seconds
Ii2sec 1woseconds our seconds Light seconds
nesecond our seconds Light seconds I6seconds
1woseconds Light seconds I6seconds 32seconds
1hreeseconds I6seconds 32seconds neninute
our seconds 32seconds neninute 1woninutes
NoIter 0.6ND
Wor|d moto
sngnIer IIos
ououseIonger shuer
sees nIgh: ideaI
whenshootingwaterfaIIs.

Co|our casts
ilNlrs soulurl o
youoninfor ir siy
(lor xposur) you'll s
olour ss ppr. is is nos
oilwisopNlrs
.s vrywrnolour
s wililrs ioppr s
ool lus. s
lookof in u if youprfr you
jus olour nprurw
youpross wl.
1.2ND 3.0ND
|ters

lter is that it's sodense, youcan't seethroughit. nbright


sunlight younight just nakeout afaint inagethroughthe
viewnder, but its brightness is I000x less thanif youdidn't
havetheten-stopNDinplace. 1otakeaphotographyounust
thereforenount your caneraonatripod, conposethescene,
set focus tonanual (as won't work throughit), alignyour
NDgradinits holder if you'reusingone, thennally position
theten-stopND. Most digital SLRs haveLiveviewthat's
sensitiveenoughtoseethroughaten-stopND, soif youneed
toadjust theconpositionor novethecaneraandshoot fron
adiherent spot, younay beabletodosowithout takingthe
ten-stopNDlter oh. or nost of us, though, renovingthe
lter toseethroughtheviewnder is unavoidable. 1hat's why a
slot-inlter liketheLeeilters BigStopper or Hi1ech's ProStop
is noreversatilethantheB+Wscrew-inlter -youcansinply
renoveit fronits holder andleaveeverythingelseinplace,
whereas theB+Whas tobeunscrewedfronthelens.
1helongest exposureyoucanachieveusingyour canera's
progrannedshutter speedrangeis 30seconds. Moreoften
thannot, you'll beusingexposures nuchlonger thanthat with
theten-stopper, soyou'll needtoset your caneratoBulb(B)
nodeinorder tokeeptheshutter open. 1ryingtokeep
exposures under 30seconds for convenience, by openingup
theapertureor increasingtheSrating, is conpletely
defeatingtheobject becauseyou'll get thebest ehects by
usingexposures of several ninutes.
nterns of subject natter, any scenecontainingnoving
elenents is ideal. 1hesky is anobvious candidate. onawindy
day, clouds aretransfornedintoghostly streaks as they drift
overhead, andyouwon't knowquitehowthey'regoingto
recorduntil theexposureends andyoucanreviewtheshot.
1rees andgrass swayinginthebreezealsotakeonatotally
diherent appearancewhenexposedfor several ninutes,
addingastrongsenseof notiontoaninage.
Coastal scenes areperhaps thenost ehectivesubjects for
theten-stopND. 1heseais constantlynoving, soover the
courseof afewninutes, anytextureinits surfaceis lost andit
takes onasnooth, nilkyappearancethat contrasts well with
staticelenents suchas piers, lighthouses, headlands, jetties and
rocks. Clouds workwell, too, renderingas streaks inthesky. r
for sonethingconpletelydiherent, tryshootingurbanscenes
withaten-stopND. nythingnovingthroughthescenewhile
theshutter is open-peopleandtrahcnostly-won't record.
1his neans youcancapturesonethingthat wenever seewith
thenakedeye-busystreets conpletelydesertedl
Wide-anglelenses arenoreehectivethantelephotos when
usingaten-stopNDbecauseyoucanenphasisethesky and
theforeground, whichis wherenost of thenotionis
recorded. Moveinclosetoastaticfeatureintheforeground
andcontrast it withnovingwater, or get downlowwithawide
lens soyou'relookingupat thesky.
Bright sunshinegives theleast ehectivelight for ten-stop
shots as it's harshandfat, plus thehigher light levels neanyou
won't beabletoachievereally longexposures -evenwith
your lens stoppedright downandtheSratingat its nininun
setting. Dawnanddusk, ontheother hand, areperfect for
creatingatnosphericinages, alongwithearly norningand
eveningwhenthesun's lowinthesky andthelight is warn.
1heB+W3.0ten-stopNDhas awarncolour cast, whichis
ideal for enhancingshots takenat either endof theday. Storny
weather canproducedranaticresults, too, as there's nore
novenent inthesky andsea, whileonovercast days thesoft
light andgentletones result insinple, graphicinages.
lthoughyou'll beshootingincolour, ten-stopshots look
anazinginblack owhite-especially if you'renot keenonthe
lter's inherent colour cast. 1onaxinisetheinpact anddrana,
whenconvertingyour picturetononochrone, treat thesky
andtherest of thesceneas separateelenents by adjusting
their tonality separately, usingtools suchas Levels andCurves.
1heendresult nay look nothingliketheoriginal scene, but that
doesn't natter becauseas soonas youput aten-stopNDlter
onyour lens, you'retakingastepback fronreality anyway.
Useaten-stopNDlter andyou'll ndyou
cancreatestrikingcolour andblackowhite
ne-art landscapes withease
F|ters
4secwithnoIter
Four minuteswithaten-stop
xposurechart
1hechart ontheright
reveals theincreaseof
exposuretines whenusing
aten-stopNDlter. t's akey
reasonwhyyou're
reconnendednot touse
theLongLxposureNoise
Reductionsystenonyour
canera, as this function
takes thesaneanount of
tineas theexposure. or
instance, whenyoushoot a
two-ninuteexposure, you'll
needtowait another couple
of ninutes for theinageto
writeandbeviewableon
theLCDnonitor. We'd
suggest youswitchNoise
Reductionohandcontrol
noiseinpost-production.
UnItered 3.0ND
(Ten-stop)
Ii500sec 1woseconds
Ii250sec our seconds
IiI25sec Light seconds
Ii60sec I6seconds
Ii30sec 32seconds
IiI5sec neninute
Ii8sec 1woninutes
Ii4sec our ninutes
Ii2sec Light ninutes
nesecond I6ninutes
1woseconds 32ninutes
1hreeseconds 48ninutes
our seconds nehour
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
mood
Iter
of themoment. Don't
Ieavehomewithout one.
F|ters

1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Pcr|ra|| c| a g|r| nr vang v|eng, Lacs.raw
The dawn light is warm and soft. Ash from slash and burn agriculture hangs
in the air fattening distant views, a recipe that is hopeless for landscape
work, but perfect for impromptu travel portraits. Im hanging around by
a ford accosting passers-by. Using a super-fast wide angle lens I shoot
wide open to drop the background out of focus, suggesting the evocative
setting of river and mountains without detracting from the power of the
girls piercing expression. I knew before I came to Laos I wanted this
sort of picture. Wide angle lenses are not normally the tools of choice for
portraiture. Neither are graduated hlters, but here a LEE 0.6 neutral density
grad was crucial to hold on to the detail in the sky. Working quickly hand
held I had to accurately position the hlter, compose and focus.
With a full frame sensor and prime lens the potential quality of my images is
astounding. But unleashing all of that quality demands painstaking attention
to detail. Everything in the equation has to perform to the optimum; not least
the hlter. A lens is only as good as the hlter in front of it. A grad has to be
truly neutral and of searing optical quality. There is only one choice.
0av|d Nc|cn
www.dav|dnc|cn.ccm
Je|. [01264] 338599 www.|ee||||ers.ccm
LLL 0.6 N0 hard
grad ||er
Lancn 10s mk|||,
24mm|ens,
1/800 sec @|1.4
LLL ||||er |c|der
5TNINOLOUR

llytwotypes of relationshipbetween
colours -harnonyandcontrast. Lookingat acolour
wheel helps us tounderstandthis. Colours that arenext
toeachother -for exanple, blueandgreen-are
harnonious, whilethosethat areopposite-for
exanple, blueandyellow-contrast witheachother.
lso, colours that areonthe'warn' sideof thewheel
harnonisewitheachother, whileall thoseonthe'cool'
sidealsoharnonise. Harnonious colours arenore
calningtolookat, andblues andgreens inparticular
areverytranquil. Contrastingcolours arenore
dranaticandcreateatensionthat canchallengethe
eye-blueandyellowis astrongcontrast.
LML, energyandthought has beendevotedto
thestudyof colour, its practical applications andits
psychological ehects. ftenthoseapplications andehects
arelinked. t's not anaccident that stopsigns arered, cool
settings onair conditioningareblueor that the
environnental novenent has adoptedthecolour green.
Muchcanbelearnedabout therelationships between
colours, too. Colours worktogether indiherent ways, with
certainconbinations creatingenergyandtension, while
others harnoniseandcreatecaln. Whenacolour appears
innaturewithagreater thannornal intensity, thestageis
set for great landscapephotography. Learningtheir
relationshipwill reaprewards, helpingyoutoachieve
stunningshots that younever beforethought possible.
UPWHEEL
ContrastingcoIours, suchas
yeIIowandbIueor redand
green, createtensionand
drama. CoIours adjacent to
eachother arecaIming.
o|our

M
B

N
1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

COOANDEMOON
pact, colours cansuggest diherent noods,
evokevarious enotions andcanhavesynbolicsignicancerelatedto
our cultureandbackground. 1hink about theehect a doninant colour
night haveonyour inage. t night beappropriatetosubduea colour, or
enphasiseit. Consider colour intheconposition, thelightingand
throughcareful useof ltration.

EDis anintensecolour, especially whencontrastedagainst a dark


background. t is a colour universally usedfor warningor danger and
is hardtoignore. Redis thenost powerful andattention-grabbingcolour
inphotography, thoughit canprovedistractingif includedsnall within
thelandscape, for instance, a distant car, boat or letterbox.

Eis a retiringcolour, whichcanbeenployedtoconvey


restfulness, sadness or tranquility. nphotography, it is connonly
usedtoconvey coldness, whichworks especially well whenconbined
withwater andwintry scenes. Blueis a very inportant colour for
landscapephotographers as a saturatedsky creates a fatteringbackdrop.
G
GEENis oftenusedtosignify healthandlife. bviously, greenis the
predoninant colour of vegetationandthereforeit is doninant in
nany scenicinages. Greenis easily overwhelnedby bright advancing
colours likeredand, generally speaking, has less inpact. However, when
isolated, greencanstill createstrong, interestinginages.

EOis another bold, advancingcolour, oftenusedtorepresent


happiness or brightness. t will addwarnthtoyour inageandworks
particularly well whenconbinedor contrastedwithblue. Yellow, along
withsinilarly richcolours, likegoldandorange, epitoniseautunn. t can
provea goodbackgroundfor still-lifeinages.

G
S
1

P
H

S
S
H

D
D
N

1
1
M

U
L
R
C
R

G
R

B
L
R
1
S
o|our 1HNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

G
L

5TUPTION
ky, i wrgoingtostritly thnil out
this, thtrnsturtionrrs tohowpur olour
is. But ovr tin, ndinprtil trns, sturtion
hs ontonnhowintnsor strong olour
pprs inning. roduingsturtdings
involvs northnsinply oostingolours in
hotoshoplthoughnuhndontht wy,
withgrt rsults, thrrnny options t th
pitur-tkingstg. ts onsidr thosrst.
htino dy hs ninpt onolour
sturtion. Lrly norningndlt-vninglight,
withthsunlowinthsky ndlss glr, produs
norintnsolours thnt othr tins, s dos
ront lightingrthr thnsid- or klighting.
polrisingltr, y rduingrtions nd
uttingdownonglr, lsoinprovs sturtion.
polrisr hs thnxinunt whnth
nr is t 0 tothsun. olrisrs rsinpl
touss tht is lrly visilthroughth
nrs viwndr thnost ovious oning
thinrsinsturtiono luskis.
hrr ouplo things towthout or. ts
possiltoovr-polris sn, rsultingin
nr-lk skis, ndlso, whnusingwid-ngl
lnss (widr thn2nnon ull-rnDor
I/nnonn-Csnsor), thdgro
polristionnunvnross thrn.
ours, youwont lwys wnt strong, virnt,
sturtdolours. Mutdpstl tons rnor
sutl, ut njust s tivwiththright
sujt nttr, rtingntnosphro lnnd
trnuility. Lrly norningnist drins olours nd
givs old, luishhuto sn, whihyoun
nhny twkingthhitBlnin-nr,
or ltr, i yourshootingw.
lot ndont thprossingstg.
Lxprinnt withhitBlnsttings to
n-tunthovrll tnosphrndst. vr th
pg, wll showhowvryingthhitBlno
wlngivdrntirsults.
U5INGONLYONEOLOUP
inglolours otngivning prtiulr nood
ndits possiltonksussul onpositions
usingjust onolour or shds o onolour.
Crtinlightingonditions nrtthis t
ndddtnosphrto sn. nintnsly orng
or rdsunst givs vry nutrl olour strongis,
thing snin ry wrnth.
lso, strongklightingndsturtolours,
rtingnlnost nonohrontit, whilt
pr-sunrisndpost-sunst, thris nosingl
stronglight sourndthlight is diusdnd
rtddownronthsky.
htwoings onthright rrlly good
xnpls o nonohrontiings. trtingovr
onthr right younshowklightinghs
drindtholours ronthis sn, rsultinginn
ingtht pprs lnost dvoido olour.
hprdwnlight thingthlknddd
woodinthnr-right pituris diusd, llingon
thsnronvirtully thwholsky. t hs givn
thsn irly oldst, ut thnoodis trnuil.
t suits tholdstillnss o wintr norning.
Predawnmonochrome
Pre-sunrise
Without poIariser
ackIit desaturation
Midday
WithpoIariser
Typs of po|arsr
hrrtwotyps o polrisr irulr nd
linr. his dosnt rr tothphysil shp
thyrothtullyirulr ut thwyth
light is polrisd. Mksuryouuyirulr
polrisr or uswithyour Ds linr typs
intrrwithyour nrs ntring, whih
nt hndllinrlypolrisdlight.
HInixon
Dt t u vt
u ttu tt t t
wt
u t ut t
u ywt w
tutt ty u y yu
wut yu t tBt
tttt t
ty u t uuy t vt
twt But wtt
uu twt tuy wt u
t tBt tty
vyu tu tt
tt t w
tvt t tt uvt u
tty t wy v
t
uttBB tt wyt
tt tBy
u tut wv wyu
tutuyw
u t ut twt yu
tyu u B
vt tu
utt t utt
tt v tBttt tt
tt tttBtt
t tt yuwt t
ttCuy wtu tt
xtwt tt
yw ty wttut
ut Btu y
tu tt
yutL yut t t
tByuwt tuyut
tt t tu wty
tw+JPLG, settingthe
correct WhiteBalanceandthenexperinenting
withtheWhiteBalanceafterwards inpost-
production. 1hefollowingstep-by-stepguide
will showyouhoweasy it is todo.
UsngWhtea|ancepresets
Learnhowtoalter thetoneof your landscapeinages byexperinentingwith
diherent WhiteBalancepresets for creativeehect
WB
Co|our
3
ryout presets s youcansee, WBkeeps thecolours truetothe
scenebut lacks punch. 1owarnupcolours, takethesaneshot using
theDaylight, ShadeandCloudy WBpresets. 1helower theelvin(colour
tenperature), thenoresaturatedtheoranges, yellows andreds. Cloudy is
thebest WBas it boosts thesky's warnthwithout losingtoonuchcoolness.
4
InrsKeIvins thesunfalls just belowthehorizon, try increasingthe
elvinby setting1ungstenandthenluorescent WBtoenhancethe
blueness of twilight. 1oavoidcolours lookingtoounnatural, opt for aWB
settingthat enhances theblues inthescenebut doesn't overpower thewhole
inage. or this scene, luorescent is nuchbetter than1ungsten(seeright).
1
Findyour IocationCoastal sunsets or sunrises work well for this type of
technique due totheir vividcolours. 1ry toarrive at the locationat least
half anhour before the goldenhour begins. 1ry out diherent conpositions
andlook for foregroundinterest. f youhave trouble nding anything, use
the wet sandor a rock pool toadda refectioninthe scene.
2
UseutoWhiteaIancenceyou'veconposedyour scene, select
WB(seeyour canera's nanual if you'renot surewhereit is) andset
aperture-priority nodetoat least fiI3toget adequatedepth-of-eld. f your
autofocus struggles inthelowlight, switchtonanual focus. f youstruggleto
balancetheexposurebetweenthesky andforeground, useanNDgradlter.
5hoot Raw
or addedfexibility, shoot your
inages inRawandadjust the
WhiteBalancepost-capturein
dobeCaneraRaw. ncethe
inageis opened, clickonthe
drop-downnenuat thetopof
theBasictabandscroll downto
select theWhiteBalancepreset
you'dliketoapplytoyour
inage. YoucanchangetheWB
as nanytines as youwant until
youndtheoneyou'rehappy
withandevenadjust the
1enperatureslider for nore
control over acustonWB.
1HCNONGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
W ayIight 5hade Ioudy Tungsten

rescent Whas renderedthe


best resuIts, enhancingthedeep
bIuetones andthepinks inthesky.
Exposure: woseconds at fiI3(SI00).
tripakasenetoits areessentials yonvertingtolakowhite,
producingsinple, dranaticinages that arepackedwithatnosphere
WH'YonblackowhitephotographyDoyouseeit as ane-art nediunthat
ohers endless scopefor creativeself-expression, or is it irrelevant andold-fashionedor along
tine, thelatter viewtendedtoapply, especiallyoncecolour lnbecaneahordablebackinthe
'/0s. Whytakephotographs inblackowhitewhencolour ones arefar norerealistichecritics
hadapoint, but fans of theblackowhiteinagewerequicktopoint out that it's theveryfact
they'renot realisticthat gives thentheir appeal, andwhenyoustudytheworkof landscapegreats
suchas Michael enna, nsel dans andJosef Hofehner, you'll soonseewhy.
8WT
D5P5
|ack8whte|andscapes 1HOGU1LNSPPH1GRPH

1HGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
frontheequationwithout
conpronisingthequality of thenal result -
nowanyonewitha digital canera cancreate
anazingblack owhiteinages. Putting
yourself intotheright nind-set to'see' the
landscapeinblack owhitecanbetricky, but
it's anobstaclethat caneasily beovercone.
By settingyour canera toblack owhitenode
andusingtheLCDscreeninLiveview, you
canviewthesceneinfront of youinblack o
whiteandquickly pick uponwhichscenes
andcolours work best innonochrone.
Certaincolours whenrenderedblack owhite
look sinilar grey tones, whichcannakeyour
shots look fat. learningwhat colours create
contrastingtones will helpyourecognise
what scenes look goodinblack owhite. You
canevenshoot inbothRawandJPLG-the
inageyouseeonyour canera's preview
screenwill beblack owhite, but you'll also
havea colour Rawleonthenenory card
that youcanwork onlater. 1heother optionis
SWNDLRULas colour photography is, it
canalsobetoofaniliar. t shows us what
things look likeandleaves us feelingreassured
andconfortable. But inart, reality isn't always
thebest solutionbecauseit doesn't
encourageus tolook beyondfaniliarity and
appreciateaninagefor any reasonother than
what it depicts. s soonas yourenovecolour
fronaninage, however, everythingchanges
as it nolonger represents reality.
Black owhiteinages aresinpler, nore
dranatic, noreevocativeandnore
atnosphericthancolour. ur enotional
responsetoa colour landscapeinageis often
renderedsupercial by faniliarity, but cones
frona nuchdeeper placewhenwetakethat
colour away. Light, shade, textureandshape
takecentrestageandwhat's actually inthe
scenebecones alnost irrelevant -it's the
inpact andehect theinagehas onyouthat
counts nuchnore.
Digital technology nakes black owhite
landscapephotography easier thanever
before, nainly becausetheneedfor a
blacked-out roonandsnelly chenicals has
A: Misty, bIurredwater, dramaticIooming
skies andgrittytextures areaII great ingredients
that adduptoanimpressive, aImost other-
worIdIy, monochromeimage.
Pight: Don't beafraidtothrowtheruIebookout
of thewindowandincIudeIots of skyinyour
bIackwhiteIandscapeimages. Anyinteresting
cIoudformations becomethefocaI point.
chtscps
L
L
L

S
1
1HCGU1LNSPPH1GRPH
Whenyouconvert aninage
toblackowhite, sonecolours
coneout as sinilar greytones.
1hesolutionis touselters to
changethewaycolours translate
togreyandalsocontrol contrast.
ilnphotographers dididothis by
placingoptical lters ontheir lens
(yellow, orange, redor greenfor
landscapes). 1heselters workby
lighteningcolours closetothen
anddarkeningcolours opposite
thenonthecolour wheel, soa
redlter lightens reds andother
warncolours, but darkens blues
andgreens, for exanple. s adigital
shooter youdon't needtousethese
optical lters onyour lens because
youcanaddtheir ehects whenyou
convert aninagetoblackowhite
duringpost-production, using
Photoshop, Lightroon, perture
or plug-ins suchas NikSoftware's
Silver LfexPro2.
nalternativeoptionis to
usetheMonochronePicture
Styleinyour canera toaddlter
ehects toaninageas youtake
it. r youcouldset your canera
toMonochronenodethenuse
optical lters onthelens, though
you'll producebetter inages by
shootinginRaw(colour) then
convertingtoblack owhitelater.
Here's a quick rundownof the
ehect that diherent black owhite
lters will haveonyour inage.
YeIIow: Lightens warncolours
anddarkens cool colours. lso
gives a slight increaseincontrast,
but theehects aresubtle.
Orange: Lightens warn
colours anddarkens cool colours,
enhances skies andgives a
signicant boost tocontrast.
Ped: 1henost dranaticlter of
all -bluesky goes alnost black,
clouds standout starkly and
contrast is signicantly increased.
Darkens greens inthelandscape
andlightens warncolours.
Green: Lightens greens and
blues whiledarkeningwarner
colours. Handy for landscapes as it
separates out shades of green.
Iue: Not a goodchoicefor
landscapes generally as greens and
blues govery light soit tends to
ruindranaticskies.
1herearecertainlters that
youcanuseonyour lens when
shootinginages incolour to
convert toblack owhitelater, and
they includea polariser, neutral
density (ND) grads andNDlters.
POLAPI5EPHas a
sinilar ehect onthesky
toa redlter, darkening
blueandnakingclouds
standout, but it alsoinproves
clarity andincreases contrast,
andall of theseehects will be
seenintheinagewhenyou
convert it toblack owhite.
NDGPAD51heseare
usedtoreducethe
diherenceinbrightness
betweensky andlandso
whenyouexposefor the
landscape, thesky is alsocorrect.
.6NDgradis nefor general
use, but a darker .9NDgradis
better whenthesky is bright or for
dranaticehect.
NDFILTEP5llowyou
toincreasetheexposure
soyoucanrecord
novenent inthe
landscape. 1raditional NDs suchas
a .6, .9andI.2arehandy for
blurringthewater inwaterfalls,
rivers andcoastal views, but in
recent years, extreneNDs suchas
theLeeilters BigStopper have
beconepopular as they allowyou
touseexposures of a ninuteor
longer indaylight tocapture
notioninthelandscape.
h scrs
trsr cht
lthoughyoudon't havetoadhereto
specicrules whencreatingblack owhite
landscapes, therearea fewworth
considering. or exanple.
Useforegroundinterest toadda sense
of depthandscalewhenshootingwitha
wide-anglelens.
Look for lines that cancarry theeyeinto
thescene-walls, fences, rivers, streans,
paths, shadows andother natural or
nan-nadefeatures canbeused.
Usehyperfocal focusingtonaxinise
depth-of-eldsoyoucanrecordthe
scenewithfront-to-back focus without
havingtostopyour lens right downtoits
nininunaperture.
Usetherule-of-thirds topositionthe
scene's focal point -thetop-right thirdis
usually thebest place. Youcanalsodivide
thesceneintothirds -two-thirds sky and
one-thirdforeground, or viceversa.
y r ur
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-all that natters is theendresult.
1hegreat thingabout nonolandscape
photography is that it ohers endless scopefor
creativeexpressionandexperinentation.
You'vestrippedaway reality by renoving
colour, soafter that it doesn't really natter
what youdo. Youcangodark anddranatic
evenif theoriginal scenewasn't, or soft and
gentle, andcontrol thenoodof thenal
inage. Youcanalsouselter ehects to
changethetonal relationshipintheinage
andboost contrast (seepanel opposite).
Basically, younakeyour ownrules.
Black owhitesuits all types of landscapes,
frongrand, sweepingviews tosnall details
andeverythinginbetween, sononatter
whereyouareyou'll ndnonoinspiration. t's
alsopossibletoproducestunningblack o
whiteinages insituations wherecolour
sinply wouldn't work, suchas onfat, grey
days, soit canoher a creativeescaperoute
that younay not havethought of. 1heinages
usedinthis featureshouldgiveyoua good
idea of what we'retalkingabout. Black o
whitecantakeyour landscapephotography
toa wholenewlevel -all youhavetodois
throwcautiontothewindandgiveit a go.

