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Hyundai Motor
Company (Korean:
현대 자동차 주식회사,
Hanja: 現代自動車株
式會社 Hyŏndae
(KRX: 005380), a
division of the
Hyundai Kia
Automotive Group,
is the world’s
fourth largest Submitted by :-
automaker in Karan walia
terms of units
sold[2] and one of 1207350
the Big Asian Four Mech –A3
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company (Korean: 현대 자동차 주식회사, Hanja: 現代自動車株式
會社 Hyŏndae Chadōngch'a Chusik-hoesa) (KRX: 005380), a division of the Hyundai
Kia Automotive Group, is the world’s fourth largest automaker in terms of units sold[2]
and one of the Big Asian Four (with Toyota, Honda and Nissan).[3] Headquartered in
Seoul, South Korea, Hyundai operates the world’s largest integrated automobile
manufacturing facility in Ulsan, which is capable of producing 1.6 million units annually.
The Hyundai logo, a slanted, stylized 'H', is said to be symbolic of two people (the
company and customer) shaking hands. Hyundai means "modernity" in Korean. Hyundai
Motor Company serves with more than 75,000 employees in other assembly plants,
Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 6,000 dealerships and
showrooms worldwide.

Hyundai Motor Company

Hyeondae Jadoncha Jushik-hwisa
현대 자동차 주식회사

Public (KRX: 005380,

Founded 1967
Founder(s) Chung Ju-Yung
Headquarters Seoul, South Korea
Area served International
Key people Chung Mong-Koo, Chairman and CEO
Industry Automobile manufacturer
Products Automobiles
Revenue ▲ ₩32.1 trillion (2008)[1]
Net income ▲ ₩1.4 trillion (2008)[1]
Employees 75,000 (as of March 31, 2009)
Parent Hyundai Kia Automotive Group
Chung Ju-Yung founded the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company in 1947.
Hyundai Motor Company was later established in 1967. The company’s first model, the
Cortina, was released in cooperation with Ford Motor Company in 1968. In 1975, the
Pony, the first Korean car, was released, with styling by Giorgio Giugiaro of ItalDesign
and powertrain technology provided by Japan’s Mitsubishi Motors. Exports began in the
following year to Ecuador and soon thereafter to the Benelux countries. In 1991, the
company succeeded in developing its first proprietary gasoline engine, the four-cylinder
Alpha, and transmission, thus paving the way for technological independence.

In 1986, Hyundai began to sell cars in the United States, and the Excel was nominated as
"Best Product #10" by Fortune magazine, largely because of its affordability. The
company began to produce models with its own technology in 1988, beginning with the
midsize Sonata.

In 1996, Hyundai Motors India Limited was established with a production plant in
Irrungattukatoi near Chennai, India.[4]

In 1998, Hyundai began to overhaul its image in an attempt to establish itself as a world-
class brand. Chung Ju Yung transferred leadership of Hyundai Motor to his son, Chung
Mong Koo, in 1999.[5] Hyundai's parent company, Hyundai Motor Group, invested
heavily in the quality, design, manufacturing, and long-term research of its vehicles. It
added a 10-year or 100,000-mile (160,000 km) warranty to cars sold in the United States
and launched an aggressive marketing campaign.

In 2004, Hyundai was ranked second in "initial quality" in a survey/study by J.D. Power
and Associates. Hyundai is now one of the top 100 most valuable brands worldwide.
Since 2002, Hyundai has also been one of the worldwide official sponsors of the FIFA
World Cup.

In 2006, the South Korean government initiated an investigation of Chung Mong Koo's
practices as head of Hyundai, suspecting him of corruption. On April 28, 2006, Chung
was arrested, and charged for embezzlement of 100 billion won (US$106 million),[6] with
Hyundai Vice Chairman and CEO, Kim Dong-jin, taking over as head of the company.

Assembly line at Hyundai Motor Company’s car factory in Ulsan, South Korea
See also: Hyundai

In 1998, after a shake-up in the Korean auto industry caused by overambitious expansion
and the Asian financial crisis, Hyundai acquired rival Kia Motors. In 2000, the company
established a strategic alliance with DaimlerChrysler and severed its partnership with the
Hyundai Group. In 2001, the Daimler-Hyundai Truck Corporation was formed. In 2004,
however, DaimlerChrysler divested its interest in the company by selling its 10.5% stake
for $900 million.

Hyundai has invested in manufacturing plants in the North America, China, Pakistan,
India, and Turkey as well as research and development centers in Europe, North America,
and Japan. In 2004, Hyundai Motor Company had $57.2 billion in sales in South Korea
making it the country’s second largest corporation, or chaebol. Worldwide sales in 2005
reached 2,533,695 units, an 11 percent increase over the previous year. Hyundai has set
as its 2006 target worldwide sales of 2.7 million units (excluding exports of CKD kits).

Hyundai motor vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 dealerships and
showrooms. After a recent survey of global automotive sales by Automotive News,
Hyundai is now the tenth largest automaker in the world in 2007.[7]

Hyundai Motor Company’s brand power continues to rise as it was ranked 72nd in the
2007 Best Global Brands by Interbrand and BusinessWeek survey. brand value estimated
at $4.5 billion. Public perception of the Hyundai brand has been transformed as a result
of dramatic improvements in the quality of Hyundai vehicles.[8] [9]

(Hyundai in the United States)

Hyundai Genesis

Hyundai entered the United States market in 1986 with a single model, the Hyundai
Excel. The Excel was offered in a variety of trims and body styles. That year, Hyundai
set a record of selling the most automobiles in its first year of business in the United
States compared to any other car brand (c. 126,000 vehicles).

Initially well received, the Excel’s faults soon became apparent; cost-cutting measures
caused reliability to suffer. With an increasingly poor reputation for quality, Hyundai
sales plummeted, and many dealerships either earned their profits on repairs or
abandoned the product. At one point, Hyundai became the butt of many jokes (i.e.
Hyundai stands for "Hope you understand nothing's driveable and inexpensive") and even
made David Letterman's Top Ten Hilarious Mischief Night Pranks To Play In Space: #8 -
Paste a "Hyundai" logo on the main control panel.[10]

In response, the parent company of Hyundai began investing heavily in the quality,
design, manufacturing, and long-term research of its vehicles. It added a 10-year or
100,000-mile (160,000 km) powertrain warranty (known as the Hyundai challenge) to its
vehicles sold in the United States. By 2004, sales had dramatically increased, and the
reputation of Hyundai cars improved. In 2004, Hyundai tied with Honda for initial brand
quality in a survey/study from J.D. Power and Associates, for having 102 problems per
100 vehicles. This made Hyundai second in the industry, only behind Toyota, for initial
vehicle quality. The company continued this tradition by placing third overall in J.D.
Power's 2006 Initial Quality Survey, behind only Porsche and Lexus.[11]

Hyundai continues to invest heavily in its American operations as its cars grow in
popularity. In 1990, Hyundai established the Hyundai Design Center in Fountain Valley,
California. The center moved to a new $30 million facility in Irvine, California in 2003,
and was renamed the Hyundai Kia Motors Design and Technical Center. Besides the
design studio, the facility also housed Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI,
established in 1986), a subsidiary responsible for all engineering activities in the U.S. for
Hyundai. Hyundai America Technical Center moved to its new 200,000-square-foot
(19,000 m2), $117 million headquarters in Superior Township, Michigan (near Ann
Arbor) in 2005. Later that same year, HATCI announced that it would be expanding its
technical operations in Michigan and hiring 600 additional engineers and other technical
employees over a period of five years. The center also has employees in California and

Hyundai America Technical Center completed construction of its Hyundai/Kia proving

ground in California City, California in 2004. The 4,300-acre (17 km2) facility is located
in the Mojave Desert and features a 6.4-mile (10.3 km) oval track, a Vehicle Dynamics
Area, a vehicle-handling course inside the oval track, a paved hill road, and several
special surface roads. A 30,000-square-foot (2,800 m2) complex featuring offices and
indoor testing areas is located on the premises as well. The facility was built at a cost of
$50 million. An aerial view can be found here.[12] Hyundai completed an assembly plant
just outside Montgomery, Alabama in 2004, with a grand opening on May 20, 2005, at a
cost of $1.1 billion. At full capacity, the plant will employ 2,000 workers. Currently, the
plant assembles the Hyundai Sonata and the Hyundai Santa Fe. It is Hyundai's second
attempt at producing cars in North America since Hyundai Auto Canada Inc.'s plant in
Quebec closed in 1993.

