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o Echo cancellation
o Multipoint videoconferencing
Video conferencing Benefits
Advantages of video conferencing
Usages of video conferencing
Impact on the general public
Impact on education
Impact on medicine and health
Impact on business
Impact on la
Video conferencing today
!hy I" video conferencing ?
#ystem bloc$ diagram of I" based video
I" video Vs traditional video conferencing
e % pop eb and video conferencing
Videoconference *also $non as a
videoteleconference+ is a set of interactive
telecommunication technologies hich allo to or
more locations to interact via to,ay video and
audio transmissions simultaneously- It has also
been called visual collaboration and is a type of
groupare- It differs from videophone in that it is
designed to serve a conference rather than
Videoconferencing uses telecommunications of audio
and video to bring people at different sites together for
a meeting- This can be as simple as a conversation
beteen to people in private offices *point,to,point+
or involve several sites *multi,point+ ith more than
one person in large rooms at different sites- Besides the
audio and visual transmission of people.
videoconferencing can be used to share documents.
computer,displayed information. and hiteboard-#imple
analog videoconferences could be established as early
as the invention of the television- #uch-
videoconferencing systems consisted of to closed,
circuit television systems connected via cable- )uring
the first manned space flights. &A#A used to
radiofre/uency *UH0 or VH0+ lin$s. one in each
direction- TV channels routinely use this $ind of
videoconferencing hen reporting from distant
locations. for instance- Then mobile lin$s to satellites
using special truc$s became rather common

Videoconferencing first demonstrated in 1234
This techni/ue as very e5pensive. though. and could
not be used for more mundane applications. such as
telemedicine. distance education. business meetings.
and so on. particularly in long,distance applications-
Attempts at using normal telephony netor$s to
transmit slo,scan video. such as the first systems
developed by AT6T. failed mostly due to the poor
picture /uality and the lac$ of efficient video
compression techni/ues- The greater 1 MH7 bandidth
and 3 Mbit8s bit rate of "icturephone in the 129:s also
did not cause the service to prosper-
It as only in the 124:s that digital telephony
transmission netor$s became possible. such as I#)&.
assuring a minimum bit rate *usually 1;4 $ilobits8s+ for
compressed video and audio transmission- The first
dedicated systems. such as those manufactured by
pioneering VTC firms. li$e "ictureTel. started to appear
in the mar$et as I#)& netor$s ere e5panding
throughout the orld- Video teleconference systems
throughout the 122:s rapidly evolved from highly
e5pensive proprietary e/uipment. softare and netor$
re/uirements to standards based technology that is
readily available to the general public at a reasonable
cost- 0inally. in the 122:s. I" *Internet "rotocol+ based
videoconferencing became possible. and more efficient
video compression technologies ere developed.
permitting des$top. or personal computer *"C+,based
videoconferencing- In 122; CU,#eeMe as developed at
Cornell by Tim )orcey et al-. IV# as designed at I&'IA.
VTC arrived to the masses and free services. eb
plugins and softare. such as &etMeeting. M#&
Messenger. <ahoo Messenger. #ight#peed. #$ype and
others brought cheap. albeit lo,/uality. VTC
The core technology used in a videoteleconference
*VTC+ system is digital compression of audio and video
streams in real time- The hardare or softare that
performs compression is called a codec
*coder8decoder+- Compression rates of up to 1=>:: can
be achieved- The resulting digital stream of 1s and :s is
subdivided into labelled pac$ets. hich are then
transmitted through a digital netor$ of some $ind
*usually I#)& or I"+-
)ual plasma display videoconferencing system- The
screen on the left is primarily used to sho people
during the conference or the user interface hen
setting up the call- The one on the right shos data
in this case but can display a ;nd ?far site? in a
multipoint call-
The use of audio modems in the transmission line allo
for the use of "(T#. or the "lain (ld Telephone #ystem.
in some lo,speed applications. such as videotelephony.
because they convert the digital pulses to8from analog
aves in the audio spectrum range-
The other components re/uired for a VTC system
Video input = video camera or ebcam
Video output= computer monitor . television or
Audio input= microphones
Audio output= usually loudspea$ers associated ith
the display device or telephone
)ata transfer= analog or digital telephone netor$.