MNCHRMLLANDSCAPLPH1GRAPH
LRSLNDLLSSSCPLRCRLA1LLPRLSSN


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ckWhiteode
1oswitchyour Canonto
Monochrone node, press
the Menubuttonandgoto
the secondcanera tab. t
the botton, select Picture
Styles andthenselect
Monochrone.


Does it matter if I shoot inJPEGthen
convert myimages tobIackwhite, or
shouIdI ideaIIyshoot inPaw?
t's always better toshoot inRawas the
Rawleis likea black owhitenegative-
it contains all theinfornationyouneed
but youcaninterpret that infornationin
diherent ways tocontrol thenoodof the
nal inage. WithJPLGs, a lot of that
infornationhas already beendeleted
in-canera soit's a less versatileinage
fornat. 1hat said, youcanstill produce
great black owhiteinages fronJPLGsl
What's thebest softwarefor
convertingimages tobIackwhite?
1henost popular is Nik Software's Silver
Lfex Pro2, part of theNik Collection(see
page89). t ohers lots of presets that give
yougreat ehects at theclick of a nouse,
allows youtotoneyour inages andadd
thecharacteristics of specicblack o
whitelns, but it alsogives youa high
degreeof control over theinagesoyou
canadjust contrast andexposurein
localisedareas. Photoshop, Lightroon
andperturearealsoexcellent options.
I want tobuyaten-stopDIter.
WhichonewouIdyourecommendfor
bIackwhiteimages?
1herearethreenainoptions. theLee
ilters BigStopper (I50), theB+WII03.0
(I25for //nnthread), or theHitechPro
StopI0(/5). Basedonprice, theHitechis
thewinner, but basedoninagequality,
theLeeBigStopper is a better option. n
terns of versatility, theLeeandHitech
options arebetter as theB+Wis screwed
onandthereforetricky tousewithother
lters suchas NDgrads (whichyouwill
needtostopthesky fronoverexposing).
ll things considered, we'dgofor theLee
ilters BigStopper.
I haveaninfrared-modiedD5LP. Can
yougivemeafewtips onusingit for
bIackwhiteIandscapes?
ollowthesesteps for thebest results.
Shoot infull sunandincludefoliageor
grass, whichreally showohtheinfrared
ehect well.
ncludeplenty of sky andcloud
fornations, they look anazingininfrared.
Watchtheexposures -younay needto
dial inexposureconpensationtoget
well-exposedinages.
Wheneditinginages, createa duplicate
layer andadda littledihuseglowtoit
(F//ters>D/stort>D/huseG/ow) toenhance
theinfraredehect. djust thepacity
slider until you'rehappy withtheehect.
Whether youuseit
purely toshoot bowor
alongsideyour DSLRfor
quick analysis of what a
scenelooks likeinbow,
theHueless iPhoneapp
is highly reconnended.
t ohers liveexposure
controls, lters and
nodes. Buy it at the
ppStorefor I.49.
ak8htandsaps
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i lkowhiteinages. Leavetheexposure
toyour caneraandany solidshapes will be
recordedas starksilhouettes. lternatively,
dial inacoupleof stops of exposure
conpensationtoblowout thebackground
andcreateanatnospherichigh-key ehect.
Whenthelight is colourful, your gut instinct
will betoshoot incolour. t sunriseand
sunset, for exanple, thewarnthinthelight
andthevividcolours inthesky areusually
what inspireyoutopick upacanera. But don't
assunethat thesaneinagewon't work in
black owhite. Renovethecolour andsee
what youthink. Goldenlight is fantastic, but it
cannask thereal beauty of thesceneandit's
easy toget carriedaway by colour andignore
theshapes andtones that liebehindit. f you
convert acolourful inagetoblack owhite,
noonewill ever knowit was colourful anyway,
but they will seeit inatotally diherent light.
na sense, there's a patternenerginghere
-nanely, whenthelight's not goodfor
colour it's perfect for black owhite, andvice
versa. or this reason, youdon't haveto
pigeonholeyourself as oneor theother, but
sinply bea creativephotographer who
enbraces bothnediuns andswitches
betweenthetwotonakethenost of
whatever conditions youencounter. Purists
nay arguethat by doingsoyou're
conpronisedonbothcounts, but it is
possibletoenbracebothnediuns and
producefantasticwork.

' loveshootinginbadweather, capturingtherawpower of theelenents. 1his shot was taken
onlnnouthBeach, closetonyhoneontheNorthunberlandcoast. Drysandwas being
whippedupbyastrongwindandblowntowards thesea. s thesuncaneout it was as
thoughthesurfaceof thebeachwas alive- couldfeel thesandhittingnylegs as walked. 'd
never triedphotographingthis phenonenonbefore, but decidedtogiveit ago.
experinentedwithdiherent shutter speeds inanattenpt tocapturetheghostlyehect of the
blowingsandandthis one, shot at Ii6sec, provedtobethebest. lovethecontrast between
thelight toneof thesandandthedark, angrysky, which enphasisedusinganNDgradand
alsobyboostingcontrast duringpost-production.
al length: 24mm, tripod, 0.6Nhardgradhlter, xposure: 1!6secat f!22(IS50.
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scapes suit monochrome
photographyreaIIyweII, withstark, baretrees
aImost siIhouettedagainst bright whitesnow
andgreyskies.

1ondout whenthe
best natural light is
goingtohit your
location, download
a neat little
augnented-reality
snartphoneapp
calledSunSeeker.
t uses your phone's
canera andGPS to
showtheprojected
positionof thesunat a
givendateandtine,
allowingyoutoreturn
tothelocationunder optinunlighting
conditions. SunSeeker is availablefron
theppleppStorefor 4.99or the
GooglePlay storefor 3./9.
1HGU1LANSAPPH1GRAPH

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foregroundtoadddepthandscaletoyour
conpositions. 1hesanerules canbeapplied
at sea level, too, whererock slabs extend
downtothewater's edgeandyoucanuse
thentoleadtheeyeintothescene, or ll the
foregroundwithsea without gettingyour feet
wetl By shootinginnonoandrenovingthe
distractionof colour, all enphasis is placedon
shapeandforn-neaninghowyou
conposeyour inageis all-inportant. You'll
ndsinplicity is oftenyour best bet.
Howthesea records depends onhow
roughit is andtheshutter speedyouuse. f
youwant tofreezea crashingsea, you'll need
toshoot at IiI000secor evenIi2000sec.
1his approachworks well if you'reusinga
telezoonlens toll thefranewithpounding
waves, or tocapturethenexplodingagainst
theshoreandsendingspray highintotheair.
1orecordnotioninthesea, you'll needa
slowshutter speed-theslower it is, thesofter
thesea becones. UseIi4sectoonesecond
torecordnotioninthewaves but still retain
texture, thengradually slowit down. nce
youget to20to30seconds, waves turnto
nist andlittletextureonthesurfaceof thesea
is recorded. 1otakethis idea totheextrene,
usea ten-stopNDlter soexposures runinto
ninutes rather thanseconds, turningthesea
tonilk -or wait until light levels aresolow
that youcanachieveexposures of several
ninutes naturally. ncludestaticelenents in
thescenetocontrast withthesoft sea -
jetties, rocks, groynes andposts all work well.
Convertedtoblack owhite, these
long-exposureinages look subline.
Youcanuseripples inthesandtoleadthe
eye, or rock pools refectingthesky toll the
foreground. Seaweed, driftwood,
barnacle-encrustedgroynes, oldlobster pots,
shingnets, rocks andpebbles foundonthe
beachcanalsobeusedas foreground
te
ceateht iethi. Theeai educedta
itybu that give aai f itigue.
bve: Pcyutcp aefataticf addiga
bit f iteet. 5et afat hutte tfeezeti
itheea, ty1l1000ectbegiwith.
Pight: Patte adippe itheeaaea
beigf bwiage. 5et agexpue,
ettigeveythigappea ihuetted.
Pecedigwave
f youwatchwaves washback
downtothesea, they oftenleave
streaks of bubblingfoanthat look
anazinginblack owhite. 1o
capturethis ehect, usea
wide-anglelens anda slow
shutter speed-aroundIi2sec
shouldbene. 1ineyour shot to
catchthewaves receding.
high-contrast bowconversion
will enphasisetheehect.
Pcat
Rocks arenever far away at the
coast andoher lots of potential.
Pebbles andboulders worn
snoothby thesea areideal for
patternshots, whilerocks below
thehightidenark areoftenfull of
graceful curves andcontours. n
rock slabs, look for pebbles
jannedintocracks andcrevices,
or noveinclosetoreveal patterns
andtextures.
5htigad
Ripples insandarebest captured
early or lateintheday withyour
canera whenthesunis low, or
whenstrongsunlight renders
thenas silhouettes -usethenas
lead-inlines inwide-angleshots
or ll thefranefroncloserange.
1akea closer look inshallow
outfowstreans, too, where
grains of sandareseparatedto
createeye-catchingpatterns.
Pief theea
Piers nakegreat seasidesubjects.
Usethenas thefocal point in
wide-angleviews, or as thenain
elenent inlong-exposureshots
that recordnotionintheseaand
sky. Standingunder apier and
lookingout toseawill reveal the
conplex patternof legs, struts and
braces. Shoot theninsilhouette
against therisingor settingsun, or
baskingunder noonlight.

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1HU1LNSPPH1RPH

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trt St r trtatt
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avtt
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Cata v ta a t t
rtt 1
at a atr aatta,
a r, a at, a tr ar
a a ata t t
trt trtava r
aart r r a
a t at t aatr t
ava avfuenceonthenoodof your
black owhitecoastal inages. 1hegreat thing
about shootinginbowis that it doesn't natter
howbadtheweather gets, especially if you're
usinga ten-stopNDlter. nfact, it's trueto
say that theworsetheweather is, thebetter
your nonochroneinages becauseyoucan
never havetoonuchdrana whenyou're
shootingtheseal Dawnis a great tinefor
atnosphericlight. f thetidehas been
recedingthroughthenight, you'll alsohave
theadvantageof beaches beingdevoidof
footprints anddelicatesandripples will still be
freshandwet. Standingwater onthesandcan
reveal beautiful refections, too.

RossHoddnott
' lovebowphotography. However,
'seeing' inbowcones easier tosone
thanothers and nust adnit 'nnot a
guy whonaturally 'sees' innono. But
over tine, 'vetaught nyself what tolook
for -andthecoast is oneof thebest
places todoso. Sinplicity is inportant.
Renovingcolour places enphasis on
shapeandforn, andconpositionand
light. ftenan'active' sky helps -one
withinterestingcloudanddrana. But
failingthat, useboldfeatures and
foregroundinterest -large, snooth
boulders, piers, lighthouses and
weatheredgroynes. Weather is key. Bad
weather suits bow, as it conveys nood
andatnosphere. alsolovetheehect
createdby usingextreneNDlters.
Personally, usea Leeilters BigStopper.
Withthelter attached, exposures of a
ninuteor longer arepossible, reducing
thesea toanethereal blur.
lter: LeeFilters 8igStopper.
xposure: 91 seconds at f!11 (IS200.
LLLRS1
1LCNONUDL1LNDSCPLP1RP
5CPE5
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bove: Whenyou'representedwithascene, try
tothinkwhat it might beIikeconvertedtobIack
white-if thereareIots of diherent tones, as
withthis shot, it shouIdworkparticuIarIyweII.
boveright: 5hadows andhighIights arethe
makingof agoodmonoimage, aIongwitha
crackingcomposition. This is aperfect exampIe
of howaII threecombinefor aIoveIybwshot.

N
|a8wh|andap
5hnga hgh5
Weconstntly bngonbout keepingyour
rtinglowwhenshootinglndscpes to
nininisenoise, but whenit cones toblck
white, bit of noisecnbe benet.
Noiseoncolour inges tends tolook nh,
but onceyouconvert tht ingetoblck
whiteit looks nuchlikelngrin, ndthe
strk, gritty feel cnlook fntstic. inple
inges suit thetretnent -nist ndfog,
sescpes, shots tkenonovercst dys.
Youneedplinres of tones torelly see
thenoiseigrin, sovoidshootingcluttered
conpositions t high. Howhighyougo
depends onhowoldyour DLis. he
ltest DLs hndlenoisesowell tht even
t 3200you'll get snoothinges, ndif
youwnt torelly gofor it you'll needto
shoot t 6400or beyond. Witholder
nodels, youny seelots of noiset
I600or 3200. Just experinent. f yound
theingelooks ft inblck white-high
inges oftendo-boost contrst by
djustingLevels or Curves inPhotoshop.
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Pp: |nxn
'oneof ny fvouritenonochrone
inges resosinple, oftenjust lone
treendbigsky, likethis onetht
spottedwhiledrivinginthecountry.
wlkedroundtheeldtondthebest
view, lookingtoincorportethefenceto
ddinterest. heclouds ddedtexture,
fornndhelpedthetonl rnge. sully
'dopt for ny wide-nglelens, but s the
eldws inccessible hdtouse
telephoto, whichkept theshot
uncluttered. hewingews
processedincolour ndthen pplied
Blck Whitedjustnent lyer in
Photoshoptodjust thetones. inlly,
usedCurves tobringout thecontrst
ndnkeit punchier.
osure: 1!20secat f!13(ISO200.
CNN
black owhitebecauseit's
usually anindicator of blockedshadows
andblownhighlights. But youneedtrue
blacks andwhites innonoinages, otherwise
all you'releft witharevarious shades of grey
andthat's just boringl
Youhavetobebold-don't beafraidto
boost contrast, todarkenthat sky, tonake
localisedadjustnents tocontrast and
exposure(just as they didindarkroondays)
by dodgingandburning. Renenber, you're
nolonger dealingwithreality, sotherulebook
goes out of thewindowl


journeythroughtheimageandtreatingthe
viewer toacertainamount of intrigue.
Far right: 5hootinginbIackwhiterequires youto
thinkdiherentIyabout your picture-taking. Often
your imagewiII beaboveyou, soIookup-here
thecIouds formaframefor thechurch.
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Myhometown
Wetendtoassociatethe
countrysidewithlandscape
photography, but theurban
landscapeis just as interesting-
andoftenfar noreaccessible. Set
yourself aproject toshoot aseries
of black owhiteinages of your
honetown-not just bigviews,
but details that captureits
character. Younay discover
places youdidn't knowexisted.
MinimaIist images
Blackowhiteis anininal nediun
sousethat toyour advantage
whenselectingscenes. ofor
sinple, stark conpositions such
as trees against thesky or
refectingincalnwater. 1he
winter landscapelends itself to
this treatnent, especially when
coveredinablanket of snow. Dull
days do, too, as they providea
plain, featureless backdrop.
5kyhigh
Whenweshoot landscapes, the
sky usually plays secondddleto
theforeground, but insone
situations thesky will benuch
noreinterestingthanthescene
itself. Don't beafraidtotilt your
caneraupandnakeafeatureof it
-dranaticcloudfornations look
anazingwhenshot witha
wide-anglelens andveryoftenwill
createincrediblepictures.
Movingwater
Waterfalls, rivers andstreans area
favouritesubject anong
landscapephotographers and
nakegreat bowsubjects. 1hey're
alsobest shot indull weather,
whenthelight's soft, soif the
weather worsens, ndyourself
sonenovingwater. 1oachievean
attractiveblurry ehect, experinent
withshutter speeds fronIi4sec
toseveral seconds.

ack8wtandscaps
onvrt aRawto
ippigdpeigef givepie ip d
d. Lehweedige fy we

he igi f phgphy e
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pei . hfy whedeig
wihdigi he pe i eie dhe
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ige hve ii eege
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Cveig owhie ide
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C y ige i ved
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ye ihhp. Whie evig
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eveyhig e.