In 2003, according to Consumer Reports, Hyundai’s reliability rankings tied Honda's.[13]

In 2005, Hyundai authorized Ed Voyles' Hyundai dealership in Smyrna, Georgia to

become the first "deaf friendly" dealership in the entire world. The staff in this dealership
are able to accommodate deaf customers with the use of American Sign Language and
video conferencing phones.

In 2006, J.D. Power and Associates' quality ranking, overall the Hyundai brand ranked
3rd, just behind Porsche and Lexus, and beating long time rival Toyota.[14] The brand
overall is ranked much higher than the average industry and resale value continues to
improve; a comparable 2003 Hyundai Sonata sedan ranks just $2200 below a similarly
equipped Honda Accord, according to Kelley Blue Book Pricing 2006.

In 2006, the Hyundai Entourage minivan earned a five-star safety rating – the highest
honor the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration bestows – for all seating
positions in frontal and side-impact crashes. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
also rates “Good” – its highest rating – in front, side and rear impacts. The IIHS
(Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, United States), in fact, named the 2006 Hyundai
Entourage and Kia Sedona a “Gold Top Safety Pick,” making the safest minivan ever
tested. [15][16][17]

In 2006, Hyundai was awarded 'Top-rated 2006 Ideal Vehicle' by Autopacific, Marketing
research and consultancy firm for the automobile industry.[18]

In 2007 Strategic Vision Total Quality Awards, Hyundai Motors leads the most vehicle
segments in Strategic Vision’s Total Quality Index, measuring the ownership experience.
They attempt to measure more than just the number of problems per vehicle. Hyundai
tops in Strategic Vision Total Quality Awards. For the first time ever, Hyundai has risen
to share the position of having the most models leading a segment. three models with the
top Total Quality Index (TQI) score in their segments, including the Hyundai Azera,
Entourage, Santa Fe.[19][20]

In 2007, Hyundai's midsize SUV Santa Fe earns 2007 TOP SAFETY PICK award by
IIHS. [21][22]

In 2007 at the New York International Auto Show, Hyundai unveiled its V8 rear-drive
luxury sedan called Concept Genesis to be slotted above the Azera in the Hyundai line-
up. This concept will make its American debut in mid 2008. The Genesis reintroduced
rear-wheel drive to the Hyundai range following a long period of only producing front-
wheel drive cars.[23]

In 2007 at the Los Angeles International Auto Show, Hyundai unveiled its second rear-
drive concept car, this car, called Concept Genesis Coupe, will be Hyundai’s first sports
car due to make its debut in early 2009.[24]

In 2008, Hyundai Santa Fe and Hyundai Elantra were awarded 2008 Consumer Reports
"top picks". The magazine's annual ratings, based on road tests and predicted safety and
reliability are considered highly influential among consumers. [25] Hyundai Elantra was
Consumer Reports' top-ranked 2008 vehicle among 19 other compacts and small family
cars, beating out Honda Civic, Toyota Corolla and Toyota Prius.[26]

In 2008, at the North American International Auto Show, the production version of the
luxury & performance-oriented Hyundai Genesis sedan made its debut, dealerships will
have the Genesis as soon as Summer 2008. In 2008, at the New York International Auto
Show, Hyundai debuted its production version of the performance-oriented rear-drive
Hyundai Genesis Coupe, slated to hit dealerships in early 2009.

In 2009 Hyundai announced the five-door hatchback variant of the Elantra compact sedan
will carry the name Elantra Touring when it goes on sale in the spring as a 2009 model.

In 2009, The Hyundai Genesis, Luxury Sedan, has been named 2009 North American Car
of the Year, the first for Hyundai.[28] The Genesis has received a number of well-
recognized automobile awards worldwide. It also won the 2009 Canadian Car of the Year
after winning its category of Best New Luxury Car under $50,000.[29] The Hyundai's V8
Tau engine in the Genesis, which develops 375 hp (280 kW) on premium fuel and 368 hp
(274 kW) on regular fuel, received 2009 Ward's 10 Best Engines award.[30]

In 2009, 6 models of Hyundai/Kia cars earned Top Safety Award by IIHS, better than
Nissan/Infiniti. [31]

In 2009, Hyundai/Kia vehicles were named as “least expensive vehicles to insure”.

Hyundai/Kia vehicles were the least expensive to insure and occupied the 'top five' least
expensive slots, said Low rates tend to reflect a vehicle’s safety.[32]
US sales

Calendar Year Sales

2000[33] 244,391

2001 346,235

2002[34] 375,119

2003 400,221

2004[35] 418,615

2005 455,012

2006 455,520

2007[36] 467,009

2008 401,742

Hyundai In India
Hyundai is currently the second largest carmaker and largest auto exporter in India.[37] It
is making India the global manufacturing base for small cars. Hyundai sells several
models in India as of the 2009 model year, one of the most popular being the Hyundai i10
and the Hyundai i20. Other models include Hyundai Santro, Hyundai Getz, Hyundai
Accent, second generation Hyundai Verna, Hyundai Tucson, Hyundai Elantra, and the
Hyundai Sonata.
Electric vehicles
Main article: Electric vehicle

Hyundai plans to begin producing hybrid electric vehicles in 2009. The Avante will be
the first vehicle to be produced.[38]

Since 2004, Hyundai has supplied about 3,000 hybrid versions of its Getz and Accent
small cars to government fleets as part of a testing program. The automaker cites a lack
of local tax benefits for purchasing hybrids as a barrier to its hybrid development
program. But Hyundai expects the tax situation to change in 2009.[38]

The new hybrid electric Sonata will make its debut at the Los Angeles International Auto
Show in November 2008. Hyundai expects to release it in the U.S. market in 2010,
featuring lithium-ion battery technology.[39]

Environmental record
On April 23, 2008 Hyundai Motor announced the beginning of a five-year project to turn
50 km² of infertile land into grassland by 2012. Hyundai is doing so with the help of the
Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM). The project, named Hyundai
Green Zone, is located 660 km north of Beijing. The goal of the project is to end the
recurring dust storms in Beijing, block desertification and protect the local ecosystem.
Local weeds will be planted in the region that have the ability to endure sterile alkaline
soil. This is the first environmental project of the company’s social contribution program.

Hyundai Motor plans to aid Chevron Corporation in the construction of up to six

hydrogen fueling stations that will be located in California, including locations at the
University of California-Davis and the Hyundai America Technical Center in Chino.
Hyundai is going to provide a collection of 32 Tucson fuel cell vehicles, which are
powered by UTC Fuel Cell power plants.[42]

Alister McRae driving an Accent WRC at the 2001 Rally Finland.