AA& or Internet
There are basically to $inds of VTC systems=
)edicated systems have all re/uired components
pac$aged into a single piece of e/uipment. usually a
console ith a high /uality remote controlled video
camera- These cameras can be controlled at a
distance to pan left and right. tilt up and don. and
7oom- They became $non as "TB cameras- The
console contains all electrical interfaces. the control
computer. and the softare or hardare,based codec-
(mnidirectional microphones are connected to the
console. as ell as a TV monitor ith loudspea$ers
and8or a video pro@ector-There are several types of
dedicated VTC devices=
1- Aarge group VTC are non,portable. large.
more e5pensive devices used for large rooms
and auditoriums-
2. #mall group VTC are non,portable or portable.
smaller. less e5pensive devices used for small
meeting rooms-
C- Individual VTC are usually portable devices.
meant for single users. have fi5ed cameras.
microphones and loudspea$ers integrated
into the console-
)es$top systems are add,ons *hardare boards.
usually+ to normal "Cs
. transforming them into VTC
devices- A range of different cameras and
microphones can be used ith the board. hich
contains the necessary codec and transmission
interfaces- Most of the des$tops systems or$ ith
the H-C;C standard- Videoconferences carried out via
dispersed "Cs are also $non as e,meetings-
Echo cancellation
A fundamental feature of professional VTC systems is
acoustic echo cancellation *AEC+- AEC is an
algorithm hich is able to detect hen sounds or
utterances reenter the audio input of the VTC codec.
hich came from the audio output of the same
system. after some time delay- If unchec$ed. this
can lead to several problems including
1+ the remote party hearing their on voice coming
bac$ at them *usually significantly delayed+
;+ strong reverberation. rendering the voice channel
useless as it becomes hard to understand and
C+ holing created by feedbac$- Echo cancellation is a
processor,intensive tas$ that usually or$s over a
narro range of sound delays-
Multipoint videoconferencing
#imultaneous videoconferencing among three or more
remote points is possible by means of a Multipoint
Control Unit *MCU+- This is a bridge that interconnects
calls from several sources *in a similar ay to the audio
conference call+- All parties call the MCU unit. or the
MCU unit can also call the parties hich are going to
participate. in se/uence- There are MCU bridges for I"
and I#)&,based videoconferencing- There are MCUs
hich are pure softare. and others hich are a
combination of hardare and softare- An MCU is
characterised according to the number of simultaneous
calls it can handle. its ability to conduct transposing of
data rates and protocols. and features such as
Continuous "resence. in hich multiple parties can be
seen onscreen at once-MCUs can be stand,alone
hardare devices. or they can be embedded into
dedicated VTC units-
#ome systems are capable of multipoint conferencing
ith no MCU. stand,alone. embedded or otherise-
These use a standards,based H-C;C techni/ue $non as
Fdecentrali7ed multipointF. here each station in a
multipoint call e5changes video and audio directly ith
the other stations ith no central FmanagerF or other
bottlenec$- The advantages of this techni/ue are that
the video and audio ill generally be of higher /uality
because they don?t have to be relayed through a central
point- Also. users can ma$e ad,hoc multipoint calls
ithout any concern for the availability or control of an
MCU- This added convenience and /uality comes at the
e5pense of some increased netor$ bandidth. because
every station must transmit to every other station
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (formerly:
Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and
Telephony (CCITT)) has three umrellas of standards for
". ITU #.$2% is &no'n as the standard for pulic s'itched
telephone net'or&s ((ST)) or !TC over integrated services
digital net'or&s (IS*)) asic rate interface (+,I) or
primary rate interface ((,I). #.$2% is also used on
dedicated net'or&s such as T" and satellite-ased net'or&s.
2. ITU #.$2$ is &no'n as a standard for transporting
multimedia applications over /0)s. This same standard
also applies to older implementations of voice over I( !oI(.
In recent years1 the I2T34s Session Initiation (rotocol (SI()
has gained considerale momentum in practice for these t'o
$. ITU #.$25 is the standard for transmission over (6TS1 or
audio telephony net'or&s. $7-$258 is a $7((
implementation for video call on $7 moile phones.
In recent years1 I( ased videoconferencing has emerged as a
common communications interface and standard provided y
!TC manufacturers in their traditional IS*)-ased systems.