just your coIour sIiders We y


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dhdhe 8ues ide ddg i he ef
dehe e e. eepeye he
hig he pf he eee
e ippig .
Fna| mage
hstrgghtg
trstgtxturs m
ths mgthprct
ctr ths bc
whtPwcvrs
4
rgt yur justmts ive to
adjusting the sliders, youcantarget your
adjustnents. lick andholdonthe Targeted
Adjustment Too/ buttonat the topandselect
Graysca/e M/x. lick andholdonany tone in
your inage anddrag upor downtolightenor
darkenthat tone andthe surrounding tones, too.
5
IcrsGryscMx Sone of the warner
tones nowlook a bit lost, soincreasing the
Grayscale Mix onthe channels for Oranges and
Ye//ows brings out the detail inthe rocks and
creates a strong contrast betweenthenandthe
sea. 1his canbe done nanually or by using the
TargetedAdjustment Too/ again.
6
just Curvs inally, select the Tone Curve
buttonat the topandchoose the Po/nt tab.
Under the Curve tab, select StrongContrast. f
necessary, youcanadjust the curve belowby
noving the individual points as required. 1his
nal stepjust adds extra drana andoonphto
our nonochrone inage.
ost
heday capturedthis picture
was exploringthe
orthunberlandcoast, looking
for scenes tosuit theehect of a
ten-stopDlter. When sawthis
oldshernan's hut, knewalongexposure
wouldworkwell torecordnotioninthe
driftingclouds andswayinggrass, whilethe
hut stayedstaticintheniddleof thefrane.
heoriginal awinagelookedpretty dull,
partly becausethelight was fat andalso
becausetheB+Wten-stopDlter addeda
warncast andsonevignetting. However,
noneof this natteredbecause knewthe
inagewouldbecroppedandconvertedto
black owhitelater.
Bringingout that drana andinpact was
easy. 'nnot onefor spendingages working
onawles and, inthis case, didn't enploy
any fancy softwareeither - only used
hotoshopC3. irst boostedcontrast by
adjustingtheoneCurve. novingtheDarks
slider a littletotheleft andtheights slider a
littletotheright. thenopenedtheinagein
hotoshopandcroppedit tosquarefornat.
oget a basicnonochroneinage, applied
a Black oWhiteadjustnent
(ge>Adjustments>8/ack8Wn/te). hen
usedtheolygonal assoool, withthe
eather set toI00px, toselect thesky. o
inprovethesky's inpact, thenaddeda
evels adjustnent (lmage>Adjustments>
Leve/s), usingtheutobuttontoseeif it gave
nethelook wanted. inceit did, stuck
withit, but if it hadn't, 'dnornally cancel the
adjustnent andnakenorecontrolled
alterations usingevels or Curves. then
invertedtheselection(Se/ect>lnverse), so
everythingother thanthesky was selected,
andreappliedtheevels utoconnand,
whichboostedcontrast intheshedand
grass. henal stagewas tobringout detail
andtextureintheshed, so selectedit with
theolygonal assoool, theeather set to
30px, thenadjustedCurves
(lmage>Adjustments>Curves) togivethe
inagenore'oonph'l
Whenit cones toprintingny black o
whitelandscapes, always usethesane
paper -Hahnenuhlehotorag308. t's a
heavy, fat whitene-art paper withalovely
dull nishandbrilliant archival qualities. print
withanLpsontylus ro/88024inprinter
usingLpson3ltrachroneinks. oprint
black owhite, usethedvanceBoWsetting
ontheprinter, whichuses threeblack inks to
producepurenonoinages. liketoprint big
(usually 20x20inon24inpaper) -then have
theprints nountedin32x32inwindow
nounts sothere's a6inborder onall sides
andfranedinnatural oak franes. henal
franedwork is 34x34in, soit nakes abig
statenent whenhangingonthewall -the
best placefor black owhitelandscapesl
b8w:
apro'sprocess
rofessional photographer
eerost explains his process
for takingblackowhiteinages
fronhotoshoptoprint
|ack8whte|andscapes
OriginaI
|ack8Whteadjustment|ayer 5e|ectve|yadjustngb|ack8whte
Choosngproducts
Whilesonephotographers prefer thesinplicityof astraightforward
blackowhiteconversion, youcanget great results usingaBlacko
Whiteadjustnent layer (Layer>NewAdjustment Layer>8/ack8
Wn/te...). ot onlydoes it allowyoutousethecolour channels to
adjust thetonalityof your blackowhiteinage, sinilarlyif youareusing
colour lters in-canera, anyadjustnents younakearenon-
destructive. t anypoint youcandouble-clickonthedjustnent
ayer intheayers paletteandre-edit your conversion, if necessary.
t's averyfexibleandehectivewaytoedit your bowinages.
ftenthenonochroneinages youget fronabasicconversioncan
befat andgrey. or this reason, nakeinprovingthecontrast usingan
djustnent ayer your rst priority. youcoulduseevels, Curves or
BrightnessiContrast for this. f soneareas of your inagearestill in
needof help, consider beingselectivewithyour adjustnents. Lither
useaselectiontool toisolatethetarget areaandapplyaevels
adjustnent (likeeerost has) or duplicatetheinagelayer (Layer>
Dup//cateLayer) andusetheDodgeandBurnools, set toidtones
andalowLxposure, toreveal detail inshadows andhighlights.
Youcanget fabulous results fronat-hone
printingbyconbiningtheright products.
Wereconnendtryingnatt ne-art papers
byHahnenuhle, lfordor ernajet, ideally
suitablefor blackowhiteinages. lso
consider usingalarge-fornat Lpson,
Canonor Hprinter withonlyaset of black
inks, rather thancolour, tooptinisedetails
intheshadows andhighlights.
CNON
Carnnsn
niss thegrainquality you
got fronyour odak 1-Max
P3200, thesnoothtones of
gfa's PXProI00or thedeep
blacks andpearly whites fronan
lfordXP2Super 400roll of ln, you'll adore
Nik Software's Silver fex Pro2, part of
Google's Nik Collection. Carefully selecting
lnhada great deal todowiththeart of
black owhitephotography, but that
enjoynent doesn't havetoendwithdigital.
Whilethereareanunber of ways youcan
developablackowhiteinageinPhotoshop
CS, lenents andLightroonfor grand
results, Silver fex Pro2allows youtoget
norecreativeandelaboratewithyour
ehects. Not onlycanyoureplicatethelookof
your favouritelntypewithafewclicks, you
canalsoapplycolour lters toadjust tonality
andpickfrondozens of classic, vintageand
nodernpresets for instant results. Youcan
evennakeyour usual selectiveadjustnents
tocontrast, noiseandexposure, andthen
nishohby pickinga vignette, border and
toningstyle. Youcannakeit as classicor as
creativeas youwant withvery littleehort, so
don't worry if you'renewtothis digital
editingnalarkey -this softwareputs the
enjoynent back intoediting.
s a plug-in, Silver fex Pro2 works in
conjunctionwithyour naineditingsuite
andis accessible via its ilters nenu. 1his
neans youcancontinue toedit your inage
inPhotoshopbefore andafter workingonit
inSilver fex Pro. it's one streanlined
solution. Personally, while youcanyield
great results usingthe techniques we've
already shownyouinPhotoshop, for ne,
nothingconpares tothe fexibility andease
of Silver fex Pro2. or the tine it takes you
toget one creative conversionin
Photoshop, youcouldproduce a nunber of
diherent looks usingSilver fex Pro-one
of which'll explaintoyouhere.
Beforeeditingthis exanpleinagewith
Nik Software, croppedtheinagein
Photoshop. t's goodtodothis rst if you
plantoadda vignetteor border toyour
nishedinagetoavoidcroppingtheedge
ehects out afterwards. Before nadeany
selectiveadjustnents totheinage,
scrolledthroughthePreset Categories to
seewhichpreset best suitedtheinage.
Sone, likeLowey, nadetheinagelook
toodark, whileothers likePinholeand
ntiquePlate lookedunusual but weretoo
vintagefor what wanted.
chosethebasicHighContrast preset
thenincreasedtheStructuretosharpenand
pwhxo
Lookingfor aquickandehectivewaytoconvert your landscapes to
nonochroneLooknofurther thanNikSoftware's Silver fexPro2
boost contrast. 1oaddnoisefor a grainy
high-Sehect, set theGrainper pixel
slider to86. Youcanseetheehect of the
settings onyour inagealnost instantly
inthepreviewwindow. 1onishoh,
addeda grungefraneby selecting1ype8
under nageBorders. s soonas
pressed, theehect was appliedand
theinageautonatically openedin
Photoshop's nainsuiteas a separate
editablelayer withintheLayers palette. t
really is as sinpleas that.
Youcantry beforeyoubuy withtheNik
SoftwareI5-day freetrial, downloadable
frontheGoogleNik Collectionwebsite
-visit www.niksoftware.con. Youcan
alsobuy theplug-inas part of Google's
Nik ConpleteCollectionfor SI49.
ak8whaap
hao
op ooo
Canvasarysf afranedne-art
print is alittletootraditional for you, think
about gettingastretchedcanvas print or
your inageprintedonacrylicglass, or
evenaluniniun, for anorecontenporary
style. Consider brands likeWhiteWall,
Jessops, PointI0I andLucyrt.
Prssna prntrsf investingina
qualityprinter andinks is norenoneythan
you'rewillingtospendfor theoccasional
bowinage, consider hiringaprinting
conpanytodoit for you. 1heprintspace,
for instance, ohers ne-art Giclees and
silver-basedC-typeprints that aresureto
bringout thebest of your inagefor a
reasonableprice. Lookfor conpanies that
oher archival-qualityproducts toavoidthe
colour fadingover tine.
f youwant toaddyour inageto
your onlineportfoliofor awider audience
tosee, nakesureyouchangethe
Resolution(lmage>lmageS/ze) to/2,
resizeyour inageandapplyalittle
sharpeningbeforeuploadingtoyour site.
's withanycreative
profession,
presentationis
everythingin
photography.
Beautifullyconposed,
technicallybrilliant
shots canbetotally
underninedif poorly
printedor presented.
Naturally, paper
choiceis inportant.
1hereis sonuch
choicewhen
choosingpaper, but
lford's GalerieGoldibreSilk is a favourite
of nine. 1hepaper has great archival
properties and, arguably, is theclosest
thingyoucanget toa darkroonprint -it
looks, feels andevensnells liketraditional
darkroonpaperl Croppingis aninportant
part of theconpositional process anda
squarefornat, inparticular, really suits
black owhite-enhancingits ne-art
look. snall border -intheregionof
I-2cn-will alsohelpconpletethelook
of your nononasterpiece.

andscapeprojects 9I
LN5P
PROJT5

P
k
O
V

O
U
k
5

NON

Panoranas aresosinpletocreate,
you'll usethis techniqueagainanagain
onceyouknowhow. ll youhaveto
renenber isthat it'sverystraightforwar
proviingyousticktoaconsistent
workingroutineanon't nakeanysillynistakes
alongtheway. ere, 'll showyouhowtocreatea
stitchepanoranausingobePhotoshop3.
irst things rst, grabyour canera.

sttched
panorama
t's soeasytoproucebrilliant
panoranas withthis technique
4
Renove
your hanfroninfront of the
lens antake the rst shot inthe
sequence. nneiately swing the
canera slightly tothe right an
take your seconexposure. Repeat
this until youreachthe other en
of the scene, naking sure you
overlapeachinage by 30-40to
enable easy stitching.
3
ocus the
lens nanually onthe scene an
nake sure the aperture youuse
provies suhcient epth-of-el
torecoreverythinginfocus that
nees tobe sharp-fi8tofiII is
usually ne. olyour left hanin
front of the lens withyour nger
pointing right antake a shot, this
narks the start of the sequence.
6
Downloathe
inages toa conputer. f you
shoot inRaw, openall the les for
the stitchtogether, select an
click , sothey all
receive the sane ajustnents to
exposure, colour tenperature,
contrast ansoon. t's essential
that all the inages are consistent
otherwise the stitchwill look o.
5
olyour
right haninfront of thelens
withyour ngers pointingtotheleft
antakeashot toenotetheenof
thesequence. Whenyouownloa
theles, you'll knowthat all the
inages betweenthetwohanshots
areinthesanesequenceanit will
beobvious whichones neetobe
stitchetocreateyour panorana.
1
Mount your canera ona tripoin
either lanscape or portrait fornat. Make
sure the tripoheais level onthe legs (a
levelling base helps enornously) analso
that the canera is level onthe heaby using
a hotshoe spirit level, sothat whenyourotate
the canera betweenshots it renains level.
2
1akeanexposuretest shot fron
anaveragepart of thescene-not thelightest
or arkest. heck theinageanhistogran, if it
looks okay, set this exposureinnanual noe.
lsoswitchWhiteBalancefronWBtothe
preset that suits theconitions. wingyour
caneratotheleft, reay tocreatetherst shot.
dscapeprojects
9
ttnm he stitchis conplete it
will look sonething like this. f the canera
wasn't level as yourotatedit, youwill needto
cropthe topandbottonedges tostraighten
then. 1he le size will be huge, especially if the
source inages were savedas 1s. 1oreduce it,
gotoF/aenlmage.
10
or sms nlarge the inage on
screento!Xandscroll aroundit to
check that there are noobvious joins where the
inages neet. f there are, use the C/one Samp
Too/ or Hea//ng8rsnToo/ toerase then,
thoughif youoverlappedthe source inages
enough, youshouldndthat the stitchis
seanless andlooks fantastic.
Fna| mage
s tnqu s prt
or nspsots ut
t wors wt ns o
sns. v t o
7
t your yout Put the processedinages
ina folder sothey're inthe sane place. Next,
openPhotoshopandgotoF//e>Aomae>
Pnoomerge. Select the layout style youwant to
use -utousually works ne, but ylindrical and
Perspective are worthtrying. 1henclick onthe
Use tab, select Fo/ders thenclick on8rowse.
8
mpoyotomrlick onthe folder
containing the inages youwant tostitch
andthey'll appear inthe Photonerge dialogue
box. lick OKandlet Photonerge perfornits
nagic. 1his cantake a fewninutes, as a series of
layers are createdandPhotonerge decides
whichbits of eachinage it will blendtogether.
5ttchngsoftware
ootosop
f you'reusingPhotoshop, lenents or
Lightroon, youcanstitchinages
together usingthePhotonergefunction
as describedonthis page. t's quick, easy
andehective. Prior toPhotoshopS3it
wasn't sogood, but fronS3on, it does
anexcellent job. or PandMac.
reewithPhotoshopoLightroon.
www.adobe.con
u
(Panoranic1oolsGraphical User nterface)
vailablefor bothMacandP, P1Gui is far
norecapablethanPhotonerge, allowing
youtostitchnultiplelayers of inages,
create360 cylindrical pans, 360xI80
spherical pans, HRpans, gigapixel pans
fronhundreds of sourceinages and
nore. 1helatest versionohers anlignto
Gridfeaturethat nakes it easytostitch
nultiplelayers, plus youhavenanual
control tone-tuneinages whenthey're
stitched. Great if youplantousethis
techniqueoften.
C/9for P1Gui, CI49for P1Gui Pro
www.ptgui.con
nu mssmr
Sinilar toP1Gui inthat it ohers autonatic
andnanual stitching, corrects lens
distortionandnisalignnent, canhandle
nulti-layer stitches andIxInpixel
stitches, ohers autonaticcropping,
single-step360 inagewrapping, stitches
handheldsequences andcreates
dranaticvertical pans. Ponly. ownload
freetrial fronPanavuewebsite.
S64Stddition, SI29Prodition.
v www.panavue.con
nowvr 8
goodchoiceif youwant tocreate
cylindrical or spherical pans andusethen
for vRviewingusingH1ML5, lashvR,
1vRandother platforns. Youcanalso
useit tocreateLittlePlanet inages, stitch
nultiplerows, handleinages shot with
full-franesheyelenses (for spherical
pans), createHRpans tohandle
exposureicontrast issues andnuch,
nuchnore. or PandMac.
S99.99Stddition.
www.easypano.con
rcsoft PanoramaMaker 7
Relativelyinexpensiveandeasytouse,
it ohers vestitchingnodes. uto, 360,
Horizontal, 1ileandvertical -just select
theoneyouwant thenchooseyour
inages. Youcancreatepanoranas fron
stills andvideo, create360 virtual reality
novies, 3panoranas, export thepans in
arangeof fornats, adjust colour balance,
exposureanddynaniclighting. Ponly.
S/9.99.
www.arcsoft.con
jects
9M11M

L


D





ND


0ND




R




Ceseis echiqe
ND S

hcient depth-of-eldfor your scene( usually
usefiI3) andtheshutter speedgivenby theforegroundneter reading. Adda lter tobalance
thediherencebetweenthesky andland, usually haveLeeilters hardNDgrads 0.3(one
stop), 0./5(2.5stops) and0.9(threestops) tohand. ocus a thirdof theway intothescene,
anduseLiveviewandthedepth-of-eldpreviewbuttontocheck that it's suhciently sharp.
5ummer|andscapes
Wildfower neadows arecryingout for your canera-here's all the
adviceyouneedtocapturethenlookingtheir verybest.
HeIeDix
Poppies aretherst signof sunner for ne. Weeks of rainandheavycloudcover last
year, though, neant all coulddowas keepakeeneyeout for potential poppyelds
andhopefor aclear day. Sowhenthat dayarrived, wantedtonakethenost of it in
casesunner was over beforeit began(whichit usuallyis intheUl). Unfortunately,
poppyelds aren't as connonas theyusedtobeduetofarners sprayingpesticides,
but they'renakingaconebackwithorganicfarning. 1here's nopredictingwhereyounight
ndtheneither. f youcan't ndawholeeldof poppies, lookfor bunches growingalongthe
nargins. Youcanoftenndother wildfowers growingalongsidethen, too.
Poppies start foweringinJuneandthroughout thesunner. 'veevenseenelds as lateas
ctober. 'dbeentothis area-West Pentire, near Newquay-before, so knewthesunwould
set out toseathis tineof year andplannednyday's shootingtoendbytheclihs. f it rains the
daybeforeyouwant tophotographpoppies, wait until theafternoon. Raindanages their
delicatepetals, sogivethentinetorecover. it doesn't takelong, usuallyanorningor adayis
enoughfor newfowers toappear andthebrokenfowers tobehidden. set out latenorningto
start nyshoot, as knewtheeld was visitingwouldlookbetter backlit at sunset thanat sunrise.
NpIise ihpIise
PM-5PMs thesunhas nownoved
overhead, slightly pointingtowards the
canera, changeny viewpoint sothat it is
behindneagainby walkingdowntothe
bottonof theeld. s thecloudhas built up,
thesky isn't as harshintheafternoon, so add
a0./5Ngradtony B+Wpolariser and
lengthentheexposuretobalancethesky
andforeground. usearenotereleasejust to
besurethat don't introducecanerashake
whenpressingtheshutter button. Nornally
it's goodtondafocal point inascenelikea
treeor distant groupingof trees toadddepth,
but havingchangedny viewpoint don't
haveany of this. nstead, gettingcloser and
lower tothepoppies allows netoenphasise
theforegroundnoreandtoenploy asinple
conposition. Later intheafternoonis alsoa
goodtineof day toshoot close-ups as the
light is softer andshadows areless harsh.
nsteadof anacrolens, why not try a
telephotolens like/0-300nnor /0-
200nntoconpress perspectiveandisolate
poppies withawideaperture

nhour or sobeforesunset,
I headtothecIihs toset upmy
equipment again, this time
I takeohthepoIarisingIter and
0.75NDandadda0.9NDgrad,
whichaIIows metorecordthe
foregroundthreestops brighter
thantheskytoretaindetaiI andstop
thehighIights frombIowingout.
NoNDgrad 0.75NDgrad
nspprots

1hrrquitwlvndr
rns inthU. tsto
rovncright hronour
doorstps. But youbttr ct
quickly, thywon't broundor
long. ithsuchspordicwthr inthlst
couplo yrs, lvndr hs bnbit lt
rrivingbut gnrllyis inull bloonbtwn
nid-unndthndo ugust.
visitingcultivtdlvndr rnjust prior
tohrvst is grt wytogt ntstic
picturs s thycnor copious nounts
o rich-lilclvndr inbutiul inpctul
lins. shot thsings ll t thyld
vndr rninSurryspnl onth
right tosi thr's onclostoyou, or do
littlbit o onlinrsrchtondout whr
your locl lvndr ldis loctd.
lthoughwildlvndr lds rrrnd
nynot growinrows, thydohvth
dvntgtht youcnshoot thnt ny
tino dy, whrs rnis rstrictdby
opninghours chckthir wbsitrst
borsttingo. Sonrns lsorquir
youtogt prnissionrst or photogrphy,
sonksuryoudothis. rvst tinvris
sonwht dpndingonthtypo sunnr
wthr whv, so, gin, chckwithth
rnyouplntovisit borhndtonk
surthyhvn't lrdyhrvstdtovoid
younkingwstdtrip.
1hrrnny wys o shootinglvndr
ndnunrous tchniqus totry ron
ld-inlins toslctivocusingtoth
vrious ltrs tht givdirnt cts
soit's worthtkinglong wlnss.
nssntil lns is wid-nglzoon
(I0-20nni youusnS-Csnsor,
I/-35nnfor full-frane) andconsider a
zoonlikea /0-300nnlens toconpress
thefowers, alongwitha nacrolens for
rnowtoktost
of sur'susousvnr
ProHelenDixonshares her secrets for shootinglavender landscapes
andohers tips for nakingthenost of theseheadysunner fowers
extreneclose-ups. 1akingalonga longer
lens neans youwon't conea cropper if you
ndout that thefarn's rules restrict how
closeyoucanget tothelavender.
f youwant stunninglavender landscapes,
youalsoneedtoconsider thelighting
conditions you'll befacedwith. s usual, the
best tineof daytoshoot is duringthegolden
hour, either whenthesunis coningupor
setting. Bear innindduringsunner that the
eveninglight lasts alittlelonger thanit does in
thenorningsoyoucanget afewnoreshots
inbeforetheglow's gone. But if daytineis the
onlytineyoucanventureout, whichis also
nornallytheworkinghours of farns, avoid
visitingbetweenIIan-3pnandhopefor
sonecloudcover toenrichthepurplehues
of thelandscape. Harshsunlight bleaches
lavender, leavinginages paleandfat with
pink-tingedfowers. Makesureyoupacka
polarisinglter tohelpenhancethecolour
inpact of your pictures. Happysnappingl
-ups Useawideaperture
-fi2.8-fi4-andfocus onasectionof
lavender usingsingle-point tothrowthe
rest of theinageout of focus (best done
whenthere's nowindas anynovenent will
becaptured). f youuseanacrolens, you
naybeabletousearefector tobouncelight
ontoit but stopyour lens downtoincrease
depth-of-eld. or this inage, usedaCanon
LI00nnfi2.8nacrolens withtheDSLRset
toIiI25secat fi4.5(SI00).
WithNDgrad Without NDgrad
Yournearest|avenderfarm
Snowshill avender,
nr Broadway, Cotswolds
ongarn, nr Winchester, Hanpshire
itchinavender, nr Hitchin,
Hertfordshire
sleOf Wight avender, slef Wight
astlearm, Shorehan,
nr Sevenoaks, ent
NorfolkLavender,
nr ing's Lynn, Norfolk
ShropshireLavender,
nr Newport, Shropshire
MayheldLavender, Banstead,
nr Sutton, Surrey
LordingtonLavender,
nr Chichester, West Sussex
WoldsWayLavender, Wintringhan,
NorthYorkshire
YorkshireLavender, 1errington, nr York
Millcroft Lavender, rgyll, Scotland
WyeLavender, Rhayader, Powys, Wales
Somerset Lavender, aulkland,
nr Radstock, Sonerset
UsingIters polariser will enhancethecolour andrenoveany
glareandrefections, althoughit isn't necessary inthis exanpledue
totheanount of shadeavailablefrontheclouds. diduseanND
gradlter heretobalancetheexposureas thesky was brighter than
theland. Youwill needtousestronger lters if thesceneis inshade,
havetot a 0.9and0./5toretainthedetail inthesky area, givingne
anexposureof 0.5seconds at fiI3(SI00).
CompositionLavender is usually plantedinrows givingyou
ready-nadelead-inlines, sotry toincorporatetheninyour
inages andadjust your tripodheight for a diherent view.
Lxperinent witha variety of conpositions -portrait fornat nay
work, as well as a lowvantagepoint, or alter thepositionof the
vanishingpoint as central isn't always best. 1henoreyoutry, the
norechanceyou'll haveof gettinga winningshot.
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in in ning nh
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TOPTIP
n n
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ing h k h n
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ing k

nnk
nn-nn8L USM
NM11RWRyoucall hone, you're
never far fronheather at this tineof year.
eathlands, noorlands andcoastal paths
aroundtheUarehonetobothvast
blankets andlocalisedclunps of this
colourful perennial. 1hereareseveral diherent types
of heather, but by far thenost connonvarieties
foundintheUarealluna, or lingas it's connonly
known, andbell heather. Lingfowers insunner and
autunn, whilebell heather fowers inbetweenearly
sunner andlateautunn. What does this havetodo
withphotography hear youask Well, it just so
happens that heather, withits vibrant fowers andhabit
of growinginlargeclunps, nakes for excellent
foregroundinterest inlandscapescenes, andknowing
a bit about your subject goes a longway whenit
cones toplanninga successful inagel
s heather is a perennial, you'll likely beabletondit
inthesanelocationyear after year, soit's worth
keepinganeyeout for it whenyou'reout andabout.
s withall landscapephotography, the
tineof day andconditions present
duringyour visit cannakeor break
a shot. 1ypically, thebest inages
canbecreatedat thestart of, or
towards theendof theday,
whenthesunis lowinthesky
andthelight warner and
softer. lunps of heather
undulatesubstantially, soyou
nay havetocontendwithareas
of shadow, nadeworseby
direct, overheadlight. Weather
conditions arealsoinportant, too
-headout whenscatteredshowers are
forecast towards theendof theday inthe
hopeof capturingcloudfornations toaddinterest to
your inage-evenbetter, younight witness a
rainbow, whichalways helps boost a scenel
Renenber totakecarewhenwalkingaroundthe
heather -thebest inages canoftenbefoundohthe
beatentrack sobewary of steppingonandpotentially
danagingtheplants aroundyou.

ddater ooting intothe light is tricky, as


this cancause dihculties inexposing the
scene correctly andcanwashout the colour of
the heather. Side lighting works well -you'll
probably ndthat anNlter is still requiredto
create a balancedexposure. Start witha 0.6N
gradandaddlters fronthere, as required.

djust theter Be careful not toover-lter


the scene, or the results will look unnatural.
lso, take care whenpositioning your lters.
Place the lter toohighandyou'll endupwith
anoverexposedportionof sky, toolowand
yourunthe risk of underexposing part of the
foreground, as have done here.

Dia inthesettins Use a wide-angle lens to


include plenty of the foregroundinyour
inage. Select aperture-priority or nanual node
andchoose anaperture that ohers a good
depth-of-eld, betweenfiII andfiI3. ocus a
thirdof the way intothe scene, take a shot and
check the screenfor exposure andsharpness.

oreroundedwithoouru
heather reaymakes this seni
oasta andsaestandout.
Exosure:0.5secondsatfiI3(SI00)
jects
Fna| mage
rt mxo momnt
nt onsr
trtrunks mks or
beautifuI artisticshot.
Creatve|yb|urtrees


HeIenDixon




fowers all nakegreat subjects, too. Whenconposingyour scene, youshould
looktoincludeoneor norestaticobjects that aren't ahectedbythebreeze. 1his creates a
contrast betweennovenent andstillness withinyour inage. urthernore, it cannakethe
diherencebetweenashot that looks likeit includes intentional novenent andashot
suheringfronbadcanerashake. 1rees nakeideal candidates, thebreezecauses the
branches andleaves toswaywhilethethicktrunks standdeant.
Becauseyou'll beshootingusingalongexposure, your best optionis toheadout under
overcast conditions. Bright sunlight causes toonuchcontrast betweenareas infull sunand
thoseinshadeduringtheexposure, whereas acloudyskywill dihusethesunlight for anore
evenexposure. You'll needabreezetocausenovenent inthetrees, but youdon't want to
beout shootingwhenit's blowingagaleas this cancausecaneranovenent, evenwitha
tripod. tripodis essential for this typeof photography, if youtrytoshoot lengthyexposures
handheldthenyouriskintroducingcanerashakeintoyour inage. Chooseaconposition
wherethelightingis dihusedthroughout thesceneas anyareas of bright light will cause
hotspots inyour nal inage. chosethis rowof trees as theyprovidedaconsistent canopy
overheadtoprevent anyhotspots andthethicktreetrunks nadefor aninterestinglead-in
lineintotheinage, withthebranches at thetopof theinagefraningtheshot nicely.
5ettingupand
camerasettings
norder tousea slowshutter
speedwithout overexposing
theresult, set SI00andopt
for anapertureof fiI3for
optinunfront-to-back
sharpness. t a polariser to
elininateglarefronthefoliage,
whichhas theaddedbonus of
lengtheningny exposureby
twostops, althoughit still isn't
enoughtocaptureany real
novenent. ddinga Leeilters
0.9NDlter takes necloseto
theexposuretinerequiredto
capturethenotionof the
branches andgrass. Stopping
downfurther tofiI6gives a
slower shutter speedandthe
right anount of notion.
Commonerrors
Compositionf theconpositionallows for
toonuchvariety inlight thenit canbedihcult
toget a balancedexposurethroughout the
scene. nthis inage, thelight hittingtheground
outsideof thecanopy cover is toobright and
distracts frontherest of theshot.

geand, as such, you
shouldlook toconposeyour shot withthis in
nind. Here, however, thetrees aretoocloseto
theedgeof thefraneandfail toact as an
ehectivelead-inline.
tsDespitetheevencanopy
cover, thesunbreakingthroughtheclouds
causes theareas of thegroundnot inshadeto
beconpletely blownout. Just a fewninutes
later theclouds noveback intoplaceand can
continueshooting.
Not windyenough1heexposureis correct
throughout andthereis novenent capturedin
thefoliage, but therearestill toonany static
branches. snaller apertureandslower shutter
speedis requiredtocapturenoreehective
novenent inthenal result.


ist ndrollinghills -lndspephotogrpher's dren. ere's howtopturethen.

hsyur yog ndnist re fornedwhennild, noist ir


psses over oldground-the lower lyers of the ir get ooled
downrpidly tothe tenperture t whihfog or nist forns. eep
neye onthe forest ndlook out for old, ler nights with light
south-westerly wind, s this gives highhne of nist or fog. ven
if the onditions seenright, however, ntnospheri sunrise isn't
gurnteed-often, for exnple, younget thik fog rther thn
nist -sopersistene is inportnt. e prepredtonke nultiple
visits toyour fvourite lotions.

wII rrist oftenforns t theottonof vlleys, where


thegroundis older, sothehills ove vlley re goodpleto
e, s this enles youtoshoot fronove lyer of nist, withhills
risingout of it. eingner wter lsohelps, s this helps toool ny ir
novingover it. eserhsuitlelotions well indvnendrrive
goodhlf nhour eforesunrise, s thepredwnlight ne
ngil. or this shoot, set upoverlookingthewest iltshireowns,
withnist lyingt theottonof thehills. lso, esuretowrpup
wrn-gloves, ht nd thik eeereessentill
Mrur
r non-Is k i Lns non2-I0nnfi
ispringis nexellent tinefor
shootingtnospherilndspes, espeilly if you're
prepredtoget uperly. s onesesonslips intonother,
it oftenrings interestingwether withit, ndt this tine
of yer, nisty nornings reonnon, oftenonined
with touhof frost. oggy senes onvey senseof ronnend
nystery, ndddnelenent tht nlift otherwiselndsenes out
of theordinry. iththeright tehniquendreful plnning, it's
possiletopturedrnti, tnospherisenis.


ist ndfogtendtofool the
ner intounderexposure, so
eprepredtoddt lest stop
over theneteredredingusing
exposureonpenstion. f
shootingw, you'll reordthe
nxinunnount of tonl
inforntiony exposing'tothe
right' (pushingtheexposures fr
intothehighlights s youn
without tully 'lipping' the
highlights). ou'll needtodowork
inthewonverter onexposure,
rightness ndontrst, ut the
endresult will e etter inge.
sing tripodis goodprtiefor shooting
lndspes, ut essentil if you'reheding
out for predwnnisty pitures, s exposures
nelong. nediuntelezoonis proly
thenost useful lens s its fol length
onpresses perspetivendenhnes the
nisty ehet. set of eutrl ensity grdutedlters will e
neessry inpredwnshots, s thesky will enuhrighter
thnthelnd, whihhs nodiret light fllingonit.
rIxsurhemeterassumes
that whatever it's readingfromis a
mid-tone, andunderexposes themist so
that it records as greyrather thanwhite.
Exstthrght Around+1stop
compensationshouldkeepthemist
lookingwhite. I'veaddedalittlemore,
followingthe'exposetotheright' theory.
3
Youneedtolook for strong, bold
shapes, as nist hides shapes anddilutes colours, naking a scene
nonochrone. like tolook for overlapping andinterlocking shapes
that helpadda sense of depthtothe scene. Backlit scenes canalso
work well, as the shapes of hills are silhouettedinthe nist. lare isn't
toonuchof a problen, as the nist dihuses the sunlight. or this
shot, selecteda hill rising out of the nist as the nainfocal point,
andarrangedit according tothe rule-of-thirds. Behindthe
foregroundhill, the layering ehect leads the eye intothe backdrop.
Fna| mage

White
aIancepreset tokeepthepredawn
coIours cooI, thenaddedatouchof
vibrancetoenhancethebIuetones.
Exposure: I.3seconds at fiI6(SI00)
4
ExposureItrationMist canfool the neter into
underexposure, soas a starting point, set +I stopexposure
conpensation. Meter fronthe landandthe sky tocheck the
diherence inbrightness, tosee if youneeda graduatedlter and,
if so, whichstrength. 1ake care not toover-lter the scene (eg if
there's a four-stopdiherence inbrightness, use a three-stopgrad
sothat the sky renains a little lighter thanthe landandlooks
natural). or these shots, useda one-stopsoft gradas felt that
the sky neededa little bit of helptoaddinterest.
scpeprjects HGULNPPHGPH
ckp| reects
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twu wtt t wt
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wy ttu
tu u iI6
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tyu
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ty tt
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tt
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herent viewpoint w
tt tt ut wtut y tt t
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HGULNPPHGPH

thcomonnt com
togthr or arct imag
ocan, thr awa
ait o timor rction

g a lowviewpoint,
youwill be able toll the
frane withthe rock pool
andalsoinclude the
refectedsky. Landscape
shots usually work better
thanportraits inthese
situations

aoarir My next stepis toadda


polariser. However, as youcansee, if you
set it incorrectly, youcankill therefectionrather
thanenhanceit. t's tinetotweak thepolarisation.

Trnthoarir Just half aturnof the


polariser helps tonaketherefectionstand
out. However, feel theinagecanbeinprovedby
snoothingout thewater intheniddledistance.

anDtr dding a solidlter


allows ne toincrease the shutter speedto
tenseconds, whichsnooths the sea and
inproves the look of the water inthe rock pool.
rr
hr's lot o tout how
st tophotogrphwv
novnnt. Longxposurs
rsult in 'nisty' look tht is
populr withnny photogrphrs
(sovr thpg) ut is rtinly not to
vryon's tsts it's not uthnti. hn
wwthwvs rollingontothshor w
sthwholnovnnt won't s
nonnt roznintinor nist ritingovr
roks. nwy totruly ppritwv
notions thyss it is tousviorthr
thn stills nr ut y pyingrul
ttntiontoshuttr sps it is possilto
ror'nturllooking' wvs onyour L.
htrik is tororthright nount o
novnnt i thshuttr is opntoolong
thrwill toonuhnotionlur, not long
noughnthwvpprs toostti. ou
nton nilgrounwhrthr's
nisty lur ut thwvs still kpthir shp.
hris nosinplripor this, thst
shuttr sppns onthsiznsp
o thwvs howthy'rllingontoth
shor nlsoprsonl tst.
Lxprinnttionis thky prprto
shoot lot o rns nspn lot o tin
lookingt thLCnonitor rviwingyour
ings ntwkingthnr ontrols.
aptue'atua|-|kg' waves
rossionl photogrphr MrkBur xplins thst thniquor
pturingthnovnnt o rkingwvs s thyhit thshor
7
ntnxposrstyn nor ttnpt withth light lvls
it lowr gt th shot wnt t roun0.6sons. hr's nough
novnnt tort sns o rn ut th wvs still kpthir shp.
6
ortnxposrpningupthprturtoiIInswppingth
ourstopNortwostopnlsntoshortnthxposurtinto0.3
sons. hrsult is lnost thr ut thwvis roznjust littltoonuh.
5
Not t.his tin th xposur is still not
long noughtogiv nthrl nisty look to
th wtr ut it osn't ptur th rn o th
sn y rzing th wtr ithr.
4
IncreaseItrationolngthnth xposur
wit or th light lvls toropnrpl
th thrstopNltr with ourstopNltr
giving n tnsonxposur t i22.
3
Takeatest shot t toshuttrpriority no
try IiI00s ut it rzs th novnnt.
or lrg wvs this night onvy rn ut
withsnll wvs lik this it onpltly ils.
2
UseanNDgrads th sky is nuhrightr
thnth groun thrstopNsot
grltr toln th ontrst. sot gr
nns th trnsitionlin won't tooovious.
1
5eIect your viewpoint onposthshot so
tht thwvs rllingontothorgroun
roks nthnhk thxposuror thsky n
grounsprtly usingny L's spot ntr.
Ladscapepjects
5utte speeds
lthoughthr's noil shuttr spor
pturingrkingwv s it pns on
thonitions t thtin shuttr spo
twnIisnouplo sons
usullyprovis thrsult you'll wnt.
nortuntly though it's not just
nttr o puttingthnrinto
shuttrpriority nonsttingth
shuttr sp. ouwill lsontonk
suryou'rusingthright prturinorr
tohivthppropritpthol
nnurtxposur. or lnsps
this is usully twnini22or
nxinunpthol.
hrrothr wys younontrol th
shuttr sp too. prt ronwitingor
thlight tohng or str shuttr
sp youshoulinrsthnr's
rting. Nornllythis will risthlvl o
nois soyouonot wnt togonuhov
00unlss you'rusingprossionl
igitl Ltht hnls noiswll.
or shuttr sps o northn30
sons youwill ntost your nrto
Bulnontinthxposurnnully.
owvr this notnrsult in
ovrxposshots soyounynto
soliNutrl nsityltr toruth
nount o light llingontothsnsor. N
ltrs oninvrious strngths, thnost
onnoningon twonthrstops
nyounussvrl togthr longwith
polrisingltr too or tins whnyou
wnt tost xtrnlylongxposurs.
HNONGULNPPHGPH

fl11
aIIows metoset ashutter speed
of haIf asecond, whiIestiII
retainingpIentyof depth-of-eId.
TheresuIt creates dramaand
movement but avoids thewaves
IookingIikemist. I particuIarIyIike
thewaythesprayis risingover the
rocks inthemiddIedistance.
jects HNONGULNPPHGPH
5hutter speed
tvwt yu
tu utt tt wu
tu twt t t ut
t twtt wtwt
tttt tvx
uut. 1 tt t ut
xu uuy ttt.
1t tut t tu tt yu
t yuttwt tt
ttxutut yut tt ut.
ty wt uut t wy wyu
wt vwt uz
tt w w v. ty
vt t tutSt1
Ptty twt t t
tv tvx.
1
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3
! t
t t t wt
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uty w u. u v
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4
Takeatest shot 1 yu t t vwt. w ty
ttttt ut wt tt
t. St vt
utt vuu. 1 t
w ut t w y t t tx.
5
Consider composition tty w vw u t
wt ut t vu t utt y
t y ut v tw t tt t uR.
t t wttt tt t utt ut t
t v wt w vx.
LeeFrost
Camera: S M Lens: L
L1U1St e, using
aslowshutter speedtorecordnovingwater as agraceful,
nilky blur is anundeniably ehectivetechnique, whichis
why sonany photographers, includingnyself, liketouse
it. rontunblingnountainstreans tobubblingbrooks
andthunderingwaterfalls, wherever youndnovingwater, the
sanebasicapproachcanbeusedtocaptureit andturnanordinary
sceneintoacreativeinagethat's full of atnosphere. Lvenbetter,
novingwater is best shot onanovercast day withsoft light sothere
arenoblindinghighlights tocontendwith, causedby sunlight
refectingonthewater. 1his nakes it aperfect subject for thosedull,
grey days photographers intheUknowsowelll
5hoot movngwater
Leerost reveals howthecorrect shutter speed
is essential whenscenes includerunningwater

used0Nte toesethe
exposued0Nhdgdtoet
det thesy Thedu wethe dsot
ght woedwe peetyevegthe
subteoous thesee whethe
buedwte ptues theee o the
tumbgmoutstem
xposue
jects
Trpodhead
f youwnt to
producesnooth,
consistent results,
youneedthe
right typeof
tripodhed.
'vebeenusing
Mnfrotto4I0unior
geredhedfor thepst
fewyers. t is gret for
precisedjustnents, but
not sogret whenyou
wnt tonkebigger, fuid
novenents. recently
replcedthegeredhed
with bll hed, which
cnbeunlockedonone
xis, nkingit esy topn
thecner evenly. n
tilt heds reevenbetter
becusethey hve
djustnent rns onech
xis, soyoucnlock
forwrdibckwrdtilt nd
verticl djustnent nd
sinply novethecner
onthehorizontl.
reatepoetrynmoton
Leerost revels howcnernovenent isn't lwys bdthing, especillywhenit's inthenneof rt
3
1he streking is cretedby noving the
cner during exposure, sothe shutter speedyouuse is
inportnt. nything between0.5 seconds totwoseconds is idel.
1oset this, set the cner toperture-priority node ndstopthe
lens downtofiI6or fi22. nlowlight, such snll perture ny not
be necessry, while inbright conditions oftenneednNDlter.
1
live by the se ndfvour costl views becuse there re denedlines of
colour inthe scene, cretedby the bech, thenthe se, thenthe sky. However, ny scene contining
bnds of colour is suitble. nthe spring, elds of yellowoilseedrpe ginst blue sky works brillintly.
1he sne goes for poppy elds insunner. Urbnscenes t night re worth try too, s the colourful
lights records streks. 1he inportnt thing is tht youhve clerly denedres of colour tht re wide
enoughtofornstrips cross your shot. Renenber, though, breking the rules is llowedl
2
meraf youwnt the lines ndstreks inthe
inge tobe stright (or s stright s possible), youneedto
nke sure the cner is level ndtht it renins level whenyou
pncross during the exposure. dothis by rst using the spirit
level onny tripod, ndthenusing secondspirit level, nounted
onny hotshoe, whichhelps ne tolevel the cner itself.
LeeFrost
Camera: nonLS-IDs Mk
Lens: nonL24-/0nnfi2.8LUSM
1'S UNNYHWsone
photogrphic techniques cone
bout purely by ccident. or
exnple, it's sidtht solristion
ws discoveredwhennericn
photogrpher Lee Miller (workings Mn
Ry's ssistnt t the tine), turnedthe
drkroonlight onwhile print ws still in
the developer, cusing prtil reversl of
the inge tones. cn't clintht ny ltest
technique will chieve the sne level of
fne or populrity, but discoveredit under
sinilr circunstnces, while tkingpictures
onthe Northunberlndcost just before
hristns. ws plnningtoshoot
sequence of inges for stitched
pnorn, so levelledthe cner nd
scnnedthe scene wntedtorecord.
ondent tht everythingws redy,
trippedthe shutter toexpose the rst frne
but, without thinking, swungthe cner
tothe right, redy toshoot the second
frne before the exposure for the rst hd
ended. nnoyedby ny inptience, wited
for the inge topper onny cner's
previewscreenso coulderse it. ut
whenthe inge didpper, fr fron
being lodof oldrubbish, s expected,
it lookedfntstic -neye-ctching
bstrct of colouredlines ndstreks,
nore like pintingthn photogrph.
Surprisedby ny hppy ccident, decided
totry torepet the ehect, but this tine
doingit onpurpose. Since then, 've
produced whole series of these inges.
Not only re they esy ndfun, but the
results look fntstic. Here's step-by-step
guide soyoucntry it yourself.
TOPTIP
1houghthis technique
is ll bout novenent,
it's inportnt tht your
tripodis sturdy ndlocked
ohinll directions, other
thnthe pn-otherwise
you'll just get
blurry ness
HNONGULNPPHGPH
5
Post-proess aes s toyour
conputer. shoot inRaw, sothe rst stepis toprocess then
using dobe Canera Raw. djustnents toClarity andvibrance add
inpact, while 1one Curve boosts contrast. nce openedin
Photoshop, select the sky, nake further adjustnents tolevels
andcurves, andthendothe sane tothe foreground.
na magc
enaI staefor es toropteaetoa
square. feeI tat tesquareforat adds tote
syetryandaes teopostonore
baIanedandordered. yaIways eepnte
orzonentraI aonsstent teeruns trou
eaae anteworweII toeter.
xposure: 0.5seconds at fi20(SI00)
4
rypannnnce you're set upandready, doa fewpractice
runs without taking any pictures. Holdthe tripodheador
adjustnent arn, positionthe canera tothe left of the scene you
want toshoot, thensnoothly panfronleft toright. Whenyou're
happy youknowwhat you're doing, try it for real. 1he results nay
be a little jerky tobeginwith, but you'll soonget the hang of it.
Landscapcprojccts HNONGULNPPHGPH

Star trails arerewardingsubjects that canaddanelenent of


nagictoa landscapeshot, revealingthesceneina way that
isn't visibletotheeye. 1hey allowyoutoextendtheday's
potential shootingtine, andtoget out withyour canera -
especially if youwork throughtheweek andcan't get outdoors
duringthedaylight hours inwinter. f there's any secret tothetechnique,
it's gettingtheexposureright, but that's sinplewhenshootingdigitally...

f you'reinarenotelocation, takeadvantageof clear
night skies bycapturingstunningstar trails

f youcan, it
helps tondyour locationin
advance, inthe daylight hours. Midday
is a goodtine todothis for a couple of
reasons. ne is that it's oftendead
tine inthe landscape photographer's
day whenthe light is tooharshfor
shooting. 1he other is that, withthe
suntothe south, shadows will point
northtowards where the stars will be
circling aroundPolaris later. visualising
that will helpyoucreate a good
conposition. You'll needtoensure
that you're a decent distance away
fronnajor light pollution, too.

Pick your night (anight witha


half-noonis agoodchoice, if possible) and
set upthecaneraonthetripod. f it's toodark to
seeproperly throughtheviewnder, youcantake
afewshots withahighSandwideaperture,
gradually nakingadjustnents tone-tunethe
conposition. utofocus is unlikely towork invery
lowlight, soyou'll needtofocus nanually -
either by usingthedistancescaleor by placinga
torchsonewhereinthescenetofocus on.

Youcanneter the scene


before taking the nal shot by taking test
shots at a highSandwide aperture. 'n
using SI600andfi4here. Set the canera
tonanual andstart withanexposure tine of
around20seconds. 1ake a shot andcheck
the histogran, thensinply alter the exposure
tine andretake test shots until the histogran
looks correct. fter a bit of experinentation,
ndthat one stopunderexposedworks best.


You'll needtokeepthe
shutter openfor the
longexposureandthe
best waytodothat is
tousearenote
releasewithalockto
holdtheshutter
open. 1his helps
avoidinadvertently
knockingor noving
thecanera. sturdy
tripodis inportant,
too, andawide-
anglelens is handyas it helps
youget plentyof skyintheshot.
ther thanthat, star trails don't
needanyparticularlyspecialist
kit. Don't forget plentyof warn
clothing, though. Lvenif you're
usedtobeingout incold
weather, standingaroundfor
half anhour or noreinthedark
insub-zerotenperatures can
bringawholenewlevel of
chilliness, sopackafewextra
layers tokeepyouconfortable.


1he glowfronurbanareas
is knownas light pollution
andcanbe seenfronniles
away ona clear night. 1his
night not be obvious to
the nakedeye but will
showupclearly ona
long exposure
HGULNPPHGPH
Landscapcprojccts
4
henyou'rehappy withtheexposure, set the
caneratoBulbnode. Select SI00andset awideaperture. tendtouse
fi5.6. Nowyoucanusetheexposuretinefronstepthreetowork out thetine
neededfor thenal shot, conpensatingfor thechangeinSandapertureby
increasingthetine. or instance, if youneededa30-secondexposureinstep
three. 30seconds x 2(for aone-stopchangefronfi4tofi5.6) xI6(for the
changefronSI600toSI00) gives aI6-ninuteexposure.
5
1urnall lights out, note the tine andlock the shutter open
withthe renote release. Get out sone cohee andchocolate, have a break
for a while andenjoy staring at the stars. Just don't dowhat didanddiscover
at this point that the cohee's back downthe road, still inthe carl f youneedto
put a light onat any point toreadthe tine, be careful not toilluninate the
foregroundat all, as it will showupinthe nal shot (unless you're deliberately
attenpting light painting, but that's another topic).
na magc



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justment Layer ou'll needthe


Layers anddjustnent palettes visible,
sorst gotothe W/ndownenuandnake
sure that bothAdjustments andLayers are
ticked. 1henclick onthe Create newh// or
adjustment /ayer buttonat the bottonof the
Layers palette and, inthe drop-downnenu
that appears, select Leve/s.