Hyundai entered motorsport by competing in the F2 class of the World Rally

Championship in 1998 and 1999. In September 1999, Hyundai unveiled the Accent
WRC, a World Rally Car based on the Hyundai Accent. The Hyundai World Rally Team
debuted the car at the 2000 Swedish Rally and achieved their first top-ten result at that
year's Rally Argentina, when Alister McRae and Kenneth Eriksson finished seventh and
eighth, respectively. Eriksson later drove the car to fifth place in New Zealand and fourth
in Australia. In 2001, Hyundai debuted a new evolution of the Accent WRC, which was
intended to improve reliability, but the performance of the car was still not good enough
to challenge the four big teams (Ford World Rally Team, Mitsubishi, Peugeot and
Subaru). However, at the season-ending Rally GB, the team achieved their best result
with McRae finishing fourth and Eriksson sixth.

For the 2002 season, Hyundai hired the four-time world champion Juha Kankkunen,
along with Freddy Loix and Armin Schwarz. Kankkunen's fifth place in New Zealand
was the team's best result, but they managed to edge out Škoda and Mitsubishi by one
point in the battle for fourth place in the manufacturers' world championship. In
September 2003, after a season hampered by budget constraints, Hyundai announced
withdrawal from the WRC and planned to return in 2006, this has never happened

In 2006, following the announcement that Korea was scheduled to earn a Formula 1
Grand Prix race, Hyundai announced that they plan to enter the sport. Development has
since been ongoing and it hopes to appear for the first time in 2010, the same season in
which Korea plans to make its grand prix calendar debut, this though will depend on the
situation of the recent global financial slowdown of the Asian car industry.

Electric propulsion
Hyundai plans begin producing hybrid electric vehicles in 2009. They are going to use
Hybrid Blue Drive, that includes lithium polymer batteries, instead of lithium-ion.[44][45]
The Avante will be the first vehicle to be produced. Other are the Santa Fe Hybrid, the
Elantra, Sonata Hybrid (to the U.S. market in 2010) and the Hyundai i20, which will
replace the Hyundai Getz. Hyundai BLUE-WILL is a plug-in hybrid.[47]

Model lineup
• Excel
• Accent
• Atos/Santro
• Azera
• Dynasty
• Elantra
• Equus/Centennial (joint project of Hyundai and Mitsubishi)[48]
• Genesis
• Genesis Coupe
• Click/Getz
• Grandeur (joint project of Hyundai and Mitsubishi)
• Grandeur XG/XG300/XG350
• Grandeur/Azera
• Matrix/Lavita
• Santamo (Rebadged Mitsubishi Chariot) (Originally produced by
Hyundai Precision Industry)
• Sonata/i40
• Tiburon/Coupé/Tuscani
• i30
• i20
• i10

SUVs and Vans

• Entourage (Similar to the Kia Sedona)
• Galloper (Rebadged Mitsubishi Pajero) (Originally produced by
Hyundai Precision Industry)
• Grace (1st generation was a rebadged Mitsubishi Delica)
• H-1/Satellite/Starex/Libero/H-200
• Hyundai H-1/iMax/i800
• Hyundai H-100 Grace / Porter
• HD1000 (Minibus/Porter)
• Porter (1st generation was a rebadged Mitsubishi Delica)
• Santa Fe
• Starex
• Terracan
• Trajet
• Tucson
• Veracruz

Commercial vehicles
• Ford D Series
• Ford DK Series
• Ford R Series
• O303 Benz Bus
• HM 1620 urban bus
• HM 1630 suburban bus
• Hyundai 4.5 to 5-ton truck (Rebadged Mitsubishi Fuso Fighter)
• Hyundai 8 to 25-ton truck (Rebadged Mitsubishi Fuso Super Great)
• Aero (Rebadged Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Bus)
• Aero City
• Aero Town (e-Aero Town)
• Hyundai DQ-7
• Bison & 3ton Truck
• Chorus
• County (e-County)
• e-Mighty
• Hyundai FB
• HD160
• HD170
• Mega Truck
• New Power Truck
• Mighty (Rebadged Mitsubishi Fuso Canter)
• Mighty II
• Hyundai RB
• Super Truck Medium
• Super Truck
• Trago
• Universe
Hyundai Motors India Limited (HIML) was established in 1996. It is a wholly
owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company, South Korean multi-national.

Hyundai Motors India Limited is the fastest growing car manufacturer in India.
Hyundai Santro is the most preferred car in the section of small passenger cars.
The 26 variants of passenger car in 6 segments caters to the need of a large
section of Indian population.

HIML has a fully integrated state-of-art manufacturing plant at Irrungattukatoi

near Chennai. It is also setting up its second production unit adjacent to the
existing one to meet the growing demand.

The Hyundai i20 made its debut at the Paris Motor Show in October 2008 and went on
sale in December 2008 in India to fit between the i10 and i30. Three and five door
versions are available. The i20 replaces the Getz in most markets but in the UK, Australia
and India, the Getz will still be available for the time being. The i20 is manufactured
solely in India for sale worldwide .[1]

Hyundai i20

Manufacturer Hyundai Motors India Limited

Production 2008–present
Assembly Chennai, India
Predecessor Hyundai Getz
Class Subcompact/Supermini
Related Kia Soul
Kia Venga

The Hyundai i20 uses a completely new platform that was created at Hyundai's European
technical centre in Rüsselsheim to allow Hyundai to move into Europe's highly
competitive supermini segment. A 2,525 mm (99.4 in) wheelbase helps endow the i20
with a generous passenger cabin. Suspension follows the supermini norm of MacPherson
struts at the front and a torsion beam rear end with rack and pinion steering.

The i20 will debut in Europe with a total of seven engine options, all with four cylinders.
Three are petrol, including the recently designed 1.2litre dohc 16 valve "Kappa" engine,
while the rest are diesel engines. Two of the diesel engines are 1396 cc units, one with
75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) and 220 N·m (160 lb·ft) and the other a 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) and
220 N·m (160 lb·ft) high power unit. They are joined by two 1582 cc engines having the
same dohc and 16-valve top end architecture but delivering either 115 PS (85 kW;
113 hp) and 260 N·m (190 lb·ft) of torque or 128 PS (94 kW; 126 hp) and 260 N·m
(190 lb·ft) of torque.

Hyundai claims that 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) diesel unit can return a class leading
115g/km of CO2 while sipping just one litre of HSD[clarification needed] to go 23.25 km/L
(65.7 mpg-imp; 54.7 mpg-US) (4.3L/100 km) in the European combined driving cycle.[citation
All engines come mated to five-speed manual transmissions though there are also
four-speed automatics as options for the petrol engined models and the top end 1.6 is
mated to a six-speed manual.

The Hyundai i20 earned Euro NCAP a maximum 5 star safety rating [2] and scored an
impressive six out of a maximum seven points in the "safety assist" category, receiving
top marks for its belt reminder and electronic stability programme which minimises the
risk of skidding by braking individual wheels.[3]

The Hyundai i10 (called the Inokom i10 in Malaysia[1]) is a city car (hatchback)
produced by the Hyundai Motor Company, launched on 31 October 2007, manufactured
only in India, at Hyundai's Chennai Plant — and sold globally. Replacing the Atos/Atos
Prime/Amica/Santro (except in India, where the lower-priced Santro Xing is still being
sold below it), it is marketed below the Getz and i20 (which replaces the Getz in most

Hyundai i10

Manufacturer Hyundai Motor India Limited

Also called Inokom i10
Production 2007–present
Assembly Chennai, India
Predecessor Hyundai Atos
Class City car
Body style(s) 5-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) 1,248 cc (1.2 L) I4
5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,380 mm (93.7 in)
Length 3,565 mm (140.4 in)
Width 1,595 mm (62.8 in)
Height 1,550 mm (61.0 in)
Curb weight 1000-1030 kg (M/T)
Fuel capacity 35 L (9 US gal; 8 imp gal)
Related Kia Picanto
Hyundai i10 rear view

After the Santro/Atos Prime, Hyundai needed a model to replace it and started a
hatchback project codenamed Hyundai PA. The car was to be manufactured in a new
facility at Chennai, India.

The i10 has large gaping air-dam, pulled-back headlamps, chrome-lined grills, integrated
clear lens fog lamps, the bonnet that has a clam shell hint and the rear window line has an
upswept kink.

The tailgate has a chrome-lined boot-release handle and an integrated roof spoiler on the
top end versions.

Overall length (3565 mm) and wheelbase (2380 mm) are identical to the Santro with
slightly more interior space; Ergonomic design was intended to accommodate tall drivers
and increasing rear knee room. The width has been increased (and front and rear track) by
70 mm (2.8 in) for more shoulder room. The height has been reduced by 40 mm (1.6 in).
Boot space at 225 litres (7.9 cu ft) is significantly lower than that of Getz.

The interior has a plastic dash housing with an optional integrated stereo. The instrument
binnacle has a large white-faced speedometer flanked by the tachometer and fuel and
temperature gauges.
The gear lever built into the central console leaving space between the front seats for a
couple of cup holders.

The i10 was launched with a 1.1 litre (called the IRdE engine) 65 bhp (48 kW; 66 PS) I4
engine - the same motor used in the Kia Picanto/Hyundai Atos Prime/Santro Xing.
However, it produces less CO2 emissions than the Picanto[citation needed]. The i10 also comes
with a 1.2 litre petrol Euro-5 compliant engine (called the Kappa engine), with the same
CO2 emissions as the 1.1 litre version. A 1.1 litre diesel variant is available but has not
yet been introduced into the UK market.

Accolades and Feats

Hyundai i10 was widely recognized as "Car of the Year 2008" by various automotive
magazines and TV channels in India like BS Motoring, CNBC-TV18 AutoCar[2], NDTV
Profit Car & Bike India[3] and Overdrive magazine. The car was conferred with the
Indian Car of the Year (ICOTY) by automotive media of the country.[4]

In 2008, Hyundai commemorated 10 years of operations in India by initiating a trans-

continental drive from Delhi to Paris in two of its i10 Kappa cars. The drive covered a
distance of 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) in just 17 days after which the i10s were
showcased at the Paris Motor Show in October.[5] At the Paris Motor Show Hyundai
unveiled the Hyundai i20.

The i10 features ABS, EBD and other safety features, which earned it high scores on the
Euro NCAP crash tests.[6]

• Adult Occupant: , score 26

• Child Occupant: , score 37
• Pedestrian: , score 21

The amount of safety features varies from market to market. While most countries have
the i10 equipped with airbags for all passengers, the entry-level 1.1 manual transmission
model in the Philippines can be sold without airbags.

Since launch and as of August 2009, electronic stability control (ESC) is still a special-
order option for UK spec cars which prevents a full 5-star EuroNCAP score.
1.1 iRDE 1.2 Kappa


Overall Length (mm)

Overall Width (mm) 3565

Overall Height (mm) 1595

Wheelbase (mm) 1550

Ground Clearance (mm) 2380

Front Track (mm) 165

Rear Track (mm) 1400

Fuel Tank capacity (l) 1385



No.of cylinders
No. of valves 4

Valvetrain (type) (SOHC / DOHC) 12 16

Displacement (cc) SOHC DOHC

Maximum Power (ps/rpm) 1086 1197

Maximum Torque (Kgm/rpm) 66.6/5500 80/5200

10.1/2800 11.4/4000


Type Manual
Automatic S S
- O*


Front Suspension
Rear Suspension Mc Pherson Strut with Stabilizer bar
Coupled Torsion Beam Axle with Coil

Rear Ventilated Disc


155/80 R13


1.1 iRDE 1.1/1.2 1.2 Kappa

D-Lite Era Magna Sportz Asta

Clear Headlamps & Rear Combination
Outside Rear View Mirror S S S S S
Tinted Glass S S S S S
Body Colored ORVM - - S S S
Body Coloured Bumper - S S S S
Body Coloured Side Door Handles - - S S S
Body Coloured Tail Gate Handle - - S S S
Waistline Moulding - - S S S
Radiator Grille Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome
Rear Spoiler with HMSL - - - S S
Full Wheel Cover - - S S S
Sunroof - - - - O

S - Standard, O - Optional
*Available only with body colors - Electric Red and Stone Black **With
Sunroof only.
***Available only with 1.2 Kappa.
Hyundai Kappa engine
Hyundai's Kappa engine is a small straight-4 automobile engine.

The 1.2L Variant is currently the only Kappa engine produced. This engine is gasoline
powered, has DOHC, and uses an all-aluminum design. It delivers 84 BHP(59kW) @
5,200 RPM, and 82 ft.-lb (112 Nm) of torque @ 4,000 RPM. It has a fuel economy rating
(city/highway combined) of 5.0L/100km (47 MPG).

• Hyundai i10
• Hyundai i20

Overhead camshaft

A cylinder head sliced in half shows two overhead camshafts—one above each of the
two valves.

Overhead camshaft, commonly abbreviated to OHC, valvetrain configurations place the

engine camshaft within the cylinder heads, above the combustion chambers, and drive the
valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared to overhead valves (OHV) and

Compared to OHV pushrod (or I-Head) systems with the same number of valves the
reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower total mass.
Though the system that drives the cams may become more complex, most engine
manufacturers easily accept that added complexity in trade for better engine performance
and greater design flexibility. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the
better optimized port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With
no intrusive pushrods the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports
of more advantageous crossection and length.
The OHC system can be driven using the same methods as an OHV system, which
include using a rubber/kevlar toothed timing belt, chain, or in less common cases, gears.

In conjunction with multiple (3 or 4) valves per cylinder, many OHC engines today
employ variable valve timing to improve efficiency and power. OHC also inherently
allows for greater engine speeds over comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of
having lower valvetrain mass.

There are two overhead camshaft layouts:

• Single overhead camshaft - or SOHC

• Double overhead camshaft - or DOHC

Single overhead camshaft

A single overhead camshaft cylinder head from a 1987 Honda CRX Si.

Single overhead camshaft (SOHC) is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the
cylinder head. In an inline engine this means there is one camshaft in the head, while in a
V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine (boxer; flat engine) there are two camshafts:
one per cylinder bank.

The SOHC design has less reciprocating mass than a comparable pushrod design. This
allows for higher engine speeds, which in turn will increase power output for a given
torque. The cam operates the valves directly or through a rocker arm, as opposed to
overhead valve pushrod engines which have tappets, long pushrods, and rocker arms to
transfer the movement of the lobes on the camshaft in the engine block to the valves in
the cylinder head.

SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to pushrod designs when used for
multi-valve heads in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an
SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the
Hillman Imp (4 cylinder, 8 valve); a small, early 1960s 2-door saloon car with a rear
mounted alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and
inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block (thus not a crossflow
cylinder head design). This did, however, offer excellent access to the spark plugs.

In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen also used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel
valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic
tappets while the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve lash
adjustment. Of all valvetrain systems, this is the least complex configuration possible.

Double overhead camshaft

Overhead view of Suzuki GS550 head showing dual camshafts and drive sprockets.

A double overhead camshaft valve train layout is characterized by two camshafts located
within the cylinder head, one operating the inlet valves and one operating the exhaust
valves. Some engines have more than one bank of cylinder heads (V8 and flat-four being
two well-known examples) and these have more than two camshafts in total, but they
remain DOHC. The term "twin cam" is imprecise, but will normally refer to a DOHC
engine. Some manufacturers still managed to use a SOHC in 4-valve layouts. Honda for
instance with the later half of the D16 family, this is usually done to reduce overall costs.
Also not all DOHC engines are multivalve engines—DOHC was common in two valve
per cylinder heads for decades before multivalve heads appeared. Today, however,
DOHC is synonymous with multi-valve heads since almost all DOHC engines have
between three and five valves per cylinder.