+usiness1 government and military organi9ations still
predominantly use #.$2% and IS*) !TC. Though1 due to the
price point and proliferation of the Internet1 and roadand in
particular1 there has een a strong spurt of gro'th and use of
#.$2$1 I( !TC. #.$2$ has the advantage that it is accessile to
anyone 'ith a high speed Internet connection1 such as *S/.
In addition1 an attractive factor for I( !TC is that it is easier
to set-up for use 'ith a live !TC call along 'ith 'e
conferencing for use in data collaoration. These comined
technologies enale users to have a much richer multimedia
environment for live meetings1 collaoration and presentations
Videoconferencing Benefits
Enables the possibility of holding meetings that
could not otherise have ta$en place due to
financial or time constraints
'educes travel time and e5pense
"rovides the means to conduct meetings on a more
regular basis. or at a moment?s notice. thus
accelerating decision ma$ing and reducing time to
)istance Aearning
Connects educational facilities orldide for
distance learning and employee training
Enables visual participation of remote students
!hiteboards. file transfers. and document 8
application sharing tools such as Hitachi
#oftare?s #tarBoard digital hiteboards and
#tarBoard softare=
o "rovide real,time information e5change. and
o Allo data collaboration
0acilitates remote diagnosis. alloing doctors to
communicate ith patients. e5amine data and
revie 5,rays
0acilitates home health care. enabling patients to
be monitored at home via "C,based telemedicine
0ile sharing and hiteboards are li$ely to play a
significant role in the adoption of
videoconferencing services for telecommuters
Aegal 8 Aa Enforcement
Enables remote video arraignment
0acilitates video depositions
Allos remote testimony
Advantages of Interactive
Hitachi #oftare Interactive Videoconferencing provides
the folloing advantages over conventional
)ata collaboration
Interactive communication
I",based netor$
End,to,end deployment
Multilingual Technical #upport
#harp images
Audiophile /uality
Enhanced security
Guaranteed performance
#ecurity protection
#ome observers argue that to outstanding issues are
preventing videoconferencing from becoming a standard
form of communication. despite the ubi/uity of
videoconferencing,capable systems- These issues are=
1- Eye Contact=
It is $non that eye contact plays a large role in
conversational turn,ta$ing. perceived attention and
intent. and other aspects of group communication-
!hile traditional telephone conversations give no eye
contact cues. videoconferencing systems are arguably
orse in that they provide an incorrect impression that
the remote interlocutor is avoiding eye contact- This
issue is being addressed through research that
generates a synthetic image ith eye contact using
stereo reconstruction-
;- Appearance Consciousness=
A second problem ith videoconferencing is that one is
literally on camera. ith the video stream possibly even
being recorded- The burden of presenting an acceptable
on,screen appearance is not present in audio,only
communication- Early studies by Alphonse Chapanis
found that the addition of video actually impaired
communication. possibly because of the consciousness
of being on camera-The issue of eye,contact may be
solved ith advancing technology. and presumably-
The issue of appearance consciousness ill fade as
people become accustomed to videoconferencing-

Usages of Interactive Videoconferencing
"reparation and revie of periodical reports and
budget consolidation
Advertising layout. design revie. presentation.
strategy meeting. mar$eting research
)ocument preparation. remote depositions
"roduct training. sales meetings. custom
relationship building
Customer #ervices
#taff training. enhanced support
"roduct )evelopment
"roduct design and test revie. pro@ect
#ystem design and revie. pro@ect management
Human 'esources
Candidate intervies. employee benefits.
"ublication 'elations
"ublic announcements. press briefings. intra,
company briefings
Board meetings. decision ma$ing
Impact on the general public=
High speed Internet connectivity has become more
idely available at a reasonable cost and the cost of
video capture and display technology has decreased-
Conse/uently personal video teleconference systems
based on a ebcam. personal computer system.