Trytheutofeature nthe djustnent


palette, rst try using the Autobuttonto
allowthe software todecide whichadjustnents
are nade toyour inage. 1his works better on
sone inages nore thanothers. 1he utolevels
tool adjusts eachof the Red, GreenandBlue
channels independently soyounay nownotice
a colour cast appear inyour inage.

orrect thecoIour 1ocorrect the colour


cast, nake sure that the Leve/s layer inthe
Layers palette is selectedand, using the Blend
Mode nenuat the top, change the 8/endMode
of the layer toLum/nos/ty. 1his will renove the
inage's colour cast by ensuring that the
djustnent Layer only ahects the contrast inthe
inage belowit andnot the colours.


reyour inages inneedof acontrast boostindout howtoaddextra
punchtocolours usingdjustnent Layers andBlendModes
Jordanutters
Mist andfogadda wonderful
atnospheretoinages. Nothing
quiteconveys thenoodof a
chilly autunnor winter norning
liketheearly norningsun
piercingthrougha beautiful heavy haze.
Moreoftenthannot, though, nisty
landscapes arehinderedby a lack of
contrast. But not toworry, as withthe
additionof andjustnent Layer andsone
experinentationwithBlendModes, youcan
apply thepunchtoyour nisty landscape
inages. Whilethis tutorial has beendonein
lenents I0, thesanefeatures and
nethods canbeappliedtoinages being
workedoninPhotoshopCS as well.
Sinilarly, soneCS tutorials inthis guidecan
bedoneinlenents, too.
OriginaI

Wewouldusuallyadviseduplicating
your original inagelayer beforeyou
start editingyour photograph, just in
caseyounakeanynistakes. However,
anajor benet of djustnent Layers is
that theyarenondestructive, neaning
that anychanges younakeusingthen
donot ahect theoriginal inagedata.
What's nore, theparaneters and
values of andjustnent Layer canbe
tweakedinthedjustnent paletteat
anytinethroughout theediting
process, or if you'renot entirelyhappy
withtheehect, youcansinplydelete
that djustnent Layer andstart afresh.

uyst Ls 1his tine, rather than


using the utoadjustnent, click anddrag on
the and point sliders inthe
djustnent palette totweak the contrast of your
inage. Be careful howfar youpushthe black
andwhite points soyoudon't clipthe shadows
andhighlights andlose detail. Youcanbe nore
liberal withthe grey slider for the nid-tones.

Exrt wts Back inthe


Layers palette, experinent withthe diherent
Modes toalter the ehect. Ove/a, Soft
L/gnt andHadL/gnt will all oher slightly diherent
ehects. Youcanalsouse the Opac/t slider at the
topof the Layers palette toweakenthe ehect or
youcanrevisit the djustnent palette at any
tine totweak the paraneters.

ryu ustt f youaren't happy


withthe ehect fronusing utolevels, delete
your djustnent Layer by clicking onit inthe
Layers palette anddragging it tothe De/ete /ae
iconat the botton, this reverts the inage back to
its original state. ddanother djustnent Layer
by clicking onthe Ceate newh// o adjustment
/ae buttonandselecting Leve/s.

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just surroundingchanneIs uite often


you'll ndthat youneedtoadjust nore than
one channel tonake the changes look natural.
By naking subtle adjustnents tothe
neighbouring quas channel, the transitionin
colour betweensky andclouds is inproved.
OriginaI
Vbrance 85aturaton
1here's oftenconfusionbetweenthe
vibranceandSaturationsliders in
dobeCaneraRaw. t rst glance
theyappear todonuchthesane
thing, but thereareclear diherences.
1henainoneis that thevibranceslider
doesn't ahect colours that arealready
suhcientlysaturated, useful for
applyingauniversal adjustnent
without oversaturatingcolours which
arealreadyniceandbright. t will also
not ahect hues sinilar tothosefound
inskintones, whichnakes it useful for
increasingsaturationinportrait shots
without turningyour subject's skina
strangeshadeof orange. 1his
conparisonshows thediherencean
adjustnent of +/5oneachslider
nakes totheoriginal inage.
Vibrance+75 5aturation+75
HNONGULNPPHGPH
Potosoptnqs
Fn m


1 Saturaton
slrs control t ntnsty of accolour.
lck ont Saturat/ontabanrag t Green
slr toaust t cannl. Mak any cangs
graually, as ovrsaturatoncanlook as ba, f
not wors, tanunrsaturaton.

s bfor,
ngbourng cannls nay bnt fron
son slgt austnnt. nts cas, t grn
grass looknor natural wna snall ncras
was na tot saturatonof t Yllows
cannl as wll.

1ocang t colour of an
ara -like these orange hills -select the
Hue tab. Next nove the Orane slider until
youare happy withthe result. Younay nd
only snall changes are neededtoalter the hue
-but be watchful that it doesn't look unnatural.
HGULNPPHGPH
Phooshohnqus
nt tocretenHDReect but don't hveRwles or set o
brcketedexposuresDon't despir UseShdows Highlights.
rah|fnoa hoos

Weall haveinages that didn't quiterender thescene


howyourenenber it. Maybethesky's not as noody
or thegroundis toodark, or naybetheoverall
appearanceof theinagelacks contrast or is badly
exposed. Well, Shadows oHighlights canresurrect
theseinages. 1his niftyadjustnent is afantasticphotographic
tool, whichis oftenoverlookedbyusers sincededicatedHDR
softwarelikePhotonatixandPhotoshopactions becane
availablefronthird-partyconpanies. nthesinplest terns,
theadjustnents allowyoutorecover detail fronover-or
underexposedareas byadjustingtheHighlights or Shadows
controls respectively, or youcaninprovetheoverall tonal range
usingtheMidtoneContrast slider. t's reallyverysinple.
1hekeytosuccess withShadows oHighlights is subtlety.
As withanyprocess that plays withtonal range, Shadows o
Highlights canproducephotographicrankensteins if usedtoo
eagerly. Sowhynot giveit ago1hecontrols nayseendaunting
at rst, but after alittleexperinentationandabetter
understanding, younayndyou'll beusingthis featureregularly.
o

Whenworkingin
Shadows o
Highlights, hold
downa/t to
changetheance/
buttontoaReset
buttonincaseyou
want totakethe
lter backtoits
default settings.
Youcanalso
uncheckPre/e
totogglebetween
theblurredand
original inage.
5
Withthe nask inplace,
any work done will only ahect the sky area.
penSnados 8H/gn//gnts as instructedinstep
two, but this tine work nainly onthe H/gn//gnts
and/dtones ontrast topull all the detail back
intothe sky. Younay want toincrease the /ack
//ptoinprove the overall contrast.
4
Click onthe aer ask
thunbnail andselect the Grad/ent Too/,
ensuring the Foregrondand8ackgrondCo/or
are set tothe default 8/ack andWn/te. Withthe
sn/ft key helddowntoensure a straight line, click
near the horizonanddrag, lettinggoat the topof
the inage. 1his adds a gradient tothe nask.
6
ne nal tweak is to
renove sone of the colour toenhance the
storn-like appearance of the inage. Withthe top
layer still active, gotoLaer>NeAdjstment
Laer>He/Satrat/on.andreduce the
Satrat/onslider by around2X, thenclick OK.
Nowsave as a PSD, topreserve all the layers.
2
HighIights nthe duplicate layer
gotolmage>Adjstments>Snados
8H/gn//gnts.As the inage is generally fat,
concentrate onthe Snados andM/dtone
Contrast, withonly ninor adjustnents tothe
H/gn//gnt eld. At this stage youwant tobe
focusing nore ongetting the foregroundright.
1
DupIicateoriginaI ur choseninage is a bit
lifeless, yet clearly has potential texture inthe
sky anddetail inthe foregroundthat couldbe
pulledout using Shadows oHighlights. irst,
create a duplicate layer fronthe original by
going toLaer>Dp//cate Laer., naning the
layer accordingly for reference later.
3
DupIicateadjustedIayer Nowduplicate this
editedlayer withLaer>Dp//cate Laer.
1henadda Layer Mask by going toLaer>Laer
Mask>Reea/ A// or by clicking onthe AddLaer
Mask iconat the bottonof the Layers palette
(circled). 1he purpose of the Layer Mask is sothat
the next edit only ahects the sky area of this layer.
OriginaI
HCNONGULNPPHGPH

Frat tantast
aws HIts as
uIIut Its taI tat
IanntJPE

yers andLayer Masks opens upaworldof


options for selectivelytweakingandperfectingyour shots

4
1obring out detail
inthe foreground, click onthe
buttonagaintocreate a
newadjustnent andthis tine select . n
the djustnents palette, adjust the sliders until
youare happy withthe ehect. 1hese changes
will be appliedtojust the foregroundinthe next
step, sodon't worry about the sky for now.
5
Click andholdonthe
toselect the
andpress the key tonake sure that your
colour palette is reset. nthe topnenu, nake
sure that the is set toNorma/. Click and
drag onyour inage inthe directionof
foregroundtobackgroundtoapply the nask.
1he longer the line, the softer the gradient.
6
Don't worry if youdon't get
the gradient right rst tine, youcanclick and
drag as nany tines as youneedtoget the right
transition. 1he gradient cuts throughthe nal
woodenpost inny inage anddoesn't look
natural. Select the 8rusnToo/ and, withWn/te
set as your ForegroundCo/or, paint inthe post.
f yougotoofar, press Xtopaint back over.
2
OuickMask want toretainthe warn
tones inthe sky but adda neutral tone tothe
foreground. Press the Okey toenable uick
Mask node, select the 8rusnToo/ anduse the
topnenutocustonise the brushtosuit. Brush
over the area youwishtorenainunahectedby
any changes. f younake a nistake, press the X
key andbrushback over torenove the nask.
1
5howtheLayers paIetteWithyour inage
loadedinPhotoshop, nake sure the Layers
palette is visible by going toW/ndow>Layers.
nthe Layers palette youwill only see a
Backgroundlayer at present. Duplicate this
layer by going toLayer>Dup//cate Layer, or
by pressing Cmd+J if you're ona Mac or Ctr/+J
if you're using a Windows-basedPC.
3
ddanadjustment Withyour area nasked
oh, press the Okey againtoturnthis nask
intoa selectionand, inthe Layers palette, click
onthe Create newh// or adjustment /ayer
buttonandselect PnotoF//ter fronthe
drop-downnenu. nthe djustnents palette,
select one of the three preset Coo//ngF//ters
andadjust the Dens/ty slider toalter its ehect.
Jordanutters
Without adoubt, oneof thenost powerful
features of dobePhotoshopCSis theabilityto
selectivelyedit your inages inanondestructive
nanner usingdjustnent Layers
andLayer Masks.
djustnent Layers oher a series of
ehects andadjustnents, eachwith
adjustableparaneters tosuit your
inages. urthernore, they canbe
appliedtotheentireinageat once,
clippedtojust a singlelayer or
appliedselectively usinga Layer Mask.
Layer Masks, as thenanesuggests,
nask thelayers that they areappliedto,
allowingyoutoedit or ahect only selectedparts of your
inageat a tine. f you'vebeenusingPhotoshopbut haven't
yet delvedintotheworldof Layer Masks anddjustnent
Layers, you'renissingout onnyriadoptions for inproving
your inages andit's tinetoharness thefull power of CS.
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
OriginaI
Layer Masks
Layer Masks canbe
appliedtoinagelayers
as well as djustnent
Layers. or inages with
twoor norelayers
present, select the
layer youwishtonask
andcheckAddvector
maskintheLayers
palette. 1henusethe
8rusnToo/ tobrush
over andnaskyour
inage. Renenber
-Whitereveals the
layer, Blacknasks it.
TOPTIP
1oapply anadjustnent
toa single layer rather
thanthe whole inage,
select the C//pto/ayer
button( ) in
the djustnents
palette.

justing
theforeground, the
imagehas far more
impact andvisibIedetaiI.
wy yu .
w y u u
ryornng

ooopnq
4
orrounst
u wy
LywLy Ft
Cu y w xu
u. AuttLv
w
. y y
8ModeScreeny .

just prsptvv
Ed/t>Free Transform>Sca/e u
w u y
. B y
TransformPerspect/ve
u u
yu y. uy zu
v u u w.
6
woour ontrst C w
u y y
y .
Hue/Saturat/onu y u
Saturat/on u u y
y 8r/gntness/Contrast
u y uhciently
toenhance the appearance of dihusednisty light.
rn
urs
Mist is oneof thoseelusiveelenents that rarely
appears whenyouwant it tobut whenit does it
cantransforntheatnosphereof your landscapes.
Nowthis step-by-stepis nosubstitutefor thereal
thing, but it canbeusedtoinproveyour current
landscapeinages or tooccasionallyrelieveyouhavingto
wakeearlyonawinter norningtosearchfor natural nist.
Deepvalleys androllinghills nakebeautiful scenes for
nistylandscapes, as dofrost-bittenelds. efer tosone
exanpleinages beforeyoutrythis techniquejust toseehow
nist naturallyacts indiherent situations. Mist tends tolook
graduallyheavier thefurther it is awayfronyou, whichis why
you'll noticewehandletheinagetreatnent insections -
background, niddle-distanceandforeground-witheach
havingadiherent intensityof nist.
o
ptwnt
orrounn
rounoor
WhenusingLayer
Masks or theGrad/ent
Too/, usetheXkeyto
changebetweenthe
oregroundand
BackgroundColor,
whichis set toBlack
andWhiteas default.

rnt se Layer>NewLayer.
tocreate a layer above the original. elect
the Grad/ent Too/ andensure it's set toL/near
gradient inthe options bar, andthat the
ForegroundCo/or is set toWn/te andthe
backgroundto8/ack. Click andhold, thendrag
fronthe topof the inage tojust under the
horizontocreate the backgroundlayer of nist.

ous ontstnoaddfog to
theniddle-distance, createanother new
layer viaLayer>New>Layer.setheGrad/ent
Too/ withthesanesettings, anddrawalinefron
thetoptothebottonof theinageandreleaseto
createanevengradient across thefrane. educe
theOpac/ty by changingtheanount to50Xin
theayers palette(circled).

v ttrnreality, the nist wouldbe


behindthetree. ogiveit this appearance, add
a Layer Mask by clicking the iconinthe ayers
palette (circled). Next, select the 8rusnToo/, set to
8/ack andanappropriate S/ze, andbegintowork
over the tree, renoving the nist. f yougotoofar,
youcanchange the ForegroundCo/or toWn/te
andpaint over the area tobring back detail.
HGULNPPHGPH

impIesteps
areaII it takes toadda
touchof mist toyour
Iandscapeimages.
ddo|our grdued|er
nhowtocontrol Photoshop's gradients tocreateacolour graduated
lter ehect andtransfornordinaryskies intosonethingglorious

nanideal world, landscape


photographers wouldalways have
anarrayof Ngradlters closeto
hand, onefor everysituationand
ehect that youwant tocreate. But
this isn't always practical. 1hankfullytherearea
rangeof ehects inPhotoshopthat sinulatethe
results of usinglters. 1his techniqueis great
for enphasisingexistingcolours intheskyor
conpletelychangingthenoodof your inage
byenulatingadiherent tineof daytowhen
inagewas taken.
hooshoehques
6
PhotoFiIter nthe Layers palette, click
onthe ddneh// or adjmen /ae button
againandthis tine select nF//e. Select one
of the am/ngF//e andclick OK-this will
warnthe entire inage tosuit the dusk colours.
5
Iter theopacity1he twoCo/or Stops above
the gradient scale control the gradient opacity.
Move the Wn/te Co/or Stopinthe top-right corner
tocontrol the depthandhardness of the gradient
tosuit your inage. nce done, click OK.
4
hangethecoIour lick on8/ack Co/or Stop
inthe botton-left corner of the gradient. 1hen
click onthe Co/or thunbnail belowtoopenthe
Co/or P/cker w/ndow. Select your colour - chose
pink toenulate the sky at dusk. lick OK.
3
Opentheradient Editor ouble-click onthe
thunbnail onthe Grad/ent /aer inthe Layers
palette toopenthe Grad/ent F/// nenuagainand
click onthe Grad/ent thunbnail at the toptoopen
the Grad/ent Ed/tor palette.

djust thegradient nthe dialogue box, click


onthe Reerse box toplace the gradient at the
topof the inage as opposedtothe bottonand
thenclick OK. Back inthe Layers palette, change
the 8/endMode of the Grad/ent /aer toM/t/p/.
1
ddthegradient Before we begin, press the D
key onyour keyboardtoreset your colour
palette todefault. lick onthe Addnewh// or
adjstment /aer buttoninthe Layers palette and
select Grad/ent fronthe drop-downnenu.
HGULNPPHGPH
OriginaI

Youcouldalways tryaddingnorethan
onecolour lter toyour inage. Sinply
duplicateyour Gradient layer by
selectingit intheLayers paletteand
goingtoLaer>Dp//cateLaer and
changethegradient colour as was
doneinsteps threethroughtove. 1ry
placingthegradients at diherent angles
usingtheAng/edial intheGrad/ent F///
nenufor diherent ehects.
Potosotecnues
na| mae

Iters? Nofear -whenyoucan
createstunningsunsets Iike
this inPhotoshop, you've
aIways got aback-uppIan!
HNONGULNPPHGPH
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howtorep|aceasky

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ing sing h nil (ni-ons) ll slir.
n on s or ing sing F//e>Save As.


Wethinkyou'II agree
that thenewsky
adds somemuch
neededdramatothe
originaI image.

Tidyupthehorizonon o or nsk
ill sill orlponoh lnsp sooi
his p sl h 8rusnToo/ lor h Opac/ty
o25Xns h rsh's Hardness o25Xinh
rshpions oolr. l 8/ack s or
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skis ronhorions.
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a ae , a cb
ee Mde (www.leefrost.co.uk), takenwith
anactual ten-stopNDlter.
Phooshoechnques
5
I hjNowedit the ayer Mask to
reveal the jetty. irst, click onthe yr s
thunbnail (circled), thenselect they
ss anddrawaselectionaroundtheedge
of thejetty. nceconplete, gotot/y
tr... andaddavalueof ! pixel toavoidaharsh
edgetotheselection. Nowtakethe8rs,
still set to8, andpaint over theselection.
4
Ir hr Switchtothe water layer by
clicking onit. dda / 8r zr,
withall the settings as insteptwo, but reducing
the At downby half, just tonake the cloud
refections nore realistic. 1hengoto/tr8r
ss/8r..., setting the anount tononore
than! pixels. 1his adds a hazy sheentowater,
connonwithnany long-exposure inages.
6
or ooo1oturntheinagenono, go
toAstts8/t... and
click tousethedefault settings. Conversions
froncolour tononooftenleaveaninagelooking
alittlefat, souseAsttss...
toaddcontrast. Usetheblack point andwhite
point sliders (circled) toboost theblacks andwhites
respectively, takingcarenot toburnout any detail.
2
IiI Ir nthesky layer, ensurethe
inagethunbnail is selected(circled), thengo
to/tr8r/ 8r... ntheRadial Blur
window, nakesurethat the8r tis
andOa//ty is set to8est. Next, enter alarge
Amont -noless than5-andnovethe8/r
Center toanareawherethehorizonwould
roughly bepositionedontheinage, andclick OK.
1
rIiIrs irst, create a
duplicate layer fronthe Backgroundlayer
by going toLayer>Dp//cate Layer..., naning the
layer accordingly -here, it's called'Water Blur'.
1henclick onthe Add/ayer mask iconat the
bottonof the ayers palette toadda ayer
Mask. Repeat this process tocreate anadditional
duplicate layer -this one was naned'Sky Blur'.
3
HiorgroIr 1he Radial Blur should
only ahect the sky portionof this layer, so
click onthe Layer Mask thunbnail inthe ayers
palette (circled) and, withthe 8rsnToo/ set toa
large soft-edgedbrushand8/ack colour, paint
across the foregroundarea tohide the blur
across the water andjetty. Switchtoa snaller
brushwhenworking near the horizon.
HNONGULNPPHGPH
OrigiI
Laer Mask
ayer Maskallows
youtohidedetail
fronthelayer it's
appliedto, revealing
theinagebeneath
without erasingit.
Whentheayer
Maskis selected,
sinplyadd8/ack
tothenasktohide
inagedetail and
changetoWn/teto
restorethedetail.
UsetheXkeyto
quicklyswitch
thecolours.