DOHC straight-8 in a 1933 Bugatti Type 59 Grand Prix racer

Among the early pioneers of DOHC were Isotta Fraschini's Giustino Cattaneo, Austro-
Daimler's Ferdinand Porsche Stephen Tomczak (in the Prinz Heinrich), and W. O.
Bentley (in 1919); Sunbeam built small numbers between 1921 and 1923.[2] The first
DOHC engines were either two- or four-valve per cylinder racing car designs from
companies like Fiat (1912), Peugeot Grand Prix (1913, 4 valve), Alfa Romeo Grand Prix
(1914, 4 valve)[3] and 6C (1928), Maserati Tipo 26 (1926), Bugatti Type 51 (1931).

When DOHC technology was introduced in mainstream vehicles, it was common for it to
be heavily advertised. While used at first in limited production and sports cars, Alfa
Romeo is one of the twin cam's greatest proponents, 6C Sport the first Alfa Romeo road
car using DOHC engine was introduced in 1928, ever since this has been trademark of all
Alfa Romeo engines.[3]

Fiat was one of the first car companies to use a belt-driven DOHC engines across their
complete product line, in the mid-1960s.[citation needed], Jaguar's XK6 DOHC engine was
displayed in the Jaguar XK120 at the London Motor Show in 1948 and used across the
entire Jaguar range through the late 1940s, 1950 and 1960s.

More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production
engine. However MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead
camshaft configuration with the intake ports descending through the head to two central
intake ports between two outside exhaust camshafts

"HDi" redirects here. For the interactive format, see HDi (interactivity).
"DCi" redirects here. For other uses, see DCI.
Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for
petrol and diesel engines.

On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (over 1,000 bar/15,000 psi) fuel rail feeding
individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors
(Pumpe Düse or pump nozzles). Third-generation common rail diesels now feature
piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up to 1,800 bars
(26,000 psi).

In petrol engines, it is utilised in gasoline direct injection engine technology.

The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of
Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco Ganser at the Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, later of Ganser-Hydromag AG (est.1995) in
Oberägeri. In the mid-1990s Dr. Shohei Itoh and Masahiko Miyaki of the Denso
Corporation, a Japanese automotive parts manufacturer, developed the common rail fuel
system for heavy duty vehicles and turned it into practical use on their ECD-U2 common-
rail system mounted on the Hino Rising Ranger truck and sold for general use in 1995.[1]
Denso claims the first commercial high pressure common rail system in 1995.[2]

Modern common rail systems, whilst working on the same principle, are governed by an
engine control unit (ECU) which opens each injector electronically rather than
mechanically. This was extensively prototyped in the 1990s with collaboration between
Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat and Elasis. After research and development by the
Fiat Group the design was acquired by the German company Robert Bosch GmbH for
completion of development and refinement for mass-production. In hindsight the sale
appeared to be a tactical error for Fiat as the new technology proved to be highly
profitable. The company had little choice but to sell, however, as it was in a poor
financial state at the time and lacked the resources to complete development on its own.[3]
In 1997 they extended its use for passenger cars. The first passenger car that used the
common rail system was the 1997 model Alfa Romeo 156 1.9 JTD,[4] and later on that
same year Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI.

Common rail engines have been used in marine and locomotive applications for some
time. The Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 (circa 1942) is an example of a hydraulically operated
common rail diesel engine, also known as a modified common rail.
Vickers used common rail systems in submarine engines circa 1916. Doxford Engines
Ltd.[5] (opposed piston heavy marine engines) used a common rail system (from 1921 to
1980) whereby a multi-cylinder reciprocating fuel pump generated a pressure of
approximately 600bar with the fuel being stored in accumulator bottles. Pressure control
was achieved by means of an adjustable pump discharge stroke and a "spill valve".
Camshaft operated mechanical timing valves were used to supply the spring loaded
Brice/CAV/Lucas injectors which injected through the side of the cylinder into the
chamber formed between the pistons. Early engines had a pair of injectors, one for ahead
running and one for astern.[citation needed] Later engines had two injectors per cylinder and the
final series of constant pressure turbocharged engines were fitted with four injectors per
cylinder. This system was used for the injection of both diesel oil and heavy fuel oil
(600cSt heated to a temperature of approximately 130°C).

The engines are suitable for all types of road cars with diesel engines, ranging from city
cars such as the Fiat Nuova Panda to executive cars such as the Volvo S80.

Common rail today

Today the common rail system has brought about a revolution in diesel engine
technology. Robert Bosch GmbH, Delphi Automotive Systems, Denso Corporation, and
Siemens VDO (now owned by Continental AG) are the main suppliers of modern
common rail systems. The car makers refer to their common rail engines by their own
brand names:

• BMW's D-engines (also used in the Land Rover Freelander TD4)

• Cummins and Scania's XPI (Developed under joint venture)
• Cummins CCR (Cummins pump with Bosch Injectors)
• Daimler's CDI (and on Chrysler's Jeep vehicles simply as CRD)
• Fiat Group's (Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia) JTD (also branded as MultiJet,
JTDm, Ecotec CDTi, TiD, TTiD , DDiS, Quadra-Jet)
• Ford Motor Company's TDCi Duratorq and Powerstroke
• General Motors Opel/Vauxhall CDTi (manufactured by Fiat and GM Daewoo)
and DTi (Isuzu)
• General Motors Daewoo/Chevrolet VCDi (licensed from VM Motori; also
branded as Ecotec CDTi)
• Honda's i-CTDi
• Hyundai-Kia's CRDi
• Land Rover's "Storm" TD5 derived from the Rover L-Series engine
• Mahindra's CRDe
• Mazda's CiTD (1.4 MZ-CD, 1.6 MZ-CD manufactured by Ford)
• Mitsubishi's DI-D (recently developed 4N1 engine family uses next generation
200 MPa (2000 bar) injection system))
• Nissan's dCi
• PSA Peugeot Citroën's HDI or HDi (1.4HDI, 1.6 HDI, 2.0 HDI, 2.2 HDI and V6
HDI developed under joint venture with Ford)
• Renault's 'dCi
• SsangYong's XDi (most of these engines are manufactured by Daimler AG)
• Subaru's Legacy TD (as of Jan 2008)
• Tata's DICOR
• Toyota's D-4D
• Volkswagen Group: The 4.2 V8 TDI and the latest 2.7 and 3.0 TDI (V6) engines
featured on current Audi models use common rail, as opposed to the earlier unit
injector engines. The 2.0 TDI in the Volkswagen Tiguan SUV uses common rail,
as does the 2008 model Audi A4. Volkswagen Group has announced that the 2.0
TDI (common rail) engine will be available for Volkswagen Passat as well as the
2009 Volkswagen Jetta.[6]
• Volvo 2.4D and D5 engines (1.6D, 2.0D manufactured by Ford and PSA Peugeot


Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make possible fine electronic control over the fuel
injection time and quantity, and the higher pressure that the common rail technology
makes available provides better fuel atomisation. In order to lower engine noise the
engine's electronic control unit can inject a small amount of diesel just before the main
injection event ("pilot" injection), thus reducing its explosiveness and vibration, as well
as optimising injection timing and quantity for variations in fuel quality, cold starting,
and so on. Some advanced common rail fuel systems perform as many as five injections
per stroke.[7]

Common rail engines require no heating up time[citation needed] and produce lower engine
noise and emissions than older systems.