softare compression and broadband Internet
connectivity have become affordable for the general
public- Also. the hardare used for this technology has
continued to improve in /uality. and prices have
dropped dramatically- The availability of freeare *often
as part of chat programs+ has made softare based
videoconferencing accessible to many-
0or many years. futurists have envisioned a future
here telephone conversations ill ta$e place as actual
face,to,face encounters ith video as ell as audio-
#ometimes it?s @ust not possible or practical to have a
face,to,face meeting ith to or more people-
#ometimes a telephone conversation or conference call
is ade/uate- (ther times. an email e5change is
Videoconferencing adds another possible alternative-
Consider videoconferencing hen= 1- a live conversation
is neededH ;- visual information is an important
component of the conversationH C- the parties of the
conversation can?t physically come to the same locationH
or I- the e5pense or time of travel is a consideration-
)eaf and hard of hearing individuals have a particular
interest in the development of affordable high,/uality
videoconferencing as a means of communicating ith
each other in sign language- Unli$e Video 'elay #ervice.
hich is intended to support communication beteen a
caller using sign language and another party using
spo$en language. videoconferencing can be used
beteen to signers-
Mass adoption and use of video conferencing is still
relatively lo. ith the folloing often claimed as
Comple5ity of systems- Most users are not technical
and ant a simple interface- In hardare systems
an unplugged cord or a flat battery in a remote
control is seen as failure. contributing to perceived
unreliability hich drives users bac$ to traditional
meetings- #uccessful systems are bac$ed by
support teams ho can pro,actively support and
provide fast assistance hen re/uired-
"erceived lac$ of interoperability= not all systems
can readily interconnect. for e5ample I#)& and I"
systems re/uire a bridge- "opular softare
solutions cannot easily connect to hardare
systems- #ome systems use different standards.
features and /ualities hich can re/uire additional
configuration hen connecting to dis,similar
Bandidth and /uality of service= In some
countries it is difficult or e5pensive to get a high
/uality connection that is fast enough for good,
/uality video conferencing- Technologies such as
A)#A have limited upload speeds and cannot
upload and donload simultaneously at full speed-
As Internet speeds increase higher /uality and
high definition video conferencing ill become
more readily available-
E5pense of commercial systems , a ell designed
system re/uires a specially designed room and can
cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to fit out the
room ith codecs. integration e/uipment and
0or these reasons many hardare systems are often
used for internal corporate use only. as they are less
li$ely to run into problems and lose a sale- An
alternative is companies that hire out video
conferencing e/uipped meeting rooms in cities around
the orld- Customers simply boo$ the rooms and turn
up for the meeting , everything else is arranged and
support is readily available if anything should go rong-
Impact on education =
Videoconferencing provides students ith the
opportunity to learn by participating in a ;,ay
communication platform- 0urthermore. teachers and
lecturers from all over the orld can be brought to
classes in remote or otherise isolated places-
#tudents from diverse communities and
bac$grounds can come together to learn about one
another- #tudents are able to e5plore. communicate.
analy7e and share information and ideas ith one
another- Through videoconferencing students can
visit another part of the orld to spea$ ith others.
visit a 7oo. a museum and so on. to learn- These
Fvirtual field tripsFcan bring opportunities to
children. especially those in geographically isolated
or the economically disadvantaged- #mall schools
can use this technology to pool resources and teach
courses *such as foreign languages+ hich
otherise couldn?t be offered-
Here are a fe e5amples of ho videoconferencing can
benefit people around campus=
faculty member $eeps in touch ith class hile
gone for a ee$ at a conference
guest lecturer brought into a class from another
researcher collaborates ith colleagues at other
institutions on a regular basis ithout loss of time
due to travel
faculty member participates in a thesis defense at
another institution
administrators on tight schedules collaborate on a
budget preparation from different parts of campus
faculty committee auditions a scholarship candidate
researcher ansers /uestions about a grant
proposal from an agency or revie committee
student intervies ith an employer in another city
Impact on medicine and health =
Videoconferencing is a very useful technology for
telemedicine and telenursing applications. such as
diagnosis. consulting. transmission of medical images.