Wtust ewstes yu
udddts eutu
tserehect to
your Iandscapeimages.

oeWso



owhite
scenes inwinter -you'renever short of
opportunities. Whilethereareanillionand
oneways tophotographtheseclassic
scenes, eachas beautiful as theother, it's
goodtondatechniquethat gives these
seasonal scenes afresh, artisticappeal.
Giveyour seasonal landscapes acreativetwist withthis sinplebut strikingnotion-blur technique
Younayhaveconeacross notionscapes
beforewhereyoupanthecaneraacross a
coastal horizontocreatestreaks of colour.
1his techniqueis verysinilar but applies
vertical streaks instead, usinghotoshop. You
candoasinilar techniquein-canerausinga
three-waypanotilt tripodheadtopanthe
caneraupanddowninafuidnovenent,
but it will blur theentireinage, whereas here
onlywant toblur half of it. lus, whilethe
purists naybecursing, theehect is nuch
easier tocontrol, withbetter results, usingthe
MotionBlur lter inhotoshopinstead.
fter sonetrial anderror, it was clear that
toget thebest results for theseasonal
quadtych(series of four inages), 'dneed
inages wheretherewas as nuchinterest in
thetopof thefraneas thebotton,
otherwiseyouwouldn't beabletotell what
was blurredor infocus. foundthat thebest
scenes wereforests or landscapes where
trees ll theheight of thefrane, sowiththis
innindtheD|g|ta| S|PPnotograpny tean
runnagedthroughtheir harddrives for
suitableinages toillustratespring, sunner,
autunnandwinter.

eteucteye penyour rst picture andduplicate the inage


by clicking onthe 8arnd/ayr inthe ayers palette andgoing to
ayrD//a ayr, or by dragging it downtothe Cra a n/ayr
iconat the bottonof the ayers palette. ronnowonyou'll only be
working onthis duplicate layer. eave the original inage untouched.

soteu Withthe Gradient 1ool andthe ayer Mask


selected(black lines appear aroundthe nask's corners whenit's
activated), click at the topof the inage anddrag the cursor downto
the point where youwant the blur tostart.

yotou Click onF//r8/r/n8/r toopenthe


lter's dialogue box. s youwant toapply a vertical blur, set the
An/ to by either typing the anount inor noving the angle nder.
You'll notice that by clicking anddragging onthe angle nder the
directionof the blur will change inthe previewscreen.

cesetestetdjust the D/an slider toincrease the strength


of the blur ehect. 1he bottonof the inage needs tobe heavily blurred
but not tothe point that the subjects becone unrecognisable. t will be
diherent for every inage (we used409pixels). Whenyou're happy, click K.

yLye s1oadda ayer Mask tothe blurredinage,


click onthe Addayr a iconat the bottonof the ayers palette.
You'll notice this adds a white box next toyour inage inthe ayers palette.
1henselect the Grad/n fronthe toolbar or press .
HGULNPPHGPH
oouc
ette
Photoshoptechnques
Fna mage
in epie
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o eII o
no ingem
mdeinon
pin o Ii o
diheen Ioo?
6
Pepeat ou've done is create a gradient inyour Layer Mask that
allows the blur tograduate throughyour inage. Youcanchange the
graduationby repeating stepve. You'll ndthe inages look better if the
blur is heavier at the bottonof the picture thanthe top.
7
ppIythetechniquetoaII seasons Repeat steps one tosix withthe
other three inages of your choice. We've pickeda colourful autunn
woodlandscene, bright sunshine passing throughtrees for sunner anda
black owhite picture of a snowy forest.
HNONGULNPPHGPH
for |ndspes
ITFORLND5CP5
nsppotorprs rtunrytottl
tlnnts for rt ns. f you'rnntotrt
outoors our unsurs you'vpkll tkyssntls
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routnly nttry wtr ntklnlonwlks soulrnvy pks wt
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potorp snply uswntns ootopln yououlnonnts wy fron
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your snrtpon.
5irit IvI lps kp
tnr lvl wnt's
nounton trpo soyou
on't t wonky orzonn
your sots. onnrs
or nltronlvl.
5as dris k
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tountrys
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onfort. ur fvourts r
y pi ut svrl
rns or oof
olours nstyls.
rccuery
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+W
www.pluswltrs.on
Canon
www.non.o.uk
Cokn
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Depss
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Gzo
www.tzo.o.uk
Goos
www.ottostrpos.on
Hama
www.n.o.uk
Hhne|
www.nl.
He|opan
www.tnworkpoto.on
Hech
www.forntt.o.uk
Hoodman
www.tnworkpoto.on
Hoya
www.ntro2020.o.uk
Lowepro
www.lowpro.on
LeeF|ers
www.lltrs.on
Manfroo
www.nnfrotto.o.uk
Paramo
www.prno.o.uk
Rea||yRgh 5uh
www.rllyrtstu.on
5anDsk
www.snsk.on
5prayway
www.sprywy.on
5gma
www.snnnuk.on
5|k
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Tamrac
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Tamron
www.ntro2020.o.uk
ThnkTank
www.snpprstu.on
Tokna
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Vanguard
www.vnurworl.o.uk
Ve|bon
www.ntro2020.o.uk
5iro142 Enthusiast p140
Donoforgeopack...
Conens
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
andscapes
Soyounyyousl s thnxt oonisho viNotonoupolywntoth
lnspygnl lovo thgt outoos ut hvnv tknnothnsnpshots
whilout onwlks o njoyingoth pusuits Nowyouvphotogphytoyou list o
oth hois its tintoupthnt s unowno wht youll ntoojust tht
5uperzoom
ol lngths onnot
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ll you lnspns n
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t330nonI-2/0nn
i36-63i PZD.
Memory cards
You'll havetoequiteshutter-happy
toll a 4GBard, evenona good
day, sooneintheanera should
enorethanenough-thoughit's
wortharryinga spare4GBardjust
inaseyouget arriedaway.
1) The|andscapenovce
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
F|ter system
nterns of value, theCokinP
Systenis theest thereis. 1he
lters are84nnwidesothe
holder is igenoughtoavoid
vignettingonlenses as wideas
I4nnonDSLRs withPS-C
sizedsensors (22nnonfull-
frane) andthereareadaptor rings
availalefor lenses withthreads
upto82nn. 1heholder osts
around5andadaptor rings
areII eah. Whihever rand
youuy, nakesureyouinvest in
a irular polariser anda set of
NDgrads. Cokin's PI64Cirular
Polariser osts 90, whileits ND
grads ost around22eah.
ntry-|eve|
P5-Cdgta| 5LR
1herearenopoor DSLRs or CSCs -
eventheleast expensivenodels give
youfantastiinagequality -sodon't
worry if your udget won't streth
toa pro-spenodel as youreally
don't needone. What youdoneedis
a relatively onpat andlightweight
DSLRthat youanarry aroundall
day andnot notie, that's quik and
easy touseandhas thefeatures to
let yougradually takenoreontrol
as your knowledgeandexperiene
grows. Models toonsider inludethe
350CanonLS II00Dandthe500
CanonLS I00D.
Remote re|ease
Whenyour anera's nountedon
a tripod, ringtheshutter withyour
nger anauseshake. voidit witha
renotereleasethat plugs intoa soket
onthesideof your anera. Gofor a
asinodel fronHana, Yongnuoor
Hahnel. 1he25Hahnel 280Renote
Shutter Releaseis a great hoieas
your rst renote.
asc outdoor c|othng
f youplantoeoutdoors all day, you
needtonakesureyou'resuitaly
dressedfor theelenents. 1he25
Sprayway Lxplore1eeis a onfortale
aselayer, whilethe68Parano
Challenger is lightweight, reversile
andohers exellent protetionfron
windandrain.
Trpod
Younay not liketheidea of arryinga
tripodaround, ut trust us, it is worth
theehort -espeially whenyou're
shootinginlowlight at dawnor dusk.
t's far etter tousea tripodandset a
lowSratingfor highinagequality
thantryingtohandholdat highS.
Deent nodels toonsider inlude
theI20velonSherpa+630andthe
I50Slik Pro/00DX.
ackpack
You'll eworkingwitha fairly
snall kit sothere's noneedto
invest ina giant akpak.
'Zoonster' asefor your SLR
andlens likethe431hink 1ank
PhotoDigital Holster 20nay e
okay ut a akpak is etter.
Models liketheI45Lowepro
lipsideSport areideal as they
holdyour kit, plus havea setion
for snaks andsparelothes,
plus a laptoppoket. lso
onsider the90vanguardUP-
Rise45andthe50Lowepro
ConpuDay Photo250.

t wtnvtnn dnt kk tt wll


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tnnd ntlty wnwlkn
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yunndt lnd t2001n
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ukt ndt wy tvdt tn
NDdlt nyu ln 06ND(two-stop) grad
is nefor general use, whilethe0.9ND(three-stop)
gradis better at dawnanddusk. Cokin's Z-ProND
grads cost 50each, whileHitech's NDgrads cost
fron50upwards for its I00nnlters.
F|ter system
lthoughyoucouldstill get away withusinga Cokin
P-systenholder withlenses as wideas I4nn, the
fact that you'vebought anultra wide-anglezoon
will probably beencouragenent enoughtogofor
a larger I00nnsysten. Leeilters will probably
beover your budget, but theCokinZ-Prosysten
or HitechI00nnsystenarea noreahordable
alternative. Holders cost around50eachand
adaptor rings areunder 20each.
Remote re|ease
decent renotereleaseis a nust. Youcouldstick
witha cordedrelease, liketheHahnel 280Renote
Shutter Releaseshownontheprevious page.
However, younight alsowant toconsider a wireless
renotetoo, suchas the50Hahnel Conbi 1. s
well as oheringa four-secondtiner, it canbeusedin
thestudiotoreyour fashsysten, nakingit a better
choiceif youalsoshoot portraits.
2) Theadvancedenthusast
Soyou'vebeenshootingseriouslyfor
twoor threeyears now, you'vepickedup
alot of knowledgeandexperiencealong
thewayandyour inages arepretty
good. anilyandfriends areaskingyou
for prints for thewall andyou'refeeling
prettycondent about your
photography, sothetinehas coneto
upgradeyour landscapekit. Here's the
gear that younight want toconsider.
Kt for |andscapes HCNONGULNPPHGPH

Cr r wyr
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rr yr yr wr w r
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wryr r
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ryr rwrr
r yr w r yrw
r Rr wr y'r r
r r rr
y ry wr Br
r Parno, Berghus, 1he
Northce, MountinLquipnent, Sprywy nd
MountinHrdwer, nongothers.
1heI90velez dventureSnock ohers one
lrgekngroopocket, whichcnt nS np
or lters. t's short, confortblewterproof top
tht's lsolight inweight. s withother Parno
wterproofs, thevelez dventurepunps wy
perspirtionsotht whenyoustop, youdon't get
colds youdon't hveny liquidclosetoyour skin
coolingyoudown.
While pir of jens reidel for everydy
use, they'renot goodchoicewhenyou're
spending dy out shootings they'renot
wetherproof ndwill beconeclnny nd
hevy shouldyouget cught in shower. You
refr better ohweringrinpnts, whichre
confortble, durblendbovell wterproof.
Shownhererethe40Sprywy Hvn pnts,
whichoher decent budget option.

f you'vebeenusing kit zoonuptonow, it's
tinetoupgrdeto qulity stndrdzoon. ocl
lengths roundI6nnreidel for generl use
s they'rewideenoughtoproducedrntic
conpositions. round35nnyou'll get sinilr
ngleof viewndperspectivetothehunneye,
while50nnndbeyondtkes youintoshort
telephototerritory. D|g|ta| S|PPnotograpny rn
conprisontest of stndrdzoons ndgve
the550CnonL-S I4-85nnfi3.5-5.6 Highly
Rtedwrd. f tht's bit toopricey, the1nron
I/-50nnfi2.8Di vCXRlsoreceived Highly
Rtedccoldeinthesnereview.

Youwnt thebest tht youcnhordinPS-C
fornt sotht youcnproducetopqulity inges
ndprint theles toI6xI2inor bigger, without
worryingbout thenlookingunshrpor griny.
Cnonohers selectionof suitblenodels ll
bostingI8-negpixels. 1he900CnonLS
/00Dis lightweight optionbut not toorobust.
or hevy useinpoor wether. check out the
feture-pcked I,000CnonLS /0Dndthe
robust I,/00CnonLS /D.

f youwnt your DSLR's nonitor screentodoits
jobproperly, it needs tobekept ingoodcondition,
sobuy ndt screenprotector. 1heplstic
clip-onvriety vilblefor sonecners re
oky but rerther onthethick sidendwith
tendency totkeon 'frosted' look fter while.
Self-dhesiveprotectors, likethe6protector by
Hn, rectully better options ndlso lot
norewllet-friendly.
1 LTPWDE-NLEZOOM
1houghyoustill tendtorechfor your
stndrdzoonrst, it's worthdding
nultr wide-nglezoontoyour kit s
well soyoucnstrt toexperinent with
drnticconpositions, exploitinglines
ndforegroundinterest ndcreting
inges with powerful senseof depth
ndscle. 1his is likely tobeconeyour
stndrdlens s youdiscover its benets so
nkesureyoubuy goodone. 1he3/0
Sign I0-20nnfi4-5.6LXDCHSMnd
460Sign I0-20nnfi3.5LXDCHSM
regoof independents, whilethe1okin
1-XI2-28nnfi4Prois evenbetter. f you
cnhordit, theCnonL-S I0-22nn
fi3.5-4.5USMis brillint.
TELEZOOM
Youwon't usetelezoonsnuchbut
it'sworthit for ehectssuchsperspective
conpression(gret innist), shllowdepth-
of-eldndfor llingthefrnewithdetilsin
thelndscpe. /0-200nnisehectively
II2-320nnwithPS-Csensors, while/0-
300nnequtestoII2-480nn-norethn
powerful enough. Checkout theI00Sign
/0-300nnfi4-5.6DGMcro, I50Sign
/0-300nnfi4-5.6DGPMcro, 3I5
CnonL-S55-250nnfi4-5.6S1MSnd
2901nron/0-300nnfi4-5.6USDvR.
3 MEMOPYCPD5
1houghnost shoots only lst dy, you
reventuringfurther eldndspending
weekends onloction, soyouneedextr
crds. f youhvefour gooddys youcould
esily shoot 20-30GBof Rwles, socrry
t lest ve4GBcrds.
4) OODLOUPE
viewinginges onyour digitl SLR's
previewscreencnbetricky inbright
light ndthoughyoucnresort topulling
your jcket over thecner or cupping
your hnds, thebest solutionis the/8
HoodnnLoupes it lwys gives bright,
distortion-freeI.I view.
5) DEP55 CPD
t only costs 2.99, but this hndy ccessory
helps pinpoint theloctionof sunrisend
sunset throughout theyer -just lign
thecrdwith1rueNorthndredohthe
indictor. 1urnthecrdover ndyou've
got hyperfocl distncechrt tht tells
youwheretofocus your lens tonxinise
depth-of-eld.
6) NDFLTEP5
UseNDlters toincreseexposures when
shootingnovingwter torecordtht
lovely blur ehect. 1heCokinZ-PRNDs will
set youbck round34echndtheND4
ndND8will bethenost useful. Hitech's
NDlters cost round25ech.
7) POLP5EP
polrisinglter will deepenbluesky,
reduceglresocolours pper richer, cut
throughhzendelininterefections.
1he249CokinZ-PRpolriser is the
idel choicefor usewiththeZ-PRlter
systen, whileHitech's costs I30. f you
cn't stretchto slot-inpolriser, consider
screw-incirculr polrisers. Hoy ohers
nexcellent rngeof polrisers, prices vry
ccordingtosize, but expect topy round
65for /2nnor //nnlter.

1
3
4
5
6
7
2
HGULNPPHGPH
HGULNPPHGPH

oli t tipotht ill kpo h ll-nSLR


oononbotill inhighin i ntil. bon-bi
onnonnonongt to tipo ithitobingth
not popl bnithpo. hk ot th154I
Montin. oont likthito tit lglok oni
thMnotto55XPR. ight np njo
i thntonol tht ill ppl thIiotto Silk
RoY1L 54nth5iotto vitinvR55 both
ignithtl photogph innin.

1ipolg onl goo thhotthtothn o
ont bloo ntibgt onn pin. goo olih
i th55iotto M5I h-it's well-nadeandideal for
bothsingleshots andsequences for stitchedpanoranas. f you
prefer ball heads, professional photographers loverca Swiss
andReally Right Stuh.
G|a po|ae
f you'veinvestedina Leeilters kit, younight as well
conplenent it witha top-quality polariser. 1he220I05nn
Leecircular polariser attaches totheLeelter holder via an
optional 33I05nnadaptor ring. However, thepolariser
has a deepnount soif youuseultra wide-anglezoons or
lenses, consider a slinner polariser, suchas theexpensivebut
optically superb230Heliopanasenann.
F|te tem
1here's only onelter systenthat prolandscapephotographers
use. Leeilters. t has norival interns of versatility andquality
and, thoughexpensive(thebasicholder is 55andadaptor rings
I9-55), it's built tolast. Moreinportantly, theI00nnwide
holder cones as a kit andcanbeset upwithanythingfrononeto
threelter slots, allowingyoutoadapt it for usewithwide-angle
lenses. it twoslots andyou'll get vignette-freeinages withfocal
lengths as wideas I6nnona full-franeSLR. 1here's alsoan
SWI50systenfor usewiththeNikkor I4-24nnandother ultra
wide-anglezoons that havea protrudingfront elenent.
3 Theem-polpo
Makingagoodfull-tinelivingfronlandscape
photographyis verydihcult, but sonenanageit
bydiversifying-shootingstockinages, selling
prints, self-publishingcards andcalendars,
writingbooks andnagazinearticles andleading
workshops. Seni-pros conbineprotable
photographywithother ways of nakingnoney.
ither way, if youfall intothis categoryor want to,
you'regoingtoneedgear that canwithstand
regular andsustaineduseinharshconditions.
1hinkof it as aninvestnent inyour future.
U|ta wde-ang|e zoom
ocal lengths fronI6-35nnona full-franedigital SLRare
invaluablefor landscapephotography. nultra wide-anglezoon
is thereforelikely tobeyour standardlens, sonakesureyou
buy thebest thereis. ronanon, there's theI,200I6-35nn
fi2.8L Mk USM, whichis a favouritewithnany professionals,
or the580I/-40nnfi4L USM. 1helatter ohers very high
inagequality andcosts half theprice, whileits slower naxinun
apertureisn't anissuefor landscapephotography. t wona Highly
Ratedawardintests of ultra wide-anglezoons inD|g|ta| S|P
Pnotograpny. lsocheck out theSigna I2-24nnfi4.5-5.6 G
HSM, whichalsoscoredHighly Ratedinthetest.
t r ss HOGULNPPHGPH
1) st strzoo
zoonfronnodertewidetoshort
telehotoisvitl rt of therolndscer's
kit Gofor onewithfst f28nxinun
erturesoyouget bright viewnder
inge heI,800CnonL24-/0nn
f28 USMisthebest choice, but it'slso
thenost exensive nron'sSP24-/0nn
f28Di CUSDisworthconsidertiont
round850 lens, whileSign's24-/0nn
f28LXDGHSMcostsround600
2) zoo
houghit's likely tobeyour lest-used
lens, telezoonis still worthhvingfor
conressingersectivendshooting
detils in scene CnonLS users cn
sve lot of weight, bulk ndcshby oting
for the980/0-200nnf4 S USM
instedof theI,980f28 version-you
don't lwys needtheextr seedfor
lndsces Sign's 900/0-200nn
f28LXDGS HSMbosts D|g|ta| S|P
Pnotograpny Best Buy wrd, whilethe
I,I00nronSP/0-200nnf28Di C
USDscored Highly Rtedccolde
3) upD5
f your budget will runtoit, secondbody
is worthhvingjust incseyour ninone
decides tonlfunctionor youdngeit on
loction delly you'dhvetwoof thesne
nodel but relisticlly, goodsfeotion
is nenthusist-level PS-CDSRlikethe
I,I00CnonLS /0D
) 5prttrs
Goes without syingrelly -nothingworse
thnrunningout of btteries intheniddle
of nowherewhenthelight's gret lwys
set out withtwofully chrgedbtteries s
well s brndedbtteries, Delkin, Hn nd
Hahnel ll oher lterntives.
5) Moryrs
1rips wycnlst weekor norendwith
youshootingeverydyfrondwntodusk
whenthewether plys bll, you'll soonstrt
llingupyour nenorycrds. Downloding
full crds tolptopis dilyroutine, but if
youprefer not torefornt crds until you're
hone, thencrryt lest 50GBof cpcity,
inother words sixor seven8GBcrds.
6) NDtrs
s well s your ten-stopNDlter, it's worth
crrying coupleof weker NDs soyoucn
useslower shutter speeds whenshooting
wterflls ndrivers tocpturenotion.
polriser cnbeusedlikenNDlter s it
loses twostops of light (equivlent ton
0.6ND), but lsodd0.9ND(three-stop)
ndnybeI.2ND(four-stop) s well soyou
hvenoreoptions. Leeilters
ProGlss NDs cost roundII0ech.
7) T-stFtr
Noself-respectingprowouldbewithout
one. Gofor theI30LeeBigStopper or
theB+W3.0NDscrew-inlter. Prices vry
dependingonthelter size-for exnple,
52nnlter costs round4I, while
//nncosts I30.
8) NDgrads
1henost useful lters of ll for lndscpe
photogrphyreNeutrl Density(ND) grds
s theyllowyoutoproducewell-exposed
lndscpendwell-exposedskyinone
shot, in-cner. nvest in200NDgrd
set fronLeeilters, whichcontins 0.3, 0.6
nd0.9densitygrds, ndwedvisegoing
for thehrdgrds rther thnsoft grds s
they'renoreehectivendesier touse.
9) Pieceof card
sheet of I0x8instout crdis hndy touse
s lens shdewhenshootinginstrong
sunlight, toshieldthefront endof thelens
ndprevent fre. lens hoodwoulddo
tht, but whenusing lter holder, the
hoodtht cnewiththelens obviously
won't tl
10) 5esor ceaigit
Younynot wnt tocrryit inyour
bckpck, but keepkit inyour cr. t's worth
hvingccess todecent sensor cleningkit
incseyoushouldneedit, suchs the/5
rcticButterfy/88Britesensor brush.
11) ppeiPhoe4s or 5
Not onlyinvlublefor keepingintouch,
ndtkingdecent photos withits eight-
negpixel cner, theppleiPhone4Sis
powerhouseof technology. or exnple, if
youtkereferenceshots usingthecner,
youcnpinpoint their loctiononGoogle
Mps bytppingthePlces optioninthe
CnerRoll. 1heppleiPhone's GPS
cpbilitylets youknowexctlywhereyour
lndscpeshots retken, soyoucnnd
your wybcktothesnespot -or shre
theinforntionwithothers. Youcnlso
downlodthepp1hePhotogrpher's
Lpheneris (http.iiphotoepheneris.con),
whichllows youtoestblishthetinend
directionof sunrisendsunset nywherein
theworld.
Fu-rm
npre-digitl dys, nediun- ndlrge-fornt ln
cners werethewepons of choicenongpros,
but nownediun-fornt qulity cnbechieved
using full-frneDSLR, soit hs beconestndrd
issue. ngequlity side, top-endfull-frneDSLRs
lsobost excellent buildqulity, includingfull
wether-seling, sothey cncopewithdily usein
extrenewether conditions ndnot evenfinch.
Rin, snow, wind, snd, volcnicsh-younneit.
voidfgshipnodels, thererenorehordble
full-frneDSLRs tochoosefron. Youshould
strongly consider theI,80020.2-negpixel Cnon
LS 6D, whichohers decent resolutionndis
reltively conpct. We'dsuggest it's better overll
optiontothe3,600CnonLS 5DMk .
mt rs
lthoughyoucnget wy withusing bsicrenote
relese, being proyounight wnt tosplshout
onsonething bit fncier, liketheII5Cnon
1C-80N3. t cnbepre-progrnnedtonkelong
exposures -hndy if youuse ten-stopNDlter or
shoot sequences of inges t set intervls, whichis
useful for str tril photogrphy. cheper optiontht
hs pretty nuchevery fcility you'll needis Hahnel's
feture-pcked60Gig 1Pro.
U|tmate outdoor c|othng
t's well worthinvestinginqulity wterproof clothing
if youplntoregulrly shoot outdoors. Prno's
300Hlconjcket hs ninepockets, includinglrge
pockets tht cnt nost lter systens (including
Lee), withplenty of roonfor btteries, nenory crds
ndother ccessories. Shownis thebest-sellingII5
PrnoCscd trousers, whichoher full wether
protectionndexcellent confort. Youcnfurther
preservebody het by wering woollenht fron
outdoor brnds suchs Ptgoni or Berghus.
5ensb|e footwear
Whenyouspendhours onyour feet ndregulrly
wlk niles over roughterrin-ll in dy's work for
lndscpepro-youneed decent pir of boots
tht reconfortble, wrnndprotective. Check
out boots by 1heNorthce, solo, Meindl, Berghus
ndSolonon. Whenshootingonboggy terrin, ner
wter or onbeches, goodpir of wellies is fr nore
useful s they will keepyour feet bonedry. iglend
L Chneurereputblebrnds totry.
ackpack
nvest in bckpck tht's bigenoughtohousell
your cner kit s well s hveextr spcefor nps,
food, wter, spreclothes -ndis wether resistnt.
Loweprois thebrndof choicenonglndscpe
pros ndoneof thebest pcks is theI20ProRunner
450W. Styledlike trditionl rucksck, it hs lods
of fetures includingneshsidepockets, fully pdded
interior nd lptopconprtnent. lsocheck out
top-endnodels fronvngurd, t nd1nrc.
G|ass screen protector
1herer screenonyour DSLRwill coneinfor sone
punishnent soprotect it with 25Giotto's egis
ProGlss screenprotector. Youwon't knowthere's
screenprotector theret ll ndyoucnclenit s
oftens youlike, sfeintheknowledgetht therel
screenbenethit is s goods new.
nthebag...
5
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al oodUltrawide-anles
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tokeepit coveredintransit.
3 Manual focus rinNormally it's
towards tefront of telens andis
reasonably wide. You'll rarely need
touseit, as wide-anlelenses ave
excellent autofocus.
4 ZoomrinTis is normally found
towards tebackof tebarrel. Most
arewidewitaroovedsurfaceto
allowyoutoripit easily.
5 Focus distanceMany lenses ave
tefocus-distancescalemarkedon
tebarrel, wilesomeof temore
upmarket models aveafocus-
distancewindow.
6 yperfocal scale(seeinset Tis
scaleallows youtoestimateow
mucof tescenewill appear
sarpat your coiceof aperture.
7 nternal focusinf you're
plannintousehlters, lenses
witaninternal focusinsystem
avetebeneht of tefront of te
lens not rotatinwenfocusin,
soyoudon't avetokeep
readjustintem.
Focal lent Sensor sizes
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V ooco
Howtoreadthe |ens sharpness graphs
ar graphs provideyouwithavisual
representationof lens sharpness. Each
graphshows thecentreandedge
performanceof thelens at full f!stops from
maximumaperturetof!16at dinerent focal
lengths of thezoom. Centresharpness is
showninred, edgeingreen. Thehigher the
bar, thebetter thesharpness, withratings as
follows: 8elow10: Poor, 10-29: Fair, 30-49:
Good, 50-69: Very good, Over 70: Excellent.
All our lens test analysis is performedusing
software.
Fu C
60
0
20
30
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80
90
0
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5
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6
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6
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5
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0
6
7
7
1
5
8
6
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HNONGULNPPHGPH
Kt for |andscapes
IT: unhtnyrs g thnn
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hpst -grlns yunuy whih
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ringnthrris vty thswithgr
uisitinsynrn ptil prrnnis
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prtur nrnithrughti
prrnnis xllnt t ll l lngths
HNLING: ight npt nwith
rssuringly slil us nzn
ntrls rsnthnnily wight
xllnt just s yuwulxpt rn
nn-grlns
FT: Ultrasonic(USM) focusing,
weatherproofedconstruction, andinside
I2elenents inninegroups takecareof the
inaging, includingexoticglass andaspherical
surfaces. anon's L-gradelenses conewith
particularly goodlens hoods, robustly nade
andlinedwithblack fockingfor thebest fare
resistance. t's unusually large, though, whichis
agoodthinginterns of shading, but takes up
norespaceinthebag. ilter sizeis //nn, in
connonwithnany pro-speclenses.
TOFOING: anon's USMrarely
disappoints -always fast, snooth, quiet and
accurate. ull narks.
PFOMN: anon's L I/-40nn
follows a traditional patternfor sharpness.
Unlike other lenses we have testedthat have
very highlevels right fronnaxinunaperture,
onfull-frane this lens neets our very good
ratingat fi4, thenjunps right intothe excellent
zone fronfi5.6andholds ontoit, only starting
todipslightly withthe inevitable ehects of
dihractionat fiI6. Muchthe sane patternis
refectedonPS-, only withthe higher
resolutiondenands of the snaller fornat
pushingthe nunbers down. verall the
standardis very highat nost connonly
usedapertures. f you're lookingfor nicro-
detail, inthe peak resolutiontest at M1 20,
the anonscoredII0lines-per-nnat fi8,
whichrates as excellent.
berrationcontrol is typical of all super-wide
zoons, withsignicant barrel distortionand
vignetting, particularly I/nnat fi4. Whilethis is
very nuchpar for thecoursewithsuper-wide
zoons, conparedtolonger focal lengthlenses
it rates as arelatively poor-to-fair perfornance
onfull-frane. nstoppingdown, however,
andonthesnaller PS-fornat, vignetting
gures aredranatically inprovedas you'd
expect, thoughdistortionstill renains anissue
at wider settings. lsoat thehigher endof the
scaleis chronaticaberration, but thegood
news is that all thesethings canbeeither
substantially inprovedor elininatedin
post-processing, or evenin-canerathese
days, sothereality is not toobadat all.
anonF17-40mm
fl4LM
58
ITOTION ll-frame Poor ITOTION(APS-C Poor
HOMTI(Full-frame Good HOMTI(APS-C Fair
IGNTTING(Full-frame Fair IGNTTING(APS-C Excellent
HIGHLY

