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JournalofEngineering,Computers&AppliedSciences(JEC&AS)ISSNNo:23195606

Volume1,No.2,November2012
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www.borjournals.comBlueOceanResearchJournals25

Advance Solar Water Heating with Electricity Generation




Ajay Kumar, Department of Electronics Engineering, IIITDM, Chennai, India

Abstract
The given paper deals with design of Reverse Flat Plate Collector which increases the efficiency of solar
water heating system. Normal flat plate collector which is available in market has less efficiency due to
various losses. Major losses being convection losses from absorber plate to glass which is 20 to 30 %.
RFPC eliminates this loss and also we have used the same area for producing electricity using the solar
voltaic plate. Experimental result is found to be that RFPC is better in efficiency.
Keywords: Reverse flat plate collector (RFPC), solar photovoltaic plate, Heat losses, Efficiency.


1. Introduction
As the whole world is trying to reduce the
carbon content in the environment due to climate
change. Green energy is one of most sorts to fulfill
the energy need for world. Heating of water needs
lots of energy. As abundance amount solar heat is
available, this energy is utilized for heating water.
Flat plate collector is available in market but heat
losses in most commercial flat plate collector are
around 33 to 50%. Due to convective 22 to 30%, due
to radiative losses from absorber surfaces 5 to
7% and radiative losses from back surface 5 to 10
%. In order to improve the collector efficiency
convective and radiative losses from front and back
surface has to be eliminated. Convective losses in flat
plate collector are strong function of geometrical
parameter. Reverse flat plate collector reduces these
convective losses from front surface by reversing the
flat plate collector and designing the reflector is one
of major part of this project. Experimental result
has shown that RFPC is efficient than the flat.
3. Methodology
A solar ray from sun which is time dependent varies
from 45degree to 90 degree. This solar ray strikes
the reflector which in turn reflects it to the RFPC
(as shown in fig). All the rays from 0900 hours
to1800 hours will strike the RFPC. This ray will
transfer through glass, (glass allows light to pass
through but does not allow heat to come out of it).
This trapped heat heats the copper plate. Copper
plate which is painted in matt black to improve the
absorptivity of solar energy. Copper plate being good
conductor of heat absorbs the heat and transmits to
water. Above the glass wool is solar voltaic plate.
This plate converts the energy of light in to
electricity. This electricity has to be stored in battery.






2. Literature Survey
M.Madhusudan in his paper optimization of heat
losses in normal and reverse flat plate collector has
explained in detail about the various losses in
normal collector and ways to reduce these losses.
Later G.N.Tiwari, H.K.Sehgal has also published
paper on Reverse flat plate collector. But still
commercially it is not available.
G.N.Tiwari in his book SOLAR ENERGY on
reverse flat plate collector. (page-117) has also given
some light









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4. DESIG
4. 1 TW
DIMENSI
The figure
reflector an


Fig 4.1.1- T

4. 2 THR
The figure
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Fig 4.2.1- F



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GN STEPS
WO-DIMENS
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DESIG
FLECTOR
The product is
it is Anodized
light.
Anodized Al is
Reflected light
DESIGN DET
The characteri
shown in fig 4
The profile of
RFPC is placed
SKETCH O
DESIGN FE
RFPC is mad
copper plate, a
Glass is to trap
for transfer of h
Glass wool is u
bottom and sid
Water heats up
DESIGN DE
The characteris
15c.m
Water passes t
outlet.
This process k
heat up to 70 d
MANUFACT
ASSEMBLY F
manufacturing
parts the first
ctor for the sy
everse flat plat
the assembly o
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GN FEA

s made by Acry
mirror finish A
s used because
t strikes the RF
TAILS OF REF
istic dimension
.1.1.
the body is cur
d at the centre.
OF RFPC
EATURES
de of 4 main
acrylic sheet an
p the heat from
heat to water.
used to reduce
de.
p as it is expose
ETAILS OF
stic dimension
through the inl
keeps continui
degree.
TURING PR
FLOW
g process is ba
t half contains
ystem and the
te collector ass
f reflector of th
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ATURES
ylic sheet and
Al which reflec
e it resists corro
FPC
FLECTOR
n of the reflec
rved at certain
.
OF RFPC
n component
nd glass wool.
m sun and cop
the heat losse
ed to sun.
F RFPC
n of RFPC is 15
let and comes
ing making wa
ROCESS
asically divide
s the making
later half con
sembly.
he system:

26
OF
above
cts the
osion.
ctor is
angle.

glass,
pper is
s from
5c.m *
out of
ater to
es into
of the
nsist of
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For the as
assembly:



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ssembly of the
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m
e reverse flat
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plate collector

nces(JEC&AS

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r
6 FI
Side

Side
Top v

7.
COM
7.1 F
I=Inc
area
t = tr
=Ab
A= a
I*A*
I*A*
I*A*
Wher
water
Ql =





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INAL VIEW
and Top view
view
view
CAL
MPARISON
FLAT PLATE
cident radiation
(w/m^2)
ransmissivity o
bsorptivity of a
area of flat plat
*t = radiation tr
*t* = Radiatio
*t* = Qu + Ql
re Qu = usef
r
heat lost= top
ISSNNo:23

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W OF PROD
of the final pro
LCULATIO
N OF RFPC
E COLLECTO
n falling on a
of glass plate
absorber surfac
te collector
ransmitted by t
on absorbed by
l
ful energy/ he
heat loss+ bot
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DUCT
oduct during te
ON A
C WITH FP
OR
glass plate pe
ce
the glass plate
y absorber surfa
eat absorbed b
ttom heat loss

27
esting


AND
PC
er unit

face
by the
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BASIC B
Fig 7.1.1

CALCU
COFFIC
Let Tp = ab
Tg = glass
Ta= ambie
Top heat lo
R1=Resista
plate
R2= Resist
1/R1 = 1/R
Heat loss b
Convective
Convective
So, R1c =
Radiative h
So R1r = 1
Where h1r
Therefore R
Similarly R

CALCU
LOSS C
HEATL
Bottom he
Bottom c
negligible
Top heat lo
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BLOCK DIA
ULATION O
CIENT
bsorber surface
plate temp
ent temp
oss coefficient
ance between
tance between
R1r + 1/R1c
between absorb
e heat loss + R
e heat loss = h
1/ (h1c *A)
heat loss = h1r
1/ (h1r*A)
r = (**(Tp^4
R1 = 1/(h1r*A
R2 = 1/(h2r*A
ULATION O
COFFICIEN
OSS COFF
at lost coeffici
convective los

oss coefficient
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m
AGRAM O
OF TOP HE
e temp
= 1 /(R1+R2)
absorber surf
glass plate and
ber surface and
Radiative heat lo
1c*A*(Tp - Tg
*A*(Tp - Tg)
4 -Tg^4)) / (Tp
A + h1c*A)
+ h2c*A)
OF BOTTO
NT AND
FICIENT:
ent = 1 /(L/KA
ss and Radi
= 1/(R1 + R2)
AppliedScien

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OF FPC

EAT LOSS

face and glass
d atmosphere
d glass plate =
oss
g)
Tg)
OM HEAT
OVERALL
A)
ative loss is
)
nces(JEC&AS

___________

S
s
=
T
L
s
Botto
Over
Over
Now
Data
Abso
Abso
Glass
Inclin
Wind
Amb
Mean
Therm
Incid
Area
Tran
Abso
Solut

Calc
Step
Tg is
Tsky
h1r =
h2r =
h1c =
Ut =
Tg =

Step
Tg =
Tsky
h1r =
h2r =
h1c =
Ut =
Tg =
Step
Tg =
Tsky
h1r =
h2r =
h1c =
Ut =
Tg =
So T

Calc
Ub =
Ub=.

Tota
Total
Usefu
S)