etc-. in real time in countries here this is legal- Using
VTC. patients may contact nurses and physicians in
emergency or routine situations. physicians and other
paramedical professionals can discuss cases across
large distances- 'ural areas can use this technology for
diagnostic purposes. thus saving lives and ma$ing more
efficient use of health care money-
#pecial peripherals such as microscopes fitted ith
digital cameras. videoendoscopes. medical ultrasound
imaging devices. otoscopes. etc-. can be used in
con@unction ith VTC e/uipment to transmit data about
a patient-
Impact on business=
Videoconferencing can enable individuals in faraay
places to have meetings on short notice- Time and
money that used to be spent in traveling can be used to
have short meetings- Technology such as V(I" can be
used in con@unction ith des$top videoconferencing to
enable lo,cost face,to,face business meetings ithout
leaving the des$. especially for businesses ith ide,
spread offices- The technology is also used for
telecommuting. in hich employees or$ from
home-Telepresence videoconferencing. here
participants are able to see each other in reasonable
life,li$e si7es and little delay in video transmissions. has
started to ma$e an impact on business meetings- #ome
good business cases have been built on substitution of
international travel ith telepresence conferencing-
Videoconferencing is no being introduced to online
netor$ing ebsites. in order to help businesses form
profitable relationships /uic$ly and efficiently ithout
leaving their place of or$-
Although it already has proven its potential value.
research has shon that many employees donJt use the
videoconference e/uipment because they are frightened
that they ill appear to be asting time or loo$ing for
the easiest ay if they use videoconferencing to
enhance customer and supplier relationships- To
stimulate them in using it. managers should use the
technology in front of their employees to ta$e aay the
fear of using it-
Impact on la =
Videoconferencing has alloed testimony to be used for
individuals ho are not able to attend the physical legal
settings- In a military investigation in &orth Carolina.
Afghan itnesses have testified using
Video Conferencing Today
I" video
This term is an abbreviation for TC"8I". or
Internet,based video conferencing- It is used. in
particular. to distinguish neer classes of video
products that are capable of ad,hoc conferencing
over e5isting netor$s and the public Internet.
something not possible *ithout specific routing
hardare+ ith traditional video solutions. at least
not beteen business users behind separate
I" conferencing
#ame as above. but includes eb conferencing
capabilities. such as presentation and des$top
sharing. as ell as voice *VoI"+ and video over I"-

'ich media conferencing % A term coined by leading
modern I",based eb conferencing solutions sometimes
called Internet conferencing or rich media conferencing
% effectively combine a rich set of features. such as
video and des$top8application sharing that enable
productive meetings ith multiple people in real,time-
This is not the person,to,person video most commonly
seen in years past- These meetings may include
presentation sharing. sharing any document available
on oneJs "C. application sharing such as CA) and
des$top sharing. simultaneously ith multipoint VoI"
and video-
There is no client softare installation re/uired- (nce
the eb conferencing softare is installed on a central
server. or activated as a hosted service. all that is
re/uired is a standard !indos "C. eb camera. high,
speed Internet connection and any eb broser- To
utili7e the VoI" feature. an audio headset is
recommended- The conference attendee @oins the
conference ith a simple mouse clic$ on a conference
lin$. hich is usually sent in an email or instant

In addition. some products such as e8pop. ta$e great
pains to support business,class users in separate offices
behind their on pro5ies and firealls- This is an area
here I" conferencing products differ a great deal. and
only those li$e e8pop that ere designed for ad hoc
conferencing do ell- "roducts and services designed
for consumers and classrooms typically fail because
they often use peer,to,peer or broadcasting protocols
that do not or$ for business users because firealls
bloc$ these types of connections- !ith business,class
products such as e8pop. . you can connect reliably and
meet ith geographically dispersed offices. employees
and customers online at anytime
!hy I",based VideoconferencingK
Many factors influence videoconferencing /uality.
including bandidth. netor$ /uality. frame rate. fields
per second. resolution. picture si7e. codec computing
poer. algorithm. motion handling. motion vs-
resolution. etc- Aside from videoconferencing /uality
and the technical advantages of I",based
videoconferencing. hoever. the most important reason
to use I",based videoconferencing is economy-
Unli$e I#)&,based videoconferencing. I",based
videoconferencing is a flat,rate solution. alloing
enterprises to control the cost- It also allos
enterprises to ta$e advantage of shared netor$s and
shared s$illed personnel- In contrast. I#)&,based
videoconferencing is a pay,as,you,go model- It also
re/uires separate control of the video application and
has to be engineered for one enterprise?s usageH
therefore. enterprises can not ta$e advantage of shared
netor$s and personnel-
I" also has certain intrinsic benefits that overcome the
inherent drabac$s of I#)&=
'eaches diverse environments =
I#)& stalled at the conference room and never
reached critical mass at the des$top
I" allos utili7ation of lo,cost Ethernet bandidth
to every des$top and conference room
Global reach
I#)& has not been provisioned in every
geographical region
I" is available in virtually every country
'eliability and Usage
I#)& re/uires time and technical $noledge to
connect. and synchroni7ation is an issue
I" or$s as /uic$ly. reliably. and easily as voice
calls. alloing initiation of I" video calls ith little
Video Conferencing= I",Based #)
I" Based Video Conferencing Endpoint
Video conferencing Conferencing Endpoints are
terminals used to ma$e point to point video,enabled
calls- Video conferencing consists of an input camera
and base unit interfaced to an output display- )ata
transmission is over I" or I#)& netor$s- The base unit
consists of a )#" ith integrated on,chip video ports to
process audio and video encoding8 decoding
The core subsystems include=
Video "rocessor
, "erforms real,time image capture processing.
compression8decompression. color space
conversion. real time display. and data
pac$eti7ation for data communication over the
I"8I#)& netor$s-
Video )ecoder
, )igiti7es. demodulates. and decodes the
&T#C8"AA8#ECAM8#, video to be used by the
video processor -
Video Encoder
, Converts digital component video signals into the
analog domain for display
Memory *0AA#H 6 #)'AM+
, #tores e5ecuting code and data8parameters-
Audio Interface *Voice Codec+
, Interfaces the microphone8spea$er and uses a
Codec to digiti7e audio signals-
&etor$ Interface *Ethernet "H< Transceiver+
, Transmits and receives audio and video data
pac$ets through the I"8I#)& netor$s-
A'M2 *or suitable G""+
, Moderates Input8(utput beteen the
Microphone. #pea$er. Leyboard and the )igital
#ignal processor-

The Groing "opularity of I" Video vs-
Traditional Video Conferencing
The interest in video has been increasing. as
everyone $nos that brea$ing looses a purchase
order - But sales industry,ide have been going up
too. so there is something more than simply
general interest going on- The drivers behind sales
and deployments are a bit more pointed= the
increasing comple5ity of products and services
re/uire visual communications among frontline
staff. not @ust the boardroomH and globali7ation.
decentrali7ation and partnering have led to idely
distributed offices and the need for more
alternatives to e5pensive and increasingly painful
travel- This is especially true for recurring travel
beteen the same locations- These systems feature
multiple. life si7e flat,panel displays. dedicated )#,
C *I> Mbps+ lines and cost M>:.::: to M;::.::: per
end,point to start-
But IP-based solutions are growing
more than twice as fast as traditional
video conferencing hardware. !hyK
Because from a technology perspective. modern I",
based eb and video conferencing solutions have
several advantages-
0irst and foremost. I" video does not re/uire
dedicated lines- It can reach anyone ith a "C and an
Internet connection. leveraging e5isting netor$
investments to boot
#econdly. many I" solutions use standard.
inexpensive video peripherals idely available
anyhere in the orld- The latest I" solutions also
allo multiparty conferences. not @ust limited to,
party or four,party meetings-
Aastly. they allo participants to communicate almost
as if they ere there in person. ith sight and sound.
along ith "oer"ointN presentations. application
and des$top sharing- They are not limited to video,
only sessions-
#o it appears the industry is evolving to a point here
e ill see ultra high,end systems such as telepresence
for film studios and 0ortune 1:: company boardrooms.
traditional video conferencing solutions for their fi5ed,
site installed base. and a completely ne category of I",
based des$top video conferencing applications- The
latter covers a ide variety of applications including
sales. training. pro@ect management. continuing
education. telemedicine and general online meetings
available to anyone ith a des$top "C and Internet
e8pop !eb and Video Conferencing % Ho
)oes it !or$K
This section is of course specific to the e8pop product.
so is not vendor,neutral- !e do hoever. present this
material in matter,of,fact form. callingout sub@ective
items here appropriate-

!hat is e8popK
e8pop is a multipoint I" video conferencing technology-
The terms I" and rich media conferencing apply too. or
simply eb conferencing for short- It covers a full,suite
of des$top sharing. eb. VoI" and multiparty video
conferencing features- It is available in both on-premise
software and hosted service forms of delivery- It as
designed for business,to,business applications.