fl fl16 fl11 fl8 fl5.6


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5
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5

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5
5
7
3
HNLING 2l2
FT 18l2
PFOMN 3l
LFOMONY 2l2
OLL 2l1
anonF17-mmflLMP- anonF17-mmflLMfuII-frame
HNONGULNPPHGPH
K o |anapc
IT:








HNLING:
's newer snoothblack surfacenish
that's noreresistant tonarkingthantheolder
natt black. t's noderately heavy, andboth
focus andzoonrings arewell weightedand
silky snooth.
FT: Standout featureis thenega-wide
zoon, whichgoes downtoanincredible
I2nn. 1his is way wider thananythingelse-
infact, it's thewidest rectilinear (non-sheye)
lens of any kindnadefor full-frane. t I22,
theeld-of-viewis incrediblel 1hefipsideof
that is thefocal lengthat thelonger endonly
extends to24nn, andanother downsideis the
bulbous front elenent that prevents theuseof
nornal lters. 1herearespecialist gradlter kits
available(egornatt Hitech), but they'reboth
enornous andcostly, soyou'dbest boneup
onyour HDRtechniqueas analternative-
soneprefer it anyway.
TOFO: Withsonuchdepth-of-eld
available, theHypersonicsystendoesn't
havenuchtodo, but it works very quietly and
ehciently, soyouwon't haveany problens.
PFOMN: Under thehood, there's a
wholestack of exoticglass andaspherical
surfaces, totallingI/elenents inI3groups.
Just as well, as they haveahefty task nanaging
that vast angle-of-view, anddeliveringsharp
inages without toonuchdistortion, vignetting
andfare. Signahas donearenarkablejoband
perfornanceis alot better thanyounight
expect, infact it stands shoulder toshoulder
withthebest, despiteits relatively lowcost.
1henodest naxinunaperture, only fi4.5at
I2nnrisingtofi5.6at 24nn, gives it abit of a
head-start ontheoptical challenge, but evenso
thelens is sharp, very sharp, hittingtheexcellent
standardright across afull-franeinagefron
naxinunaperture. nly theedges lagalittleat
theteleend, whichis aconnoncharacteristic.
1here's plenty of distortion, vignettingand
chronaticaberration, as therealways is with
ultra-wides, but theSigna's not any worsethan
nost others. Peak resolutionis ahighII8
lines-per-nn, recordedat I/nnfi5.6inthe
centre. nareaof cautionis towatchout for
fare. Giventheextensiveeld-of-view, areas of
sky andsunareboundtobeincludedinthe
frane, andtheprotrudingfront elenent
naturally falls victintopickingupspecula
highlights. 1his is nostly inevitable, andnore
sonethingtobeawareof thantoworry about.
5ma12-2mm
l-II DGH5M
65
fl.5 fl16 fl11 fl8 fl5.6
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N
l

N
l

HIGHLY
ATD
HNLING 2l2
FT 16l2
PFOMN 36l
LFOMONY 18l2
OLL l1
ga12-2fl.5-5.6II Gfu-frae ga12-2fl.5-5.6II GP-
ITOTION(Full-frame Poor ITOTION(APS-C Fair
HOMTI(Full-frame Good HOMTI(APS-C Fair
IGNTTING(Full-frame Fair IGNTTING(APS-C Excellent
HCANONGULNPPHGPH


's
velvet-natt nishcanshowscuhnarks.
TUP5: I0nnis as wideas they cone, but
20nnis a bit less thanaverage. Maxinun
aperturefi4-5.6is alsonodest. ens hoodand
casesupplied.
UTOFOU5ING: Signa's ypersonicMotor
(SM) autofocus driveis as goodas any, ie
excellent, andthereis full-tinenanual
override, too.
PPFOPMN: Sharpness inthecentreis
always high, well intothe'excellent' zoneupto
fiII beforedihractiontakes hold. s always,
edgesharpness is lower, thoughnever less
than'very good' withtheexceptionof I0nnat
fi4that stands out a bit as beingdisappointing.
owever, it ranps upvery quickly andby fi5.6
it's 'very good' andfronthereonwards
sharpness is unifornly highacross thefrane.
eak resolutionhits I2I lines-per-nn. Barrel
distortionis a high+3.5at I0nn, but falls
quickly andturns to-0.6nildpincushionat
nid-rangeandlonger focal lengths. vignetting
is a littlehigher thanaverage, but still 'very
good' overall, whileCcontrol is a littlebetter
thansone, rating'good'.
VPIT: Noprizes for low-light perfornance,
but fronfi5.6tofiII -probably thenost
useful rangefor anultra-wide-sharpness is
very highat all focal lengths. t only 3/0, the
priceis evensharper.
5gma10-20mmfl4-5.6
XDCH5M
37
I5TOPTION:Severebarrel +3.5at10mm.
verall rating:ood
PKP5OLUTION:121lines-per-mm
atMTF20, 10mmf!5.6centre
HPOMTIPPTION:ighestat
10mm. verall rating:ood
VIGNTTING:Moderate1.3EVat10mmf!4.
verall rating:Veryood
HIGHLY
RTD
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 Nl
Lens5harpness(X): 14mm dge entre
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Lens5harpness(X): 2mm dge entre
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I I I I
fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 Nl Nl
HNLING 18l2
FTUP5 16l2
PPFOPMN 35l4
VLUFOPMONY 2l2
OVPLL 89l1
5igma1-2mmfl4-5.6XH5M
HNLING: Sweet handling, withvery light
weight andlightly weightedzoonand
focusingrings. 1opquality build.
FTUP5: ocal lengthrange is broadand
versatile, andgoodoverlapwitha standard
range zoonneans less lens changing.
Maxinunapertures are nodest though.
UTOFOU5: Canon's Ultrasonic focusingis
fast, positive andquiet andohers full-tine
nanual override.
PPFOPMN: Sharpness is high, especially
inthecentre, whereit kicks ohwell intothe
'excellent' zoneandthis is naintainedat all
focal lengths, only dippingunder at fiII. dge
sharpness is notably lower, but still consistently
aroundthe'very good' level andunlikesone,
there's nodrop-ohat thelonger end. eak
resolutionis thehighest hereat I29lines-per-
nn. berrations control is theusual nixedbag
withultra-wides. Barrel distortionat I0nnis
+2.4, whichrates as 'poor', thoughothers are
worseandit quickly gets nuchbetter at longer
focal lengths. vignettingis relatively high, but
never nuchof a problenevenwideopen, and
chronaticaberration(C) is about average.
VPIT: versatile zoonrange, great ,
anda highstandardof sharpness -very high
inthe centre -is naintainedat all focal
lengths andapertures. t cones ina very light
andconpact package withexcellent build
quality, andbest of all the price has been
reducedby over I00.
CaoF-510-22mm
fl3.5-4.5U5M
49 5T
UY
I5TOPTION:Strongbarrel +2.4at10mm.
verall rating:Verygood
PKP5OLUTION:129lines-per-mm
atMTF20, 15mmf!4centre
HPOMTIPPTION:Reducesat
22mm. verall rating:Fair
VIGNTTING:Moderate1.4EVat10mmf!3.5.
verall rating:Excellent
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 fl3.5
Lens5harpness(X): 15mm dge entre
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 Nl
Lens5harpness(X): 22mm dge entre
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I I
fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4.5 Nl
anonF-51-22mmfl3.5-4.5U5M
HNLING 18l2
FTUP5 18l2
PPFOPMN 37l4
VLUFOPMONY 18l2
OVPLL 91l1
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
t fo sps
HNLING:



FTUP5:

4.5. Hoodprovided.
UTOFOU5: Noultrasonicfocusing, andthe
nicro-notor is a littleslower as it whirrs along,
but works well enough.
PPFOPMN: Sharpness is lower thanother
conparativenodels. naverage, ultra-wides
tendtobe'excellent' inthecentreand'very
good' towards theedges, whilethe1anron
I-24nnruns onesteplower -'very good' in
thecentre, and'good' at theedges. Peak
resolutionis alsolow, reachingI/lines-per-
nn, recordedat 24nnfi8inthecentre.
Distortionlevels are'fair' overall, withstrong
+3.2barrellingat Inn, rating'poor', steadily
reducingto+I.6barrel at 24nn. vignettingis
well controlled, never norethan.9Lvat
Innfi3.5, rating'excellent', andusually less
thanthat. Cis proninent, higher thanaverage,
rating'poor' overall.
VPIT: 1hefocal lengthrangeis excellent.
1henaxinunapertures arenodest, but
perfectly workable, andthe nechanisn,
whilenot quiteas sophisticatedas theother
ultrasonics, does thejob. t's only theoptics
that disappoint, andtherearebetter buys,
evenat 3/.
o04
f545D D

I5TOPTION:Severebarre +3.2at10.
vera ratn:Far
PKP5OLUTION:107nes-per-
atMTF20, 2!centre
HPOMTIPPTION:estat
10. vera ratn:Poor
VIGNTTING:Md0.9EVat10!3.5.
verall rating:Excellent
Le5hae: dge ee

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fl8 fl fl5 fl fl45 Nl
Ta5P-24fl5-45i II L
HNLING l2
FTUP5 l2
PPFOPMN 2l4
VLUFOPMONY 5l2
OVPLL 8l
HNLING: Slightly larger andheavier than
nost, thebuildquality is obvious. Switching
fron tonanual focus is by pullingthe
clutch-ring, thoughthis usually noves the
exact distanceslightly.
FTUP5: t's anall-newlens, sitting
alongside the acclained1okina II-I6nn
fi2.8, tradingconstant fi4naxinunaperture
for nuchgreater I2-28nnzoonrange.
Hoodincluded.
UTOFOU5: 1okina's SD-MSilent Drive-
Module works quickly andquietly. 1opnarks.
PPFOPMN: 1okina has a reputationfor
highinage quality, sonosurprises here. nthe
centre, sharpness is well intothe 'excellent'
zone at all focal lengths uptofiII. Ldge
sharpness is lower, but never less than'very
good'. Perfornance is consistent at all settings
-nopeaks, andnonasty surprises either. Peak
resolutionneasureda highI23 lines-per-nn.
Barrel distortionis +3.2at I2nn, rating
'poor', thoughit quickly drops to+.4at
I8nn('excellent') andhovers aroundzeroto
28nn. vignettingis ehectively insignicant
throughout, Cis a little higher thanexpected,
rating'fair' overall.
VPIT: ne lens. t feels goodandworks
great, withconsistently highinage quality at
all settings. 1he extra focal lengthat 28nnis
useful, but at the expense of a couple of nns
less at the wide end. 1he price has droppeda
little since launch, too.
oX12-28mm
fl4ProDX
55
I5TOPTION:Severebarrel +3.2at12mm.
verall rating:ood
PKP5OLUTION:123lines-per-mm
atMTF20, 12mmf!5.6centre
HPOMTIPPTION:Reducesat
28mm. verall rating:Fair
VIGNTTING:Mild0.8EVat12mmf!4.
verall rating:Excellent
Le5hae: 2 dge ee

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fl8 fl fl5 fl fl4 Nl
Le5hae: 28 dge ee

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I I
fl8 fl fl5 fl fl4 Nl
5T
UY
HNLING 8l2
FTUP5 8l2
PPFOPMN l4
VLUFOPMONY 8l2
OVPLL l
TiaT-X2-28fl4PX
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
amoso
wan||nss
amrton
-angles arethelens of choicefor thevast
najorityof landscapephotographers for very
goodreason. 1heselenses allowyoutosqueeze
as nuchof alocationintoyour viewnder as
possibleandcaptureasceneabsolutely
brinningwithdetail andinterest. 1his is anadvantagefor
landscapephotographers as it neans youcaninclude
foregroundinterest as well as lots of detail inthefar scene,
givingyour inageplentyof depth. Bychoosinginteresting
foregroundsubjects, youcanalsograbtheviewer's
attentionandpull thenintothepicture.
Usingwide-anglezoons canbesoaddictivethat you
autonaticallyusetheir widest settingat everyopportunity.
But this canposeproblens. Sonelenses canbeset sowide
that theyshowthecorners of your equipnent (lenses, lters
andholders) inthefrane, this is knownas vignetting. nother
issuewithusingextrenewide-anglelenses is barrel distortion,
whichcauses horizons tobendandbuildings tolean.
ll this canbeavoidedbytrainingyourself toset your
wide-anglelens accordingtoyour subject natter. f shooting
astraight horizon, likeaseascape, thenusingthefocal lengtha
fewnillinetres upfronthewidest will reducetheappearance
of abendyhorizon. nountainous terrain, whichalreadyhas
anunevenhorizon, canbeshot as wideas youwant. s well as
focal length, payattentiontotheheight andtheangleof your
canerawhenyouset it uponatripod. 1rees will leanwhen
conposedfronlowtotheground, sotrysettingthecanera
at headheight andyounaynoticeabigdiherence.
1hebenets of shootingwithwide-anglelenses far
outweighthesefewconsiderations. 1heinpact theycangive
onyour photographs is astounding, whichis whyit cones as
nosurprisethat nost prolandscapephotographers wouldn't
shoot without then.
HOO5FOPMT:
Myrst imageastakenina
horizontaI format, hichis
oftenthenatraI orientation
for Iandscapes. Hoeer, a
erticaI format canorkjst
aseII ithide-angIe
shots. It aIIosmoreroom
for foregronddetaiIshiIe
stiII incIdingIotsof sky.
NOTTOOWI:
Usingtheidest endof yor
zoommaycasebarreI
distortion(henthehorizon
cresdonards) and
ignetting(hendarkareas
appear inthecornersof yor
frame). Theider yor focaI
Iength, thegreater the
chancethecamerahasof
incIdingpartsof yor kit (eg
Iter hoIders). oidthese
probIemsbynot settingyor
Ienstoitsidest focaI Iength.
GOLOW:
iepoint cIoser tothe
gronddramaticaIIy
increasestheimpact of the
foregrondsbject matter
andproidesamoredynamic
composition. Nothe
ieer canfocstheir
attentionontherockpooI,
hichIeadstheir eyeintothe
frameandtoardsthe
distant castIe.
Shootingwideensures your shots arefull
of detail andinpact. Here's why.
Vignetting
Format
Loiepoint
o |anscas HOGULNPPHGPH


hectivewhenthere's
someprominent foreground
interest topuII theviewer in
tothescene. Don't beafraid
tocomposesothat your
foregroundis bigandboId!

oensure the entire scene


is sharp, set aperture-
priority node, use a snall
aperture like fiI6and
focus a thirdof the way
intothe scene. Make sure
toset your digital canera
ona tripodfor stability

1hereis norgunent tht lnspe


photogrphers shoulpleeent wie-ngle
lens (eit prineor zoon) t thetopo their
wishlist. owever tht's not tosythereshouln't
elittleroonlloteinthegget gor
telezoon. hileyou'll preoninntlyelling
thernewithwie-nglevists you'll lson
tines whentelephotonproveuseul. 1his
will usullyewhenyouwnt toisoltespei
reor eturewithintheseneor whenyouwnt
toretelyeringeet throughperspetive
onpression(seeelow). 1hererevriety o
telephotozoons villeut we'reonnen
youopt or ol lengtho roun55-200nni
youuseSLRwithnS-sizesensor or
/0-300nnor sinilr zooni youhveull-rne
SLR. ou'll nthe1nron55-200nni4-5.6i
toegret vlue longwithSign's /0-300nn
i4-5.6Gzoon. Botho thesewill eperet or llingthernewith
ny willieyouny enounter s yourontheountrysie.
1NLLSNG telephotolenses on't 'onpress perspetive'
ut prtillyspeking youoget ierent eelingo perspetive
rontelephotoshot thnronsenepturewithwie-nglelens.
ie-nglelenses openupperspetivenretesenseo epth
euseneryojets pper ig nurther ojets pper toe
snll suggestingistne. ie-nglelenses lsoretestrong
igonls enhningthesenseo epth. ntheother hn telephotos
nkeistnt ojets pper lrger pprentlyonpressingtheplnes o
theingenreuingtheinpressiono epth. Lines tennot tostreth
intoigonls nprllels reninprllel inresingthetwo-
inensionl eel. onpretowie-ngleview this ll s upton
ingetht is norestti. n o ourse thelonger thelens thegreter
theeet. Sowht kino inges enet ronthis onpressioneet
o longer lenses1hesttihrter o telephotoinges suits trnquil
senes, hillylnspes reiel espeillywheretherereseverl
plnes or 'lyers' tht nevisullypulletogether sotheypper toe
lnost stkeontopo ehother. 1heeelingo trnquilityne
enhneyerlynorningnist withthetops o thehills risingovethe
hze. orerntiinges nereteintheright lighting
onitions toolookor lterntingns o light nrk reting
'lyeringo light'. Urnlnspes lsoworkwell s younuse
onpressiontoontrst elenents or suggest roweenvironnent.