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BlueOcea
om heat loss co
rall heat loss co
rall heat loss =
w Qu = (I * A *
which are assu
orber to cover d
orber plate emi
s cover emittan
nation of colle
d heat transfer
bient air temper
n absorber tem
rmal conductivi
dent radiation =
a = .15*.15 m^2
smissivity of g
orptivity of abs
tion:
culation of T
1:
s assumed to be
y = 30 6 = 24
= 7.809
= 5.6
= 2.9
6.36
= 58.95 c
2:
= 58.95 c
y = 30 6 = 24
= 8.26
= 7.42
= 2.99
6.835
= 57.45 c
3:
= 57.45 c
y = 30 6 = 24
= 8.23
= 7.43
= 2.98
6.81
= 57.45 c
op loss coeffic
culation of B
= K/L = .04/.01
.09
al heat loss coe
l heat loss = U
ful energy = 18
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oefficient = KA
oefficient = Ut
U (Tp Ta)
t * ) U (Tp
umed:
distance = .01
ittance = .95
nce = .88
ctor = 0 deg
coefficient = 1
rature Ta = 30
mperature = 100
ity of insulatio
= 1000 w/m^2
2
glass plate = .9
sorber surface =
Top loss coe
e 45 c
4 c
4 c
4 c
cient = Ut = .15
Bottom loss
1 = 4
efficient = Ut +
U (Tp Ta) = 17
8.225 17.01 =
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A/L
t + Ub = U
p Ta)
m
10 W/m^2 c
c
0 c
on = .04 w/m c


= .9
efficient
53
s coefficient
+ Ub = .243
7.01 w
= 1.215 w

28

t
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Efficiency

Calculatio
cell
Po = effici
= .07 * 100
= 1.575 w

7.2 R
COLLE

Fig 7.2.1

Calculatio
Resistance
R3 = 1/(h3
Resistance
L=thicknes
Top heat lo
Calculation
Ub = 1/ (R
R1r = 1 / h
R2r = 1 / h
Overall he
U = Ut + U

Total heat
= U (Tp
Ub = .0906
Ut = .09
U = Ut + U

Total heat
Useful ene
Efficiency

Total pow

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y of FPC = 1.2
on of output p
ency * I * A
00 * .15 * .15

REVERSE
CTOR
on of top heat
e between back
3r*A + h3c*A)
e offered by ins
ss of insulation
oss coefficient,
n of bottom he
R1r + R2r)
h1r*A
h2r*A
at transfer coef
Ub
t loss in revers
Ta)
675
Ub = .090675 +
t loss = U (Tp
ergy = 18.225
y of RFPC = 5.6
wer generated =
Computers&
ber2012
___________
m
15/18.225 = 6.
power of solar
FLAT
loss coefficien
k surface and at

sulation layer =
n layer
, Ut = 1 / (R3 +
at loss coeffici
fficient
se flat plate co
+ .09 = .18
Ta) = 12.6
12.6 = 5.625
625/18.225 = 3
= 7.2 + 5.625 =
AppliedScien

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7%
r photo voltaic
PLATE

nt
tmosphere,
= L/KA
+ (L/KA))
ient
ollector

30.86%
= 13.12 w
nces(JEC&AS

___________

c
E
Com
Flate
Total
flat p
= 5.6
= 7.2

8 CO
Effic
opera
conv
majo
profi
back
with
impro
manu

9. R
[1]
Tran
colle
[2]
M.M
eshan
and
perfo
[3] G
[4] M
,vol
Reve
and p






















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mbibation of So
e plate Collecto
l Output powe
plate collector+
625 + 1.575
2 W
ONCLUSIO
ciency of flat p
ating in the
vective losses a
or factors as R
itable in long w
k losses this c
glass wool.
oved to impro
ufacturing diffi
REFERENC
M.Madhusuda
sient performa
ector with selec
Madhusudan,G.N
n (1980) optim
reverse flat
ormance
G.N Tiwari So
M.Madhusan ,G
2 ,Optimizat
erse flat plate
performance
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olar Photo Vola
or
er = Useful en
+ Output power
ONS
plate collector
reverse flat c
are almost zero
RFPC will be
way. There is c
can be reduced
Design of re
ove the effici
ficulty.
CES
an,G.N.Tiwari,
ance of norma
ctive observer s
N.Tiwari,H.K.
mization of he
t plate colle
olar energy Na
G N Tiwari ,en
tion of heat
collector con
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atic Cell with r
nergy of the r
r of SPV
can be increas
configuration
o. Cost is one
e costly but c
chance of incr
d by reflected
eflector can al
iency but may
,H.K.Sehgal (
al/ reverse flat
surface
Sehgal,D.S.Ha
eat losses in n
ector analysis
arosa
nergy conv. &
loss in norma
nfiguration :an

29
revarse
reverse
sed by
where
of the
can be
reasing
d plate
lso be
y face
(1982)
t plate
arishik
normal
s and
Mgmt
al and
nalysis