providing secure connections for up to >:: users in a
single large session. or multiple smaller online meetings
totaling >:: users or less per server *license limits
apply. contact !ired'ed for details regarding multi,
server installations+-
How does it work?
e8pop or$s by providing all the softare and routing
components re/uired for a successful video conference-
It ta$es advantage of the increasing poer of des$top
"Cs and industry standard ebcams to manage
multipoint video in real,time *this used to re/uire
custom hardare+- e8pop gets everyone connected via
e5isting netor$s and the Internet using participantsJ
brosers and standard U'As- It uses a secure. fifth
generation routing technology to connect all users. even
if they are behind separate firealls and pro5ies- Then
as further described belo. e8pop applies a long list of
techni/ues % a single TC"8I" connection beteen client
and server for all data types. multithreading. inline
assembly. #M". MMO e5tensions and more % to increase
the speed of compressing. mi5ing. transmitting and
displaying rich media data types *data. VoI". video+-
e8pop emphasi7es connection success and mi5ed data
type performance. hich ma$es it especially useful for
day,to,day online meetings. multipoint video and
anyhere video is mi5ed ith application and des$top
The folloing sections provide more details on e8pop
ma@or components and ho they or$ together-
High Aevel )esign
Ai$e most modern softare products. e8pop is
designed around: a modular. high,level
architecture- e8pop is a distributed. client,server
system. using TC"8I" connections beteen
broser,based clients and the conferencing server
*on,premise or hosted+- e8pop uses ports 4: and
IIC. the industry standard ports for eb services-
It optionally uses a short list of additional ports
!ired'ed has found effective for conferencing
ith e5ternal participants *contact !ired'ed for
more details+- e8pop never uses broadcast. U)".
or peer,to,peer protocols- 0or security reasons.
connections are alays established by users going
out their fireall to connect to a server- The
system never attempts to connect outside,in. and
there is no peer,to,peer. nor any other protocols
or connection types that attempt to access
des$tops directly- The diagram belo highlights
the ma@or functional components of the e8pop

Ao Aevel )esign
E5cept for the routing components *see belo+.
the e8pop lo level design is largely beyond the
scope of this hite paper- Hoever. the folloing
points are e5ceptional- All e8pop client and server
softare components are multi,threaded and re,
entrant- e8pop maintains separate threads for the
user interface. various applications *eb. VoI".
multipoint video+. send and receive buffers and so
on- There are several components such as codecs.
display capture drivers. compression. mi5ing etc-.
that use in,line assembly language to enhance
speed- Client components ta$e advantage of ##E
and MMO processor e5tensions. no commonplace
in laptops and personal computers- In addition. all
e8pop softare is symmetric multiprocessor
enabled *#M"+- If it is running on dual or /uad
processors. it ill automatically use the additional
processors to enhance performance- #imply vie
the tas$ manager to see multiple C"Us in action-
These are e5amples of the depth of technology
re/uired to deliver a fluid conferencing e5perience.
especially here simultaneous des$top sharing
and multiple videos are involved-
ItJs easy to ta$e advantage of eb and multiparty video
technology- The latest generation I",based softare
is much less e5pensive and more fle5ible than
yesteryearJs hardare,based video conferencing-
The hard,cash business benefits are travel e5pense
reduction. the complete elimination of
teleconference bills for internal meetings. plus
increased sales revenue and customer retention

I",based eb and video conferencing is poered by
off,the,shelf. ine5pensive audio and video
peripherals that can be purchased anyhere- This
broadens the reach of this conferencing alternative
by enabling connections to anyone in the orld that
has a "C. eb cam and high,speed Internet

TodayJs smart business can get the benefits of in,
person travel. globali7ation and boardroom video
conferencing e/uipment. but ithout the e5pense-
High /uality video conferencing is no longer the
dominion of the 0ortune 1:::-
P Qim Van Meggelen ;::>. The problem ith video
P Vertegaal. FE5plaining Effects of Eye Ga7e on
Mediated Group Conversations= Amount or
#ynchroni7ationKF ACM Conference on Computer
#upported Cooperative !or$. ;::;-+-
P !olfe. Mar$- RBroadband videoconferencing as
$noledge management tool.S Qournal of Lnoledge
Management 11. no- ; *;::9+