hotogrphers otentlkout usingtelephoto


toonpress perspetive ut wht oes it nen

8-35mm
hepprent distne
etweenthe
foregroundndstIe
retes senseof
depth, withthehiIIs
ndviIIgeehindthe
stIestrethingwy
intothedistne.
50-85mm
vent moderte
teIephotosettings,
theperspetiveseems
muhtter, ndthe
stIeseems toIoom
over thedistnt hiIIs
ndtheviIIge.
105-200mm
s thefoI Iength
inreses, perspetive
seems tottenout,
sotht thestIe
ndthehiIIs ehind
seemtoeImost on
thesmepIne.
120mm 200mm
DIDYOUKNOW?
hile telephotos appear
toconpress perspective,
the truthis that they don't.
Magnify anarea of a shot
takenwitha wide-angle
lens andyou'll see that
it gives a virtually
identical ehectl
Kt or nsps
iltrs hvlongnthsinplst nnost inxpnsivwytoinprovor ltr your ings in-nr.
Lvninthigitl g thyhvthir plinvrylnspphotogrphr's kit g. xplinthnin
typs o ltr systns our ronnnltr typs nthnjor rns toonsir...
1HLR1HL1LRS now
tht whvPhotoshop is topi
tht still ivis opinionnongst
ntur photogrphrs. But or
thostht liktogt it right
in-nr ltrs rstill
invlultools inprtiulr with
outoor photogrphrs.
hilsonltrs ngivn
ing olour st othr
populr typs rnutrl in
tonninstnl
photogrphrs tolnright
nrk rs o sn or hv
norsopor thir hoio
prturs nshuttr sps.
1hrrnny irnt uss or
ltrs tosuit ll typs o
photogrphy ut inthis gui w
hlpyouiwhihtypo
ltr s wll s wht ltr systn
is thst hoior lnsp
photogrphy.
iltrs onintwonintyps
srw-in whihtthirtlyto
thltr thrt thront o your
lns rrl, nslot-in whihslip
intoholr hlinplonth
ront o your lns yptor rings
srwontothltr thr.
Bothhvthir pros nons
whihyoushoulonsir or
iingwhihtouy. As you'll
noout isovr s youron
onintiono othtyps is
otnthst solutionor nost
photogrphrs.
nsptrs systsntyps
rw-ntrs ot-ntrs
1hsrquik nsy totthn
rnovronyour lns sor vry
onvnint hoi. As thy'rn
ronglss thy ro highoptil
qulity nnoriult tosrth.
Srw-inltrs oninvrious sizs
with2nnto//nningthnost
onnon. youown nunr o
lnss hwithirnt ltr thrs
youwill ithr n ltr inhsiz
or tkthnororloptiono
stppingring(stiplow). Anothr
ngtivpoint worthonsiringis tht
grltrs rn't wll suitor uss
srw-in whihwill o-puttingor
lnspphotogrphrs inprtiulr. oulsontotkrwhn
usingnorthnonsrw-inltr t tin s yourunthrisk o
vigntting(rkningt thingornrs) spilly withwi-ngl
lnss. Anothr isvntgis tht osionlly youny n ltr
won't ug inwhihsyou'll n ltr lnptohlprnovit.
Ahpr optionthnuying
thsntypo ltr invrious sizs is touy th
lrgst sizyounn stp-ownring
whihllows youtot lrgltr on snllr
thr. or instn i youhv /2nnltr n
uy /2-6/ ring younsrwthltr toth
ring whihtths sily tothlns. Don't go
or stp-upringor tthingsnllr ltrs to
lrgr lnss s thsnusvigntting.
iththssystns youonlynto
uyonltr vni youhvsvrl
lnss o irnt sizs. 1his is us
thltr slips intoholr whih
tths tothlns vinptor ring.
So insto ningostlysrw-ins
invrious sizs younsinplyuy
orlptor rings inthsizs you
nnswpthholr twn
thn. t os nnthinitil invstnnt
is highr ut ovr tin it provs tor
norononil spillyi youhv
svrl lnss. ou'll nthris n
xtnsivrngo ltrs vill in
prtiulr gruts whihrnong
thnost populr typs o ltr or lnsps. Unliksrw-inltrs
slot-inltrs rnronoptil rsin whihis inrilytoughn
lightr thnglss lthoughnorprontosrths. ptilly thyor
xllnt qulity withlittlisrnilirntosrw-ins.
or thultintqulity lookt prorns likL
iltrs whihusthvryst ntrils.
ou'll nnost rns
nknorthnonsizo slot-insystnto
suit irnt typs o DSLRs. 1hstnr
sizis 6/nnut i youhvwi-ngl
lnss w'ronnnyouonsir th
8nnor I00nnornts. Nottht s ths
sizs rstnr sinilrly sizholrs will
pt ltrs ronothr rns.
HGULNPPHGPH

CIose-upIters
rt ys wtsus
tsyot prtury
sutor sppotorpy
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tttotosoott. os-
uptrs rusu youo't ow
ros wt tosoot
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NeutraI Desity
sr't sst trs
ut rvry usu. utr
sty tr s ry oour
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pss trouto ts.
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sut wyoutous
wprturtospt-o-or
sowr suttr sptopssovt.
rrtryurs o rt typs o tr v ut our sortst ow
ts tostt provost toyour sppotorpy
5kyIightlUVlProtectioIters
srssty r ss
srw-trs tt prott trot
t o your s roust
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sotrov o z ut
trroror ss ts.
wourott you
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NDgrauateIter
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rt toowtrt s ow'
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NDfiIter factors: s txps t
rtosptwxposurs tr
tors. t oss s sttstops.
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tr orrty. orsrs v tr tor
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YOURFILTR5!
trs sy srtsosurto
rturtto tr storsor tr
wt wot us. sror
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Usngs|ot-nf|ters Ourfavourte|tertypes
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23 3
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62 20 0 3
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HNONGULNPPHGPH

o nanphoogaphe oe he
decade, heeachfo high-aliand
ahodablelo-inle aedandended
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ide han8nn, oholdconide
he-oange, hilehe-oi noe
fo nedin-fona phoogaphe ll
heange ohe plen of opion b he
-eie ha eehingheSLR
phoogaphe na ee need, ihoe
I4le ochooefon, inclding
polaie anda aie of Ngad ile
ing aeaailablefo head po
8nnandhe-holde accep po
heele a a ine 1he-oeie i a
bee choicefo landcape
phoogaphe inpaicla hoeih
la-ideoon dapo ing ae
aailablefon49nno9nnand
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gad hichaeIInn
ll hele aenadefonR9
opical einanddelie high-ali
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Gadi fo he-eie i ahodablea
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leelecon
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igial eie ha beenecliel
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eenieSpe eie coe he
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fo abee ideaof i fll angeof le
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choice neingini boi he
en-opNle, hichha poen
incediblpopla fo daine
long-epoephoogaph

U
R
1

N
HGULNPPHGPH
dha i nang, ihcin
l indnaanandlin
l nanacdinh hang
cinl in lagb incld
lai, cinandcll,
a ll a ai cialc in
cha ab andclccin
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linl nn, nn, nn
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dcn ali andaa gdbdg
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high l, ii i bi
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andananacdinh
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na gaan ll alndha
ic acnii, , nakinghn
adcn alnaiband lika,
alhghhla i nliklb
ckdb lcal hdal

incn




'rekeen
onshootingIandscapes.

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nlilknnband lik li
nnhina anda h a n
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HGULNPPHGPH
eatures
hrrr
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3) LegIock f h
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Trpodsforoutdooruse
hh hrdfrd
Kt for |andscapes
1
2
5
3
6
4
7
Ve|bon 5herpa+ 630
Length(cIoed):
Height (Iegextended):
Numbe of Iegection: h
MaximumIoad: Webite: r
hr d rdr h hr
h f r rdr h fr
h , h h h
rd, h hrd d,
d h rrdr r
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dhr h hf
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r , h l
120
5|kPro700X+700Xpan8t|t head
Length(cIoed):
Height (Iegextended):
Numbe of Iegection: h
MaximumIoad: Webite: r
hr rdr, hrXfeels likeit could
withstandany treatnent. t's sturdy andstylish, andcertainly
looks a tripodfor serious use. lthoughit's heavy, it is still
portable. 1helocks arestrongandsecure, yet easy toopen,
whilethereversiblecentral colunnallows users totake
low-level andnacroshots withease. t is particularly
ehectivewhenusedwiththelegs openwide, whichis
easy if usingthethree-positionlocks toholdthenrnly
inplace. 1hepanotilt headfeatures a panninglock and
a snoothpanningnotion. 1hequick-releaseplateis
circular, nakingit easy toattachanddetachthecanera.
1herearetwospirit levels but nobaghook.
150
Manfrotto804R2head
Weight: /I2g
Height: II0cn
aediamete: 60nn
MaximumIoad: 4kg
OPytem: ManfrottoRC2
Webite: www.nanfrotto.co.uk
1his is a sinplethree-way headthat does
thejobwell andis oneof Manfrotto's
bestsellers. t's a goodsize, about average
weight, withanpleload-bearingcapacity. 1hethree
axes eachhavegraspablecontrol handles, arelogically positioned, and
narkedwithdegreescales anda spirit level. 1heRC2quick-releaseplateis
oneof thebest, slottingineasily andlockingautonatically. neat feature
is that theupidownnovenent is spring-loaded, increasingresistanceas
thecanera is tiltedforwards or backwards. f you'relookingfor a tripodfor
videouse, though, you'll bebetter ohlookingat other options.
55
Interchangeab|etrpod
Most high-endtripods aren't suppliedwithahead,
allowingusers tochoosetheir preferredlegs anda
specialist or general-purposehead. 1hetwonost
connontypes of heads areas follows.
aII-and-ocket: 1heserangefronsinple
heads withonecontrol toconplex units with
panoraniclocks andgauges, grip-locks and
hydraulicball-lockingsystens. Usually stronger
andquicker toadjust thanpanotilt heads, they
allowfreenovenent inall directions.
Thee-wayhead: Connonly knownas
pan-and-tilt heads, thesearegreat for all types
of photography. Panninggauges areuseful
for panoranicshots andfuidheads havethe
snoothest panningnotion.
Thee-way
aII-and-ocket
HNONGULNPPHGPH

M5001 ead
Weight: 88g
Height: 10cn
asediameter: nn
MaximumIoad: 6kg
OPsystem: ioo
Website: .gioiipod.con
1hi heey ioo hedi bnilly
bil, geingonhehey ide, ndihlge
hndle h oe pleny of leegefo ne
conol -lhoghhey cnbenceedfo
pckingy ndoge. Wheei coe oe henfoo80Ci in
henoohne of opeion. doen elly nkeh nchdieence
fo ill, b i no f ohenddof fiddnpedhed, oeing
j heigh non of genleeince yopn, iho ny jekine.
oif yoenong hegoingnk of phoogphe holike bi of
ideo, oo, heioo nke fo noeeilechoice.
55 5|k 5-280
Weight: 0gg
Height: 00cn
asediameter: nnBll ize. nn
MaximumIoad: kg
OPsystem: lik 68
Website: .ino00.co.k
ey ell nde, ih deignh lighly nl,
helik BH80Lhedconpie onelgeknobo
conol eeyhing, incldinglockinghenllih
nnbll. edfo node kglodb cn
kenchnoe. 1hi i oghhedndok ell. 1hee nininl
hif onlockingdon-infc, efondi obeoneof hebe eed.
niceoe, oo. 1heninknobh nely nchinedgippy
fce, lockingolidinonly 8hof n. 1heqickeleepleh
nonlipcok fcenddop eily inoplce helee np h.
ll inll, hi i goodoeingfonlik eonblepice.
90
ottos MTL 8261
Length(cIosed): 66cn
Height (Iegsextended): 6cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .6kg
MaximumIoad: 8kgWebsite: .giooipod.con
ocn hei ll, ndheidel eqienen of high
engh, loeigh ndconpeiiepiceendobe
nlly eclie. Conponiei henneof hegne,
ndoneipod nke bee of i hnohe -like
hi ioo. ll ndong, ey ligh only .6kg, nd
lhoghi e picey cbonbeochieeh, he
co i eonble j nde 00. 1hi i clic
heeecionipod, hichp i inheniddleof he
popl izecle hebe llonde. noehn
bigenoghfo no, ongenoghokenyhing
ho of heheie peele ndligh enogho
beciednyhee. doe eeyhingyoneed.
190
Manfrotto 055CXPRO3
Length(cIosed): 66cn
Height (Iegsextended): cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .kg
MaximumIoad: 8kgWebsite: .nnfoo.co.k
nfooi clly p of heneconpny izo,
onedby heUbediecop. Beeenhen,
heyego eeyhingcoeed. 1hi nfoo, p of he
popl 0eie, i decen izefo eio ok, inil
oheioo 1 86B, ndcpbleof hndlingll b
heheie o. ilbleihheeo foecion
leg, iho iho heilingcolnn. 1hi i inplied
eionof heilingcolnnide, ndhilei cnonly
belockedpigh o hoizonl, inpciceh doen
conponieeiliy. ocnill ge ogondleel
by djingheheigh ihhenonl leglee o by
elecingoneof hefo legnglepoiion.
220
tzo T3541 Mountaneer
Length(cIosed): cn
Height (Iegsextended): 68cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .kg
MaximumIoad: 8kgWebsite: .gizo.co.k
ocnell hi i elly goodipodj by looking i.
nohe clei hepice. izonke nohingb hebe
ipod, ndhileoneChineeclone ncloeby on
pefonnce, ndbe henonpice, hee nonebee
hnhi cly linbnd. Weigh i lo, ye eeyhing
feel gh, igid, lockingolid. king goodipodi
no ocke cience hey ll heheeelecopingleg
hingedo cenl cne plfon. 1hedieencei in
hedeigninegiy of hejoin, qliy of neil nd
nnfcingpeciion. izoh ll h olly oed.
f 600i oonch, izo lnininndbl
eion eignicnly chepe ndonly bi heie.
600
Manfrotto190CXPRO3+494RC2ead
Length(cIosed): 8cn
Height (Iegsextended): 6cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .6kg
MaximumIoad: kgWebsite: .nnfoo.co.k
1hi nfooi ligh ndi leek deignlook fnic.
Depiei hinleg, i dy ndppoedo e
cne ihee. 1hei lock eongndqick
oe. 1hecenl colnncnbeiedndnoedino
hoizonl poiioniho enoingi fonheleg,
nkingheipodpefec fo ncondloleel ho.
1henlipoiionleglock he depeiblebon,
nkingheneie oehnhoeihclip h
n belifed. 1hebllndocke hedi noohnd
oneichconol eeyhing, oi idel fo qick
poiioning, b no pecie oneof heohe
hed one. 1heei pii leel nd bghook.
250
ottos Vtruvan VR8255 kt
Length(cIosed): 0cn
Height (Iegsextended): 6cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .8kg
MaximumIoad: kgWebsite: .giooipod.con
1heleg of heiinfold80 oondhecene
colnn, edcinghelengho0cn. penheleg
ndi eend oninpeie.6n(.nihcene
colnnied, oo). defonilye cbonbe, i
ligheigh ndbleihlnininlloy inhenin
cinginceingobne. 1i lock ef ndey
oendhecenecolnncnbeenoedon
i ino nonopod. 1heppliedbllndocke hed
noe noohly ndh ficionlock, pii leel nd
qickeleepleihfey lock. ninnlodof
kgnke hi iblechoicefo no. 1hee lo
chepe lninineion().
260
ottos 5|k Road YTL 8354
Length(cIosed): cn
Height (Iegsextended): 8cn
Number of Iegsections: Weigh. .8kg
MaximumIoad: kgWebsite: .giooipod.con
eleedinhenne of 0, hi innoienodel
becneninn foieihodoo phoogphe -
epecilly hoehoeglly el. he ofee
'hpedcolnnh llo heleg o noengly
ogehe hencloed, ingond0pcehile
einingheenghndbiliy of conenionl
colnn. 1hedeignndheeof cbonbe
nen i eliely ligh, oo. Wihleg flly
eended, heheigh of 8cni efl ndcnbe
iedfhe ocni hecenecolnn. dy nd
ell deigned, ihfoncoeingnchof heppe legecion.
Conbinei ihoneof hehed belondyoe eileo.
210
HCNONGULNPPHGPH
kk hy iiu
wigh v yu hul nk nkingi i y g
v lngin. hyk hl hg inhnin
ngnl in inhnnn whilih
kk ignwihlg ki innin. ni hllwing
Cm yuy nki hwigh in hul
inn. hwi nnhy hl hy igin
yu hul. i uul hy livninnh
lun ginnhlkyu k igh. nh inn
i hg n. nui hnh whihny n
unnl u i hl kyu k igh nlngk.
C hink u hwnuhki yulny. ll hg h
hvjulnnn quivil.
uIuI wwll hkk i u gh inluingh
ihing zi nwhng nin hwlngi ugh
l hwngi i nhwwll i yu quinn.
unI Iw nhgh ju wn gwih
l h nnningv iu.
hvn k ignhlyugniyu nny
ni inununu.
hvhvg innun ul
il nn hnnuu guii.
Fa
hk i
h jul
nwi
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hul nlngjuny.
llk wi .
2 nng
hvu nh
k whihwill k l
hinu lngjuny
nhwigh h
g v lg .

hghlll h
quinn yun yu
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nwh n
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vy iniz. hingi
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g llwyuh
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nnly nil
wihhgnnuu
wnliyn.
Zips yugu l in
wh n w
nkuh hzi u
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hullni hni
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nily ighn.
agandapa
x ving yu ng
K fo andap
6
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Fngandangaagpopy
yuyingl hvy ki i inn h yu gi ly
nyu k yu i. hi vinvn ll kin k n
uln. ihkk nuh h v yu
hul nighnh hgi inhn yu k. i
h wi nh nkuyuuhniiuh
wigh vnly yu k h hnju yu hul.
hul g ull hv yu hhihul. hi
huliiuhwigh hni i wnhl hul
ni nliingyu hul ingily nh.
ackpack Gadget bag
LopoCompDayoo250
Dimensions: 4x32xn
Weight: g
Warranty: iin
Contact: 244
Website: www.lw.n
hi lgh lny n
vyy in n
innn ignugh
wihnzn. hil
hn i n xly n
hugh hlgn
ninnnn i ui
k nni hn
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w. hzilh in
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wky ki. hk
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hn i inl ju hul hughhnuhnk
i y y hgv nhul wihquik hn.
50
LopoFpd00
Dimensions: 4x3x24n
Weight: 4g
Warranty: iin
Contact: 244
Website: www.lw.n
hi i iu kk ign
yingl n g wih
n nuiy. hwhl
hk unzi n g
hull iz hg lg
nugh ul n
u vln uln ny
lngh hni.
hnyuyingi h n
hninnnn
yu nynl. n i
uy hul n
h hwi ni
nhvily ninlu
y l. wlin yu
nhgunyu n n
g whili hyu wi u h king l whni
ull. hn nnn i quihllwnhinly u
nlgnugh nll nl in nni u n l.
90
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Dimensions: I9
Weight: I,I
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Weight: 9
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dZipropfront
pockets andtwonoreunder
thelid, all with1anrac's
see-throughWindowpane-
nesh. Whenthebagis set
downandopen, there's good
access toeverything. 1he
standardlayout is tohavetwo
pro-sizeSRs withlenses
attachedacross thetop, though
thedividers canbecustonised. 1hetopis securedby a zip, four clips and
velcrotabs totaketheweight, witha largecentral handle. 1heraincover is
inanaccessory pouchonthesidewheretherearetwinloops at either end.
1anrac's Strapccessory Systenis sinilar toowepro's Slipock and
1hink 1ank Skins -goodfor expandingcapacity.
160
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8Whtea|ancecards
CDgtl LR ephtcteepete ll wg
theepttht thevegef theceetht egetee
f te greytobeexact, ietheaverageof all dark, light
andnid-tones nixedtogether is I8grey. t's thebasis of all netering
patterns andworks surprisinglywell, but whileit's nefor thenajorityof
shootingsituations, it canleadtoincorrect exposures whenthesceneor
subject is considerablylighter or darker intonethanI8grey. or exanple,
verydarkareas canfool theneteringsystenintooverexposure. Sinilarly,
verylight subjects, suchas asnowscene, canfool thecanerainto
underexposingthen-nakingthenappear darker thantheyare-as the
light neter will takeareadingdesignedtorender thenas anid-tone. s a
canerais tryingtorender aninage'grey', it's your jobtoensureyou
conpensatetokeepthetones truetolife. Youcandothis byusingoneof
your DSLR's exposureoverridefacilities, suchas exposureconpensationor
theL-Lockbutton, or byneteringfronanareaof thescenethat has a
nid-tone. ndthat's whereour greycardcones in. Usingit is verysinple
as our step-by-stepguidebelowillustrates. Renenber that youneedto
placethegreycardinsinilar lightingtoyour scene. for instance, don't place
it inashadedareaif your sceneis bathedinsunlight. lsonakesurethat the
cardlls theneteringarea-wereconnendyouusespot or partial
neteringas thecardwon't needtoll theentireinagearea, but anyis
suitable. Youcaneither locktheexposureusingyour canera's L-Lock
facilityor notetheapertureandshutter speed, andthenswitchtonanual
nodeandset these(althoughthis nethodisn't suitabletodays where
lightingis variable). 1hecardhasreferencelines tohelpyour canera's
autofocus lockontoit. However, youdon't necessarilyneedit tobein
focus toworkcorrectly. 1hegreycard(as well as thewhitecard) canalso
beusedtotakeacustonWhiteBalancereadingfron, too.
1heI8greycardcanbeusedtoensureperfect exposures whenshootingintrickylightingconditions. Both
referencecards canalsobeusedtoset acustonWhiteBalance. Dependingonthecanerayouuse, youneedto
takeaWhiteBalancereadingohthegreyor thewhitecard(your canera's instructions will showyouhow)
1
GtttatPlaceyour grey cardonthe
groundangledtowards youandensureit's
locatedinaspot that is bathedinthesanelight
as thenajority of thesceneyouplantoshoot.
2
Taamt aLnsurethat theentire
neteringareais lledby thegrey card(inthis
instancewe'reusingnulti-zonenetering) and
lock theexposurewiththeL-Lock button.
3
Cmt Withthis exposurelocked,
youcanconposeyour sceneandtakeyour
shots. Whenyoucheck it onyour LCDnonitor,
theexposureshouldbeperfect.

M
B
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1

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Metered to perfecton!
5 tbt a
Iat U
aaaI
abIm
nsureperfect exposures
TOPTIP
tbat
Whether youuse the grey
cardor not, intricky lighting
conditions, bracket your
exposure by +i-I stops
using your canera's
exposure conpensationor
LBfunctions toensure
youget the shot
HCNONGULNPPHGPH

GRLCRD

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IN5I!
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HLLPU1LBL11LR
LNDSCPLSW1H
URCNNLS
LN5P PHOTOGRPHY

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