Diesel engines have historically used various forms of fuel injection. Two common types
include the unit injection system and the distributor/inline pump systems (See diesel
engine and unit injector for more information). While these older systems provided
accurate fuel quantity and injection timing control they were limited by several factors:

• They were cam driven and injection pressure was proportional to engine speed.
This typically meant that the highest injection pressure could only be achieved at
the highest engine speed and the maximum achievable injection pressure
decreased as engine speed decreased. This relationship is true with all pumps,
even those used on common rail systems; with the unit or distributor systems,
however, the injection pressure is tied to the instantaneous pressure of a single
pumping event with no accumulator and thus the relationship is more prominent
and troublesome.
• They were limited on the number of and timing of injection events that could be
commanded during a single combustion event. While multiple injection events is
possible with these older systems, it is much more difficult and costly to achieve.
• For the typical distributor/inline system the start of injection occurred at a pre-
determined pressure (often referred to as: pop pressure) and ended at a pre-
determined pressure. This characteristic results from "dummy" injectors in the
cylinder head which opened and closed at pressures determined by the spring
preload applied to the plunger in the injector. Once the pressure in the injector
reached a pre-determined level, the plunger would lift and injection would start.

In common rail systems a high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure
— up to and above 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). The term "common rail" refers to the fact that
all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a
pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This accumulator supplies
multiple fuel injectors with high pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of the high
pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either
mechanically or electronically controlled). The fuel injectors are typically ECU-
controlled. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated a hydraulic valve (consisting
of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into
the cylinders at the desired pressure. Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and
the injectors are electrically actuated the injection pressure at the start and end of
injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square
injection rate. If the accumulator, pump, and plumbing are sized properly, the injection
pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events.
1.MAP Sensor
manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) is one of the sensors used in an internal
combustion engine's electronic control system. Engines that use a MAP sensor are
typically fuel injected. The manifold absolute pressure sensor provides instantaneous
manifold pressure information to the engine's electronic control unit (ECU). The data is
used to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate, which in turn
determines the required fuel metering for optimum combustion (see stoichiometry). A
fuel-injected engine may alternately use a MAF (mass air flow) sensor to detect the
intake airflow. A typical configuration employs one or the other, but seldom both.

MAP sensor data can be converted to air mass data using the speed-density method.
Engine speed (RPM) and air temperature are also necessary to complete the speed-
density calculation. The MAP sensor can also be used in OBD II (on-board diagnostics)
applications to test the EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) valve for functionality, an
application typical in OBD II equipped General Motors engines.

How the MAP value is used

The manifold absolute pressure measurement is used to meter fuel. The amount of fuel
required is directly related to the mass of air entering the engine. The mass of air is
proportional to the air density, which is proportional to the absolute pressure and
inversely proportional to the absolute temperature. (See ideal gas law.) Engine speed
determines the frequency, or rate, at which air mass is leaving the intake manifold and
entering the cylinders.

(Engine Mass Airflow Rate) ≈ RPM × (Air Density)

or equivalently
(Engine Mass Airflow Rate) ≈ RPM × Volume x MAP x M / (2 x R x absolute

Where Volume is the displacement of the engine, M is the molar mass of air, and R is the
ideal gas constant. The two in the denominator is needed for 4 stroke engines because
half the engine's displacement is swept during one revolution.

The following example assumes the same engine speed and air temperature.
• Condition 1:

An engine operating at WOT (wide open throttle) on top of a very high mountain
has a MAP of about 15" Hg or 50 kPa (essentially equal to the barometer at that
high altitude).

• Condition 2:

The same engine at sea level will achieve 15" Hg of MAP at less than WOT due
to the higher barometric pressure.

The engine requires the same mass of fuel in both conditions because the mass of air
entering the cylinders is the same.

If the throttle is opened all the way in condition 2, the manifold absolute pressure will
increase from 15" Hg to nearly 30" Hg (~100 kPa), about equal to the local barometer,
which in condition 2 is sea level. The higher absolute pressure in the intake manifold
increases the air's density, and in turn more fuel can be burned resulting in higher output.

Anyone who has driven up a high mountain is familiar with the reduction in engine
output as altitude increases.

Vacuum comparison
Vacuum is the difference between the absolute pressures of the intake manifold and
atmosphere. Vacuum is a "gauge" pressure, since gauges by nature measure a pressure
difference, not an absolute pressure. The engine fundamentally responds to air mass, not
vacuum, and absolute pressure is necessary to calculate mass. The mass of air entering
the engine is directly proportional to the air density, which is proportional to the absolute
pressure, and inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.

Note: Carburetors are largely dependent on air volume flow and vacuum, and neither
directly infers mass. Consequently, carburetors are precise, but not accurate fuel
metering devices. Carburetors were replaced by more accurate fuel metering methods,
such as fuel injection.

Barometer and vacuum calculations based on MAP

The MAP sensor can be used to directly measure the BAP (barometric absolute pressure).

BAP = MAP (When either of the following conditions are true.)

o When the engine is not turning.
o When operating at WOT (nearly equal to the barometric

Once the BAP is known, the MAP sensor can be used to calculate intake manifold

BAP - MAP = Manifold Vacuum

BAP = MAP + Manifold Vacuum
MAP = BAP - Manifold Vacuum

o When the engine is running, the difference between the
BAP and the MAP is known as intake manifold vacuum. The ECU
learns the BAP just before cranking the engine, i.e., when MAP
equals BAP.

As atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, vacuum must also decrease to
maintain the same MAP in order to maintain the same torque output. This is
accomplished by opening the engine's throttle more as altitude increases. However, the
BAP learned at the beginning of the trip becomes obsolete as altitude changes.

Sometimes an engine control system will use both a BAP sensor and a MAP sensor to
continuously maintain an accurate barometer and manifold vacuum. However, neither
vacuum nor barometer are necessary for fuel determination, although they are helpful for
other engine functions. The critical information is the air's density in the intake manifold,
and the speed of the engine, i.e., the speed-density method.

The BAP sensor is often located within the ECU, and the MAP sensor is usually located
near the intake manifold.

(See Earth's atmosphere.)

EGR Testing
With OBD II standards, vehicle manufacturers were required to test the EGR valve for
functionality during driving. Some manufacturers use the MAP sensor to accomplish this.
In these vehicles, they have a MAF sensor for their primary load sensor. The MAP sensor
is then used for rationality checks and to test the EGR valve. The way they do this is
during a deceleration of the vehicle when there is low absolute pressure in the intake
manifold (i.e., a high vacuum present in the intake manifold relative to the outside air).
During this low absolute pressure (i.e., high vacuum) the PCM will open the EGR valve
and then monitor the MAP sensor's values. If the EGR is functioning properly, the
manifold absolute pressure will increase as exhaust gases enter.
T.P.S. Sensor

Throttle body showing throttle position sensor on the right

A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the position of the throttle
in an internal combustion engine. The sensor is usually located on the butterfly spindle so
that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle valve butterfly.

The sensor is usually a potentiometer, and therefore provides a variable resistance

dependent upon the position of the valve (and hence throttle position).

The sensor signal is used by the engine control unit (ECU) as an input to its control
system. The ignition timing and fuel injection timing (and potentially other parameters)
are altered depending upon the position of the throttle, and also depending on the rate of
change of that position. For example, in fuel injected engines, in order to avoid stalling,
extra fuel may be injected if the throttle is opened rapidly (mimicking the accelerator
pump of carburetor systems).

More advanced forms of the sensor are also used, for example an extra closed throttle
position sensor (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the throttle is completely

Some ECUs also control the throttle position and if that is done the position sensor is
utilised in a feedback loop to enable that control.

Related to the TPS are accelerator pedal sensors, which often include a wide open throttle
(WOT) sensor. The accelerator pedal sensors are used in "drive by wire" systems, and the
most common use of a wide open throttle sensor is for the kickdown function on
automatic transmissions.

Modern day sensors are Non Contact type, wherein a Magnet and a Hall Sensor is used.
In the potentiometric type sensors, two metal parts are in contact with each other, while
the butterfly valve is turned from zero to WOT, there is a change in the resistance and
this change in resistance is given as the input to the ECU.

Non Contact type TPS work on the principle of Hall Effect, wherein the magnet is the
dynamic part which mounted on the butterfly valve spindle and the hall sensor is
mounted with the body and is stationary. When the magnet mounted on the spindle which
is rotated from zero to WOT, there is a change in the magnetic field for the hall sensor.
The change in the magnetic field is sensed by the hall sensor and the hall voltage
generated is given as the input to the ECU. Normally a two pole magnet is used for TPS
and the magnet may be of Diametrical type or Ring type or segment type, however the
magnet is defined to have a certain magnetic field.

O2 Sensor
An oxygen sensor, or lambda sensor, is an electronic device that measures the proportion
of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. It was developed by Robert Bosch
GmbH during the late 1960s under supervision by Dr. Günter Bauman. The original
sensing element is made with a thimble-shaped zirconia ceramic coated on both the
exhaust and reference sides with a thin layer of platinum and comes in both heated and
unheated forms. The planar-style sensor entered the market in 1998 (also pioneered by
Robert Bosch GmbH) and significantly reduced the mass of the ceramic sensing element
as well as incorporating the heater within the ceramic structure. This resulted in a sensor
that both started operating sooner and responded faster. The most common application is
to measure the exhaust gas concentration of oxygen for internal combustion engines in
automobiles and other vehicles. Divers also use a similar device to measure the partial
pressure of oxygen in their breathing gas.

Scientists use oxygen sensors to measure respiration or production of oxygen and use a
different approach. Oxygen sensors are used in oxygen analyzers which find a lot of use
in medical applications such as anesthesia monitors, respirators and oxygen

There are many different ways of measuring oxygen and these include technologies such
as zirconia, electrochemical (also known as Galvanic), infrared, ultrasonic and very
recently laser. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Automotive applications
A three-wire oxygen sensor suitable for use in a Volvo 240 or similar.

Automotive oxygen sensors, colloquially known as O2 sensors, make modern electronic

fuel injection and emission control possible. They help determine, in real time, if the air
fuel ratio of a combustion engine is rich or lean. Since oxygen sensors are located in the
exhaust stream, they do not directly measure the air or the fuel entering the engine. But
when information from oxygen sensors is coupled with information from other sources, it
can be used to indirectly determine the air-to-fuel ratio. Closed-loop feedback-controlled
fuel injection varies the fuel injector output according to real-time sensor data rather than
operating with a predetermined (open-loop) fuel map. In addition to enabling electronic
fuel injection to work efficiently, this emissions control technique can reduce the
amounts of both unburnt fuel and oxides of nitrogen from entering the atmosphere.
Unburnt fuel is pollution in the form of air-borne hydrocarbons, while oxides of nitrogen
(NOx gases) are a result of combustion chamber tempuratures exceeding 1300 Kelvin due
to excess air in the fuel mixture and contribute to smog and acid rain. Volvo was the first
automobile manufacturer to employ this technology in the late 1970s, along with the 3-
way catalyst used in the catalytic converter.

The sensor does not actually measure oxygen concentration, but rather the amount of
oxygen needed to completely oxidize any remaining combustibles in the exhaust gas.
Rich mixture causes an oxygen demand. This demand causes a voltage to build up, due to
transportation of oxygen ions through the sensor layer. Lean mixture causes low voltage,
since there is an oxygen excess.

Modern spark-ignited combustion engines use oxygen sensors and catalytic converters as
part of an attempt by governments working with automakers to reduce exhaust emissions.
Information on oxygen concentration is sent to the engine management computer or
ECU, which adjusts the amount of fuel injected into the engine to compensate for excess
air or excess fuel. The ECU attempts to maintain, on average, a certain air-fuel ratio by
interpreting the information it gains from the oxygen sensor. The primary goal is a
compromise between power, fuel economy, and emissions, and in most cases is achieved
by an air-fuel-ratio close to stoichiometric. For spark-ignition engines (such as those that
burn gasoline, as opposed to diesel), the three types of emissions modern systems are
concerned with are: hydrocarbons (which are released when the fuel is not burnt
completely, such as when misfiring or running rich), carbon monoxide (which is the
result of running slightly rich) and NOx (which dominate when the mixture is lean).
Failure of these sensors, either through normal aging, the use of leaded fuels, or fuel
contaminated with silicones or silicates, for example, can lead to damage of an
automobile's catalytic converter and expensive repairs.

Tampering with or modifying the signal that the oxygen sensor sends to the engine
computer can be detrimental to emissions control and can even damage the vehicle.
When the engine is under low-load conditions (such as when accelerating very gently, or
maintaining a constant speed), it is operating in "closed-loop mode." This refers to a
feedback loop between the ECU and the oxygen sensor(s) in which the ECU adjusts the
quantity of fuel and expects to see a resulting change in the response of the oxygen
sensor. This loop forces the engine to operate both slightly lean and slightly rich on
successive loops, as it attempts to maintain a mostly stoichiometric ratio on average. If
modifications cause the engine to run moderately lean, there will be a slight increase in
fuel economy, sometimes at the expense of increased NOx emissions, much higher
exhaust gas temperatures, and sometimes a slight increase in power that can quickly turn
into misfires and a drastic loss of power, as well as potential engine damage, at ultra-lean
air-to-fuel ratios. If modifications cause the engine to run rich, then there will be a slight
increase in power to a point (after which the engine starts flooding from too much
unburned fuel), but at the cost of decreased fuel economy, and an increase in unburned
hydrocarbons in the exhaust which causes overheating of the catalytic converter.
Prolonged operation at rich mixtures can cause catastrophic failure of the catalytic
converter (see backfire). The ECU also controls the spark engine timing along with the
fuel injector pulse width, so modifications which alter the engine to operate either too
lean or too rich may result in inefficient fuel consumption whenever fuel is ignited too
soon or too late in the combustion cycle.

When an internal combustion engine is under high load (e.g. wide open throttle), the
output of the oxygen sensor is ignored, and the ECU automatically enriches the mixture
to protect the engine, as misfires under load are much more likely to cause damage. This
is referred to an engine running in 'open-loop mode'. Any changes in the sensor output
will be ignored in this state. In many cars (excepting some turbocharged ones), inputs
from the air flow meter are also ignored, as they might otherwise lower engine
performance due to the mixture being too rich or too lean, and increase the risk of engine
damage due to detonation if the mixture is too lean.

Function of a lambda probe

Lambda probes are used to reduce vehicle emissions by ensuring that engines burn their
fuel efficiently and cleanly. Robert Bosch GmbH introduced the first automotive lambda
probe in 1976[1], and it was first used by Volvo and Saab in that year. The sensors were
introduced in the US from about 1980, and were required on all models of cars in many
countries in Europe in 1993.

By measuring the proportion of oxygen in the remaining exhaust gas, and by knowing the
volume and temperature of the air entering the cylinders amongst other things, an ECU
can use look-up tables to determine the amount of fuel required to burn at the
stoichiometric ratio (14.7:1 air:fuel by mass for gasoline) to ensure complete combustion.
The probe
The sensor element is a ceramic cylinder plated inside and out with porous platinum
electrodes; the whole assembly is protected by a metal gauze. It operates by measuring
the difference in oxygen between the exhaust gas and the external air, and generates a
voltage or changes its resistance depending on the difference between the two.

The sensors only work effectively when heated to approximately 316 °C (600 °F), so
most newer lambda probes have heating elements encased in the ceramic that bring the
ceramic tip up to temperature quickly. Older probes, without heating elements, would
eventually be heated by the exhaust, but there is a time lag between when the engine is
started and when the components in the exhaust system come to a thermal equilibrium.
This lag is due to the engine, oil, coolant, and other components' absorption of heat from
the exhaust gases. The exhaust gases heat these other components, causing the gases to
drop below the probe's operating temperature and therefore heat the probe slowly. The
length of time required for the exhaust gases to bring the probe to temperature depend on
the temperature of the ambient air and the geometry of the exhaust system. Without a
heater, the process may take several minutes. There are pollution problems that are
attributed to this slow start-up process, including a similar problem with the working
temperature of a catalytic converter.

The probe typically has four wires attached to it: two for the lambda output, and two for
the heater power, although some automakers use a common ground for the sensor
element and heaters, resulting in three wires. Earlier non-electrically-heated sensors had
one or two wires.

Operation of the probe

Zirconia sensor
The zirconium dioxide, or zirconia, lambda sensor is based on a solid-state
electrochemical fuel cell called the Nernst cell. Its two electrodes provide an output
voltage corresponding to the quantity of oxygen in the exhaust relative to that in the
atmosphere. An output voltage of 0.2 V (200 mV) DC represents a "lean mixture" of fuel
and oxygen, where the amount of oxygen entering the cylinder is sufficient to fully
oxidize the carbon monoxide (CO), produced in burning the air and fuel, into carbon
dioxide (CO2). An output voltage of 0.8 V (800 mV) DC represents a "rich mixture", one
which is high in unburned fuel and low in remaining oxygen. The ideal setpoint is
approximately 0.45 V (450 mV) DC. This is where the quantities of air and fuel are in the
optimum ratio, which is ~0.5% lean of the stoichiometric point, such that the exhaust
output contains minimal carbon monoxide.

The voltage produced by the sensor is nonlinear with respect to oxygen concentration.
The sensor is most sensitive near the stoichiometric point and less sensitive when either
very lean or very rich.
The engine control unit (ECU) is a control system that uses feedback from the sensor to
adjust the fuel/air mixture. As in all control systems, the time constant of the sensor is
important; the ability of the ECU to control the fuel-air-ratio depends upon the response
time of the sensor. An aging or fouled sensor tends to have a slower response time, which
can degrade system performance. The shorter the time period, the higher the so-called
"cross count" [2] and the more responsive the system.

The zirconia sensor is of the "narrow band" type, referring to the narrow range of fuel/air
ratios to which it responds.

Wideband zirconia sensor

A variation on the zirconia sensor, called the "wideband" sensor, was introduced by
Robert Bosch in 1994 but is (as of 2006) used in only a few vehicles. It is based on a
planar zirconia element, but also incorporates an electrochemical gas pump. An
electronic circuit containing a feedback loop controls the gas pump current to keep the
output of the electrochemical cell constant, so that the pump current directly indicates the
oxygen content of the exhaust gas. This sensor eliminates the lean-rich cycling inherent
in narrow-band sensors, allowing the control unit to adjust the fuel delivery and ignition
timing of the engine much more rapidly. In the automotive industry this sensor is also
called a UEGO (for Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen) sensor. UEGO sensors are also
commonly used in aftermarket dyno tuning and high-performance driver air-fuel display
equipment. The wideband zirconia sensor is used in stratified fuel injection systems, and
can now also be used in diesel engines to satisfy the forthcoming EURO and ULEV
emission limits.

Wideband sensors have three elements:

• Ion Oxygen pump

• Narrowband zirconia sensor
• Heating element

The wiring diagram for the wideband sensor typically has 6 wires:

• resistive heating element (2 wires)

• sensor
• pump
• calibration resisitor
• common

Titania sensor
A less common type of narrow-band lambda sensor has a ceramic element made of
titanium dioxide (titania). This type does not generate its own voltage, but changes its
electrical resistance in response to the oxygen concentration. The resistance of the titania
is a function of the oxygen partial pressure and the temperature. Therefore, some sensors
are used with a gas temperature sensor to compensate for the resistance change due to
temperature. The resistance value at any temperature is about 1/1000th the change in
oxygen concentration. Luckily, at lambda = 1, there is a large change of oxygen, so the
resistance change is typically 1000 times between rich and lean, depending on the

As titania is an N-type semiconductor with a structure TiO2-x, the x defects in the crystal
lattice conduct the charge. So, for fuel-rich exhaust the resistance is low, and for fuel-lean
exhaust the resistance is high. The control unit feeds the sensor with a small electrical
current and measures the resulting voltage across the sensor, which varies from near 0
volts to about 5 volts. Like the zirconia sensor, this type is nonlinear, such that it is
sometimes simplistically described as a binary indicator, reading either "rich" or "lean".
Titania sensors are more expensive than zirconia sensors, but they also respond faster.

In automotive applications the titania sensor, unlike the zirconia sensor, does not require
a reference sample of atmospheric air to operate properly. This makes the sensor
assembly easier to design against water contamination. While most automotive sensors
are submersible, zirconia-based sensors require a very small supply of reference air from
the atmosphere. In theory, the sensor wire harness and connector are sealed. Air that
leaches through the wire harness to the sensor is assumed to come from an open point in
the harness - usually the ECU which is housed in an enclosed space like the trunk or
vehicle interior.

Location of the probe in a system

The probe is typically screwed into a threaded hole in the exhaust system, located after
the branch manifold of the exhaust system combines, and before the catalytic converter.
New vehicles are required to have a sensor before and after the exhaust catalyst to meet
U.S. regulations requiring that all emissions components be monitored for failure. Pre
and post-catalyst signals are monitored to determine catalyst efficiency. Additionally,
some catalyst systems require brief cycles of lean (oxygen-containing) gas to load the
catalyst and promote additional oxidation reduction of undesirable exhaust components.

Sensor surveillance

The air-fuel ratio and naturally, the status of the sensor, can be monitored by means of
using an air-fuel ratio meter that displays the read output voltage of the sensor.

Sensor failures

Normally, the lifetime of an unheated sensor is about 30,000 to 50,000 miles (50,000 to
80,000 km). Heated sensor lifetime is typically 100,000 miles (160,000 km). Failure of an
unheated sensor is usually caused by the buildup of soot on the ceramic element, which
lengthens its response time and may cause total loss of ability to sense oxygen. For
heated sensors, normal deposits are burned off during operation and failure occurs due to
catalyst depletion, similar to the reason a battery stops producing current. The probe then
tends to report lean mixture, the ECU enriches the mixture, the exhaust gets rich with
carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and the mileage worsens.

Leaded gasoline contaminates the oxygen sensors and catalytic converters. Most oxygen
sensors are rated for some service life in the presence of leaded gasoline but sensor life
will be shortened to as little as 15,000 miles depending on the lead concentration. Lead-
damaged sensors typically have their tips discolored light rusty.

Another common cause of premature failure of lambda probes is contamination of fuel

with silicones (used in some sealings and greases) or silicates (used as corrosion
inhibitors in some antifreezes). In this case, the deposits on the sensor are colored
between shiny white and grainy light gray.

Leaks of oil into the engine may cover the probe tip with an oily black deposit, with
associated loss of response.

An overly rich mixture causes buildup of black powdery deposit on the probe. This may
be caused by failure of the probe itself, or by a problem elsewhere in the fuel rationing

Applying an external voltage to the zirconia sensors, e.g. by checking them with some
types of ohmmeter, may damage them.

Symptoms of a failing oxygen sensor includes:

• Sensor Light on dash indicates problem

• Increased tailpipe emissions
• Increased fuel consumption
• Hesitation on acceleration
• Stalling
• Rough idling