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Problems on Gas Cycles:

1. An automobile engine consumes fuel at a rate of 28 L/h and delivers 60


kW of poer to the heels. !f the fuel has a heating value of ""#000 k$/kg
and a densit% of 0.8 g/cm&# determine the efficienc% of this engine.
Solution:

2. 'onsider an ideal (ricsson c%cle ith air as the orking fluid e)ecuted in
kg/h 22." L/h* kg/L*+28 +0.8 * , + m
fuel fuel

kW 2-&.-8 k$/h .8/#600 k$/kg* 00 kg/h*+""#0 +22." u m 0
coal coal A

A
net
Q
W
e
21..1 or 0.21.
2-&.-8kW
60kW

a stead%2flo s%stem.
Air is at 2-3' and 120
k4a at the beginning of the isothermal compression process# during hich
1/0 k$/kg of heat is re5ected. 6eat transfer to air occurs at 1200 7.
8etermine +a* the ma)imum pressure in the c%cle# +b* the net ork output
per unit mass of air# and +c* the thermal efficienc% of the c%cle.
9olution:
a*
;hus#
kPa P
kPa
P
K kg kJ K kg kJ
T
T
R
T
T
c s s
K kg kJ
K
kg kJ
T
q
s s
p
2 . 68/
120
ln * / 28- . 0 + / / . 0
ln ln
/ / . 0
&00
/ 1/0
"
"
&
"
&
"
& "
1
" &
& "




kg kJ kg kJ
K
K
Q
T
T
Q
T
T
Q
Q
b
R A
A
R
/ 600 * / 1/0 +
&00
1200
.*
&
1
1
&

kg kJ Q Q w
R A net
/ "/0 1/0 600
&. <ne kilogram of air as an ideal gas e)ecutes a 'arnot poer c%cle having
a thermal efficienc% of 601. ;he heat transfer to the air during the
isothermal e)pansion is "07$. At the end of the isothermal e)pansion# the
pressure is /.6 bar and the volume is 0.&m
&
.8etermine
+a* ;he ma)imum and minimum temperatures for the c%cle# in 7.
+b* ;he pressure and volume at the beginning of the isothermal e)pansion in
bar and m
&
# respectivel%.
+c* ;he ork and heat transfer for each of the four processes in 7$.
9olution:
=or air e>0.6
?.* =or process 122:
1 0 . -/
1200
&00
1 1 .*
1
&

K
K
T
T
e c
c
h c
T T T
K e T e T T
h
T
Tc
e
K T
mR
V P
T a



" &
2
2
2 2
2
16 . 2&" * 1 + * 1 + 1
" . /8/ .*
bar
V
V p
p
V p V p
Then
mRT V p
mRT V p T T
m V
mRT
W
v
v
v
v
mRT dV
V
mRT
pdV W
Q W
kJ Q
h
h
h
11. . -
2&6 . 0
@ * & . 0 *+ 6 . / +
#
A
2&6 . 0 2&81 . 0 ln
ln
"0
1
2 2
1
2 2 1 1
2 2
1 1 2 1
&
1
2 1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1



'.* =or process 22&
=or process &2"
=or process "21
0
& 2

Q
* +
& 2 & 2
u u m W

kJ kg W - . 2/6 * 0 . 16- - . "2& + 1


& 2

" & " &


Q W
kJ W kkJ Q kJ kJ Q
T
Q
T
Q
h c
16 # 16 16 * "0 + " . 0 B B
B B B B
" & " & " &
2 1 " &



". 'onsider an ideal 9tirling c%cle using air as the orking fluid. Air is at
&/0 7 and 200 k4a at the beginning of the isothermal compression process#
and heat is supplied to air from a source at 1800 7 in the amount of .00
k$/kg. 8etermine +a* the ma)imum pressure in the c%cle and +b* the net
ork output per unit mass of air.
9olution:
;he properties of air at room temperature are
R > 0.28- k$/kg.7
cp > 1.00/ k$/kg.7
cv > 0.-18 k$/kgC7
k > 1."
a.*

0
1 "

Q
kJ u u m u u m W - . 2/6 * + * +
2 & 1 " 1 "

kPa
K
K
kPa
T
T
v
v
P
T
T
v
v
P P
T
v P
T
v P
v
v
v
v
K kg kJ K kg kJ
v
v
R
T
T
c S
K kg kJ
K
kg kJ
T
Q
S
v
/8-& *
&/0
1800
*+ -10 . / *+ 200 +
-10 . / ln * / 28- . 0 + / / . 0 ln ln
/ / . 0
1800
/ .00
&
1
&
2
&
&
1
&
&
& 1
1
1 1
&
& &
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1

+


b.*
/. 'onsider
a simple ideal ?ra%ton c%cle ith air as the orking fluid. ;he pressure ratio
of the c%cle is 6# and the minimum and ma)imum temperatures are &00 and
1&00 7# respectivel%. Do the pressure ratio is doubled ithout changing
the minimum and ma)imum temperatures in the c%cle. 8etermine the
change in +a* the net ork output per unit mass and +b* the thermal
efficienc% of the c%cle as a result of this modification. Assume variable
specific heats for air.
9olution:
=or > 6
kg kJ kg kJ
K
K
q
T
T
eq w
A A net
/ -2/ * / .00 +
1800
&/0
1 1
1
&

,
_


1
]
1


kg kJ h K T / 1. . &00 &00
1 1

&86 . 1
1

r
P
kg kJ h K T / .- . 1&./ 1&00
& &

. . &&0
&

r
P
p
r
=or > 12
;hus#
6. An old
gas turbine
has an
efficienc% of
21 percent
and
develops a
poer
output of
6000 kW.
8etermine
the fuel
1 ./ . &-
/- . 8."
"6 . &&.
/ "6 . &&. 11 . /// /- . 8."
/ 11 . /// 1. . &00 & . 8//
/ /- . 8." "0 . /01 .- . 1&./
/ & . 8// 1/ . // * . . &&0 +
6
1
/ "0 . /01 &16 . 8 * &86 . 1 *+ 6 +
1 "
2 &
"
&
"
2
1
2
2
& "
1




,
_



A
net
R A net
R
A
r r
r r
Q
w
e
kg kJ q q w
kg kJ h h q
kg kJ h h q
kg kJ h P
P
P
P
kg kJ h P
P
P
P
p
r
1 / . "8
/ &- . -8/
/ .6 . &80
/ .6 . &80 "1 . "0" &- . -8/
/ "1 . "0" 1. . &00 6 . -0"
/ &- . -8/ 60 . 610 .- . 1&./
/ 6 . -0" /8 . 2- * . . &&0 +
12
1
/ 6 . 610 6& . 16 * &86 . 1 *+ 12 +
1 "
2 &
"
&
"
2
1
2
2
& "
1






kg kJ
kg kJ
q
w
e
kg kJ q q w
kg kJ h h q
kg kJ h h q
kg kJ h P
P
P
P
kg kJ h P
P
P
P
A
net
R A net
R
A
r r
r r
* 1+ 6 . 10 1 . . &- 1 / . "8
* + / / . "1 "6 . &&. .6 . &80
increase e
increase kg kJ w
net


consumption rate of this gas turbine# in L/min# if the fuel has a heating value
of "2#000 k$/kg and a densit% of 0.8 g/cm&.
9olution:
-. 'onsider to 'arnot heat engines operating in series. ;he first engine
receives heat from the reservoir at 1800 7 and re5ects the aste heat to
another reservoir at temperature T. ;he second engine receives this energ%
re5ected b% the first one# converts some of it to ork# and re5ects the rest to a
reservoir at &00 7. !f the thermal efficiencies of both engines are the same#
determine the temperature T.
9olution:
s L
L kg
s kg m
V
s kg
kg kJ
s kJ
m
s kJ
s kJ
e
W
Q
net
A
/ 8/0 . 0
/ 8 . 0
/ 680& . 0
/ 680& . 0
/ 000 # "2
/ /-0 # 28
/ /-0 # 28
21 . 0
/ 6000


K K K T
T T T
ThT T
T
T
Th
T
T
T
e
Th
T
e
h
-&/ * &00 *+ 1800 +
1 1
1
1
2
2
1




E
8. Air is used as the orking fluid in a simple ideal ?ra%ton c%cle that has a
pressure ratio of 12# a compressor inlet temperature of &00 7# and a turbine
inlet temperature of 1000 7. 8etermine the reFuired mass flo rate of air for
a net poer output of -0 GW# assuming both the compressor and the turbine
have an isentropic efficienc% of +a* 100 percent and +b* 8/ percent. Assume
constant specific heats at room temperature.
9olution:
..An air2standard c%cle ith variable specific heats is e)ecuted in a closed
s%stem and is composed of the folloing four processes:
122 v c!nstant heat addition from 1".- psia and
803= in the amount of &00 ?tu/lbm
22& P c!nstant heat addition to &200 H
&2" !sentropic e)pansion to 1".- psia
"21 P c!nstant heat re5ection to initial state
+a* 9ho the c%cle on P"v and T2s diagrams.
+b* 'alculate the total heat input per unit mass.
+c* 8etermine the thermal efficienc%
9olution:
10. ;he compression ratio of an ideal dual c%cle is 1". Air is at 100 k4a and
&00 7 at the beginning of the compression process and at 2200 7 at the end
of the heat2addition process. 6eat transfer to air takes place partl% at
constant volume and partl% at constant pressure# and it amounts to 1/20."
k$/kg. Assuming variable specific heats for air# determine +a* the fraction of
heat transferred at constant volume and +b* the thermal efficienc% of the
c%cle.
9olution: