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Alessandro Petrolini

October 12, 2011

Dipartimento di Fisica dellUniversit` di Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova - ITALY


a
Alessandro.Petrolini@ge.infn.it

Appunti Integrativi, Complementi e Problemi


su alcuni argomenti dei corsi di:

Fisica Generale
Avvertenze Importanti
Questi appunti non vogliono essere, non possono essere e non sono un trattato su argomenti di Fisica Generale, argomento
sul quale esistono molti ottimi testi, il cui uso ` indispensabile per uno studio approfondito e completo.
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Questi appunti sono solo un sommario sintetico e una referenza per alcuni degli argomenti trattati nel Corso di Fisica
Generale, da usarsi come integrazione alle lezioni e ai testi tradizionali di Fisica Generale e dopo lo studio delle lezioni e dei
testi tradizionali. Queste note sono solo un semplice sommario/traccia di alcuni degli argomenti svolti durante il corso, con
laggiunta di alcuni argomenti non svolti. Non hanno pretesa di completezza, non sostituiscono in nessun modo la frequenza
alle lezioni (che ` indispensabile), non sostituiscono in nessun modo lo studio dei testi raccomandati (che ` indispensabile),
e
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e non esonerano in nessun modo dallo svolgimento di un adeguato numero di problemi.
Questi appunti, che nascono durante la preparazione delle lezioni, sono soggetti a frequenti e continui aggiornamenti, e
non hanno certamente la completezza n` lorganicit` che deve avere un libro sullargomento.
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In ogni caso lapprendimento e la comprensione degli argomenti trattati nel corso richiede necessariamente numerosi e
vasti approfondimenti e la consultazione di testi, come quelli riportati nella bibliograa di queste note, ` assolutamente
e
indispensabile.
Queste note non sono di pubblico dominio ma sono strettamente riservate agli studenti dei Corsi di Fisica Generale del
Corso di Studi in Fisica dellUniversit` degli Studi di Genova.
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Queste note non coprono tutto il programma di insegnamento, per il quale si rimanda agli appropriati documenti uciali.
Lo scopo principale ` fornire un sommario/traccia e un punto di riferimento per alcuni degli argomenti svolti durante
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il corso, principalmente quelli che, a giudizio del sottoscritto, possono risultare pi` ostici e quelli che sono, a giudizio del
u
sottoscritto, meno facilmente reperibili nei testi nella forma adottata durante il corso. Un secondo scopo ` quello di fornire
e
una referenza per i dettagli di alcuni degli argomenti svolti durante il corso, quali, ad esempio, lo svolgimento dei calcoli. Un
terzo scopo specico ` quello di fornire un punto di riferimento su tutti gli aspetti formali degli argomenti del programma,
e
che spesso, se trattati in modo non adeguato, assorbono enormi energie allo studente, distogliendolo dalla comprensione
e approfondimento degli aspetti sici degli argomenti, che sono il vero oggetto di studio della Fisica Generale. Il fornire
allo studente un punto di riferimento sintetico ma completo sul formalismo che funge da linguaggio per la Fisica Generale
dovrebbe aiutare lo studente a concentrarsi sulla Fisica.
Queste note sono quasi completamente prive di tutte le parti descrittive, fenomenologiche e sperimentali, per le quali si
rimanda completamente ai testi consigliati.
Queste note sono una versione altamente preliminare. Sono certamente presenti molti errori, sperabilmente non errori
concettuali. Nel caso siano rilevati errori, o in caso di dubbi, il lettore ` invitato a segnalarlo.
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Il materiale esposto in queste note non ` necessariamente esposto nel modo in cui ` stato presentato a Lezione.
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Queste sono semplicemente un insieme di note che ho preparato per mio uso personale e che rendo disponibili agli
studenti come una risorsa aggiuntiva per lo studio. Sono solo un complemento alle lezioni e allo studio dei testi di Fisica
Generale.
Questa versione preliminare degli appunti ` scritta in parte in italiano e in parte in inglese.
e
Alessandro Petrolini

VERSION: October 12, 2011

VERY PRELIMINARY and INCOMPLETE DRAFT

RINGRAZIAMENTI
Si ringraziano i molti studenti che hanno fornito numerose segnalazioni di errori da correggere e commenti vari.

October 12, 2011

Introduzione

Consigli agli studenti e... ai docenti per risolvere un problema

L'imporlanza delle ipotesi


Lo studente deve essere condotto per mana dal docente, il quale deve preoccuparsi
di presentare il testo del problema con la massima chiarezza, con completezza di
dati e senza mai lasciare dubbi sulla natura del processo esaminato, sulle ipotesi
necessarie per poterlo trattare, su che cosa si pub trascurare e che cosa invece si da
per scontato. E molto importante l' attenta lettura del testa da parte della studente,
che deve saper pesare attentamente qualunque sfumatura (aggettivi e avverbi
compresi) .
Molto spesso nel testa di un problema si parla di molle 0 di fili precisando raramente che s'intendono molle 0 fili ideali; si parla di "gas" senza precisare se reali
o perfetti; si parla di pendoli senza chiarire se semplici 0 composti e neppure se
stanno oscillando ad angoli piccoli 0 meno; nello studio di un mota si da troppo
frequentemente per scontato che Ie costanti iniziali del mota siano nulle, corne altrettanto spesso non si ritiene necessario precisare se gli attriti sono trascurabili 0
meno, se Ie carrucole sono lisce e prive di massa, 0 se la resistenza dell' aria debba
essere tenuta in considerazione; in altri casi ancora, si parla genericamente di mota
senza precisare se il piano in cui avviene e orizzontale 0 verticale, oppure si pretende che 10 studente calcoli il momenta d'inerzia di un'asta senza aver precisato
se e omogenea e uniforme.

La soluzione letterale
Lo studente tende generalmente a inserire subito nelle leggi fisiche i valori numerici dati dal testa del problema e in tal modo perde di vista il significato del risultato ottenuto: non si accorge se una soluzione perde significato all' annullarsi di un
denominatore per certi valori dei parametri e neppure vede se un discriminante diventa negativo 0 nullo. L'inserimento immediato dei dati numerici impedisce di
svolgere la discussione sui limiti di validita delle soluzioni trovate.

Introduzione

E percio indispensabile che gli studenti si abituino aHo svolgimento solo letterale
del problema e a sostituire i valori numerici solo nell'ultima formula ricavata;
questa modo di procedere consente anche il controllo dimensionale e quindi di
scoprire la presenza di eventuali errori.

I dati ridondanti...
Talvolta in un problema vengono forniti dati numerici del tutto inutili e 10 studente
entra in crisi perche e convinto di doverli utilizzare a tutti i costi e non ci riesce.
In alcuni casi si tratta di una trappola tesa dal docente per verificare illivello di sicurezza dello studente ed e una scelta che personalmente non condivido, poiche e
ben raro che uno studente si trovi in una prova scritta nelle migliori condizioni per
individuare trabocchetti.
In altri casi, purtroppo molto frequenti, invece, l'insegnante propone il problema
senza prima provare a risolverlo e nel dubbio ha pensato bene di fornire qualche
dato in piu, rna anche questa non mi trova d'accordo .

...e queIii mancanti


In molti casi la soluzione del problema e indipendente da certe grandezze che 10
studente ritiene invece indispensabili: e il caso della massa di due oggetti identici
che entrano in collisione e la cui velocita dopo l'urto e del tutto indipendente dalla
massa.

Effetti dannosi della premura


Un difetto comune alIa maggior parte degli studenti e di pretendere di trovare subito una formula che fornisca la grandezza incognita, senza tentare di costruire
percorsi piu 0 meno elaborati che conducano gradualmente aHa soluzione.
Qui e fondamentale la funzione del docente che deve dare una traccia, mediante 10
svolgimento di molti esempi, di quali sono i metodi da seguire caso per caso.

II riconoscimento
Un altro ostacolo aHe capacita di svolgere un problema e la generale incapacita
degli studenti di riconoscere una legge fisica se appena viene presentata in modo
leggermente diverso da queHo tradizionalmente esposto nei libri di testo; ho per

Consigli agli studenti e... ai docenti per risolvere un problema

esempio sperimentato che se si da una legge di moto del tipo v

=-E , chiedendo

Ie costanti iniziali del mota e il tipo di moto, solo una modesta percentuale di studenti e in grado di riconoscere un mota uniformemente accelerato e di capire che
tali costanti sono nulle.
AHo stesso modo, se si da una relazione del tipo a + 2x = 0 (precisando il sistema
di unita di misura usato) eben difficile che 10 studente si accorga che si tratta, nelIe stesse unita di misura di un mota armonico con pulsazione

OJ

= h.

Analogie pericolose
Certe tecniche di soluzione di un problema, una volta apprese in un capitolo della
fisica hanno validita generale: cio accade per esempio, per il calcolo delle componenti di un vettore 0 per 10 studio della legge del moto. Spesso pero 10 studente e
tentato di applicare certe tecniche anche quando non e possibile: un esempio tipico
e quello del doppio piano inclinato nel quale due blocchi sono collegati da un filo
ideale; dati gli angoli e i coefficienti di attrito dei piani e Ie masse dei blocchi, non
si puo quasi mai stabilire a priori quale dei due blocchi trascinera l' altro e alIo studente non resta che scegliere a caso un verso di moto, scrivere Ie equazioni di movimento utilizzando il diagramma di corpo libero e calcolarsi l'accelerazione.
Le cose vanno bene se l' accelerazione risulta positiva, mentre sono guai se essa risulta negativa, poiche la tentazione dello studente e in genere di concludere incautamente che non sara il blocco prescelto a trascinare l' altro, rna esattamente il contrario, limitandosi a cambiare verso al mota rna convinto che l' accelerazione
calcolata sia in modulo esatta; in realta, COS! operando, 10 studente non si rende
conto che e necessario riscrivere interamente Ie equazioni di moto, perche non tutti i segni cambiano invertendo la direzione di mota scelta in un primo tempo:
cambieranno verso e segno la forza di attrito e l' accelerazione, rna non Ie componenti del peso lungo i piani e Ie tensioni. Ben diversa e invece la situazione nel caso dei circuiti elettrici, dove, applicando i principi di Kirchhoff e attribuendo a caso i versi delle correnti, se qualcuna di esse risulta negativa basta invertirne il
verso, rna con 10 stesso valore assoluto.

La concretezza del problema


Per interessare 10 studente a un problema di fisica e opportuno non ricorrere troppo spesso a problemi Ie cui soluzioni non offrono alcuna possibilita di riscontro
numerico con fatti osservabili nella vita quotidiana, rna rifarsi invece a problemi
che possano interessare I' allievo facendogli capire come i risultati della corretta
applicazione delle leggi fisiche siano in accordo con Ie nostre osservazioni reali di
un fenomeno fisico.

Introduzione

Per esempio, in generale gli studenti non hanno la minima idea dei valori di accelerazione delle auto; la maggior parte di essi econvinta che i potenti motori di una
macchina di Formula 1 possano fornire accelerazioni pari a 10-20 volte g.
Invece di limitarci alIa banale applicazione delle equazioni di Galileo suI mota uniformemente accelerato, perche allora non provare a far vedere agli allievi che un'auto
che si porta da 0 a 100 kmIh in 10 s, nell'ipotesi di accelerazione costante, ha
un'accelerazione di 2,8 rn/s2 e che la stessa auto percorre 1 Ian da fermo in 26,8 s?
Allo stesso modo, oltre a far calcolare agli allievi la potenza del motore di una
pompa per espellere l' acqua da una miniera, perche non provare a far loro calcolare anche la minima potenza che deve avere il motore di una fuoristrada per superare una pendenza costante con una data velocita costante? In tal modo possono rendersi conto che i risultati del calcolo teorico coincidono con quelli reali.
E ancora, ~Itre a far calcolare la potenza dissipata da un circuito elettrico puramente teorico, perche non convincere gli studenti, con Ie leggi di Ohm, Kirchhoff
e Joule alIa mano, che con un contatore domestico da 2,5 kW non possiamo far
funzionare contemporaneamente 10 scaldabagno elettrico, il forno a microonde, la
lavatrice, la lavastoviglie e il termoventilatore?
Oppure potremmo facilmente dar loro una chiara idea delle dispersioni
nell'isolamento termico di un boiler elettrico facendo calcolare quanta tempo in
teoria e necessario per riscaldare 80 I d' acqua da 20 a 60C con una potenza di 2
kW e facendo notare la sensibile differenza tra il tempo calcolato (6700 s) e quello
reale (almeno 9000 s).
Infine, un suggerimento utile per gli studenti nella soluzione degli esercizi e di introdurre incognite "ausiliarie", grandezze di cui non si conosce il valore rna che,
se il procedimento seguito ecorretto, aHa fine scompaiono semplificandosi.

Part Q

Appendixes

735

A
Mathematics

737

VECTOR IDENTITIES4
Notation: f, g, are scalars; A, B, etc., are vectors; T is a tensor; I is the unit
dyad.
(1) A B C = A B C = B C A = B C A = C A B = C A B
(2) A (B C) = (C B) A = (A C)B (A B)C
(3) A (B C) + B (C A) + C (A B) = 0
(4) (A B) (C D) = (A C)(B D) (A D)(B C)
(5) (A B) (C D) = (A B D)C (A B C)D
(6) (f g) = (gf ) = f g + gf
(7) (f A) = f A + A f
(8) (f A) = f A + f A
(9) (A B) = B A A B
(10) (A B) = A( B) B( A) + (B )A (A )B
(11) A ( B) = (B) A (A )B
(12) (A B) = A ( B) + B ( A) + (A )B + (B )A
(13) 2 f = f
(14) 2 A = ( A) A
(15) f = 0
(16) A = 0
If e1 , e2 , e3 are orthonormal unit vectors, a second-order tensor T can be
written in the dyadic form
(17) T =

i,j

Tij ei ej

In cartesian coordinates the divergence of a tensor is a vector with components


(18) (T )i =

(Tji /xj )

[This denition is required for consistency with Eq. (29)]. In general


(19) (AB) = ( A)B + (A )B
(20) (f T ) = f T +f T

B
International System of Units

739

Relationships of the
SI derived units with special names and symbols
and the SI base units
SI BASE UNITS

Derived units
without special
names

SI DERIVED UNITS WITH SPECIAL NAMES AND SYMBOLS


Solid lines indicate multiplication, broken lines indicate division

kilogram

kg
MASS

newton
m3
VOLUME

meter

m
LENGTH

second

m2
AREA

TIME

mole

m/s
VELOCITY

mol

AMOUNT OF
SUBSTANCE

ampere

ELECTRIC CURRENT

kelvin

THERMODYNAMIC
TEMPERATURE

candela

cd

LUMINOUS INTENSITY

m/s2
ACCELERATION

(kgm/s2)

FORCE

Pa

(N/m2)

PRESSURE,
STRESS

(Nm)

joule

pascal

watt

(J/s)

gray

Gy

(J/kg)

sievert

ABSORBED
DOSE
becquerel

ENERGY, WORK,
QUANTITY OF HEAT

POWER,
HEAT FLOW RATE
weber

henry

hertz

(OF A RADIONUCLIDE)

katal

(mol/s)

kat

(Vs)

FREQUENCY

(Wb/A)

(Wb/m2)

tesla

MAGNETIC
FLUX

(As)

coulomb

(1/s)

Hz

ACTIVITY

INDUCTANCE

MAGNETIC
FLUX DENSITY

Wb

CATALYTIC
ACTIVITY

Bq

(J/kg)

DOSE
EQUIVALENT

(1/s)

Sv

volt

(W/A)

ELECTRIC
CHARGE

POTENTIAL,
ELECTROMOTIVE
FORCE

(K)
degree
Celsius C

CELSIUS
TEMPERATURE
t/C = T/K 273.15
(lm/m2)

lux

(C/V)

farad

(V/A)

ohm

(1/W)

siemens

CAPACITANCE

RESISTANCE

CONDUCTANCE

(cdsr)

lumen

lx

lm

ILLUMINANCE

LUMINOUS
FLUX

steradian

2 2
sr (m /m = 1)

SOLID ANGLE

radian

rad

(m/m = 1)

PLANE ANGLE

The diagram above shows graphically how the 22 SI derived units with special names and symbols are related to the seven SI base units. In
the rst column, the symbols of the SI base units are shown in rectangles, with the name of the unit shown toward the upper left of the
rectangle and the name of the associated base quantity shown in italic type below the rectangle. In the third column the symbols of the
derived units with special names are shown in solid circles, with the name of the unit shown toward the upper left of the circle, the name of the
associated derived quantity shown in italic type below the circle, and an expression for the derived unit in terms of other units shown toward
the upper right in parenthesis. In the second column are shown those derived units without special names [the cubic meter (m3) excepted] that
are used in the derivation of the derived units with special names. In the diagram, the derivation of each derived unit is indicated by arrows that
bring in units in the numerator (solid lines) and units in the denominator (broken lines), as appropriate.
Two SI derived units with special names and symbols, the radian, symbol rad, and the steradian, symbol sr (bottom of the third column of the
diagram), are shown without any connections to SI base units either direct or through other SI derived units. The reason is that in the SI, the
quantities plane angle and solid angle are dened in such a way that their dimension is one they are so-called dimensionless quantities. This
means that the coherent SI derived unit for each of these quantities is the number one, symbol 1. That is, because plane angle is expressed as
the ratio of two lengths, and solid angle as the ratio of an area and the square of a length, the SI derived unit for plane angle is m/m = 1, and the
SI derived unit for solid angle is m2/m2 = 1. To aid understanding, the special name radian with symbol rad is given to the number 1 for use in
expressing values of plane angle; and the special name steradian with symbol sr is given to the number 1 for use in expressing values of solid
angle. However, one has the option of using or not using these names and symbols in expressions for other SI derived units, as is convenient.
The unit degree Celsius, which is equal to the unit kelvin, is used to express Celsius temperature t. In this case,degree Celsius is a special
name used in place of kelvin. This equality is indicated in the diagram by the symbol K in parenthesis toward the upper right of the C circle.
The equation below CELSIUS TEMPERATURE relates Celsius temperature t to thermodynamic temperature T. An interval or difference of Celsius
temperature can, however, be expressed in kelvins as well as in degrees Celsius.

94

2 SI units

2.1 SI base units


Formal denitions of all SI base units are approved by the CGPM. The rst such
denition was approved in 1889 and the most recent in 1983. These denitions
are modied from time to time as techniques of measurement evolve and allow
more accurate realizations of the base units.

2.1.1 Denitions
Current denitions of the base units, as taken from the Comptes Rendus (CR) of
the corresponding CGPM, are here shown indented and in a heavy font. Related
decisions which clarify these denitions but are not formally part of them, as
taken from the Comptes Rendus (CR) of the corresponding CGPM or the ProcsVerbaux (PV) of the CIPM, are also shown indented in a font of normal weight.
The linking text provides historical notes and explanations but is not part of the
denitions themselves.
2.1.1.1 Unit of length (metre)
The 1889 denition of the metre, based upon the international prototype of
platinum-iridium, was replaced by the 11th CGPM (1960) using a denition
based upon a wavelength of krypton 86 radiation. This denition was adopted
in order to improve the accuracy with which the metre may be realized. In
turn, this was replaced in 1983 by the 17th CGPM (Resolution 1; CR, 97 and
Metrologia, 1984, 20, 25):
The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a
time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.

Note that the effect of this denition is to x the speed of light at exactly
299 792 458 m s1. The original international prototype of the metre, which was
sanctioned by the 1st CGPM in 1889 (CR, 34-38), is still kept at the BIPM under
conditions specied in 1889.

SI Units 95

2.1.1.2 Unit of mass (kilogram)


The international prototype of the kilogram, made of platinum-iridium, is kept at
the BIPM under conditions specied by the 1st CGPM in 1889 (CR, 34-38) when
it sanctioned the prototype and declared:
This prototype shall henceforth be considered to be the unit of mass.

The 3rd CGPM (1901; CR, 70), in a declaration intended to end the ambiguity in
popular usage concerning the word weight conrmed that:
The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international
prototype of the kilogram.

The complete declaration appears on page 118.


2.1.1.3 Unit of time (second)
The unit of time, the second, was at one time considered to be the fraction
1/86 400 of the mean solar day. The exact denition of mean solar day was
based on astronomical theories. However, measurement showed that irregularities
in the rotation of the Earth could not be taken into account by the theory and have
the effect that this denition does not allow the required accuracy to be achieved.
In order to dene the unit of time more precisely, the 11th CGPM (1960; CR, 86)
adopted a denition given by the International Astronomical Union which was
based on the tropical year. Experimental work, however, had already shown that
an atomic standard of time interval, based on a transition between two energy
levels of an atom or a molecule, could be realized and reproduced much more
precisely. Considering that a very precise denition of the unit of time is
indispensable for the International System, the 13th CGPM (1967-1968,
Resolution 1; CR, 103 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 43) replaced the denition of the
second by the following:
The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation
corresponding to the transition between the two hyperne levels of the
ground state of the caesium 133 atom.

At its 1997 meeting, the CIPM afrmed that:


This denition refers to a caesium atom in its ground state at a temperature
of 0 K.

2.1.1.4 Unit of electric current (ampere)


Electric units, called international, for current and resistance were introduced
by the International Electrical Congress held in Chicago in 1893, and denitions
of the international ampere and the international ohm were conrmed by the
International Conference of London in 1908.

96 SI Units

Although it was already obvious on the occasion of the 8th CGPM (1933) that
there was a unanimous desire to replace those international units by
so-called absolute units, the ofcial decision to abolish them was only taken
by the 9th CGPM (1948), which adopted the ampere for the unit of electric
current, following a denition proposed by the CIPM (1946, Resolution 2; PV,
20, 129-137):
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight
parallel conductors of innite length, of negligible circular cross-section,
and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 107 newton per metre of length.

The expression MKS unit of force which occurs in the original text of 1946 has
been replaced here by newton, a name adopted for this unit by the 9th CGPM
(1948, Resolution 7; CR, 70). Note that the effect of this denition is to x the
permeability of vacuum at exactly 4 107 H m1.
2.1.1.5 Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin)
The denition of the unit of thermodynamic temperature was given in substance
by the 10th CGPM (1954, Resolution 3; CR, 79) which selected the triple point
of water as the fundamental xed point and assigned to it the temperature
273.16 K so dening the unit. The 13th CGPM (1967-1968, Resolution 3; CR,
104 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 43) adopted the name kelvin (symbol K) instead of
degree Kelvin (symbol K) and dened the unit of thermodynamic temperature
as follows (Resolution 4; CR, 104 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 43):
The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of
the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.

Because of the way temperature scales used to be defined, it remains common


practice to express a thermodynamic temperature, symbol T, in terms of its
difference from the reference temperature T0 = 273.15 K, the ice point. This
temperature difference is called the Celsius temperature, symbol t, and is defined
by the quantity equation
t = T T0.
The unit of Celsius temperature is the degree Celsius, symbol C, which is
by definition equal in magnitude to the kelvin. A difference or interval of
temperature may be expressed in kelvins or in degrees Celsius (13th CGPM,
1967-1968, Resolution 3, mentioned above). The numerical value of a Celsius
temperature t expressed in degrees Celsius is given by
t/C = T/K 273.15.
The kelvin and the degree Celsius are also the units of the International
Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) adopted by the CIPM in 1989 in its
Recommendation 5 (CI-1989) (PV, 57, 115 and Metrologia, 1990, 27, 13).

SI Units 97

2.1.1.6 Unit of amount of substance (mole)


Following the discovery of the fundamental laws of chemistry, units called, for
example, gram-atom and gram-molecule, were used to specify amounts of
chemical elements or compounds. These units had a direct connection with
atomic weights and molecular weights, which are in fact relative masses.
Atomic weights were originally referred to the atomic weight of oxygen, by
general agreement taken as 16. But whereas physicists separated isotopes in the
mass spectrometer and attributed the value 16 to one of the isotopes of oxygen,
chemists attributed that same value to the (slightly variable) mixture of isotopes
16, 17 and 18, which was for them the naturally occurring element oxygen.
Finally, an agreement between the International Union of Pure and Applied
Physics (IUPAP) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) brought this duality to an end in 1959/60. Physicists and chemists
have ever since agreed to assign the value 12, exactly, to the atomic weight,
correctly the relative atomic mass, of the isotope of carbon with mass number
12 (carbon 12, 12C). The unified scale thus obtained gives values of relative
atomic mass.
It remained to define the unit of amount of substance by fixing the corresponding
mass of carbon 12; by international agreement this mass was fixed at 0.012 kg,
and the unit of the quantity amount of substance was given the name mole
(symbol mol).
Following proposals by the IUPAP, the IUPAC and the ISO, the CIPM gave a
denition of the mole in 1967 and conrmed it in 1969: this was adopted by the
14th CGPM (1971, Resolution 3; CR, 78 and Metrologia, 1972, 8, 36):
1.

The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many


elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12; its
symbol is mol.

2.

When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specied and may
be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specied groups of
such particles.

In 1980 the CIPM approved the report of the CCU (1980) which specied that
In this denition, it is understood that unbound atoms of carbon 12, at rest
and in their ground state, are referred to.

2.1.1.7 Unit of luminous intensity (candela)


The units of luminous intensity based on ame or incandescent lament standards
in use in various countries before 1948 were replaced initially by the new
candle based on the luminance of a Planckian radiator (a black body) at the
temperature of freezing platinum. This modication had been prepared by the
International Commission on Illumination (CIE) and by the CIPM before 1937
and the decision was promulgated by the CIPM in 1946. It was then ratied in
1948 by the 9th CGPM which adopted a new international name for this unit,

When the denition


of the mole is quoted,
it is conventional
also to include this
remark.

98 SI Units

the candela (symbol cd); in 1967 the 13th CGPM (Resolution 5; CR, 104 and
Metrologia, 1968, 4, 43-44) gave an amended version of the 1946 denition.
In 1979, because of the experimental difficulties in realizing a Planck radiator
at high temperatures and the new possibilities offered by radiometry, i.e. the
measurement of optical radiation power, the 16th CGPM (1979, Resolution 3;
CR, 100 and Metrologia, 1980, 16, 56) adopted a new definition of the candela:
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that
emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 1012 hertz and that has
a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.

2.1.2 Symbols for base units


The base units of the International System are listed in Table l which relates the
base quantity to the unit name and unit symbol (10th CGPM (1954, Resolution 6;
CR, 80); 11th CGPM (1960, Resolution 12; CR, 87); 13th CGPM (1967-1968,
Resolution 3; CR, 104 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 43); 14th CGPM (1971,
Resolution 3; CR, 78 and Metrologia, 1972, 8, 36)).
Table 1. SI base units
SI base unit
Base quantity

Name

Symbol

length
mass
time
electric current
thermodynamic temperature
amount of substance
luminous intensity

metre
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
mole
candela

m
kg
s
A
K
mol
cd

2.2 SI derived units


Derived units are units which may be expressed in terms of base units by means
of the mathematical symbols of multiplication and division. Certain derived units
have been given special names and symbols, and these special names and symbols may themselves be used in combination with those for base and other
derived units to express the units of other quantities.

2.2.1 Units expressed in terms of base units


Table 2 lists some examples of derived units expressed directly in terms of base
units. The derived units are obtained by multiplication and division of base units.

SI Units 99

Table 2. Examples of SI derived units expressed in terms of base units


SI derived unit
Derived quantity

Name

Symbol

area
volume
speed, velocity
acceleration
wavenumber
density, mass density
specic volume
current density
magnetic eld strength
concentration (of amount of substance)
luminance
refractive index

square metre
cubic metre
metre per second
metre per second squared
reciprocal metre
kilogram per cubic metre
cubic metre per kilogram
ampere per square metre
ampere per metre
mole per cubic metre
candela per square metre
(the number) one

m2
m3
m/s
m / s2
m1
k g / m3
m 3/kg
A / m2
A/m
m o l / m3
cd/m 2
1(a)

(a) The symbol 1 is generally omitted in combination with a numerical value.

2.2.2 Units with special names and symbols; units which incorporate units
with special names and symbols
For convenience, certain derived units, which are listed in Table 3, have been
given special names and symbols. These names and symbols may themselves be
used to express other derived units: Table 4 shows some examples. The special
names and symbols are a compact form for the expression of units which are used
frequently.
Among these names and symbols, the last three entries in Table 3 are of particular note since they were accepted by the 15th CGPM (1975, Resolutions 8 and 9;
CR, 105 and Metrologia, 1975, 11, 180) and the 16th CGPM (1979, Resolution
5; CR, 100 and Metrologia, 1980, 16, 56) specically with a view to safeguarding
human health.
In Tables 3 and 4, the nal column shows how the SI units concerned may be
expressed in terms of SI base units. In this column, factors such as m0, kg0 ...,
which are all equal to 1, are not shown explicitly.

100 SI Units

Table 3. SI derived units with special names and symbols


SI derived unit
Expressed
in terms
of other
SI units

Expressed
in terms of
SI base units

Derived quantity

Name

Symbol

plane angle
solid angle
frequency
force
pressure, stress
energy, work, quantity of heat
power, radiant ux
electric charge, quantity of electricity
electric potential difference,
electromotive force
capacitance
electric resistance
electric conductance
magnetic ux
magnetic ux density
inductance
Celsius temperature

radian(a)
steradian(a)
hertz
newton
pascal
joule
watt
coulomb

rad
sr (c)
Hz
N
Pa
J
W
C

volt
farad
ohm
siemens
weber
tesla
henry
degree
Celsius(d)
lumen
lux
becquerel

V
F

S
Wb
T
H

W/A
C/V
V/A
A/V
Vs
W b / m2
Wb/A

C
lm
lx
Bq

cd sr
l m / m2

Gy

J/kg

m2 s2

Sv

J/kg

m2 s2

luminous ux
illuminance
activity (referred to a radionuclide)
absorbed dose, specic energy
(imparted), kerma
gray
dose equivalent, ambient dose equivalent,
directional dose equivalent,
personal dose equivalent,
organ equivalent dose
sievert

m m1 = 1(b)
m2 m2 = 1(b )
s1
m kg s2
m1 kg s2
m2 kg s2
m2 kg s 3
s A

N / m2
Nm
J/s

(c)

m2 kg s3 A1
m2 kg1 s4 A2
m2 kg s3 A2
m2 kg1 s3 A2
m2 kg s2 A1
kg s 2 A1
m2 kg s 2 A2
K
m2 m2 cd = cd
m2 m4 cd = m2 cd
s1

(a) The radian and steradian may be used with advantage in expressions for derived units to distinguish
between quantities of different nature but the same dimension. Some examples of their use in forming derived
units are given in Table 4.
(b) In practice, the symbols rad and sr are used where appropriate, but the derived unit 1 is generally omitted
in combination with a numerical value.
(c) In photometry, the name steradian and the symbol sr are usually retained in expressions for units.
(d) This unit may be used in combination with SI prexes, e.g. millidegree Celsius, mC.

SI Units 101

Table 4. Examples of SI derived units whose names and symbols include


SI derived units with special names and symbols
SI derived unit

Derived quantity

Name

Symbol

Expressed
in terms of
SI base unit

dynamic viscosity
moment of force
surface tension
angular velocity
angular acceleration
heat ux density,
irradiance
heat capacity, entropy
specic heat capacity,
specic entropy
specic energy
thermal conductivity
energy density
electric eld strength
electric charge
density
electric ux density

pascal second
newton metre
newton per metre
radian per second
radian per second squared

Pa s
Nm
N/m
rad/s
rad/s 2

m1 kg s1
m2 kg s2
kg s2
m m1 s1 = s 1
m m1 s2 = s2

watt per square metre


joule per kelvin
joule per kilogram
kelvin
joule per kilogram
watt per metre kelvin
joule per cubic metre
volt per metre

W / m2
J/K

kg s3
m2 kg s2 K1

permittivity
permeability
molar energy
molar entropy, molar
heat capacity
exposure (x and
rays)
absorbed dose rate
radiant intensity
radiance

J/(kg K) m2 s2 K1
J/kg
m2 s2
W/(m K) m kg s3 K1
J/m 3
m1 kg s2
V/m
m kg s3 A1

coulomb per cubic metre


coulomb per
square metre
farad per metre
henry per metre
joule per mole

C / m3

m3 s A

C/m 2
F/m
H/m
J/mol

m2 s A
m3 kg1 s4 A2
m kg s2 A2
m2 kg s2 mol1

joule per mole kelvin

J/(mol K) m2 kg s2 K1 mol1

coulomb per kilogram


gray per second
watt per steradian

C/kg
Gy/s
W/sr

watt per square metre


steradian

kg1 s A
m2 s3
m4 m2 kg s3
= m2 kg s3
2 sr) m2 m 2 kg s3
W/(m
= kg s3

A single SI unit may correspond to several different quantities, as noted in


paragraph 1.2 (p. 92). In the above table, which is not exhaustive, there are several
examples. Thus the joule per kelvin (J/K) is the SI unit for the quantity heat
capacity as well as for the quantity entropy; also the ampere (A) is the SI unit
for the base quantity electric current as well as for the derived quantity
magnetomotive force. It is therefore important not to use the unit alone to specify
the quantity. This rule applies not only to scientific and technical texts but also,
for example, to measuring instruments (i.e. an instrument should indicate both
the unit and the quantity measured).

102 SI Units

A derived unit can often be expressed in different ways by combining the names
of base units with special names for derived units. This, however, is an algebraic
freedom to be governed by common-sense physical considerations. Joule, for
example, may formally be written newton metre, or even kilogram metre squared
per second squared, but in a given situation some forms may be more helpful than
others.
In practice, with certain quantities preference is given to the use of certain special
unit names, or combinations of unit names, in order to facilitate the distinction
between different quantities having the same dimension. For example, the SI
unit of frequency is designated the hertz, rather than the reciprocal second, and
the SI unit of angular velocity is designated the radian per second rather than
the reciprocal second (in this case retaining the word radian emphasizes that
angular velocity is equal to 2 times the rotational frequency). Similarly the SI
unit of moment of force is designated the newton metre rather than the joule.
In the field of ionizing radiation, the SI unit of activity is designated the becquerel
rather than the reciprocal second, and the SI units of absorbed dose and dose
equivalent the gray and sievert, respectively, rather than the joule per kilogram.
The special names becquerel, gray and sievert were specifically introduced
because of the dangers to human health which might arise from mistakes
involving the units reciprocal second and the joule per kilogram.

2.2.3 Units for dimensionless quantities, quantities of dimension one


Certain quantities are defined as the ratios of two quantities of the same kind,
and thus have a dimension which may be expressed by the number one. The unit
of such quantities is necessarily a derived unit coherent with the other units of
the SI and, since it is formed as the ratio of two identical SI units, the unit also
may be expressed by the number one. Thus the SI unit of all quantities having
the dimensional product one is the number one. Examples of such quantities are
refractive index, relative permeability, and friction factor. Other quantities having
the unit 1 include characteristic numbers like the Prandtl number cp / and
numbers which represent a count, such as a number of molecules, degeneracy
(number of energy levels) and partition function in statistical thermodynamics.
All of these quantities are described as being dimensionless, or of dimension
one, and have the coherent SI unit 1. Their values are simply expressed as
numbers and, in general, the unit 1 is not explicitly shown. In a few cases,
however, a special name is given to this unit, mainly to avoid confusion between
some compound derived units. This is the case for the radian, steradian and neper.

The CIPM,
recognizing the
particular importance
of the health-related
units, agreed a
detailed text on the
sievert for the
5th edition of this
brochure: see p. 127,
Recommendation 1
(CI-1984) adopted
by the CIPM
(PV, 1984, 52, 31
and Metrologia, 1985,
21, 90).

103

3 Decimal multiples and submultiples of SI units

3.1 SI prexes
The 11th CGPM (1960, Resolution 12; CR, 87) adopted a series of prefixes and
p re fix symbols to form the names and symbols of the decimal multiples and
submultiples of SI units ranging from 1012 to 1012. Prefixes for 1015 and 1018
were added by the 12th CGPM (1964, Resolution 8; CR, 94), for 1015 and 1018
by the 15th CGPM (1975, Resolution 10; CR, 106 and Metrologia, 1975, 11,
180-181), and for 1021, 1024, 10 21 and 1024 by the 19th CGPM (1991,
Resolution 4; CR, 185 and Metrologia, 1992, 29, 3). Table 5 lists all approved
prefixes and symbols.
Table 5. SI prexes
Factor

Name

Symbol

Factor

Name

Symbol

10 24
10 21
1 01 8
10 15
1 01 2
1 09
1 06
10 3
10 2
10 1

yotta
zetta
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deca

Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da

1 0 1
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021
1024

deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
zepto
yocto

d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

3.2 The kilogram


Among the base units of the International System, the unit of mass is the only one
whose name, for historical reasons, contains a prex. Names and symbols for
decimal multiples and submultiples of the unit of mass are formed by attaching
prex names to the unit name gram and prex symbols to the unit symbol g
(CIPM, 1967, Recommendation 2; PV, 35, 29 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 45),
Example: 106 kg = 1 mg (1 milligram)
but not 1 kg (1 microkilogram).

These SI prexes
refer strictly to
powers of 10.
They should not
be used to indicate
powers of 2 (for
example, one kilobit
represents 1000 bits
and not 1024 bits).

104

4 Units outside the SI

SI units are recommended for use throughout science, technology and commerce.
They are agreed internationally by the CGPM, and provide the reference in terms
of which all other units are now dened. The SI base units and SI derived units,
including those with special names, have the important advantage of forming a
coherent set with the effect that unit conversions are not required when inserting
particular values for quantities in quantity equations.
Nonetheless it is recognized that some non-SI units still appear widely in the
scientific, technical and commercial literature, and some will probably continue
to be used for many years. Other non-SI units, such as the units of time, are so
widely used in everyday life, and are so deeply embedded in the history and
culture of the human race, that they will continue to be used for the foreseable
future. For these reasons some of the more important non-SI units are listed in
the tables below.
The inclusion of tables of non-SI units in this text does not imply that the use
of non-SI units is to be encouraged. With a few exceptions discussed below, SI
units are always to be preferred to non-SI units. It is desirable to avoid combining
non-SI units with units of the SI; in particular the combination of such units with
SI units to form compound units should be restricted to special cases so as to
retain the advantage of coherence conferred by the use of SI units.

4.1 Units used with the SI


The CIPM (1969), recognizing that users would wish to employ the SI with units
which are not part of it but are important and widely used, listed three categories
of non-SI units: units to be maintained; to be tolerated temporarily; and to
be avoided. In reviewing this catego ri z ation the CIPM (1996) agreed a new
classification of non-SI units: units accepted for use with the SI, Table 6; units
accepted for use with the SI whose values are obtained experimentally, Table 7;
and other units currently accepted for use with the SI to satisfy the needs of
special interests, Table 8.
Table 6 lists non-SI units which are accepted for use with the SI. It includes units
which are in continuous everyday use, in particular the traditional units of time
and of angle, together with a few other units which have assumed increasing
technical importance.

Units outside the SI 105

Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System
Name

Symbol

Value in SI units

minute
hour ( a )
day

min
h
d

1 min = 60 s
1 h = 60 min = 3600 s
1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s

degree ( b )
minute
second

1 = (/180) rad
1 = (1/60) = (/10 800) rad
1 = (1/60) = (/648 000) rad

litre ( c )
tonne ( d, e)

l, L
t

1 l = 1 dm3 = 103 m3
1 t = 103 kg

neper ( f, h)
bel ( g, h)

Np
B

1 Np = 1
1 B = (1/2) ln 10 (Np)( i )

(a) The symbol of this unit is included in Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948; CR, 70).
(b) ISO 31 recommends that the degree be subdivided decimally rather than using the minute
and second.
(c) This unit and the symbol l were adopted by CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41). The alternative
symbol, L, was adopted by the 16th CGPM (1979, Resolution 6; CR, 101 and Metrologia, 1980,
16, 56-57) in order to avoid the risk of confusion between the letter l and the number 1.
The present denition of the litre is given in Resolution 6 of the 12th CGPM (1964; CR, 93).
(d) This unit and its symbol were adopted by the CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41).
(e) In some English-speaking countries this unit is called metric ton.
(f) The neper is used to express values of such logarithmic quantities as eld level, power level,
sound pressure level, and logarithmic decrement. Natural logarithms are used to obtain
the numerical values of quantities expressed in nepers. The neper is coherent with the SI,
but not yet adopted by the CGPM as an SI unit. For further information see International
Standard ISO 31.
(g) The bel is used to express values of such logarithmic quantities as eld level, power level,
sound pressure level, and attenuation. Logarithms to base ten are used to obtain the numerical
values of quantities expressed in bels. The submultiple decibel, dB, is commonly used.
For further info rm ation see International Standard ISO 31.
(h) In using these units it is particularly important that the quantity be specied. The unit must
not be used to imply the quantity.
(i) Np is enclosed in parentheses because, although the neper is coherent with the SI, it has not
yet been adopted by the CGPM.

Table 7 lists three non-SI units which are also accepted for use with the SI, whose
values expressed in SI units must be obtained by experiment and are therefore not
known exactly. Their values are given with their combined standard uncertainties
(coverage factor k = 1), which apply to the last two digits, shown in parentheses.
These units are in common use in certain specialized elds.

106 Units outside the SI

Table 7. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System,
whose values in SI units are obtained experimentally
Name

Symbol

Denition

Value in SI units

electronvolt (a)
unied atomic
mass unit (a)
astronomical unit

eV

(b)

1 eV = 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 7 3 3 (49) 1019 J

u
ua

(c)

1 u = 1 . 6 6 0 5 4 0 2 (10) 1027 kg
1 ua = 1 . 4 9 5 9 7 8 7 0 6 9 1 (30) 10 11 m

(a)

(d)

(a) For the electronvolt and the unied atomic mass unit, values are quoted from CODATA
Bulletin, 1986, No. 63.
The value given for the astronomical unit is quoted from the IERS Conventions (1996),
D.D. McCarthy ed., IERS Technical Note 21, Observatoire de Paris, July 1996.
(b) The electronvolt is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron in passing through a potential
difference of 1 V in vacuum.
(c) The unied atomic mass unit is equal to 1/12 of the mass of an unbound atom of the
nuclide 12C, at rest, and in its ground state. In the eld of biochemistry, the unied atomic
mass unit is also called the dalton, symbol Da.
(d) The astronomical unit is a unit of length approximatively equal to the mean Earth-Sun distance.
Its value is such that, when used to describe the motion of bodies in the Solar System, the
heliocentric gravitational constant is (0.017 202 098 95) 2 ua 3 d 2.

Table 8 lists some other non-SI units which are currently accepted for use with
the SI to satisfy the needs of commercial, legal and specialized scientic interests.
These units should be dened in relation to the SI in every document in which
they are used. Their use is not encouraged.
Table 8. Other non-SI units currently accepted for use with
the International System
Name

nautical mile(a)
knot
are(b)
hectare(b)
bar(c)
ngstrm
barn (d)

Symbol

Value in SI units

a
ha
bar

1 nautical mile = 1852 m


1 nautical mile per hour = (1852/3600) m/s
1 a = 1 dam2 = 102 m2
1 ha = 1 hm2 = 104 m2
1 bar = 0.1 MPa = 100 kPa = 1000 hPa = 105 Pa
1 = 0.1 nm = 1010 m
1 b = 100 fm2 = 1028 m 2

(a) The nautical mile is a special unit employed for marine and aerial navigation to express
distance. The conventional value given above was adopted by the First International
Extraordinary Hydrographic Conference, Monaco, 1929, under the name International
nautical mile. As yet there is no internationally agreed symbol. This unit was originally
chosen because one nautical mile on the surface of the Earth subtends approximately
one minute of angle at the centre.
(b) The units are and hectare and their symbols were adopted by the CIPM in 1879
(PV, 1879, 41) and are used to express areas of land.
(c) The bar and its symbol are included in Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948; CR, 70).
(d) The barn is a special unit employed in nuclear physics to express effective cross-sections.

Units outside the SI 107

4.2 Other non-SI units


Certain other non-SI units are still occasionally used. Some are important for
the interpretation of older scientific texts. These are listed in Tables 9 and 10,
but their use is not encouraged.
Table 9 deals with the relationship between CGS units and the SI, and lists those
CGS units that were assigned special names. In the field of mechanics, the CGS
system of units was built upon three quantities and the corresponding base units:
the centimetre, the gram and the second. In the field of electricity and magnetism,
units were expressed in terms of these three base units. Because this can be done
in different ways, it led to the establishment of several different systems, for
example the CGS Electrostatic System, the CGS Electromagnetic System and
the CGS Gaussian System. In these three last-mentioned systems, the system
of quantities and the corresponding system of equations differ from those used
with SI units.
Table 9. Derived CGS units with special names
Name

Symbol

Value in SI units

erg (a)
dyne (a)
poise (a)
stokes
gauss (b)
oersted (b)
maxwell (b)
stilb (a)
phot
gal (c)

erg
dyn
P
St
G
Oe
Mx
sb
ph
Gal

1 erg = 107 J
1 dyn = 105 N
1 P = 1 dyn s/cm2 = 0.1 Pa s
1 St = 1 cm2/s = 104 m2/s
1 G ^ 104 T
1 Oe ^ (1000/4) A/m
1 Mx ^ 108 Wb
1 sb = 1 cd/cm2 = 104 cd/m2
1 ph = 104 lx
1 Gal = 1 cm/s2 = 102 m/s2

(a) This unit and its symbol were included in Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948; CR, 70).
(b) This unit is part of the so-called electromagnetic three-dimensional CGS system and cannot
strictly be compared with the corresponding unit of the International System, which has
four dimensions when only mechanical and electric quantities are considered. For this reason,
this unit is linked to the SI unit using the mathematical symbol for corresponds to (^).
(c) The gal is a special unit employed in geodesy and geophysics to express acceleration due
to gravity.

Table 10 lists units which are common in older texts. For current texts, it should
be noted that if these units are used the advantages of the SI are lost. The relation
of these units to the SI should be specied in every document in which they are
used.

108 Units outside the SI

Table 10. Examples of other non-SI units


Name

Symbol

Value in SI units

curie (a)
rntgen (b)
rad (c,f)
rem (d,f)
X unit (e)
gamma (f)
jansky
fermi (f)
metric carat (g)
torr
standard atmosphere
calorie
micron (f)

Ci
R
rad
rem

1 Ci = 3.7 1010 Bq
1 R = 2.58 10 4 C/kg
1 rad = 1 cGy = 10 2 Gy
1 rem = 1 cSv = 10 2 Sv
1 X unit 1.002 10 4 nm
1 = 1 nT = 109 T
1 Jy = 10 26 W m2 Hz1
1 fermi = 1 fm = 1015 m
1 metric carat = 200 mg = 2 104 kg
1 Torr = (101 325/760) Pa
1 atm = 101 325 Pa

Jy

Torr
atm (h)
cal
(j)

(i)

1 = 1 m = 106 m

(a) The curie is a special unit employed in nuclear physics to express activity of radionuclides
(12th CGPM, 1964, Resolution 7; CR, 94).
(b) The rntgen is a special unit employed to express exposure to x or radiation.
(c) The rad is a special unit employed to express absorbed dose of ionizing radiation.
When there is risk of confusion with the symbol for radian, rd may be used as the symbol
for rad.
(d) The rem is a special unit used in radioprotection to express dose equivalent.
(e) The X unit was employed to express the wavelengths of x rays. Its relationship with the
SI unit is an approximate one.
(f) Note that this non-SI unit is exactly equivalent to an SI unit with an appropriate submultiple
prex.
(g) The metric carat was adopted by the 4th CGPM in 1907 (CR, 89-91) for commercial
dealings in diamonds, pearls and precious stones.
(h) Resolution 4 of the 10th CGPM (1954; CR, 79). The designation standard atmosphere
for a re fe rence pressure of 101 325 Pa is still acceptable.
(i) Several calories have been in use:
a calorie labelled at 15 C: 1 cal15 = 4.1855 J (value adopted by the CIPM in l950;
PV, 1950, 22, 79-80);
a calorie labelled IT (International Table): 1 cal IT = 4.1868 J (5th International Conference
on the Properties of Steam, London, 1956);
a calorie labelled thermochemical: 1 calth = 4.184 J.
(j) The micron and its symbol, adopted by the CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41) and repeated in
Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948; CR, 70) were abolished by the 13th CGPM
(1967-1968, Resolution 7; CR, 105 and Metrologia, 1968, 4, 44).

B: International System of Units

756

November 1, 2010

C
Physical Constants

757

Quantity

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

m1 )c
m1 )hc/k
m1 )hc
m1 )h/c
Hz)/c

=
=
=
=
=

299 792 458 Hz


1.438 7752(25) 102 K
1.239 841 91(11) 106 eV
1.331 025 0506(89) 1015 u
3.335 640 951 . . . 109 m1

energy equivalent in eV
Bohr radius /4R = 4 0 h2/me e2

Hartree energy e2/4 0 a0 = 2R hc = 2 me c2


in eV
electron mass
in u
energy equivalent in MeV
electron-muon mass ratio
electron-proton mass ratio
electron charge to mass quotient
Compton wavelength h/me c
C /2 = a0 = 2/4R
classical electron radius 2 a0
2
Thomson cross section (8/3)re
electron magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
electron magnetic moment anomaly |e |/B 1
electron g-factor 2(1 + ae )
electron-proton magnetic moment ratio
muon mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
muon-electron mass ratio
muon magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
muon magnetic moment anomaly
| |/(e /2m ) 1
h

electric constant 1/0 c2


Newtonian constant of gravitation
Planck constant
in eV s
h/2
in eV s
elementary charge
magnetic ux quantum h/2e
Josephson constant 2e/h
von Klitzing constant h/e2 = 0 c/2
Bohr magneton e /2me
h
in eV T1
nuclear magneton e /2mp
h
in eV T1
ne-structure constant e2/4 0 hc

inverse ne-structure constant


2
Rydberg constant me c/2h

speed of light in vacuum


magnetic constant

a
(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

Numerical value

=
=
=
=
=

Unit

Quantity

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

J)
eV)
eV)/hc
eV)/h
eV)/k

=
=
=
=
=

6.241 509 47(53) 1018 eV


1.602 176 53(14) 1019 J
8.065 544 45(69) 105 m1
2.417 989 40(21) 1014 Hz
1.160 4505(20) 104 K

neutron mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
neutron-proton mass ratio
neutron magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
deuteron mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
deuteron-proton mass ratio
deuteron magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
helion (3 He nucleus) mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
shielded helion magnetic moment
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
alpha particle mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
Avogadro constant
1
atomic mass constant 12 m(12 C) = 1 u
energy equivalent in MeV
Faraday constant NA e
molar gas constant
Boltzmann constant R/NA
in eV K1
molar volume of ideal gas RT /p
(T = 273.15 K, p = 101.325 kPa)
Stefan-Boltzmann constant 2 k4/60 3 c2
h
rst radiation constant 2hc2
second radiation constant hc/k
Wien displacement law constant
b = max T = c2 /4.965 114 231...
Cu x unit: (Cu K1 )/1 537.400
Mo x unit: (Mo K1 )/707.831

shielded proton gyromagnetic ratio 2p /


h
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)

muon g-factor 2(1 + a )


muon-proton magnetic moment ratio
proton mass
in u
energy equivalent in MeV
proton-electron mass ratio
proton magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
proton magnetic shielding correction 1 p /p
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
proton gyromagnetic ratio 2p /
h

Energy equivalents

J T1

u
MeV

C kg1
m
m
m
m2
J T1

m1
Hz
eV
m
J
eV
kg
u
MeV

m s1
N A2
N A2
F m1
m3 kg1 s2
Js
eV s
Js
eV s
C
Wb
Hz V1

J T1
eV T1
J T1
eV T1

4.799 2374(84) 1011 K


4.135 667 43(35) 1015 eV
69.503 56(12) m1
2.083 6644(36) 1010 Hz
8.617 343(15) 105 eV

1.165 919 81(62) 10

299 792 458 (exact)


4 107 (exact)
= 12.566 370 614... 107
8.854 187 817... 1012
6.6742(10) 1011
6.626 0693(11) 1034
4.135 667 43(35) 1015
1.054 571 68(18) 1034
6.582 119 15(56) 1016
1.602 176 53(14) 1019
2.067 833 72(18) 1015
483 597.879(41) 109
25 812.807 449(86)
927.400 949(80) 1026
5.788 381 804(39) 105
5.050 783 43(43) 1027
3.152 451 259(21) 108
7.297 352 568(24) 103
137.035 999 11(46)
10 973 731.568 525(73)
3.289 841 960 360(22) 1015
13.605 6923(12)
0.529 177 2108(18) 1010
4.359 744 17(75) 1018
27.211 3845(23)
9.109 3826(16) 1031
5.485 799 0945(24) 104
0.510 998 918(44)
4.836 331 67(13) 103
5.446 170 2173(25) 104
1.758 820 12(15) 1011
2.426 310 238(16) 1012
386.159 2678(26) 1015
2.817 940 325(28) 1015
0.665 245 873(13) 1028
928.476 412(80) 1026
1.001 159 652 1859(38)
1838.281 971 07(85)
1.159 652 1859(38) 103
2.002 319 304 3718(75)
658.210 6862(66)
0.113 428 9264(30)
105.658 3692(94)
206.768 2838(54)
4.490 447 99(40) 1026
4.841 970 45(13) 103
8.890 596 98(23)

Hz)h/k
Hz)h
K)k/hc
K)k/h
K)k

m e c2
me /m
me /mp
e/me
C
C
re
e
e
e /B
e /N
ae
ge
e /p
m
m c2
m /me

/B
/N

me

1
R
R c
R hc
a0
Eh

e
0
KJ
RK
B

G
h

c, c0
0

Symbol

Numerical value
2.002 331 8396(12)
3.183 345 118(89)
1.672 621 71(29) 1027
1.007 276 466 88(13)
938.272 029(80)
1836.152 672 61(85)
1.410 606 71(12) 1026
2.792 847 351(28)
25.689(15) 106

42.576 3875(37)
1.008 664 915 60(55)
939.565 360(81)
1.001 378 418 70(58)
0.966 236 45(24) 1026
1.913 042 73(45)
2.013 553 212 70(35)
1875.612 82(16)
1.999 007 500 82(41)
0.433 073 482(38) 1026
0.857 438 2329(92)
3.014 932 2434(58)
2808.391 42(24)
1.074 553 024(93) 1026
1.158 671 474(14) 103
2.127 497 723(25)
4.001 506 179 149(56)
3727.379 17(32)
6.022 1415(10) 1023
1.660 538 86(28) 1027
931.494 043(80)
96 485.3383(83)
8.314 472(15)
1.380 6505(24) 1023
8.617 343(15) 105
22.413 996(39) 103
5.670 400(40) 108
3.741 771 38(64) 1016
1.438 7752(25) 102

p /2
mn
m n c2
mn /mp
n
n /N
md
m d c2
md /mp
d
d /N
mh
m h c2
h
h /B
h /N
m
m c2
NA , L
mu
m u c2
F
R
k

c1
c2

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

eV)/c2
kg)
u)
u)c/h
u)c2

=
=
=
=
=

mK
m
m

W m2 K4
W m2
mK

u
MeV
mol1
kg
MeV
C mol1
J mol1 K1
J K1
eV K1
m3 mol1

u
MeV
J T1

J T1

u
MeV

J T1

MHz T1
u
MeV

s1 T1
MHz T1
s1 T1

J T1

kg
u
MeV

Unit

1.073 544 171(92) 109 u


6.022 1415(10) 1026 u
1.660 538 86(28) 1027 kg
7.513 006 608(50) 1014 m1
931.494 043(80) 106 eV

b
2.897 7685(51) 103
xu(Cu K1 ) 1.002 077 10(29) 1013
xu(Mo K1 ) 1.002 099 66(53) 1013

Vm

2.675 222 05(23) 108


42.577 4813(37)
2.675 153 33(23) 108

p
p /2
p

m p c2
mp /me
p
p /N
p

g
/p
mp

Symbol

NIST SP 961 (Dec/2005) Values from: P. J. Mohr and B. N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1 (2005).
A more extensive listing of constants is available in the above references and on the NIST Physics Laboratory Web site physics.nist.gov/constants.
The number in parenthesis is the one-standard-deviation uncertainty in the last two digits of the given value.

CODATA RECOMMENDED VALUES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS: 2002

1. Physical constants

010001-77

1. PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Table 1.1. Reviewed 2002 by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor (NIST). Based mainly on the CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental
Physical Constants: 1998 by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 28, 1713 (1999) and Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 351 (2000). The
last group of constants (beginning with the Fermi coupling constant) comes from the Particle Data Group. The gures in parentheses after the
values give the 1-standard-deviation uncertainties in the last digits; the corresponding fractional uncertainties in parts per 109 (ppb) are given in
the last column. This set of constants (aside from the last group) is recommended for international use by CODATA (the Committee on Data
for Science and Technology). The full 1998 CODATA set of constants may be found at http://physics.nist.gov/constants
Quantity

Symbol, equation

speed of light in vacuum


Planck constant
Planck constant, reduced
electron charge magnitude
conversion constant
conversion constant

Value

Uncertainty (ppb)

299 792 458 m s1


6.626 068 76(52)1034 J s
1.054 571 596(82)1034 J s
= 6.582 118 89(26)1022 MeV s
1.602 176 462(63)1019 C = 4.803 204 20(19)1010 esu
197.326 960 2(77) MeV fm
0.389 379 292(30) GeV2 mbarn

c
h

~ h/2
e

~c
(~c)2

exact
78
78
39
39, 39
39
78

deuteron mass
unied atomic mass unit (u)

0.510 998 902(21) MeV/c2 = 9.109 381 88(72)1031 kg


938.271 998(38) MeV/c2 = 1.672 621 58(13)1027 kg
= 1.007 276 466 88(13) u = 1836.152 667 5(39) me
1875.612 762(75) MeV/c2
md
(mass 12 C atom)/12 = (1 g)/(NA mol) 931.494 013(37) MeV/c2 = 1.660 538 73(13)1027 kg

permittivity of free space


permeability of free space

ne-structure constant
classical electron radius
(e Compton wavelength)/2
Bohr radius (mnucleus = )
wavelength of 1 eV/c particle
Rydberg energy
Thomson cross section

= e2 /4 0 ~c
re = e2 /4 0 me c2
e = ~/me c = re 1

a = 4 0 ~2 /me e2 = re 2
hc/(1 eV)
hcR = me e4 /2(4 0 )2 ~2 = me c2 2 /2
2
T = 8re /3

7.297 352 533(27)103 = 1/137.035 999 76(50)


2.817 940 285(31)1015 m
3.861 592 642(28)1013 m
0.529 177 208 3(19)1010 m
1.239 841 857(49)106 m
13.605 691 72(53) eV
0.665 245 854(15) barn

Bohr magneton
nuclear magneton
electron cyclotron freq./eld
proton cyclotron freq./eld

B = e~/2me
N = e~/2mp
e
cycl /B = e/me
p
cycl /B = e/mp

5.788
3.152
1.758
9.578

749(43)1011 MeV T1
238(24)1014 MeV T1
174(71)1011 rad s1 T1
08(38)107 rad s1 T1

7.3
7.6
40
40

gravitational constant

GN

standard gravitational accel.

gn

6.673(10)1011 m3 kg1 s2
= 6.707(10)1039 ~c (GeV/c2 )2
9.806 65 m s2

1.5 106
1.5 106
exact

Avogadro constant
Boltzmann constant

NA
k

molar volume, ideal gas at STP


Wien displacement law constant
Stefan-Boltzmann constant

NA k(273.15 K)/(101 325 Pa)


b = max T
= 2 k 4 /60~3 c2

6.022 141 99(47)1023 mol1


1.380 650 3(24)1023 J K1
= 8.617 342(15)105 eV K1
22.413 996(39)103 m3 mol1
2.897 768 6(51)103 m K
5.670 400(40)108 W m2 K4

Fermi coupling constant

GF /(~c)3

1.166 39(1)105 GeV2

weak-mixing angle
W boson mass
Z 0 boson mass
strong coupling constant

sin2 (MZ ) (MS)


mW
mZ
s (mZ )

0.23113(15)
80.423(39) GeV/c2
91.1876(21) GeV/c2
0.1172(20)

electron mass
proton mass

me
mp

= 1/0 c2

= 3.141 592 653 589 793 238


4

1 in 0.0254 m
1 G 10 T

1 A 0.1 nm
1 dyne 105 N

1 barn 10

28

1 erg 10

8.854 187 817 . . . 1012 F m1


4 107 N A2 = 12.566 370 614 . . . 107 N A2

381
451
820
834

e = 2.718 281 828 459 045 235


1 eV = 1.602 176 462(63) 10
2

1 eV/c = 1.782 661 731(70) 10


9

J 2.997 924 58 10 esu = 1 C

36

exact
exact
3.7, 3.7
11
7.3
3.7
39
39
22

79
1700
1700
1700
1700
7000
9000

= 0.577 215 664 901 532 861


19

40, 79
40, 79
0.13, 2.1
40
40, 79

6.5 105
4.8 105
2.3 104
1.7 107

kT at 300 K = [38.681 686(67)]1 eV


0 C 273.15 K

kg
1 atmosphere 760 Torr 101 325 Pa

The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.
At Q2 = 0. At Q2 m2 the value is 1/128.
W
Absolute lab measurements of G have been made only on scales of about 1 cm to 1 m.
N
See the discussion in Sec. 10, Electroweak model and constraints on new physics.
The corresponding sin2 for the eective angle is 0.23143(15).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Frequently used constants


Quantity

Symbol
c, c0
0

speed of light in vacuum


magnetic constant

Value

Unit

299 792 458


4 107
= 12.566 370 614... 107
8.854 187 817... 1012

m s1
N A2
N A2
F m1

Relative std.
uncert. ur
(exact)
(exact)
(exact)

electric constant 1/0 c2


Newtonian constant
of gravitation

6.6742(10) 1011

m3 kg1 s2

1.5 104

Planck constant
h/2
elementary charge
magnetic ux quantum h/2e
conductance quantum 2e2/h

h
h

e
0
G0

6.626 0693(11) 1034


1.054 571 68(18) 1034
1.602 176 53(14) 1019
2.067 833 72(18) 1015
7.748 091 733(26) 105

Js
Js
C
Wb
S

1.7 107
1.7 107
8.5 108
8.5 108
3.3 109

electron mass
proton mass
proton-electron mass ratio
h
ne-structure constant e2/4 0 c
inverse ne-structure constant

me
mp
mp /me

9.109 3826(16) 1031


1.672 621 71(29) 1027
1836.152 672 61(85)
7.297 352 568(24) 103
137.035 999 11(46)

kg
kg

1.7 107
1.7 107
4.6 1010
3.3 109
3.3 109

Rydberg constant 2 me c/2h


Avogadro constant
Faraday constant NA e
molar gas constant
Boltzmann constant R/NA
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
(2 /60)k 4/ 3 c2
h

R
NA , L
F
R
k

10 973 731.568 525(73)


6.022 1415(10) 1023
96 485.3383(83)
8.314 472(15)
1.380 6505(24) 1023

m1
mol1
C mol1
J mol1 K1
J K1

6.6 1012
1.7 107
8.6 108
1.7 106
1.8 106

5.670 400(40) 108

W m2 K4

7.0 106

eV

1.602 176 53(14) 1019

8.5 108

1.660 538 86(28) 1027

kg

1.7 107

Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI


electron volt: (e/C) J
(unied) atomic mass unit
1
1 u = mu = 12 m(12 C)
= 103 kg mol1/NA

Page 1

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

D
Periodic table of the Elements

761

Beryllium

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS


Boron

B 6

15
VA
N 8
Nitrogen

C 7
Carbon

14
IVA

17
VIIA

Helium

Neon

4.002602
F 10
Ne
Fluorine

O 9
Oxygen

16
VIA

10.811
12.0107 14.00674 15.9994 18.9984032 20.1797
13
Al 14
Si 15
P 16
S 17
Cl 18
Ar

13
IIIA

18
VIIIA
2
He

Calcium

Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese

Iron

Cobalt

Nickel

Copper

Zinc

Gallium

German.

Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine

Krypton

Yttrium Zirconium Niobium

Molybd.

Technet.

Ruthen.

Rhodium Palladium

Silver

Cadmium

Indium

Tin

Antimony Tellurium

Iodine

Xenon

Actinide
series

Lanthanide
series

89103

Hafnium

Tantalum Tungsten

Rhenium

Osmium

Iridium

Platinum

Pr 60

Nd 61

Pm 62

Sm 63

Mercury

232.0381

(227.027747)

Np 94

Californ.

Md 102
Mendelev.

Fm 101
Fermium

Es 100

167.26

Tm 70

Lu

No 103

Lr

174.967

Lutetium

Yb 71
Thulium Ytterbium
173.04
168.93421

Er 69

Bismuth Polonium Astatine


Radon
208.98038 (208.982415) (209.987131) (222.017570)

Erbium

Ho 68

Einstein.

Cf 99

162.50

Lead

207.2

Holmium
164.93032

Dy 67
Dyspros.

Bk 98
Berkelium

Cm 97
Curium

Am 96
Americ.

Pu 95

157.25

Terbium
158.92534

Tb 66

(277)

Thallium

204.3833

Nobelium Lawrenc.
238.0289 (237.048166) (244.064197) (243.061372) (247.070346) (247.070298) (251.079579) (252.08297) (257.095096) (258.098427) (259.1011) (262.1098)

U 93

Uranium Neptunium Plutonium

Pa 92

Protactin.
231.03588

Th 91

Thorium

Ac 90

(272)

Gd 65
Gadolin.

Eu 64

Praseodym. Neodym. Prometh. Samarium Europium


140.116 140.90765
144.24 (144.912745) 150.36
151.964

Ce 59

Cerium

Actinium

89

138.9055

Gold

178.49 180.9479 183.84


186.207
190.23
192.217 195.078 196.96655 200.59
104
Rf 105 Db 106
Sg 107 Bh 108 Hs 109 Mt 110
111
112

La 58

Lanthan.

57

Radium

Lanthanides

Actinides Rutherford. Dubnium Seaborg. Bohrium Hassium Meitner.


(223.019731) (226.025402)
(261.1089) (262.1144) (263.1186) (262.1231) (265.1306) (266.1378) (269, 273)

Francium

87

Barium

137.327
Fr 88
Ra

Cesium
132.90545

126.90447
85.4678
87.62
88.90585 91.224 92.90638
95.94 (97.907215) 101.07 102.90550 106.42 107.8682 112.411 114.818 118.710 121.760
127.60
131.29
55
Cs 56
Ba 5771 72
Hf 73
Ta 74
W 75
Re 76
Os 77
Ir 78
Pt 79
Au 80
Hg 81
Tl 82
Pb 83
Bi 84
Po 85
At 86
Rn

Rubidium Strontium

39.0983
40.078 44.955910 47.867
50.9415 51.9961 54.938049 55.845 58.933200 58.6934
63.546
65.39
69.723
72.61
74.92160
78.96
79.904
83.80
37
Rb 38
Sr 39
Y 40
Zr 41
Nb 42
Mo 43
Tc 44
Ru 45
Rh 46
Pd 47
Ag 48
Cd 49
In 50
Sn 51
Sb 52
Te 53
I 54
Xe

Potassium

9
Sodium Magnesium
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
Aluminum Silicon
Phosph.
Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon
VIII
22.989770 24.3050
32.066
35.4527
39.948
26.981538 28.0855 30.973761
IIIB
IVB
VB
VIB
VIIB
IB
IIB
19
K 20
Ca 21
Sc 22
Ti 23
V 24
Cr 25
Mn 26
Fe 27
Co 28
Ni 29
Cu 30
Zn 31
Ga 32
Ge 33
As 34
Se 35
Br 36
Kr

6.941
9.012182
11
Na 12
Mg

Lithium

Hydrogen

2
1.00794
IIA
3
Li 4
Be

1
IA

Table 4.1. Revised 1997 by C.G. Wohl (LBNL). Heavy element updates in May 2000 by D.E. Groom. The atomic number (top left) is the number of protons in the
nucleus. The atomic mass (bottom) is weighted by isotopic abundances in the Earths surface. Atomic masses are relative to the mass of the carbon-12 isotope, dened
to be exactly 12 unied atomic mass units (u). Errors range from 1 to 9 in the last digit quoted. Relative isotopic abundances often vary considerably, both in natural
and commercial samples. A number in parentheses is the mass of the longest-lived isotope of that elementno stable isotope exists. However, although Th, Pa, and U
have no stable isotopes, they do have characteristic terrestrial compositions, and meaningful weighted masses can be given. For elements 110112, the atomic numbers
of known isotopes are given. Adapted from the Commission of Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances, Atomic Weights of the Elements 1995, Pure and Applied
Chemistry 68, 2339 (1996), and G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra, The 1993 Mass Evaluation, Nucl. Phys. A565, 1 (1993).

E
Atomic and SubAtomic properties of the materials

763

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. ur

UNIVERSAL
299 792 458
4 107
= 12.566 370 614... 107
8.854 187 817... 1012

m s1
N A2
N A2
F m1

(exact)

Z0

376.730 313 461...

(exact)

G
G/ c
h
h

6.6742(10) 1011
6.7087(10) 1039
6.626 0693(11) 1034
4.135 667 43(35) 1015
1.054 571 68(18) 1034
6.582 119 15(56) 1016
197.326 968(17)

m3 kg1 s2
(GeV/c2 )2
Js
eV s
Js
eV s
MeV fm

1.5 104
1.5 104
1.7 107
8.5 108
1.7 107
8.5 108
8.5 108

2.176 45(16) 108


1.416 79(11) 1032
1.616 24(12) 1035
5.391 21(40) 1044

kg
K
m
s

7.5 105
7.5 105
7.5 105
7.5 105

c, c0
0

speed of light in vacuum


magnetic constant
electric constant 1/0 c2
characteristic impedance
of vacuum 0 / 0 = 0 c

Newtonian constant
of gravitation
Planck constant
in eV s
h/2
in eV s
h
c in Mev fm

Planck mass ( c/G)1/2


h
Planck temperature ( c5 /G)1/2 /k
h
Planck length /mP c = ( G/c3 )1/2
h
h
Planck time lP /c = ( G/c5 )1/2
h

mP
TP
lP
tP

ELECTROMAGNETIC

(exact)
(exact)

elementary charge

e
e/h

1.602 176 53(14) 1019


2.417 989 40(21) 1014

C
A J1

8.5 108
8.5 108

magnetic ux quantum h/2e


conductance quantum 2e2/h
inverse of conductance quantum
Josephson constant1 2e/h
von Klitzing constant2
h/e2 = 0 c/2

0
G0
G1
0
KJ

2.067 833 72(18) 1015


7.748 091 733(26) 105
12 906.403 725(43)
483 597.879(41) 109

Wb
S

Hz V1

8.5 108
3.3 109
3.3 109
8.5 108

RK

25 812.807 449(86)

3.3 109

Bohr magneton e /2me


h
in eV T1

927.400 949(80) 1026


5.788 381 804(39) 105
13.996 2458(12) 109
46.686 4507(40)
0.671 7131(12)

J T1
eV T1
Hz T1
m1 T1
K T1

8.6 108
6.7 109
8.6 108
8.6 108
1.8 106

5.050 783 43(43) 1027


3.152 451 259(21) 108
7.622 593 71(65)
2.542 623 58(22) 102
3.658 2637(64) 104

J T1
eV T1
MHz T1
m1 T1
K T1

8.6 108
6.7 109
8.6 108
8.6 108
1.8 106

B /h
B /hc
B /k
nuclear magneton e /2mp
h
in eV T1

N
N /h
N /hc
N /k

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR


General

Page 1

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. ur

ne-structure constant e2/4 0 c


h
inverse ne-structure constant

7.297 352 568(24) 103


137.035 999 11(46)

Rydberg constant 2 me c/2h

R
R c
R hc

10 973 731.568 525(73)


3.289 841 960 360(22) 1015
2.179 872 09(37) 1018
13.605 6923(12)

m1
Hz
J
eV

6.6 1012
6.6 1012
1.7 107
8.5 108

a0

0.529 177 2108(18) 1010

3.3 109

Eh

4.359 744 17(75) 1018


27.211 3845(23)
3.636 947 550(24) 104
7.273 895 101(48) 104

J
eV
m2 s1
m2 s1

1.7 107
8.5 108
6.7 109
6.7 109

GF /( c)3
h

1.166 39(1) 105

GeV2

8.6 106

sin2 W

0.222 15(76)

R hc in eV
Bohr radius /4R = 4 0 2/me e2
h
Hartree energy e2/4 0 a0 = 2R hc
= 2 me c2
in eV
quantum of circulation

h/2me
h/me

3.3 109
3.3 109

Electroweak
Fermi coupling constant3
weak mixing angle4 W (on-shell scheme)
sin2 W = s2 1 (mW /mZ )2
W

3.4 103

Electron, e
9.109 3826(16) 1031

kg

1.7 107

me c

5.485 799 0945(24) 104


8.187 1047(14) 1014
0.510 998 918(44)

u
J
MeV

4.4 1010
1.7 107
8.6 108

electron-muon mass ratio


electron-tau mass ratio
electron-proton mass ratio
electron-neutron mass ratio
electron-deuteron mass ratio
electron to alpha particle mass ratio

me /m
me /m
me /mp
me /mn
me /md
me /m

4.836 331 67(13) 103


2.875 64(47) 104
5.446 170 2173(25) 104
5.438 673 4481(38) 104
2.724 437 1095(13) 104
1.370 933 555 75(61) 104

electron charge to mass quotient


electron molar mass NA me
Compton wavelength h/me c
C /2 = a0 = 2/4R
classical electron radius 2 a0
2
Thomson cross section (8/3)re

e/me
M (e), Me
C
C
re
e

1.758 820 12(15) 1011


5.485 799 0945(24) 107
2.426 310 238(16) 1012
386.159 2678(26) 1015
2.817 940 325(28) 1015
0.665 245 873(13) 1028

C kg1
kg mol1
m
m
m
m2

8.6 108
4.4 1010
6.7 109
6.7 109
1.0 108
2.0 108

electron magnetic moment


to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
electron magnetic moment
anomaly |e |/B 1
electron g-factor 2(1 + ae )

e
e /B
e /N

928.476 412(80) 1026


1.001 159 652 1859(38)
1838.281 971 07(85)

J T1

8.6 108
3.8 1012
4.6 1010

ae
ge

1.159 652 1859(38) 103


2.002 319 304 3718(75)

electron mass
in u, me = Ar (e) u (electron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

Page 2

me
2

2.6 108
1.6 104
4.6 1010
7.0 1010
4.8 1010
4.4 1010

3.2 109
3.8 1012

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

electron-muon
magnetic moment ratio
electron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
electron to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. ur

e /

2.6 108

e /p

658.210 6862(66)

1.0 108

e /p

electron-neutron
magnetic moment ratio
electron-deuteron
magnetic moment ratio
electron to shielded helion5
magnetic moment ratio
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
electron gyromagnetic ratio 2|e |/
h

206.766 9894(54)

658.227 5956(71)

1.1 108

e /n

960.920 50(23)

2.4 107

e /d

2143.923 493(23)

1.1 108

e /h

864.058 255(10)

1.2 108

e
e /2

1.760 859 74(15) 1011


28 024.9532(24)

s1 T1
MHz T1

8.6 108
8.6 108

1.883 531 40(33) 1028

kg

1.7 107

m c

0.113 428 9264(30)


1.692 833 60(29) 1011
105.658 3692(94)

u
J
MeV

2.6 108
1.7 107
8.9 108

muon-electron mass ratio


muon-tau mass ratio
muon-proton mass ratio
muon-neutron mass ratio
muon molar mass NA m

m /me
m /m
m /mp
m /mn
M (), M

206.768 2838(54)
5.945 92(97) 102
0.112 609 5269(29)
0.112 454 5175(29)
0.113 428 9264(30) 103

muon Compton wavelength h/m c


C, /2
muon magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

C,
C,

/B
/N

11.734 441 05(30) 1015


1.867 594 298(47) 1015
4.490 447 99(40) 1026
4.841 970 45(13) 103
8.890 596 98(23)

a
g

1.165 919 81(62) 103


2.002 331 8396(12)

5.3 107
6.2 1010

/p

3.183 345 118(89)

2.8 108

Muon,
muon mass
in u, m = Ar () u (muon
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

muon magnetic moment anomaly


| |/(e /2m ) 1
h
muon g-factor 2(1 + a )
muon-proton
magnetic moment ratio

m
2

kg mol1
m
m
J T1

Tau,
tau mass6
in u, m = Ar () u (tau
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent

Page 3

2.6 108
1.6 104
2.6 108
2.6 108
2.6 108
2.5 108
2.5 108
8.9 108
2.6 108
2.6 108

3.167 77(52) 1027

m
2

m c

kg

1.6 104

1.907 68(31)
2.847 05(46) 1010

u
J

1.6 104
1.6 104

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

Value
1776.99(29)

in MeV

Unit
MeV

Relative std.
uncert. ur
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104

tau-electron mass ratio


tau-muon mass ratio
tau-proton mass ratio
tau-neutron mass ratio
tau molar mass NA m

m /me
m /m
m /mp
m /mn
M (), M

3477.48(57)
16.8183(27)
1.893 90(31)
1.891 29(31)
1.907 68(31) 103

tau Compton wavelength h/m c


C, /2

C,
C,

0.697 72(11) 1015


0.111 046(18) 1015

m
m

1.6 104
1.6 104

1.672 621 71(29) 1027

kg

1.7 107

u
J
MeV

1.3 1010
1.7 107
8.6 108

kg mol1

Proton, p
proton mass
in u, mp = Ar (p) u (proton
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

mp

mp c

1.007 276 466 88(13)


1.503 277 43(26) 1010
938.272 029(80)

proton-electron mass ratio


proton-muon mass ratio
proton-tau mass ratio
proton-neutron mass ratio
proton charge to mass quotient
proton molar mass NA mp

mp /me
mp /m
mp /m
mp /mn
e/mp
M (p), Mp

1836.152 672 61(85)


8.880 243 33(23)
0.528 012(86)
0.998 623 478 72(58)
9.578 833 76(82) 107
1.007 276 466 88(13) 103

proton Compton wavelength h/mp c


C,p /2
proton rms charge radius
proton magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

C,p
C,p
Rp
p
p /B
p /N

1.321 409 8555(88) 1015


0.210 308 9104(14) 1015
0.8750(68) 1015
1.410 606 71(12) 1026
1.521 032 206(15) 103
2.792 847 351(28)

proton g-factor 2p /N
proton-neutron
magnetic moment ratio
shielded proton magnetic moment
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
proton magnetic shielding
correction 1 p /p
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)

gp

5.585 694 701(56)

p /n
p

1.459 898 05(34)


1.410 570 47(12) 1026

p /B
p /N

1.520 993 132(16) 103


2.792 775 604(30)

1.1 108
1.1 108

25.689(15) 106

5.7 104

p
p /2

2.675 222 05(23) 108


42.577 4813(37)

s1 T1
MHz T1

8.6 108
8.6 108

2.675 153 33(23) 108

s1 T1

8.6 108

proton gyromagnetic ratio 2p /


h
shielded proton gyromagnetic
ratio 2p /
h
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)

Page 4

C kg1
kg mol1
m
m
m
J T1

4.6 1010
2.6 108
1.6 104
5.8 1010
8.6 108
1.3 1010
6.7 109
6.7 109
7.8 103
8.7 108
1.0 108
1.0 108
1.0 108

JT

2.4 107
8.7 108

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. ur

MHz T1

8.6 108

1.674 927 28(29) 1027

p /2

kg

1.7 107

u
J
MeV

5.5 1010
1.7 107
8.6 108

42.576 3875(37)
Neutron, n

neutron mass
in u, mn = Ar (n) u (neutron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

mn

mn c

1.008 664 915 60(55)


1.505 349 57(26) 1010
939.565 360(81)

neutron-electron mass ratio


neutron-muon mass ratio
neutron-tau mass ratio
neutron-proton mass ratio
neutron molar mass NA mn

mn /me
mn /m
mn /m
mn /mp
M (n), Mn

1838.683 6598(13)
8.892 484 02(23)
0.528 740(86)
1.001 378 418 70(58)
1.008 664 915 60(55) 103

neutron Compton wavelength h/mn c


C,n /2
neutron magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

C,n
C,n
n
n /B
n /N

1.319 590 9067(88) 1015


0.210 019 4157(14) 1015
0.966 236 45(24) 1026
1.041 875 63(25) 103
1.913 042 73(45)

neutron g-factor 2n /N
neutron-electron
magnetic moment ratio
neutron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
neutron to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
neutron gyromagnetic ratio 2|n |/
h

gn

3.826 085 46(90)

2.4 107

n /e

1.040 668 82(25) 103

2.4 107

n /p

0.684 979 34(16)

2.4 107

n /p

0.684 996 94(16)

2.4 107

n
n /2

1.832 471 83(46) 108


29.164 6950(73)

kg mol1
m
m
J T1

6.7 109
6.7 109
2.5 107
2.4 107
2.4 107

s1 T1
MHz T1

2.5 107
2.5 107

3.343 583 35(57) 1027

kg

1.7 107

u
J
MeV

1.7 1010
1.7 107
8.6 108

Deuteron, d
deuteron mass
in u, md = Ar (d) u (deuteron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

md

md c

2.013 553 212 70(35)


3.005 062 85(51) 1010
1875.612 82(16)

deuteron-electron mass ratio


deuteron-proton mass ratio
deuteron molar mass NA md

md /me
md /mp
M (d), Md

3670.482 9652(18)
1.999 007 500 82(41)
2.013 553 212 70(35) 103

deuteron rms charge radius


deuteron magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

Rd
d
d /B
d /N

2.1394(28) 1015
0.433 073 482(38) 1026
0.466 975 4567(50) 103
0.857 438 2329(92)

Page 5

7.0 1010
2.6 108
1.6 104
5.8 1010
5.5 1010

kg mol1
m
J T1

4.8 1010
2.0 1010
1.7 1010
1.3 103
8.7 108
1.1 108
1.1 108

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

deuteron-electron
magnetic moment ratio
deuteron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
deuteron-neutron
magnetic moment ratio

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. ur

d /e

4.664 345 548(50) 104

1.1 108

d /p

0.307 012 2084(45)

1.5 108

d /n

0.448 206 52(11)

2.4 107

Helion, h

5.006 412 14(86) 1027

kg

1.7 107

mh c

3.014 932 2434(58)


4.499 538 84(77) 1010
2808.391 42(24)

u
J
MeV

1.9 109
1.7 107
8.6 108

mh /me
mh /mp
M (h), Mh
h

5495.885 269(11)
2.993 152 6671(58)
3.014 932 2434(58) 103
1.074 553 024(93) 1026

h /B
h /N

1.158 671 474(14) 103


2.127 497 723(25)

1.2 108
1.2 108

h /p

0.761 766 562(12)

1.5 108

h /p

0.761 786 1313(33)

4.3 109

2.037 894 70(18) 108

s1 T1

8.7 108

h /2

32.434 1015(28)

MHz T1

8.7 108

6.644 6565(11) 1027

kg

1.7 107

m c

4.001 506 179 149(56)


5.971 9194(10) 1010
3727.379 17(32)

u
J
MeV

1.4 1011
1.7 107
8.6 108

m /me
m /mp
M (), M

7294.299 5363(32)
3.972 599 689 07(52)
4.001 506 179 149(56) 103

helion mass5
in u, mh = Ar (h) u (helion
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

mh

helion-electron mass ratio


helion-proton mass ratio
helion molar mass NA mh
shielded helion magnetic moment
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
shielded helion to proton
magnetic moment ratio
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
shielded helion to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(gas/H2 O, spheres, 25 C)
shielded helion gyromagnetic
h
ratio 2|h |/
(gas, sphere, 25 C)

kg mol1
J T1

Alpha particle,
alpha particle mass
in u, m = Ar () u (alpha particle
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV
alpha particle to electron mass ratio
alpha particle to proton mass ratio
alpha particle molar mass NA m

m
2

kg mol1

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL
Avogadro constant
atomic mass constant
1
mu = 12 m(12 C) = 1 u

Page 6

2.0 109
1.9 109
1.9 109
8.7 108

4.4 1010
1.3 1010
1.4 1011

NA , L

6.022 1415(10) 1023

mol1

1.7 107

mu

1.660 538 86(28) 1027

kg

1.7 107

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing


Quantity

Symbol

= 103 kg mol1/NA
energy equivalent
in MeV
Faraday constant7 NA e

1.7 107
8.6 108
8.6 108

3.990 312 716(27) 1010


0.119 626 565 72(80)
8.314 472(15)
1.380 6505(24) 1023
8.617 343(15) 105
2.083 6644(36) 1010
69.503 56(12)

J s mol1
J m mol1
J mol1 K1
J K1
eV K1
Hz K1
m1 K1

6.7 109
6.7 109
1.7 106
1.8 106
1.8 106
1.7 106
1.7 106

Vm
n0
Vm

22.413 996(39) 103


2.686 7773(47) 1025
22.710 981(40) 103

m3 mol1
m3
m3 mol1

1.7 106
1.8 106
1.7 106

S0 /R

1.151 7047(44)
1.164 8677(44)

c1
c1L
c2

5.670 400(40) 108


3.741 771 38(64) 1016
1.191 042 82(20) 1016
1.438 7752(25) 102

W m2 K4
W m2
W m2 sr1
mK

7.0 106
1.7 107
1.7 107
1.7 106

2.897 7685(51) 103

mK

1.7 106

NA h
NA hc
R
k
k/h
k/hc

molar volume of ideal gas RT /p


T = 273.15 K, p = 101.325 kPa
Loschmidt constant NA /Vm
T = 273.15 K, p = 100 kPa
Sackur-Tetrode constant
(absolute entropy constant)8
5
2 3/2
kT1 /p0 ]
2 + ln[(2mu kT1 /h )
T1 = 1 K, p0 = 100 kPa
T1 = 1 K, p0 = 101.325 kPa
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
(2 /60)k 4/ 3 c2
h
rst radiation constant 2hc2
rst radiation constant for spectral radiance 2hc2
second radiation constant hc/k
Wien displacement law constant
b = max T = c2 /4.965 114 231...
1

Relative std.
uncert. ur

J
MeV
C mol1

molar gas constant


Boltzmann constant R/NA
in eV K1

Unit

1.492 417 90(26) 1010


931.494 043(80)
96 485.3383(83)

mu c2

molar Planck constant

Value

3.8 106
3.8 106

See the Adopted values table for the conventional value adopted internationally for realizing representations of the volt using the Josephson effect.
2
See the Adopted values table for the conventional value adopted internationally for realizing representations of the ohm using the quantum Hall
effect.
3
Value recommended by the Particle Data Group (Hagiwara, et al., 2002).
4
Based on the ratio of the masses of the W and Z bosons mW /mZ recommended by the Particle Data Group (Hagiwara, et al., 2002). The value for

sin2 W they recommend, which is based on a particular variant of the modied minimal subtraction (MS) scheme, is sin2 W (MZ ) = 0.231 24(24).
5
The helion, symbol h, is the nucleus of the 3 He atom.
6
This and all other values involving m are based on the value of m c2 in MeV recommended by the Particle Data Group, (Hagiwara, et al.,
2002), but with a standard uncertainty of 0.29 MeV rather than the quoted uncertainty of 0.26 MeV, +0.29 MeV.
7
The numerical value of F to be used in coulometric chemical measurements is 96 485.336(16) [1.7 107 ] when the relevant current is measured in terms of representations of the volt and ohm based on the Josephson and quantum Hall effects and the internationally adopted conventional
values of the Josephson and von Klitzing constants KJ90 and RK90 given in the Adopted values table.
8
3
The entropy of an ideal monoatomic gas of relative atomic mass Ar is given by S = S0 + 2 R ln Ar R ln(p/p0 ) + 5 R ln(T /K). 9 The
2
relative atomic mass Ar (X) of particle X with mass m(X) is dened by Ar (X) = m(X)/mu , where mu = m(12 C)/12 = Mu /NA = 1 u is the
atomic mass constant, NA is the Avogadro constant, and u is the atomic mass unit. Thus the mass of particle X in u is m(X) = Ar (X) u and the
molar mass of X is M (X) = Ar (X)Mu .

Page 7

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

From: http://physics.nist.gov/constants

10

This is the value adopted internationally for realizing representations of the volt using the Josephson effect.
This is the value adopted internationally for realizing representations of the ohm using the quantum Hall effect. a This is the lattice parameter
(unit cell edge length) of an ideal single crystal of naturally occurring Si free of impurities and imperfections, and is deduced from measurements
on extremely pure and nearly perfect single crystals of Si by correcting for the effects of impurities.
11

Page 8

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical
Constants: 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005).

5. Electronic structure of the elements

5. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ELEMENTS


Table 5.1. Reviewed 2005 by C.G. Wohl (LBNL). The electronic congurations and the ionization energies are from the NIST database,
Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, W.C. Martin, A. Musgrove, S. Kotochigova, and J.E. Sansonetti (2003),
http://physics.nist.gov (select Physical Reference Data). The electron conguration for, say, iron indicates an argon electronic core (see
argon) plus six 3d electrons and two 4s electrons. The ionization energy is the least energy necessary to remove to innity one electron from an
atom of the element.

Element
1
2

H
He

Hydrogen
Helium

1s
1s2

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne

Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon

(He)2s
(He)2s2
(He)2s2
(He)2s2
(He)2s2
(He)2s2
(He)2s2
(He)2s2

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar

Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon

(Ne)3s
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2
(Ne)3s2

Ground
state
2S+1 L
J

Ionization
energy
(eV)

2S

Electron conguration
(3d5 = ve 3d electrons, etc.)

13.5984
24.5874

1S
2S
1S

0
1/2
0

2P
1/2
3P
0
4S
3/2
3P
2
2P
3/2
1S
0

2p
2p2
2p3
2p4
2p5
2p6

2S
1S

1/2
0

2P
1/2
3P
0
4S
3/2
3P
2
2P
3/2
1S
0

3p
3p2
3p3
3p4
3p5
3p6

19
K
Potassium
(Ar)
4s
20
Ca Calcium
(Ar)
4s2
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21
Sc
Scandium
(Ar) 3d 4s2
22
Ti
Titanium
(Ar) 3d2 4s2
23
V
Vanadium
(Ar) 3d3 4s2
24
Cr Chromium
(Ar) 3d5 4s
25
Mn Manganese
(Ar) 3d5 4s2
26
Fe
Iron
(Ar) 3d6 4s2
27
Co Cobalt
(Ar) 3d7 4s2
28
Ni
Nickel
(Ar) 3d8 4s2
29
Cu Copper
(Ar) 3d10 4s
30
Zn Zinc
(Ar) 3d10 4s2
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31
Ga Gallium
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p
32
Ge Germanium
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p2
33
As Arsenic
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p3
34
Se
Selenium
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p4
35
Br Bromine
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p5
36
Kr Krypton
(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p6

1/2

2S

T
r
a
n
s
i
t
i
o
n
-

5.3917
9.3227
8.2980
11.2603
14.5341
13.6181
17.4228
21.5645
5.1391
7.6462
5.9858
8.1517
10.4867
10.3600
12.9676
15.7596

4.3407
6.1132
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 2D
6.5615
3/2
3F
6.8281
2
e
4F
6.7462
3/2
l
7S
6.7665
e
3
6S
7.4340
m
5/2
5D
e
7.9024
4
4F
n
7.8810
9/2
3F
t
7.6398
4
s
2S
7.7264
1/2
1S
9.3942
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 2P
5.9993
1/2
3P
7.8994
0
4S
9.7886
3/2
3P
9.7524
2
2P
11.8138
3/2
1S
13.9996
0
1S

1/2
0

2S
37
Rb Rubidium
(Kr)
5s
4.1771
1/2
2
1S
5.6949
38
Sr
Strontium
(Kr)
5s
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
2D
6.2173
39
Y
Yttrium
(Kr) 4d 5s
T
3/2
3F
r
6.6339
40
Zr
Zirconium
(Kr) 4d2 5s2
2
e
6D
a
6.7589
41
Nb Niobium
(Kr) 4d4 5s
1/2
l
n
7S
42
Mo Molybdenum
(Kr) 4d5 5s
7.0924
e
3
s
6S
7.28
43
Tc Technetium
(Kr) 4d5 5s2
m
5/2
i
5F
e
7.3605
44
Ru Ruthenium
(Kr) 4d7 5s
5
t
4F
n
7.4589
45
Rh Rhodium
(Kr) 4d8 5s
9/2
i
1S
t
8.3369
46
Pd Palladium
(Kr) 4d10
0
o
s
2S
47
Ag Silver
(Kr) 4d10 5s
7.5762
n
1/2
1S
8.9938
48
Cd Cadmium
(Kr) 4d10 5s2
0

5. Electronic structure of the elements

49
50
51
52
53
54

In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe

Indium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Iodine
Xenon

(Kr) 4d10 5s2


(Kr) 4d10 5s2
(Kr) 4d10 5s2
(Kr) 4d10 5s2
(Kr) 4d10 5s2
(Kr) 4d10 5s2

5p
5p2
5p3
5p4
5p5
5p6

2P
1/2
3P
0
4S
3/2
3P
2
2P
3/2
1S
0

5.7864
7.3439
8.6084
9.0096
10.4513
12.1298

2S
55
Cs Cesium
(Xe)
6s
3.8939
1/2
2
1S
5.2117
56
Ba Barium
(Xe)
6s
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
2D
57
La Lanthanum
(Xe)
5d 6s
5.5769
3/2
1G
5.5387
58
Ce Cerium
(Xe)4f 5d 6s2
4
4I
6s2
5.473
59
Pr
Praseodymium
(Xe)4f 3
L
9/2
5I
a
6s2
5.5250
60
Nd Neodymium
(Xe)4f 4
4
6H
n
6s2
5.582
61
Pm Promethium
(Xe)4f 5
5/2
t
7F
62
Sm Samarium
(Xe)4f 6
6s2
5.6437
0
h
8S
6s2
5.6704
63
Eu Europium
(Xe)4f 7
7/2
a
9D
6.1498
64
Gd Gadolinium
(Xe)4f 7 5d 6s2
2
n
6H
6s2
5.8638
65
Tb Terbium
(Xe)4f 9
15/2
i
5I
6s2
5.9389
66
Dy Dysprosium
(Xe)4f 10
8
d
4I
67
Ho Holmium
(Xe)4f 11
6s2
6.0215
e
15/2
3H
6s2
6.1077
68
Er
Erbium
(Xe)4f 12
s
6
2F
6s2
6.1843
69
Tm Thulium
(Xe)4f 13
7/2
1S
6s2
6.2542
70
Yb Ytterbium
(Xe)4f 14
0
2D
5.4259
71
Lu Lutetium
(Xe)4f 14 5d 6s2
3/2
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 5d2 6s2
3F
6.8251
72
Hf
Hafnium
(Xe)4f
T
2
4F
r
7.5496
73
Ta Tantalum
(Xe)4f 14 5d3 6s2
3/2
e
5D
a
7.8640
74
W
Tungsten
(Xe)4f 14 5d4 6s2
0
l
6S
n
7.8335
75
Re Rhenium
(Xe)4f 14 5d5 6s2
e
5/2
s m
5D
8.4382
76
Os Osmium
(Xe)4f 14 5d6 6s2
4
i
4F
e
8.9670
77
Ir
Iridium
(Xe)4f 14 5d7 6s2
9/2
t
3D
n
78
Pt
Platinum
(Xe)4f 14 5d9 6s
8.9588
3
i
t
2S1/2
9.2255
79
Au Gold
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s
o
s
1S
10.4375
80
Hg Mercury
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2
0
n
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2P
81
Tl
Thallium
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p
6.1082
1/2
3P
82
Pb Lead
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p2
7.4167
0
4S
7.2855
83
Bi
Bismuth
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p3
3/2
3P
8.414
84
Po Polonium
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p4
2
2P
85
At Astatine
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p5
3/2
1S
86
Rn Radon
(Xe)4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p6
10.7485
0

87
Fr
Francium
(Rn)
88
Ra Radium
(Rn)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 89
Ac Actinium
(Rn)
6d
90
Th Thorium
(Rn)
6d2
91
Pa Protactinium
(Rn)5f 2 6d
92
U
Uranium
(Rn)5f 3 6d
93
Np Neptunium
(Rn)5f 4 6d
94
Pu Plutonium
(Rn)5f 6
95
Am Americium
(Rn)5f 7
96
Cm Curium
(Rn)5f 7 6d
97
Bk Berkelium
(Rn)5f 9
98
Cf
Californium
(Rn)5f 10
99
Es
Einsteinium
(Rn)5f 11
100
Fm Fermium
(Rn)5f 12
101
Md Mendelevium
(Rn)5f 13
102
No Nobelium
(Rn)5f 14
103
Lr
Lawrencium
(Rn)5f 14
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 104
Rf
Rutherfordium
(Rn)5f 14 6d2

2S
7s
4.0727
1/2
2
1S
5.2784
7s
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
2D
7s
5.17
3/2
3F
7s2
6.3067
2
4K

7s2
5.89
A
11/2
5L
c
7s2
6.1941
6

6L
t
7s2
6.2657
11/2
i
7F
7s2
6.0260
0
n
8S
7s2
5.9738
7/2
i
9D
7s2
5.9914
2
d
6H
7s2
6.1979
15/2
e
5I
7s2
6.2817
8
s
4I
7s2
6.42
15/2
3H
7s2
6.50
6
2F
7s2
6.58
7/2
1S
7s2
6.65
0
2P
7s2 7p?
4.9?
1/2 ?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3F ?
7s2 ?
6.0?
2

The usual LS coupling scheme does not apply for these three elements. See the introductory
note to the NIST table from which this table is taken.

E: Atomic and SubAtomic properties of the materials

774

November 1, 2010

F
Properties of Matter: data tables

775

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

CHAPTER 2

Tables
These tables are from

Understanding the properties of matter


by Michael de Podesta.
The copyright of these tables resides with the publishers, Taylor
and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes, but their source
must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 2.1 The properties of particles that are treated as fundamental in this book. The most important
properties of the particles for understanding the properties of matter are the first two rows of the table:
mass and electric charge. The internal angular momentum (spin) and magnetic moment of the particles
are discussed in the text below.
Property

Units

Electron
5.485 10
1/1836
1

Magnetic moment

Atomic mass units


u = 1.661 1027 kg
Proton charge
e = 1.602 1019 C
Bohr magneton

Magnetic moment

B = 9.274 1024 J T1
Nuclear magneton

Intrinsic (spin)
angular momentum

N = 5.051 1027 J T1
Planck constant divided by 2p
h = 1.054 1034 J s

Electric dipole moment

Cm

Mass
Electric charge

Lifetime

1.001
1837.8
1

Neutron
4

Proton

1.0085

1.0071

+1

1.0419 10 3

1.521 10 3

1.913

2.793

Stable

Stable within nuclei


half life 15 minutes
in free space.

Stable

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 2.2. The elements with atomic numbers up to 105 together with their date of discovery. The term
Old as a date of discovery indicates that the element was known in antiquity. The names of the elements tell many fascinating stories about their discovery.
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

29
30
31
32
33

Element, symbol, date of


discovery
Origin of name
Hydrogen, H, (1766)
Greek: Hydros Genes: meaning Water Forming
Helium, He, (1895)
Greek: Helios meaning Sun
Lithium, Li, (1817)
Greek: Lithos meaning Stone
Beryllium, Be, (1797)
Greek: Beryllos meaning Beryl
Boron, B, (1808)
Arabic: Buraq
Carbon, C, (Old)
Latin: Carbo meaning Charcoal
Nitrogen, N, (1772)
Greek: Nitron Genes meaning
Nitre Forming
Oxygen, O, (1774)
Greek: Oxy Genes meaning
Acid Forming
Latin: Fluere meaning To Flow
Fluorine, F, (1886)
Neon, Ne, (1898)
Greek: Neos meaning New
English: Soda: The symbol
Sodium, Na, (1807)
comes from the Latin Natrium
Magnesium, Mg, (1755)
Greek: Magnesia, a district in
Thessaly
Latin: alumen meaning alum
Aluminium, Al, (1825)
Silicon, Si, , (1824)
Latin: Silicis meaning Flint
Phosphorus, P, (1669)
Greek: Phosphorus meaning
Bringer of Light
Sulphur, S, (Old)
Sanskrit: Sulvere meaning
Sulphur
Chlorine, Cl, (1774)
Greek: Chloros meaning Pale
Green
Argon, Ar, (1894)
Greek: Argos meaning Inactive
Potassium, K, (1807)
English: Potash: The symbol
comes from the Latin Kalium
Calcium, Ca, (1808)
Latin: Calix meaning Lime
Scandium, Sc, (1879)
Latin: Scandia meaning Scandinavia
Titanium, Ti, (1791)
Titans, Sons of the Earth
Goddess.
Vanadium, V, (1801)
Vanadis, Scandinavian goddess
Chromium, Cr, (1780)
Greek: Chroma meaning
Colour
Manganese, Mn, (1774)
Latin: Magnes meaning Magnet
Iron, Fe, (Old)
Saxon: Iron: The symbol
comes from the Latin Ferrum
Cobalt, Co, (1735)
German: kobald meaning
Goblin
Nickel, Ni, (1751)
German: Kupfernickel meaning
either Devils Copper or St
Nicholas Copper
Copper, Cu, (Old)
Latin: Cuprum meaning Cyprus
Zinc, Zn, (1400)
German: Zink
Gallium, Ga, (1875)
Latin: Gallia meaning France
Germanium, Ge, (1886)
Latin: Germania meaning
German
Arsenic, As, (1280)
Greek: Arsenikon meaning
Yellow Orpiment

Z
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

42
43
44
45
46
47

48
49
50
51

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

Element, symbol, date of


discovery
Origin of name
Selenium, Se, (1817)
Greek: Selene meaning Moon
Bromine, Br, (1826)
Greek: Bromos meaning
Stench
Krypton, Kr, (1898)
Greek: Kryptos meaning Hidden
Rubidium, Rb, (1861)
Latin: Rubidius meaning
Deepest Red
Strontium, Sr, (1790)
English: Strontian in Scotland
Yttrium, Y, (1794)
The town of Ytterby in Sweden
Zirconium, Zr, (1789)
Arabic: Zargun meaning Gold
Colour
Niobium, Nb, (1801)
Greek: Niobe, a daughter of
Tantalus: Also called Columbium in USA
Molybdenum, Mo, (1781) Greek: Molybdos meaning
Lead
Technetium, Tc, (1937)
Greek: Technikos meaning
Artificial
Ruthenium, Ru, (1808)
Latin: Ruthenia meaning Russia
Rhodium, Rh, (1803)
Greek: Rhodon meaning Rose
Palladium, Pd, (1803)
The asteroid Pallas
Silver, Ag, (Old)
Saxon: Siolfur meaning Silver:
The symbol comes from the
Latin Argentum
Cadmium, Cd, (1817)
Latin: Cadmia meaning Calomine
Indium, In, (1863)
Indigo
Tin, Sn, (Old)
Saxon: Tin: The symbol comes
from the Latin Stannum
Antimony, Sb, (Old)
Greek: Anti+Monos meaning
not alone. The symbol is from
Latin Stibium
Tellurium, Te, (1783)
Latin: Tellus meaning Earth
Iodine, I, (1811)
Greek: Iodes meaning Violet
Xenon, Xe, (1898)
Greek: Xenos meaning
Stranger
Caesium, Cs, (1860)
Latin: Caesius meaning Sky
Blue
Barium, Ba, (1808)
Greek: Barys meaning Heavy
Lanthanum, La, (1839)
Greek: Lanthanein meaning
To Lie Hidden
Cerium, Ce, (1803)
Ceres, an asteroid discovered
in 1801
Praseodymium, Pr, (1885) Greek: Prasios Didymos
meaning Green Twin
Neodymium, Nd, (1885)
Greek: Neos Didymos meaning New Twin
Promethium, Pm, (1945)
Greek: Prometheus
Samarium, Sm, (1879)
The mineral Samarskite
Europium, Eu, (1901)
Europe
Gadolinium, Gd, (1880)
J. Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
Terbium, Tb, (1843)
The town of Ytterby in Sweden
Dysprosium, Dy, (1886)
Greek: Dysprositos meaning
Hard To Obtain

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com
Z
67
68
69

70
71
72
73
74

75
76
77
78
79
80

81
82

Element, symbol, date of


discovery
Origin of name
Latin: Holmia meaning StockHolmium, Ho, (1878)
holm
Erbium, Er, (1842)
The town of Ytterby in Sweden
Thule, meaning Ancient
Thulium, Tm, (1879)
Scandinavia: The Uttermost
North
Ytterbium, Yb, (1878)
The town of Ytterby in Sweden
Lutetium, Lu, (1907)
Latin: Lutetia meaning Paris
Latin: Hafnia meaning CopenHafnium, Hf, (1923)
hagen
Tantalum, Ta, (1802)
Greek: Tantalos, the father of
Niobe
Tungsten, W, (1783)
Swedish: Tung Sten meaning
Heavy Stone: The symbol
comes from the alternative
name Wolfram
Rhenium, Re, (1925)
Latin: Rhenus meaning Rhine
Osmium, Os, (1803)
Greek: Osme meaning Smell
Iridium, Ir, (1803)
Latin: Iris meaning Rainbow
Spanish: Platina meaning
Platinum, Pt, (Old)
Silver
Saxon: Gold
Gold, Au, (Old)
Latin: The planet Mercury: The
Mercury, Hg, (Old)
symbol comes from the Latin
Hydragyrum meaning Liquid
Silver
Thallium, Tl, (1861)
Greek: Thallos meaning Green
Twig
Lead, Pb, (Old)
Saxon: Lead: The symbol
comes from the Latin Plumbum

Z
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105

Element, symbol, date of


discovery
Origin of name
German: Bisemutem
Bismuth, Bi, (1450)
Poland
Polonium, Po, (1898)
Astatine, At, (1940)
Greek: Astatos meaning unstable
Radon, Rn, (1900)
Radium
France
Francium, Fr, (1939)
Radium, Ra, (1898)
Latin: Radius meaning Ray
Actinium, Ac, (1899)
Greek: aktinos meaning Ray
Thor The Scandinavian god of
Thorium, Th, (1815)
war
Protractinium, Pa, (1917) Greek: Protos meaning First
Uranium, U, (1789)
The planet Uranus
Neptunium, Np, (1940)
The planet Neptune
The planet Pluto
Plutonium, Pu, (1940)
English: America
Americium, Am, (1944)
Curium, Cm, (1944)
Pierre and Marie Curie
Berkelium, Bk, (1949)
English: Berkeley
Californium, Cf, (1950)
English: California
Albert Einstein
Einsteinium, Es, (1952)
Enrico Fermi
Fermium, Fm, (1952)
Mendelevium, Md, (1955) Dmitri Mendeleyev
Alfred Nobel
Nobelium, No, (1958)
Ernest O. Lawrence
Lawrencium, Lr, (1961)
Rutherfordium, Rf, (1964) Ernest Rutherford
Dubnium, Db, (1967)
The town of Dubna, home to a
centre for nuclear research

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 2.3 Photon energies, frequencies, and wavelengths.


Frequency Wavelength
(Hz)
(m)

Energy
(eV)

106
107
108
109

4.14109 Radio broadcasts


4.14108
4.14107 Television broadcasts
4.14106 A gigahertz: microwave

3102
3101
3
3101

1010
1011
1012

3102
3103
3104

4.14105
4.14104
4.14103

6.6 1012

4.55 104

2.5102

1013
4 1014

3105
7.5 107

4.14102
1.654

1015

3 107

4.14

1016
1017
1018
1019
1020

3108
3109
31010
31011
31012

4.14101
4.14102
4.14103
4.14104
4.14105

1021
1022
1023

31013
31014
31015

4.14106
4.14107
4.14108

Comment

ovens and mobile


phones
Infra-red
Infra-red
A terahertz: Infra-red:
Typical frequency of
atomic vibration
Infra-red: corresponds to
processes occurring at
around room temperature (290K)
Infra-red
Red light: Corresponds
to processes involving
electrons in the outer
(valence) shells of
atoms
Blue light: corresponds
to processes involving
electrons in the outer
(valence) shells of
atoms
Ultra-violet light
Ultra-violet light
Ultra-violet light
X-rays
X-rays: corresponds to
processes involving
electrons in the inner
shells of atoms
X-rays
X-rays
Gamma rays: Corresponds to processes
that occur within nuclei

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 3.1 The SI base units. Notice that, with the exception of the kilogram, the definitions are in terms
of physical phenomena and not defining artefacts. Although the definitions seem obscure, the language is
carefully chosen in order to make accurate realisations of the standards feasible.
The copyright of this table belongs to the National Physical Laboratory. It has been reproduced with
permission from with the National Physical Laboratory. It may be used freely for educational purposes,
but its source (NPL) must be acknowledged.
Quantity:
Unit (abbreviation)
Time:
second (s)

Definition
The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding
to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium133 atom.

Length:
metre (m)

The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval 1/299,792,458 of a second.
Note: This defines 299,792,458 ms1 as the exact speed of light in a vacuum.

Mass:
kilogram (kg)
Electric Current:
ampere (A)

The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram

Thermodynamic temperature:
kelvin (K)
Amount of substance:
mole (mol)

The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of pure water.

Luminous Intensity:
candela (cd)

The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits
monochromatic radiation 540 101 2 hertz and that has a radiant intensity of
1/683 watt per steradian

The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel
conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 metre
apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to
2 107 newton, per metre of length.

The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12.

Table 3.2 SI supplementary units. The copyright of this table belongs to the National Physical Laboratory. It has been reproduced with permission from with the National Physical Laboratory. It may be used
freely for educational purposes, but its source (NPL) must be acknowledged.

Quantity
plane angle
solid angle

Name
radian
steradian

Symbol
rad
sr

Expression in
terms of SI base
units
m m1 =1
m2 m2 =1

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 3.3 SI derived units with special names. The name of the units are all written with lower case
letters (with the exception of degree Celsius), but that the symbols for the units have upper case letters: be
careful to distinguish between seimens (S) and seconds (s). The symbol for the ohm, , is the greek letter
W, called omega.
The copyright of this table belongs to the National Physical Laboratory. It has been reproduced with permission from with the National Physical Laboratory. It may be used freely for educational purposes, but
its source (NPL) must be acknowledged.
Expression in terms of
other units

Expression in terms of
SI base units

Hz
N
Pa

N m2

s1
m kg s2
m1 kg s2

joule

Nm

m2 kg s2

watt

J s1

m2 kg s3

coulomb

volt

W A1

m2 kg s3 A1

farad
ohm
siemens
weber
tesla
henry
degree celsius
lumen
lux

F
W
S
Wb
T
H
C
lm
lx

C V1
V A1
A V1
Vs
Wb m2
Wb A1

m2 kg 1 s4 A1
m2 kg s3 A2
m2 kg 1 s3 A1
m2 kg s2 A1
kg s2 A1
m2 kg s2 A2
K
cd sr
m2 cd sr

Quantity

Name

Symbol

frequency
force
pressure
stress
energy
work
quantity of heat
power
radiant flux
electric charge
quantity of electricity
electrical potential
potential difference
electromotive force
capacitance
electric resistance
electric conductance
magnetic flux
magnetic flux density
inductance
Celsius temperature
luminous flux
illuminance

hertz
newton
pascal

sA

lm m2

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.1 The density of various gases at STP in units of kg m3. The lines in the table separate
gases of monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic molecules.
A
(u)

Density
(kg m3)

Helium, He
Neon, Ne
Argon, Ar
Krypton, Kr
Xenon, Xe
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Chlorine, Cl2

4.0030
20.180
39.948
83.800
131.29
2.0160
28.014
31.998
70.906

0.1786
0.9003
1.782
3.739
5.858
0.08995
1.250
1.428
3.164

Methane, CH4
Ethane, C2H6
Propane, C3H8

16.043
30.070
44.097

0.7158
1.342
1.968

Gas

Table 5.2 The major components of dry atmospheric air. Typically water vapour is also present at a
level of roughly 0.5%.
Gas
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Argon, Ar
Carbon dioxide, CO2

Molecular
mass

% by
volume

28.01
32.00
39.95
44.00

78.09
20.95
0.93
0.03

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.3 The molar volume of various gases at STP in units of 103 m3. The lines in the table separate gases of monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic molecules.

Molar
density
(m3)

Mass
of 1 mol

( 103 kg)

Molar
volume

( 103 m3)

Helium, He
Neon, Ne
Argon, Ar
Krypton, Kr
Xenon, Xe
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Chlorine, Cl2

44.6158
44.6152
44.6162
44.6168
44.6174
44.6160
44.6168
44.6162
44.6172

4.0030
20.180
39.948
83.800
131.29
2.0160
28.014
31.998
70.906

22.4136
22.4139
22.4134
22.4131
22.4128
22.4135
22.4131
22.4134
22.4129

Methane, CH4
Ethane, C2H6
Propane, C3H8

44.6170
44.6178
44.6182

16.043
30.070
44.097

22.4130
22.4126
22.4124

Gas

Table 5.4 Values of the expansivity coefficients b V and b P for gases whose initial pressure is 0.1333
MPa at 0C, valid in the temperature range 0C to 100C. The pressure 0.1333 MPa is a little
greater than normal atmospheric pressure.

Gas

bV (C1)

bP (C1)

Helium, He
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Air
Neon, Ne

3.6580 10
3.6588 103
3.6735 103
3.6728 103
3.6600 103

3.6605 103
3.6620 103
3.6744 103
3.6744 103
3.6617 103

Table 5.5 Comparison of experimental and theoretical expansivities of gases. See also Table 5.4.

Gas

bV (C1)

Helium, He
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Air
Neon, Ne

3.6580 103
3.6588 103
3.6735 103
3.6728 103
3.6600 103

% difference between
theory and experiment
0.082
0.060
+ 0.342
+ 0.323
0.027

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.6 The molar heat capacities at constant pressure CP(JK1mol1) for the monatomic noble gases.
These data are graphed in Figure 5.3.
The shaded figures correspond to data taken in the liquid or solid phase. For each gas the boiling
temperature and melting temperature are separated by less than 5K.
The data between the two double lines is from a separate source from the rest of the table. Notice
that the extra measurement resolution still shows agreement between the heat capacities of the different gases.
T(K)

He

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe

50

24.8

25.1

25.1

100

20.8

31.6

28.2

150

20.8

20.8

33.6

200

20.8

20.8

20.8

298.15

20.786

20.786

20.786

20.786 20.786

20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8

20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8

20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8

20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8

400
600
800
1000
1500
2000
2500

20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.8

Table 5.7 The molar heat capacities at constant pressure CP(JK1mol1) for some diatomic gases.
These data are graphed in Figure 5.4.

The shaded figures correspond to data taken in the liquid or solid phase.
T(K)

02

N2

Cl2

Br2

I2

50

H2

46.1

41.5

F2

29.2

33.3

35.8

100
150
200

29.1
29.1
29.1

29.1
29.1
29.1

42.3
51.0
54.2

43.6
49.2
53.8

45.6
49.6
51.5

400

29.2

30.1

29.2

33.0

35.3

36.7

80.3

600
800
1000
1500
2000
2500

29.3
29.6
30.2
32.3
34.3
36.0

32.1
33.7
34.9
36.6
37.8
38.9

30.1
31.4
32.7
34.9
36.0
36.0

35.2
36.3
37.0
37.9
38.4
38.8

36.6
37.2
37.5
38.0
38.3
38.6

37.3
37.5
37.7
38.0
38.2
38.5

37.6
37.8
37.9
38.2
38.5
38.8

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.8 The ratio of the principal heat capacities (g=CP/CV) of some gases. The shaded results correspond to a pressure of 200 atmospheres (20 MPa). The notes below each section of the table summarise
the results for that class of gases. There appears to be a trend towards a reduction in g as the temperature
is increased. Where no temperature shown, the temperature of the measurement is not known but is
probably either 0 C or close to 20C.
T(C)
T(K)
g
Monatomic gases
He
0.0
273.20
1.630
Ar
0.0
273.20
1.667
Ne
19.0
292.20
1.642
Kr
19.0
292.20
1.689
Xe
19.0
292.20
1.666
Hg
310.0
583.20
1.666
All the above results are close to 1.66
Diatomic gases
H2
10.0
283.20
1.407
N2
20.0
293.20
1.401
O2
10.0
283.20
1.400
CO
1800.0
2073.2
1.297
NO

1.394
Most of the above results are close to 1.4
C: Air
Air
-79.3
193.90
1.405
Air
10.0
283.20
1.401
Air
500.0
773.20
1.357
Air
900.0
1173.2
1.320
Air
0.0
273.20
1.828
Air
-79.3
193.90
2.333
Most of the above results are close to 1.4 except for
those shaded.
Gas

Gas

T(C)

T(K)

Triatomic gases
O3

H20
100.0
373.20
10.0
CO2
283.20
CO2
300.0
573.20
CO2
500.0
773.20
NH3

N20

H2S

CS2

SO2
20.0
293.20
SO2
500.0
773.20
All the above results are close to 1.3
Polyatomic gases
CH4

C2H6

C3H8

C2H2

C2H4

C6H6
20.0
293.20
C6H6
99.7
372.90
CHCl3
30.0
303.20
CHCl3
99.8
373.00
CCl4

The above results are between 1.1 and 1.4

g
1.290
1.334
1.300
1.220
1.200
1.336
1.324
1.340
1.239
1.260
1.200

1.313
1.220
1.130
1.260
1.264
1.400
1.105
1.110
1.150
1.130

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.9 The number of degrees of freedom p for the molecules of a variety of gases predicted from the
measured value of g according to Equation 5.48. Values are plotted only for those gases included in Table 5.8.
Gas

A: Some monatomic gases


He
1.630
Ar
1.667
Ne
1.642
Kr
1.689
Xe
1.666
Hg
1.666
B: Some diatomic gases
H2
1.407
N2
1.401
O2
1.400
CO
1.297
NO
1.394
C: Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air

1.405
1.401
1.357
1.320
1.828
2.333

T(K)

273.20
273.20
292.20
292.20
292.20
583.20

3.17
3.00
3.12
2.90
3.00
3.00

283.20
293.20
283.20
2073.2

4.91
4.99
5.00
6.73
5.08

193.90
283.20
773.20
1173.2
273.20
193.90

4.94
4.99
5.60
6.25
2.42
1.50

Gas

D: Some triatomic gases


1.290
O3
H20
1.334
CO2
1.300
1.220
CO2
CO2
1.200
NH3
1.336
N20
1.324
H2S
1.340
CS2
1.239
SO2
1.260
SO2
1.200
E: Some polyatomic gases
CH4
1.313
C2H6
1.220
C3H8
1.130
C2H2
1.260
C2H4
1.264
C6H6
1.400
C6H6
1.105
CHCl3
1.110
CHCl3
1.150
CCl4
1.130

T(K)

373.20
283.20
573.20
773.20

293.20
773.20

6.90
5.99
6.67
9.09
10.00
5.95
6.17
5.88
8.37
7.69
10.00

293.20
372.90
303.20
373.00

6.39
9.09
15.4
7.69
7.58
5.00
19.0
18.2
13.3
15.4

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.11 Measured values of the thermal conductivities of some gases. The units are 102 Wm1K1.
For example, the thermal conductivity of argon at 273.2K is 1.63102 Wm1K1.
Gas

Temperature (K)
73.2 173.2 273.2 373.2 1273

Monatomic gases
Helium, He
Neon, Ne
Argon, Ar
Krypton, Kr
Xenon, Xe
Radon, Ra

5.95 10.45 14.22 17.77 41.90


1.74 3.37 4.65 5.66 12.80

1.09 1.63 2.12 5.00

0.57 0.87 1.15 2.90

0.34 0.52 0.70 1.90

0.33 0.45

Diatomic gases
Hydrogen, H2
5.09 11.24 16.82 21.18
Fluorine, Fl2

1.56 2.54 3.47


Chlorine, Cl2

0.79 1.15
Bromine, Br2

0.40 0.60
Nitrogen, N2

1.59 2.40 3.09


Oxygen, O2

1.59 2.45 3.23


Carbon monoxide, CO
1.51 2.32 3.04
Air, N2/O2

1.58 2.41 3.17

7.40
8.60

7.60

Polyatomic gases
Ammonia, NH4
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Ethane, C2H6
Ethene, C2H4
Methane, CH4
Sulpur dioxide, SO2
Water/Steam, H20

7.90

1.80
1.40
1.88

2.18
1.45

3.02
0.77
1.58

3.38
2.23

2.35

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.12 Calculated and experimental values for k for argon at various temperatures. Also shown is
the inferred value(a) for the molecular diameter.

T (K)

Data
(W m1 K1)

Prediction
(W m1 K1)

Ratio

a
(nm)

173.2

1.09 102

5.23 103

2.08

0.21

273.2
373.2

1.63 10
2.12 102

6.57 10
7.68 103

2.48
2.76

0.19
0.18

1273

5.00 102

14.19 103

3.52

0.16

Table 5.13 Results from an analysis of the thermal conductivity data assuming the data has the form k =
ATx. The significance of a is discussed in the text.

Gas
Helium, He
Neon, Ne
Argon, Ar
Krypton, Kr
Xenon, Xe
Radon, Ra

30.91 10 4
9.14 10 4
2.34 10 4
0.93 10 4
0.42 10 4
0.12 10

a (nm)

0.685
0.695

0.108
0.198

0.754
0.806

0.391
0.620

0.857
0.994

0.923
1.73

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.14 The speed of sound in a selection of gases listed in order of increasing molecular mass M in
atomic mass units u. The shaded entries in the table are gases that have a partner gas in the table with
the same molecular mass. See the text for more details.
csound
Gas

T(K)

(ms1 )

Hydrogen, H2
Helium, He
Deuterium, D2
Methane, CH4
Ammonia, NH3
Water (steam), H2O
Water (steam), H2O
Fluorine, F2
Heavy Water (steam), D2O
Neon, Ne
Acetylene, C2H2
Nitrogen, N2
Carbon monoxide, CO
Ethylene, C2H4

2.0
4.0
4.0
16.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
20.2
26.0
28.0
28.0
28.0

273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
373.2
407.2
373.2
373.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2

1286
971.9
890
430
415
473
494
332
451
434
329
337
337
318

Ethane, C2H6
Ethane, C2H6
Nitric oxide, NO
Nitric oxide, NO

30.0
30.0
30.0
30.0

283.2
304.2
283.2
289.2

308
316
324
334

32.0
32.0
33.1
36.5
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
46.0
64.0
70.9
76.0
78.0
79.9
80.9
83.8
84.0
127.9
131.3
146.0
153.8
263.8

303.2
370.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
298.2
273.2
273.2
326.2
273.2
293.2
273.2
273.2
331.2
273.2
273.2
303.2
273.2
273.2
284.2
370.2
453.2

332
335
310
296
307.8
268
238
259
258
211
219
192
177
149
200
213
181
157
170
133
145
138

Oxygen, O2
Methanol, CH3OH
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S
Hydrogen chloride, HCl
Argon, Ar
Nitrous oxide, N2O
Propane, C3H8
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Sulphur dioxide, SO2
Chlorine, Cl2
Carbon disulphide, CS2
Benzene, C6H6
Bromine, Br 2
Hydrogen bromide, HBr
Krypton, Kr
Cyclohexane, C6H12
Hydrogen iodide, HI
Xenon, Xe
Sulphur hexafluoride, SF6
Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
Iodine, I2

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.15 Details of gases whose molecules have relative molecular mass of 4 and 28. The table enables a detailed comparison of theoretical expectations and experimental results for the dependence of
the speed of sound upon molecular complexity.

Gas
He
D2
N2
CO
CH2CH2

Number of
atoms per
molecule

Expected g

T(K)

4.0
4.0
28
28
28

1
2
2
2
6

1.667 (p=3)
1.400 (p=5)
1.400 (p=5)
1.400 (p=5)
1.2 (p=10?)

273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2
273.2

Csound
(theoretical)
g
(gRT/M)
972.8
891.5
336.9
336.9
312

Csound
(experimental)
Table 5.14
971.9
890.0
337.0
337.0
318.0

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.16 The relative dielectric permittivity e of various gases at atmospheric pressure (1.013105
Pa). For pressures below atmospheric pressure e varies linearly with pressure. The relative permittivity
of vacuum is exactly 1, and all the gases in the table have values of e within 1% of unity. The table
shows the value of 104(e1), which clearly shows the variation between gases. The table also shows
the relative molecular mass of the molecules of the gas.
Different experimenters find different values of e and the data for 104(e 1) should all be treated as accurate to only about 10%. The entry for ethanol has two alternative values to indicate two particularly
divergent values for 104(e 1). For other entries I have taken averages of tabulated results, or ignored
entries in tables that were clearly in error.
The data refer to values obtained with electric fields oscillating at radio frequencies, 106 Hz. The
shaded entries in the table, i.e. helium, hydrogen, argon, oxygen, nitrogen, and air, are typical results for
evalid from DC up to optical frequencies 1015 Hz. The variation over that range is within 2 of the
least significant figure in the table.
Gas
Monatomic gases
Helium, He
Neon, Ne
Argon, Ar
Mercury, Hg
Mercury, Hg
Diatomic gases
Hydrogen, H2
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Air (dry, no CO2)
Carbon monoxide, CO
Triatomic gases
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Nitrous oxide, N2O
Water (steam) H2O
Polyatomic gases
Ethane, C2H6
Benzene, C6H6
Methanol, CH3OH
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Ammonia, NH3
Ammonia, NH3

T (C )

104(e 1)

4.0
20.2
40.0
200.6
200.6

20
0
20
180
180

0.65
1.3
5.16
7.4
7.4

2.0
2.0
28.0
32.0
28.8
28.0

0
20
20
20
20
23

2.72
2.54
5.47
4.94
5.36
6.92

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
18.0

0
20
100
25
100

9.88
9.22
7.23
11
60

30.0
65.0
32.0
44.0
18.0
18.0

0
100
100
100
0
100

15
32.7
57
61 or 78
8.34
4.87

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.18 The refractive index of various gases as 106(nlight1) together with the molecular weight of
the molecules of the gas. The data refer to gases at STP (P=0.1013 MPa: T=0C). The refractive index
is that appropriate to the bright yellow D lines in the emission spectrum of sodium vapour and varies
slightly with frequency.
Gas
Hydrogen, H2
Helium, He
Methane, CH4
Water vapour, H2O
Ammonia, NH4
Neon, Ne
Nitrogen, N2
Carbon monoxide, CO
Air
Nitric oxide, NO
Oxygen, O2
Methanol, CH3OH
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S
Hydrogen chloride, HCl
Fluorine, F2
Argon, Ar
Nitrous oxide, N2O
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Sulphur dioxide, SO2
Chlorine, Cl2
Carbon disulphide, CS2
Benzene, C6H6
Hydrogen bromide, HBr
Krypton, Kr
Hydrogen iodide, HI
Xenon, Xe
Bromine, Br2

M
2
4
18
18
18
20
28
28
29
30
32
32
34
36
38
40
44
44
46
64
71
76
78
81
84
128
131
160

(nlight1) 106
132
36
444
254
376
67
297
338
293
297
271
586
633
447
195
281
516
451
878
686
773
481
1762
570
427
906
702
1132

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 5.19 Comparison of the experimental values of the refractive index of gases with the prediction of
their refractive index based on Equation 2.17. Before comparing the data, the dielectric constant data
have been corrected to STP using factors discussed in 5.6.2. The first three entries in the table are for
non-polar gases and the last two are for polar gases. Notice the good agreement between theory and experiment for the non-polar gases, and the massive disagreement for water vapour.

Gas
Non-polar gases
He
Ne
Ar
Polar gases
NH3
H2O

104(e 1)

Prediction

Experiment

(STP)

10 ( e 1)

106(nlight 1)

Correction
factor

0.65
1.3
5.16

20
0
20

293/273
1
293/273

0.70
1.3
5.54

35
65
277

36
67
281

8.34
60

0
100

1
(293/273)2

8.34
69.1

416
3449

376
254

10 (e 1)
4

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.1 The approximate values of the density of some solids.


Solid
Metals
Aluminium/Dural
Phosphorbronze
Brass
Gold (22 carat)
Gold (9 carat)
Mild steel
Stainless steel
Wrought iron
Invar
Platinum/Iridium
Wood
Balsa
Pine
Oak
Beech
Teak
Ebony
Natural materials
Amber
Beeswax
Granite
Ice
Coal
Mica

r(kg m3)
27002800
8900
84008500
17500
11300
7900
77007800
7800
8000
21500
200
500
700
750
850
1200
1100
950
2700
920
1.41.6
2800

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.2 The density of the elements (kgm3). Also shown is the atomic number Z and the atomic
weight A in units of the atomic mass unit u = 1.661027kg. For example, the density of magnesium,
whose atoms each contain 12 protons, is 1.738103 kgm3. The mass of an atom of magnesium is
24.311.661027kg. The densities of elements that are normally gaseous at room temperature are
evaluated at a temperature just below their freezing point at atmospheric pressure. For helium, which
does not solidify at atmospheric pressure at any temperature, the density is evaluated at 4.2K and 25
atmospheres (25105Pa) pressure which is sufficient to cause solidification.
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9
10

Element and symbol


Hydrogen, H
Helium, He
Lithium , Li
Beryllium, Be
Boron, B
Carbon (graphite), C
Carbon (diamond), C
Nitrogen, N
Oxygen, O
Fluorine, F
Neon, Ne

A
1.008
4.003
6.941
9.012
10.81
12.01
12.01
14.01
16.00
19.00
20.18

Density
89
120
533
1846
2466
2266
3513
1035
1460
1140
1442

Element and symbol

Density

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Antimony, Sb
Tellurium, Te
Iodine, I
Xenon, Xe
Caesium, Cs
Barium, Ba
Lanthanum, La
Cerium, Ce
Praseodymium, Pr
Neodymium, Ne

121.7
127.6
126.9
131.3
132.9
137.3
138.9
140.1
140.9
144.2

6692
6247
4953
3560
1900
3594
6174
6711
6779
7000

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Sodium, Na
Magnesium, Mg
Aluminium, Al
Silicon, Si
Phosphorus, P
Sulphur, S
Chlorine, Cl
Argon, Ar
Potassium, K
Calcium, Ca

22.99
24.31
26.98
28.09
30.97
32.06
35.45
39.95
39.10
40.08

966
1738
2698
2329
1820
2086
2030
1656
862
1530

61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Promethium, Pm
Samarium, Sm
Europium, Eu
Gadolinium, Gd
Terbium, Tb
Dysprosium, Dy
Holmium, Ho
Erbium, Er
Thulium, Th
Ytterbium, Yb

145.0
150.4
152.0
157.2
158.9
162.5
164.9
167.3
168.9
173.0

7220
7536
5248
7870
8267
8531
8797
9044
9325
6966

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Scandium, Sc
Titanium, Ti
Vanadium, V
Chromium, Cr
Manganese, Mn
Iron, Fe
Cobalt, Co
Nickel, Ni
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn

44.96
47.90
50.94
52.00
54.94
55.85
58.93
58.70
63.55
65.38

2992
4508
6090
7194
7473
7873
8800
8907
8933
7135

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

Lutetium, Lu
Hafnium, Hf
Tantalum, Ta
Tungsten, W
Rhenium, Re
Osmium, Os
Iridium, Ir
Platinum, Pt
Gold, Au
Mercury, Hg

175.0
178.5
180.9
183.9
186.2
190.2
192.2
195.1
197.0
200.6

9842
13276
16670
19254
21023
22580
22550
21450
19281
13546

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Gallium, Ga
Germanium, Ge
Arsenic, As
Selenium, Se
Bromine, Br
Krypton, Kr
Rubidium, Rb
Strontium, Sr
Yttrium, Y
Zirconium, Zr

69.72
72.59
74.92
78.96
79.90
83.80
85.47
87.62
88.91
91.22

5905
5323
5776
4808
3120
3000
1533
2583
4475
6507

81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

Thallium, Th
Lead, Pb
Bismuth, Bi
Polonium, Po
Astatine, At
Radon, Rn
Francium, Fr
Radium, Ra
Actinium, Ac
Thorium, Th

204.4
207.2
209.0
209.0
210.0
222.0
223.0
226.0
227.0
232.0

11871
11343
9803
9400

4400

5000
10060
11725

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Niobium, Nb
Molybdenum, Mo
Technetium, Tc
Ruthenium, Ru
Rhodium, Rh
Palladium, Pd
Silver, Ag
Cadmium, Cd
Indium, In
Tin, Sn

92.91
95.94
97.00
101.1
102.9
106.4
107.9
112.4
114.8
118.7

8578
10222
11496
12360
12420
11995
10500
8647
7290
7285

91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Protractinium, Pa
Uranium, U
Neptunium, Np
Plutonium, Pu
Americium, Am
Curium, Cm
Berkelium, Bk
Californium, Cf
Einsteinium, Es
Fermium, Fm

231.0
238.0
237.0
244.0
243.0
247.0
247.0
251.0
254.0
257.0

15370
19050
20250
19840
13670
13300
14790
15100

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.3 The atomic number Z, atomic mass Aand the density r of the lanthanide elements extracted
from Table 7.2. The row marked %A is the % density increase (compared with La) expected if the separation between atoms is unchanged and only the atomic mass changes. The row marked %r is the %
density increase (compared with La) actually found. It shows that the 59% density increase is much
greater than can be explained by the 26% increase in atomic mass alone.
La
Z
A

Ce

Pr

Nd

57

58

59

60

138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2

Pm
61
145

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 175.0

%A

0.87

1.44

3.84

4.39

8.28

9.40

13.21 14.41 16.99 18.74 20.41 21.62 24.57 25.96

r
r
%r

6174

6711

6779

7000

7220

7536

5248

7870

8267

8531

8797

9044

9325

6966

9842

8.7

9.8

13.4

16.9

22.1

-15.0

27.4

33.9

38.2

42.5

46.5

51.4

12.8

59.4

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.4 The bulk modulus of the elements in their solid state. The temperature of the measurements
varies considerably and there are discrepancies of the up to 50% in figures from different sources.
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Element
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon (diamond)
Carbon (graphite)
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorous (Red)
Phosphorous(White)
Sulphur
Chlorine
Argon
Potassium
Calcium
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel

B
(GPa)
0.2
0.1
11.1
100.3
178.0
542.0
33.0
1.2

1.1
6.4
44.7
75.5
98.8
10.9
4.9
17.8
2.7
3.1
17.2
43.5
105.1
161.9
160.1
118.0
169.8
191.4
186.0

Z
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

Element
Copper
Zinc
Gallium
Germanium
Arsenic
Selenium
Bromine
Krypton
Rubidium
Strontium
Yttrium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum
Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Indium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Iodine
Xenon
Caesium
Barium
Lanthanum
Cerium

B
(GPa)
137.8
72.0
56.9
7.7
22.0
8.3
1.9
3.5
1.9
1.2
36.6
83.3
170.2
231.0
297.0
320.8
270.4
182.0
100.7
41.6
41.1
58.2
42.0
23.0
7.7
3.6
1.6
10.3
24.3
23.9

Z
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
29
30

Element
Praseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Mercury
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Polonium
Copper
Zinc

B
(GPa)
30.6
32.7
35.0
39.4
14.7
38.3
39.9
38.4
39.7
41.1
39.7
13.3
41.1
109.0
200.0
323.2
372.0
418.0
355.0
228.0
217.0
25.0
35.9
45.8
31.3
26.0
137.8
72.0

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.5 Values of the bulk modulus of the noble gas solids calculated according to Equation 7.6,
compared with experimental data from Table 7.4.

Ne
2.74
s ( 1010 m)
3.1
e ( 103 eV)
75.13e/s3(109 Pa) 1.81
Data
1.1
Ratio (theory/expt) 1.65

Substance
Ar
Kr
3.44
3.65
10.3
14.0
3.18
3.46
2.7
3.5
1.18
0.99

Xe
3.98
20.0
3.81
3.6
1.06

Table 7.6 Values of the bulk modulus of the alkali metals calculated according to Equation 7.11, compared with experimental data from Table 7.4.

n ( 1028 m3)
eF ( eV)
2neF /3(109 Pa)
Data
Ratio (theory/expt)

Li
4.63
4.7
23.2
11.1
2.10

Na
2.53
3.14
8.5
6.4
1.33

Substance
K
Rb
1.33 1.08
2.05 1.78
2.9
2.06
3.1
1.9
0.94 1.08

Cs
0.86
1.53
1.41
1.6
0.88

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com
Table 7.7 The coefficient of linear expansivity a for various solids at temperatures around room temperature. (Kaye &
Laby ). The volume expansivity of the elements is given by b = 3a as shown in Example 7.4.
Elemental metals

a (C1)

Miscellaneous

Aluminium (Al)
Antimony (Sb)
Bismuth (Bi)
Cadmium (Cd)
Chromium (Cr)
Cobalt (Co)
Copper (Cu)
Gold (Au)
Iridium (Ir)
Iron (Fe)
Lead (Pb)
Magnesium (Mg)
Nickel (Ni)
Palladium (Pd)
Platinum (Pt)
Rhodium (Rh)
Silver (Ag)
Tantalum (Ta)
Thallium (Tl)
Tin (Sn)
Titanium (Ti)
Tungsten (W)
Vanadium (V)
Zinc (Zn)

23
11
13
30
7
12
16.7
13
6.5
11.7
29
25
12.8
11
8.9
8.4
19
6.5
28
21
9
4.5
8
30

Brick
Cement and concrete
Marble
Lead glass (46% pbo)
Typical glass
Porcelain
Silica
Typical wood (along grain)
Typical wood (across grain)
Plastics
Epoxy resins
Epoxy resins
Polycarbonates
Low-density polyethylene
Medium-density polyethylene
High density polyethylene
Natural rubber
Hard rubber
Perspex
Nylon
Polystyrene
Polyvinyl chloride (pvc)

a (C1)
310
1014
315
8
810
26
0.4
35
3560

4565
4565
66
40150
80220
200360
220
60
5090
80280
34210
7080

Alloys
Brass (68% Cu/32% Zn)
Bronze (80% Cu/20% Sn)
Constantan (60% Cu/40% Ni)
Duralumin (95% Al/4% Cu)
Magnalium (90% Al/10% Mg)
Nickel steel(10% Ni/90%Fe)
Nickel steel(36% Ni/64%Fe)
Nickel steel(43% Ni/57%Fe)
Nickel steel(58% Ni/42%Fe)
Carbon steel
Stainless steel (74%Fe/18%Cr/8%Ni)
Phosphor-bronze
PlatinumIridium (90% Pt/10% Ir)
Carbon
Diamond
Graphite (polycrystalline)

a (C1)
1819
1718
1517
23
23
13
01.5
7.9
11.4
11
29
17
8.7

1.0
7.1

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.8 Expected and experimentally determined values the coefficient of linear expansivity thermal
expansivity a for some alloys and their component metals.
Alloy composition
Aluminium alloys
Duralumin (95% Al/4% Cu)
Magnalium (90% Al/10% Mg)
Aluminium
Copper
Magnesium
Copper alloys
Brass (68% Cu/32% Zn)
Bronze (80% Cu/20% Sn)
Constantan (60% Cu/40% Ni)
Copper
Zinc
Tin
Ni
Platinum alloys
Platinum-Iridium
(90% Pt/10% Ir)
Platinum
Iridium
Iron alloys
Nickel steel (10% Ni/90%Fe)
Nickel steel(36% Ni/64%Fe)
Nickel steel(43% Ni/57%Fe)
Nickel steel(58% Ni/42%Fe)
Stainless steel
(74%Fe/18% Cr/8%Ni)
Iron
Nickel
Chromium

Expected Experimental
a ( C1 )
(see text)
22.5 106
23.2 106

23 106
23 106
23 106
16.7 106
25 106

21 106 18-19 106


17.6 106 17-18 106
15.1 106 15-17 106
16.7 106
30 106
21 106
12.8 106
8.66 106

8.7 106

8.9 106
6.5 106

11.8 106
13 106
6
12.1 10 01.5 106
12.2 106
7.9 106
6
12.3 10
11.4 106
10.9 106

29 106

11.7 106
12.8 106
7 106

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com
Table 7.9 The speed of sound in solids at 20 C showing cL, the speed of longitudinal waves, and cT, the speed of
transverse (shear waves).
Elemental metals
Aluminium, Al
Beryllium, Be
Cadmium, Cd
Chromium, Cr
Copper, Cu
Gold, Au
Iron, Fe
Lead, Pb
Magnesium, Mg
Manganese, Mn
Molybdenum, Mo
Nickel, Ni
Niobium, Nb
Platinum, Pt
Silver, Ag
Tantalum, Ta
Tin, Sn
Titanium, Ti
Tungsten, W
Uranium, U
Vanadium, V
Zinc, Zn
Zirconium, Zr
Insulators
Carbon (diamond)
Glass (crown)
Glass (heavy flint)
Glass (pyrex)
Quartz crystal X-cut
Quartz fused
Concrete
Ice (-20C)

Speed of sound
cL(ms1)
cT(ms1)
6374
12890
2780
6608
4759
3240
5957
2160
5823
4600
6475
5700
5068
3260
3704
4159
3380
6130
5221
3370
6023
4187
4650
cL(ms1)
18350
5660
5260
5640
5720
5970
42505250
3840

Plastics

cL(ms1)

Polyethylene
Polystyrene
PVC
Rubber

2000
2350
2300
1600

3111
8880

4005
2325
1200
3224
700
3163

3505
3000
2092
1730
1698
2036
1594
3182
2887
1940
2774
2421
2250
cT(ms1)
9200
3420
2960
3280

3765

cT(ms1)
3111
1120

4005

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.10 The molar heat capacity at constant pressure CP of the elements at room temperature 25C
(298.15K). The shaded data are elements that are either liquids or gases at this temperature.

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9
10

Element
Hydrogen, H
Helium, He
Lithium , Li
Beryllium, Be
Boron, B
Carbon (graphite), C
Carbon (diamond), C
Nitrogen, N
Oxygen, O
Fluorine, F
Neon, Ne

A
1.008
4.003
6.941
9.012
10.81
12.01
12.01
14.01
16.00
19.00
20.18

CP
r
(kg m3) (J K mol1)
89
28.824
120
20.786
533
24.770
1846
16.44
2466
11.09
2266
8.53
3513
6.11
1035
29.125
1460
29.355
1140
31.300
1442
20.786

Z
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

Element
Indium, In
Tin, Sn
Antimony, Sb
Tellurium, Te
Iodine, I
Xenon, Xe
Caesium, Cs
Barium, Ba
Lanthanum, La
Cerium, Ce
Praseodymium, Pr

A
114.8
118.7
121.7
127.6
126.9
131.3
132.9
137.3
138.9
140.1
140.9

r
(kg m3)
7290
7285
6692
6247
4953
3560
1900
3594
6174
6711
6779

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Sodium, Na
Magnesium, Mg
Aluminium, Al
Silicon, Si
Phosphorus, P
Sulphur, S
Chlorine, Cl
Argon, Ar
Potassium, K
Calcium, Ca

22.99
24.31
26.98
28.09
30.97
32.06
35.45
39.95
39.10
40.08

966
1738
2698
2329
1820
2086
2030
1656
862
1530

28.24
24.89
24.35
20.0
23.84
22.64
33.907
20.786
29.58
25.31

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

Neodymium, Ne
Promethium, Pm
Samarium, Sm
Europium, Eu
Gadolinium, Gd
Terbium, Tb
Dysprosium, Dy
Holmium, Ho
Erbium, Er
Thulium, Th

144.2
145.0
150.4
152.0
157.2
158.9
162.5
164.9
167.3
168.9

7000
7220
7536
5248
7870
8267
8531
8797
9044
9325

27.45
26.81
29.54
27.66
37.03
28.91
28.16
27.15
28.12
27.03

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Scandium, Sc
Titanium, Ti
Vanadium, V
Chromium, Cr
Manganese, Mn
Iron, Fe
Cobalt, Co
Nickel, Ni
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn

44.96
47.90
50.94
52.00
54.94
55.85
58.93
58.70
63.55
65.38

2992
4508
6090
7194
7473
7873
8800
8907
8933
7135

25.52
25.02
24.89
23.35
26.32
25.10
24.81
26.07
24.44
25.40

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79

Ytterbium, Yb
Lutetium, Lu
Hafnium, Hf
Tantalum, Ta
Tungsten, W
Rhenium, Re
Osmium, Os
Iridium, Ir
Platinum, Pt
Gold, Au

173.0
175.0
178.5
180.9
183.9
186.2
190.2
192.2
195.1
197.0

6966
9842
13276
16670
19254
21023
22580
22550
21450
19281

26.74
26.86
25.73
25.36
24.27
25.48
24.70
25.10
25.86
25.42

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Gallium, Ga
Germanium, Ge
Arsenic, As
Selenium, Se
Bromine, Br
Krypton, Kr
Rubidium, Rb
Strontium, Sr
Yttrium, Y
Zirconium, Zr

69.72
72.59
74.92
78.96
79.90
83.80
85.47
87.62
88.91
91.22

5905
5323
5776
4808
3120
3000
1533
2583
4475
6507

25.86
23.35
24.64
25.36
75.69
20.79
31.06
26.40
26.53
25.36

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

Mercury, Hg
Thallium, Th
Lead, Pb
Bismuth, Bi
Polonium, Po
Astatine, At
Radon, Rn
Francium, Fr
Radium, Ra
Actinium, Ac

200.6
204.4
207.2
209.0
209
210
222
223
226
227

13546
11871
11343
9803
9400

27.98
26.32
26.44
25.52
25.75

4400
2410
5000
10060

20.786
31.70
25.76
27.20

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Niobium, Nb
Molybdenum, Mo
Technetium, Tc
Ruthenium, Ru
Rhodium, Rh
Palladium, Pd
Silver, Ag
Cadmium, Cd

92.91
95.94
97
101.1
102.9
106.4
107.9
112.4

8578
10222
11496
12360
12420
11995
10500
8647

24.60
24.06
25.88
24.06
24.98
25.98
25.35
25.98

90
91
92
93
94
95
96

Thorium, Th
Protractinium, Pa
Uranium, U
Neptunium, Np
Plutonium, Pu
Americium, Am
Curium, Cm

232
231
238
237
244
243
247

11725
15370
19050
20250
19840
13670
1330

27.32
27.20
27.66
29.62
32.80
25.86
27.70

CP
(J K mol1)
26.74
26.99
25.23
25.73
54.438
20.786
32.17
28.07
27.11
26.94
27.20

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.11 The predicted value of the heat capacity of monatomic solids according to the Debye theory.
Also tabulated is the fraction of the high temperature limiting value (3R) expected at the temperature
indicated.
Q
T/QD
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

C(T) J K1 mol1
0
1.944 103
1.555 102
5.248 102
0.1244
0.2430
0.4198
0.6658
0.9903
1.399
1.891
9.195
15.158
18.604
20.588
21.795
22.572
23.098
23.469
23.739
23.942
24.098
24.221
24.318
24.398
24.463
24.517
24.562
24.601
24.634

C(T) /R
0
7.7927 105
6.2342 104
2.1040 103
4.9873 103
9.7408 103
1.6829 102
2.6693 102
3.9702 102
5.6074 102
7.5821 102
0.36863
0.60770
0.74585
0.82541
0.87380
0.90495
0.92603
0.94089
0.95173
0.95987
0.96612
0.97103
0.97495
0.97813
0.98074
0.98291
0.98474
0.98629
0.98761

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.12 The Debye temperatures qD of several elements as determined by analysis of the T3 behaviour of their low-temperature heat capacity (Equation 7.61 ).
Element
Beryllium
C(Diamond)
Magnesium
Aluminium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Nickel
Copper

Z
4
6
12
13
22
23
24
25
26
28
29

QD (K) Element
1440 Zirconium
2230 Molybdenum
400 Silver
428 Cadmium
420 Tin
380 Tantalum
630 Tungsten
410 Platinum
470 Gold
450 Lead
343 Uranium

Z QD (K)
40 291
42 450
47 225
48 209
50 200
73 240
74 400
78 240
79 165
82 105
92 207

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.13 The electrical resistivity of the elements which are solid at around room temperature. Take
care with the exponents of values in this table which vary from entry to entry and column to column by
46 orders of magnitude.
Z

Element

W
r(W m)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Hydrogen, H
Helium, He
Lithium , Li
Beryllium, Be
Boron, B
Carbon (diamond), C
Nitrogen, N
Oxygen, O
Fluorine, F
Neon, Ne

8.55 108
4 108
18000
1011

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Sodium, Na
Magnesium, Mg
Aluminium, Al
Silicon, Si
Phosphorus, P
Sulphur, S
Chlorine, Cl
Argon, Ar
Potassium, K
Calcium, Ca

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

s(S m1)

Element

W
r(W m)

s(S m1)

1.17 107
2.5 107
5.56 105
1011

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

Indium, In
Tin, Sn
Antimony, Sb
Tellurium, Te
Iodine, I
Xenon, Xe
Caesium, Cs
Barium, Ba
Lanthanum, La
Cerium, Ce

8.37 108
1.1 107
3.9 107
0.00436
1.37 107

2 107
5 107
5.7 107
7.3 107

1.19 107
9.1 106
2.56 106
229
7.30 108

5 106
2 106
1.75 106
1.37 106

4.2 108
4.38 108
2.66 108
0.001
1 109
2 1015

6.15 108
3.43 108

2.38 107
2.28 107
3.77 107
1000
1 109
5 1016

1.63 107
2.92 107

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

Praseodymium, Pr
Neodymium, Ne
Promethium, Pm
Samarium, Sm
Europium, Eu
Gadolinium, Gd
Terbium, Tb
Dysprosium, Dy
Holmium, Ho
Erbium, Er

6.8 107
6.4 107
5 107
9.4 107
9 107
1.34 106
1.14 106
5.7 107
8.7 107
8.7 107

1.47 106
1.56 106
2 106
1.06 106
1.11 106
7.46 105
8.77 105
1.75 106
1.15 106
1.15 106

Scandium, Sc
Titanium, Ti
Vanadium, V
Chromium, Cr
Manganese, Mn
Iron, Fe
Cobalt, Co
Nickel, Ni
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn

6.1 107
4.2 107
2.48 107
1.27 107
1.85 106
9.71 108
6.24 108
6.84 108
1.67 108
5.92 108

1.64 106
2.38 106
4.03 106
7.87 106
5.41 105
1.03 107
1.60 107
1.46 107
5.98 107
1.69 107

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78

Thulium, Th
Ytterbium, Yb
Lutetium, Lu
Hafnium, Hf
Tantalum, Ta
Tungsten, W
Rhenium, Re
Osmium, Os
Iridium, Ir
Platinum, Pt

7.9 107
2.9 107
7.9 107
3.51 107
1.25 107
5.65 108
1.93 107
8.12 108
5.3 108
1.06 107

1.27 106
3.45 106
1.27 106
2.85 106
8.03 106
1.77 107
5.18 106
1.23 107
1.89 107
9.43 106

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Gallium, Ga
Germanium, Ge
Arsenic, As
Selenium, Se
Bromine, Br
Krypton, Kr
Rubidium, Rb
Strontium, Sr
Yttrium, Y
Zirconium, Zr

2.7 107
0.46
2.6 107
0.01

1.25 107
2.3 107
5.7 107
4.21 107

3.70 106
2.1739
3.85 106
100

8 106
4.35 106
1.75 106
2.37 106

79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

Gold, Au
Mercury, Hg
Thallium, Th
Lead, Pb
Bismuth, Bi
Polonium, Po
Astatine, At
Radon, Rn
Francium, Fr
Radium, Ra

2.35 108
9.41 107
1.8 107
2.07 107
1.068 106
1.4 106

4.26 107
1.06 106
5.56 106
4.84 106
9.36 105
7.14 105

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Niobium, Nb
Molybdenum, Mo
Technetium, Tc
Ruthenium, Ru
Rhodium, Rh
Palladium, Pd
Silver, Ag
Cadmium, Cd

1.25 107
5.2 108
2.26 107
7.6 108
4.51 108
1.08 107
1.59 108
6.83 108

8 106
1.92 107
4.42 106
1.32 107
2.22 107
9.26 106
6.29 107
1.46 107

89
90
91
92
93
94
95

Actinium, Ac
Thorium, Th
Protractinium, Pa
Uranium, U
Neptunium, Np
Plutonium, Pu
Americium, Am

1 106

1 106

1.3 107
1.77 107
3.08 107
1.22 106
1.46 106
6.8 107

7.69 106
5.65 106
3.25 106
8.20 105
6.85 105
1.4706 106

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.14 The resistivities (m) of three alloys at around room temperature is shown in centre of the
three tables below. On either side of the data for the alloy, are the resistivities of the component elements.
Component 1

Alloy

Component 2

Cu
1.55 108

Cu(Zn)
6.3 108

Zn
5.5 108

Pt
9.81 108

Pt(10% Ir)
24.8 108

Ir
4.7 108

Pt
9.81 108

Pt(10% Rh)
18.7 108

Rh
4.3 108

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.15 Examples of substances which display superconducting behaviour below the temperature
shown.
Substance

Alloy

Low-temperature superconductors: elements


Aluminium
1.75
Lead
7.2
Niobium
9.25
Tin
3.72
Vanadium
5.4
Low-temperature superconductors: alloys
17.1
V3Si
18.3
Nb3Sn
39
MgB2
High-temperature superconductors
93
YBa2Cu3O7-d
133
Hg1Ba2Ca2Cu3O10

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.16 The relative dielectric permittivity e of various insulators (and semiconductors) The relative
permittivity of vacuum is exactly 1. All measurements refer to 20C, but are insensitive to small changes
10C around this temperature.
Substance
Elements
Silicon
Germanium
Ceramics
Alumina
Strontium titanate
Strontium zirconate
Glass
Quartz
Borosilicate glass
Lead glass
Plastics
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polyamide

e
Si
Ge

11.9
16.0

Al2O3
SrTiO3
SrZrO3

8.5
200
38

SiO2
SiO2 with BO
SiO2 with PbO

4.5
45
7

PTFE
Nylon

2.3
2.6
2.1
34

Table 7.17 Typical orders of magnitude of the resistivity of some insulating substances at around room
temperature. The data correspond to values of rdetermined one minute after the electric field is applied.

Insulator

W
r (W m)

Alumina Al2O3 109 1012


QuartzSiO2
1016
Diamond C
1010 1011
Boron B
1010 1011
Iodine I2
1013
9
Glass
10 1012

Insulator

W
r (W m)

Paper
PTFE
Polystyrene
Varnish
Soil
Distilled water

1010
10 1019
1015 - 1019
107
2
10 104
102 105
15

Table 7.18 Typical values (and ranges of values) of the dielectric strength of some insulating substances.
Insulator
Alumina, Al2O3
Sapphire, Al2O3
Quartz, SiO2
Beryllia

Vm1
10 35 106
17 106
25 40 106
10 14 106

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.19 Thermal conductivity k of solid elements (WK1 m1) as a function of absolute temperature.
The shaded entries refer to data above the melting temperature of the element. The labels M, I and
SCstand for metal, insulator and semiconductor respectively. The two results for phosphorus at 173.2
K correspond to different crystal structures known as black and yellow phosphorus respectively.

Element

Temperature (K)

and type of material


73.2 K
173.2 K
273.2 K
Lithium, Li
M
94
86
82
Beryllium, Be
M
367
218
168
Boron, B
I
72
32
19
Carbon (Graphite), C
I
70220
80230
75195
Carbon (Diamond), C I 17004900 10002600 7001700
Sodium, Na
M
141
142
88
Magnesium, Mg
M
160
157
154
Aluminium, Al
M
241
236
240
Silicon, Si
SC
330
168
108
Phosphorous, P
I
20
13/0.25
0.18
Sulphur, S
I
0.39
0.29
0.15
Potassium, K
M
105
104
53
Scandium, Sc
M
15
16
Titanium, Ti
M
26
22
21
Vanadium, V
M
32
31
31
Chromium, Cr
M
120
96.5
92
Manganese, Mn
M
7
8

Iron, Fe
M
99
83.5
72
Cobalt, Co
M
130
105
89
Nickel, Ni
M
113
94
83
Copper, Cu
M
420
403
395
Zinc, Zn
M
117
117
112
Gallium, Ga
M
43
41
33
Germanium, Ge
SC
113
67
46.5
Selenium (c-axis), Se I
6.8
4.8
4.8
Rubidium, Rb
M
59
58
32
Yttrium, Y
M
16.5
17

Zirconium, Zr
M
26
23
22
Niobium, Nb
M
53
53
55
Molybdenum, Mo
M
145
139
135
Technetium, Tc
M

51
50
Ruthenium, Ru
M
123
117
115
Rhodium, Rh
M
156
151
147
Palladium, Pd
M
72
72
73
Silver, Ag
M
432
428
422
Cadmium, Cd
M
100
97
95
Indium, In
M
92
84
76
Tin, Sn
M
76
68
63
Antimony, Sb
M
33
25.5
22
Tellurium(c-axis), Te
I
5.1
3.6
2.9

373.2 K
47
129
11
50130

78
150
233
65
0.16
0.17
45

1273 K
59
93
10
3570

60

92
32

32

19
33
82

56
69
67
381
104
45
29

29

21
58
127
50
108
137
79
407
89
42
32
19
2.4

21
38
66

34
53
71
354
66

17.5

22

23
64
113

98

93
377
445

40
27
6.3

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 7.20 Thermal conductivity of a variety materials (WK1 m1 ). The tables refer to metallic alloys,
refractory materials, i.e. those suitable for use in high temperatures without degradation, and a selection
of everyday materials.
173.2K
Brass (Cu70%,Zn30%)
Bronze (Cu90%,Sn10%)
Carbon steel
Silicon steel
Stainless steel
Alumina (Al2O3)
Beryllia (BeO)
Fire brick
Silica (SiO2) fused quartz
Zirconia (ZrO2)
Substance
Brick wall
Plaster
Timber
Balsa wood
Paper
Cardboard

k (WK1 m1)
1
0.13
0.15
0.06
0.06
0.21

89

48

273.2K
106
53
50
25
24.5
40
300

1.33

Substance
Porcelain
Rubber
Polystyrene
Glass (crown)
Glass (flint)
Glass (pyrex)

373.2K
128
60
48.5
28.5
25
28
213

1.48
1.8
k (WK1 m1)
1.5
0.2
0.1
1.1
0.85
1.1

573.2K

873.2K

973.2K

146
80
54.5
31
25.5

9.2
61
1.1
2.4
2.0

30.5
28
24.8

Substance
Glass wool
Cotton wool
Sheeps wool
Nylon
Epoxy resins
Cellular polystyrene

1473.2K

5.7
22
1.3

2.2

k (WK1 m1)
0.037
0.03
0.05
0.25
0.2
0.04

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.1 The density of some elements at their melting temperatures in the liquid state. Also given is
the ratio of the liquid density to the density of the solid at 25C (Table 7.2). The four elements which
contract on melting: (silicon, gallium, germanium and bismuth) are shaded.

Z
3
5
11
12
13
14
16
19
20
22
23
25
26
28
29
30
31
32
34
37
40
41
42
44
45
46
47
48
50
51
52
55
56
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
81
82
83
92

Element
Lithium
Boron
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Silicon
Sulphur
Potassium
Calcium
Titanium
Vanadium
Manganese
Iron
Nickel
Copper
Zinc
Gallium
Germanium
Selenium
Rubidium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum
Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Caesium
Barium
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Uranium

A
6.941
10.81
22.99
24.31
26.98
28.09
32.06
39.10
40.08
47.90
50.94
54.94
55.85
58.70
63.55
65.38
69.72
72.59
78.96
85.47
91.22
92.91
95.94
101.1
102.9
106.4
107.9
112.4
118.7
121.7
127.6
132.9
137.3
178.5
180.9
183.9
186.2
190.2
192.2
195.1
197.0
204.4
207.2
209.0
238.0

Liquid
density
(kg m3)
516
2080
930
1580
2400
2525
1819
824
1365
4130
5550
6430
7100
7800
8000
6600
6113.6
5530
4000
1470
5800
7830
9350
10900
10850
10700
9300
8020
6980
6490
5770
1845
3323
12000
15000
17600
18800
20100
20000
19700
17320
11290
10690
10050
17907

Ratio
of
liquid/solid
density
0.968
0.843
0.962
0.909
0.889
1.080
0.872
0.955
0.892
0.916
0.878
0.860
0.901
0.875
0.895
0.925
1.035
1.038
0.832
0.959
0.891
0.913
0.915
0.889
0.874
0.892
0.886
0.927
0.958
0.970
0.924
0.971
0.925
0.904
0.900
0.914
0.894
0.890
0.887
0.918
0.898
0.951
0.942
1.025
0.940

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.2 The density of substances that are liquids at room temperature. The table gives the name of
the substance, the chemical formula for its molecules, the relative molecular mass of each molecule, the
density and the temperature of the density measurement. Only the last three entries in the table are inorganic.
Liquid and chemical formula
Organic liquids
Methanol
CH3OH
Ethanol
C2H5OH
Propan-1-ol
C3H7OH
Propan-2-ol
C3H7OH
2 Methyl-propan-1-ol
C4H9OH
2 Methyl-propan-2-ol
C4H9OH
Butan-1-ol
C4H9OH
Butan-2-ol
C4H9OH
2 Methyl-butan-1-ol
C5H11O
H
2 Methyl-butan-2-ol
C5H11O
H
Pentanol
C5H11O
H
Octanol
C8H17O
H
Aniline
C6H7N
Acetone
C3H6O
Benzene
C6H6
Inorganic liquids
Carbon disulphide
CS2
Carbon tetrachloride
CCl4
Water (see Table 9.3)
H2O

MW

Density
(kg m3 )

32
46
60
60
74
74
74
74
88

791
789
804
786
817
789
810
808
816

@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C
@20C

88

809

@20C

88

813

@20C

130

827

@20C

86
58
78

1026
787
879

@15C
@25C
@20C

76
154
18

1293
1632
1000

@0 C
@0 C
@0 C

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.3 The density of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) as a function of temperature at atmospheric
pressure.

T (C)
0
2
4
5
6
8
10
15
20
25
30
35

H2O
999.84
999.94
999.97

999.94
999.85
999.70

998.20

995.65

D2O

1105.6

1106.0
1105.9
1105.3
1104.4
1103.2
1101.7

T (C)
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

H 2O
992.22

988.04

983.20

977.77

971.79

965.31

958.36

D2O
1100.0
1097.9
1095.7
1093.3
1090.6
1087.8
1084.8
1081.6
1078.2
1074.7
1071.1
1067.4
1063.5

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.4 The bulk modulus of some liquids at the pressure and temperature shown. The pressure is
shown in units of atmospheres, where one atmosphere is approximately 0.1 MPa.

Liquid and formula


Organic liquids
Methanol, CH3OH
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Propan-1-ol, C3H7OH
Propan-2-ol, C3H7OH
Butan-1-ol, C4H9OH
Butan-2-ol, C4H9OH
Ether
Ether
Benzene, C6H6
Inorganic liquids
Carbon disulphide, CS2
Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
Water, H2O
Water, H2O
Water, H2O

P
(Atm)

B
(GPa)

T
(C)

37
1
8
8
8
8
1
1000
8

0.97
1.32
1.04
0.983
1.13
1.03
0.689
1.56
1.10

14.7
0
17.7
17.8
17.4
17.9
0
0
17.9

8
1
1
1000
2500

1.16
1.12
2.05
2.75
3.88.

15.6
20
15
15
14.2

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.5 The coefficient of volume expansivity b for various liquids at temperatures around room temperature. The shaded column shows the value of the volume expansivity of the corresponding solid substance. N/A indicates that data is not available.

MW

T (C)

b (C1)
Liquid

CH3COOH
CH3COCH3
CH3OH
C2H5OH
C 6H 7N
C 6H 6
C6H5CH3

60
58
46
32
86
78
92

20
20
20
20
20
20
20

107 105
143 105
119 105
108 105
85 105
121 105
107 105

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

Inorganic liquids
Carbon Disulphide
Carbon Tetrachloride
Water

CS2
CCl4
H 2O

76
154
18

20
20
20

119 105
122 105
21 105

N/A
N/A
N/A

Metals
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Copper
Copper
Mercury

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cu
Cu
Hg

23
39
85.5
133
63.6
63.6
200.6

400-1125
96.5
64 - 1400
39
1084
1084
0 - 100

19 105
25 105
29 105
30 105
10 105
10 105
18.1 105

16.8 105 @ 20 C
21.2 105 @ 20 C
24.9 105 @ 20 C
27.0 105 @ 20 C
4.95 105 @ 20 C
6.09 105 @ 527 C
N/A

Substance
Organic liquids
Acetic acid
Acetone
Methanol
Ethanol
Aniline
Benzene
Toluene

b (C1)
Solid

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.6 The speed of sound in liquids showing cL, the speed of longitudinal waves. For the elements,
where possible, the data for the solid state (taken from Table 7.12) is also included, in the shaded column, for comparison. Data for ice is also included.

Substance

T
(C)

cL
(ms1)

Organic Liquids
Acetic acid
Acetone
Methanol
Ethanol
Propanol
Butanol
iso-Pentanol
Hexanol
Hexanol
Heptanol

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

1173
1190
1121
1162
1223
1258
1255
1331
1331
1343

Water
Ice

0
20

1402
3840

Substance

T
(C)

cL
(ms1)

Elements
Hydrogen, H2
Helium, He
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Sodium, Na
Potassium, K
Rubidium, Rb
Caesium, Cs

258
269
189
186
110
80
50
40

1242
211
745
950
2520
1869
1427
980

Substance

T
(C)

cL
(ms1)

cL
(ms1)

Elements
Cadmium, Cd
Copper,Cu
Gallium, Ga
Mercury,Hg
Silver, Ag
Tin, Sn
Zinc, Zn

360
1350
50
20
1150
240
450

2150
3350
2740
1454
2630
2470
2700

2780
4759

3704
3380
4187

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.7 The viscosity h of various substance in their liquid state in units of mPa s as a function of the
temperature in C. To obtain the viscosity in units of Pa s, multiply the entries in this table by 103. For
example, the viscosity of mercury at 25 C is 1.528103Pas.

Substance
Acetic acid
Acetone
Benzene
Carbon disulphide
Methanol
Ethanol
Sodium
Potassium
Mercury
Tin

100

2.132

98.96

50

0.796
2.258
8.318

0.402

0.445
0.797
1.873

1.616

25
1.116
0.310
0.603
0.357
0.543
1.084

1.528

30
1.037
0.295
0.562
0.343
0.507
0.983

1.497

Temperature (C)
50
75
100
0.792 0.591 0.457
0.247 0.200 0.165
0.436 0.332 0.263

0.392 0.294 0.227


0.684 0.459 0.323
0.680

0.458

1.401 1.322 1.255

400

0.286
0.224

1.33

600

0.215
0.172

1.04

700

0.192
0.155

0.950

800

0.174
0.141

0.890

1100

0.780

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.9 The surface energy or surface tension of various substances in their liquid state (103 Nm1) at
a given temperature in C. For example, the surface tension of benzene is 28.88103 Nm1.
Substance
Acetic acid
Acetone
Benzene
Carbon disulphide
Methanol
Ethanol
Water
Sodium
Potassium
Mercury
Lead
Aluminium
Gold

Temperature (C) g (mN m1)


20
27.59
20
23.46
20
28.88
20
32.32
20
22.50
20
22.39
20
72.75
100
209.9
65
110.9
25
485.5
350
444.5
700
900
1100
1120

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.13 The heat capacities at constant pressure C P for a selection of substances that are liquids at
around room temperature. The table records the substance name and chemical formula, the relative molecular mass of its constituent molecules, the number of atoms per molecule, and the temperature at
which the measurement is made. The molar heat capacity is then recorded as in JK1 and as a multiple of
the gas constant R.
Substance

MW

T (C)

CP
(J K1 mol1 )

(R )

Organic liquids
Methanol
Ethanol
Ethanol
Ethanol
Propanol
Acetic acid
Acetone
Aniline
Benzene
Benzene
Bromoethane
Chloroform
Cyclohexane
1,2 Dichloroethane
Dichloromethane
Ethanadiol
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl nitrate
Formamide
Formic acid
Nitromethane
Nitroethane
Toluene

CH3OH
C2H5OH
C2H5OH
C2H5OH
C3H7OH
C2H4O2
C3H6O
C6H7N
C6H6
C6H6
C2H5Br
CHCl3
C6H10
C2H4Cl2
C2H2Cl2
C2H6O2
C4H8O2
C2H5O3N
CH3ON
CH2O2
CH3O2N
C2H5O2N
C7H8

32
46
46
46
60
60
58
93
78
78
109
120
82
98
96
62
82
91
45
46
61
75
92

6
9
9
9
12
8
10
14
12
12
8
5
16
8
6
10
8
11
6
5
7
10
15

12
0
20
40
18
20
20
15
10
40
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
18

80.64
105.3
113.4
124.7
138.0
124.3
124.7
199.9
110.8
138.1
100.8
113.8
156.5
129.3
100.0
149.8
170.1
170.3
107.6
99.0
106.0
134.2
153.6

9.7
12.7
13.6
15.0
16.6
15.0
15.0
24.0
13.3
16.6
12.1
13.7
18.8
15.6
12.0
18.0
20.5
20.5
12.9
11.9
12.7
16.1
18.5

Inorganic liquids
Arsenic trifluoride
Boron trichloride
Bromine
Carbon disulphide
Hydrogen cyanide
Water
Heavy water
Mercury
Hydrazine
Silicon tetrachloride
Tin tetrachloride
Titanium tetrachloride

AsF3
BCl3
Br2
CS2
HCN
H2O
D2O
Hg
N2H4
SiCl4
SnCl4
TiCl4

132
118
160
76
27
18
20
201
32
170
261
190

4
4
2
3
3
3
3
1
6
5
5
5

20
20
20
20
20
0
0
20
20
20
20
20

126.6
106.7
75.7
75.7
70.6
75.9
84.3
28.0
98.9
145.3
165.3
145.2

15.2
12.8
9.11
9.11
8.49
9.13
10.1
3.37
11.9
17.5
19.9
17.5

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.14 Thermal conductivity of miscellaneous non-metallic liquids in units of WK1 m1. The data is
given at two temperatures T1 and T 2, and varies roughly linearly between these two temperatures. (Figure 9.32 (a)).
Liquid
Acetone
Aniline
Benzene
Methanol
Ethanol
N-butanol
N-propanol
Toluene
Carbon tetrachloride
Water
Xenon

T1
193
293
293
233
233
213
233
193
253
273
173

T2
333
323
333
353
353
353
353
333
353
223

K1
0.198
0.172
0.147
0.223
0.189
0.167
0.168
0.159
0.115
0.561
0.07

K2
0.146
0.137
0.186
0.150
0.106
0.148
0.119
0.102
0.673
0.05

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.15 Thermal conductivity (WK1m 1) of elemental metals in their liquid state. Shaded entries
refer to the solid state. The data are graphed in Figure 9.33.
Liquid
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Caesium
Mercury
Aluminium
Bismuth
Gallium
Tin

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Hg
Al
Bi
Ga
Sn

173 K
98
141
105
59
37
29.5
241
11
43
76

273 K
86
142
104
58
36
7.8
236
8.2
41
68

373 K
82
88
53
32
20
9.4
240
7.2
33
63

573 K
47
78
45
29
20.6
11.7
233
13
45
32

973 K
59
60
32
22
17.7

92
17

40

KL/KS(%)
57
62
51
55
56
26
39
181
80
51

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.16 Thermal conductivity (WK1 m1) and electrical resistivity (m) of elemental metals in their
liquid state. Also evaluated is the quantity rk/T known as the Lorentz number and has theoretical value
of 2.45108 (W K2 ).
Liquid

373 K
k

r
8

9.7 10

88

Potassium

17.5 108

Sodium

rk /T

573 K
k

2.3 10

16.8 10

78

28.2 108

rk /T

973 K
k

2.3 10

39.2 10

60

2.4 108

45

2.2 108

66.4 108

32

2.2 108

29

2.4 10

99 10

22

2.2 108
2.4 108

53

2.5 108

Rubidium

27.5 10

32

2.4 10

48 10

Caesium

43.5 108

20

2.3 108

67 108

20.6

2.4 108

134 108

17.7

Mercury

103.5 108

2.6 108

128 108

11.7

2.6 108

214 108

9.4

rk /T

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.17 The resistivity (108m) of elemental metals with low melting points. The shaded data
above the line in the table refers to the metals in the solid state and data below line refer to data in the
liquid state. The last row of the table shows the ratio of the resistivities in the solid and liquid states. The
figure is derived from the ratio of the last datum in the solid region to the first datum in the liquid region.

T(K)
0
78.2
273.2
373.2
573.2
973.2
1473.2
rS/rL (%)

Na
0
0.76
4.33
9.51
17.4
38.9
88
46

Rb
Cs
K
0
0
0
1.30
2.59
4.1
6.49 11.5
18.8
15.8
27.3
44.5
27.7
45.1
67.3
64.7
93
128
165
250
338
41
42
42

Hg
0
5.8
94.1
103.5
128
214
630
6

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.19 The results of calculations of the molecular polarisability of non-polar molecules based on
dielectric constant data for both liquid and gaseous states. The value of on Equation 9.51 a/eo=(e 1)/n
with n estimated by either Equation 9.49 or 9.50 as appropriate. The data for the densities of liquid hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are estimates based on a 10% decrease of the density of the solid. See Table
5.16 for gas data and Table 9.18 for liquid data. The gas data refer to atmospheric pressure (1.013105
Pa). Notice that the inferred value of a is quite similar in liquid and gaseous states.

Liquid
Substance
Argon
Helium
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen

40
4
2
28
32

r
(kg m3)
1410
120
80
930
1300

e1
0.53
0.048
0.228
0.45
0.507

n
a/eo

(1028 m3) (1030)


2.12
25
1.81
2.65
2.41
9.5
2.00
22.5
2.45
20.5

Gas

r
(kg m3)
293
293
293
293
293

e1
5.16
0.65
2.54
5.47
4.94

(1028 m3)
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

a/eo

(1030)
21
2.6
10.2
21.9
19.8

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.20 The results of the calculations of the permanent molecular dipole moment (in Cm) of polar
molecules according to Equation 9.53. The gas data refer to atmospheric pressure (1.013105 Pa).

Liquid
Substance
Methanol
Ethanol
Water

M
32
46
18

T
(K)
298
298
293

r
(kg m3)
791
789
1000

e1
31.6
23.3
79.4

Gas
n
p

(1028 m3) (1030)


1.49
15.2
1.03
15.7
3.35
16.0

T
(K)
373
373
373

e1
57
61 or 78
60

n
p

(1028 m3) (1030)


1.97
6.29
1.97
6.5 or 7.4
1.97
6.45

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.18 The relative dielectric permittivity e of various insulating liquids. The relative permittivity of
vacuum is exactly 1.

Substance
Argon, Ar
Helium, He
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Methanol, CH3OH
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Propanol, C3H7OH
Butanol, C4H9OH
Pentanol, C5H11OH
Hexanol, C6H13OH
Aniline, C6H7N
Acetone, C3H6O
Carbon disulphide, CS2
Water, H2O

MW
40
4
2
28
32
32
46
60
74
88
102
86
58
76
18

T
82 K
4.19 K
20.4 K
70 K
80 K
25 C
25 C
25 C
20 C
25 C
25 C
20 C
25 C
20 C
20 C

e1
0.53
0.048
0.228
0.45
0.507
31.6
23.3
19.1
16.8
12.9
12.3
5.90
19.7
1.64
79.4

e
1.53
1.048
1.228
1.45
1.507
32.6
24.3
20.1
17.8
13.9
13.3
6.90
20.7
2.64
80.4

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.19 The results of calculations of the molecular polarisability of non-polar molecules based on
dielectric constant data for both liquid and gaseous states. The value of on Equation 9.51 a/eo=(e 1)/n
with n estimated by either Equation 9.49 or 9.50 as appropriate. The data for the densities of liquid hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are estimates based on a 10% decrease of the density of the solid. See Table
5.16 for gas data and Table 9.18 for liquid data. The gas data refer to atmospheric pressure (1.013105
Pa). Notice that the inferred value of a is quite similar in liquid and gaseous states.

Liquid
Substance
Argon
Helium
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen

40
4
2
28
32

r
(kg m3)
1410
120
80
930
1300

e1
0.53
0.048
0.228
0.45
0.507

n
a/eo

(1028 m3) (1030)


2.12
25
1.81
2.65
2.41
9.5
2.00
22.5
2.45
20.5

Gas

r
(kg m3)
293
293
293
293
293

e1
5.16
0.65
2.54
5.47
4.94

(1028 m3)
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

a/eo

(1030)
21
2.6
10.2
21.9
19.8

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.20 The results of the calculations of the permanent molecular dipole moment (in Cm) of polar
molecules according to Equation 9.53. The gas data refer to atmospheric pressure (1.013105 Pa).

Liquid
Substance
Methanol
Ethanol
Water

M
32
46
18

T
(K)
298
298
293

r
(kg m3)
791
789
1000

e1
31.6
23.3
79.4

Gas
n
p

(1028 m3) (1030)


1.49
15.2
1.03
15.7
3.35
16.0

T
(K)
373
373
373

e1
57
61 or 78
60

n
p

(1028 m3) (1030)


1.97
6.29
1.97
6.5 or 7.4
1.97
6.45

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.21 The refractive index of various liquids for yellow light.

Substance and chemical formula


MW
Water, H2O
18
Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
152
92
Toluene, C7H8
32
Methanol, CH3OH
44
Ethanol, C2H5OH
Propan-1-ol, C3H7OH
56
Propan-2-ol, C2H5OHCH2
56
Acetic acid, CH3COOH
Benzene, C6H6
78
86
Aniline, C6H7N
65
Hydrogen disulphide, HS2

nlight
1.33
1.405
1.497
1.329
1.3614
1.3852
1.3742
1.3716
1.501
1.586
1.885

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 9.22 Calculation of the refractive indices of liquid water, methanol and benzene from the data on
the refractive index of their vapours (Table 5.18). The predictions for n light1 are 20 to 25% below the
experimental values. The method of calculation is described in Equations 9.55 to 9.61.
Gas
Number
MW density (m3)

Substance
Water
Methanol
Benzene

H 2O
CH3OH
C 6H 6

18
32
78

nlight

2.689 10
1.000254
2.689 1025 1.000586
2.689 1025 1.001762
25

Molecular
polarisability
a (F1m4)
1.647 10
3.860 1040
11.61 1040
40

Density
(kg m3)
1000
791
879

Liquid
Number
Prediction
density
(m3)

Actual

nlight1

3.346 10
1.489 1028
6.786 1027
28

nlight1

0.27
0.284
0.375

0.33
0.329
0.501

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.1 Thermal data for the elements: the melting and boiling temperatures in kelvin, and the enthalpies of fusion (melting) and vaporisation. The data refer to standard atmospheric pressure unless otherwise stated. Two elements arsenic and carbon which sublime when heated at atmospheric pressure.
These are discussed in 11.7 on the solidgas transition, and their the enthalpies of fusion and vaporisation are estimated from studies at high pressure.

Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Name
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Silicon
Phosphorous
Sulphur
Chlorine
Argon
Potassium
Calcium
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Copper
Zinc
Gallium
Germanium
Arsenic
Selenium
Bromine
Krypton
Rubidium
Strontium
Yttrium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum

Atomic
weight
1.008
4.003
6.941
9.012
10.81
12.01
14.01
16
19
20.18
22.99
24.31
26.98
28.09
30.97
32.06
35.45
39.95
39.1
40.08
44.96
47.9
50.94
52
54.94
55.85
58.93
58.7
63.55
65.38
69.72
72.59
74.92
78.96
79.9
83.8
85.47
87.62
88.91
91.22
92.91
95.94

Density
(kg m3)
89
120
533
1846
2466
2266
1035
1460
1140
1442
966
1738
2698
2329
1820
2086
2030
1656
862
1530
2992
4508
6090
7194
7473
7873
8800
8907
8933
7135
5905
5323
5776
4808
3120
3000
1533
2583
4475
6507
8578
10222

Melting
Boiling
point
point
(K)
(K)
14.01
20.28
0.95
4.216
453.7
1620
1551
3243
2365
3931
Sublimes at 3700
63.15
77.4
54.36
90.188
53.48
85.01
24.56
27.1
371
1156.1
922
1363
933.5
2740
1683
2628
317.3
553
386
717.82
172
239.18
83.8
87.29
336.8
1047
1112
1757
1814
3104
1933
3560
2160
3650
2130
2945
1517
2235
1808
3023
1768
3143
1726
3005
1356.6
2840
692.73
1180
302.93
3676
1210.6
3103
Sublimes at 886
490
958.1
265.9
331.93
116.6
120.85
312.2
961
1042
1657
1795
3611
2125
4650
2741
5015
2890
4885

Enthalpy of
fusion
(kJ mol 1)
0.12
0.021
4.6
9.8
22.2
105
0.72
0.444
5.1
0.324
2.64
9.04
10.67
39.6
2.51
1.23
6.41
1.21
2.4
9.33
15.9
20.9
17.6
15.3
14.4
14.9
15.2
17.6
13
6.67
5.59
34.7
27.7
5.1
10.8
1.64
2.2
6.16
17.2
23
27.2
27.6

Enthalpy of
vaporisation
(kJ mol 1)
0.46
0.082
134.7
308.8
538.9
710.9
5.577
6.82
6.548
1.1736
89.04
128.7
293.72
383.3
51.9
9.62
20.403
6.53
77.53
149.95
304.8
428.9
458.6
348.78
219.7
351
382.4
371.8
304.6
115.3
256.1
334.3
31.9
26.32
30
9.05
69.2
138.91
393.3
581.6
696.6
594.1

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Z
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

Name
Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Indium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Iodine
Xenon
Caesium
Barium
Lanthanum
Cerium
Praseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Mercury
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Polonium
Astatine
Radon
Francium
Radium
Actinium

Atomic
weight
97
101.1
102.9
106.4
107.9
112.4
114.8
118.7
121.7
127.6
126.9
131.3
132.9
137.3
138.9
140.1
140.9
144.2
145
150.4
152
157.2
158.9
162.5
164.9
167.3
168.9
173
175
178.5
180.9
183.9
186.2
190.2
192.2
195.1
197
200.6
204.4
207.2
209
209
210
222
223
226
227

Density
(kg m3)
11496
12360
12420
11995
10500
8647
7290
7285
6692
6247
4953
3560
1900
3594
6174
6711
6779
7000
7220
7536
5248
7870
8267
8531
8797
9044
9325
6966
9842
13276
16670
19254
21023
22580
22550
21450
19281
13546
11871
11343
9803
9400

4400

5000
10060

Melting
point
(K)
2445
2583
2239
1825
1235.1
594.1
429.32
505.12
903.9
722.7
386.7
161.3
301.6
1002
1194
1072
1204
1294
1441
1350
1095
1586
1629
1685
1747
1802
1818
1097
1936
2503
3269
3680
3453
3327
2683
2045
1337.6
234.28
576.6
600.65
544.5
527
575
202
300
973
1320

Boiling
point
(K)
5150
4173
4000
3413
2485
1038
2353
2543
1908
1263
457.5
166.1
951.6
1910
3730
3699
3785
3341
3000
2064
1870
3539
3396
2835
2968
3136
2220
1466
3668
5470
5698
5930
5900
5300
4403
4100
3080
629.73
1730
2013
1833
1235
610
211.4
950
1413
3470

Enthalpy of
fusion
(kJ mol 1)
23.81
23.7
21.55
17.2
11.3
6.11
3.27
7.2
20.9
13.5
15.27
3.1
2.09
7.66
10.04
8.87
11.3
7.113
12.6
10.9
10.5
15.5
16.3
17.2
17.2
17.2
18.4
9.2
19.2
25.5
31.4
35.2
33.1
29.3
26.4
19.7
12.7
2.331
4.31
5.121
10.48
10
23.8
2.7

7.15
14.2

Enthalpy of
vaporisation
(kJ mol 1)
585.22
567.8
495.4
393.3
255.1
99.87
226.4
290.4
67.91
50.63
41.67
12.65
65.9
150.9
399.6
313.8
332.6
283.7

191.6
175.7
311.7
391
293
251
292.9
247
159
428
661.1
753.1
799.1
707.1
627.6
563.6
510.5
324.4
59.15
162.1
179.4
179.1
100.8

19.1

136.8
293

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Z
90
91
92
93
94
95

Name
Thorium
Protactinium
Uranium
Neptunium
Plutonium
Americium

Atomic
weight
232
231
238
237
244
243

Density
(kg m3)
11725
15370
19050
20250
19840
13670

Melting
point
(K)
2023
2113
1405
913
914
1267

Boiling
point
(K)
5060
4300
4018
4175
3505
2880

Enthalpy of
fusion
(kJ mol 1)
19.2
16.7
15.5
9.46
2.8
14.4

Enthalpy of
vaporisation
(kJ mol 1)
543.9
481
422.6
336.6
343.5
238.5

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.2 Thermal data for the various substances: the melting and boiling temperatures in kelvin, and
the enthalpies of fusion (melting) and vaporisation. The data refer to standard atmospheric pressure unless otherwise stated and (s) indicates that the substance sublimes rather than boils and the melting temperature is obtained under pressure. (*) indicates a large discrepancy of 20K amongst data from different sources.

Substance
Acetic acid
Acetone
Aniline
Benzene
Chloroform
Cyclohexane
Ethyl acetate
Methanol
Ethanol
Propan-1-ol
Propan-2-ol
Butan-1-ol
Butan-2-ol
Toluene
Lithium fluoride
Lithium chloride
Lithium bromide
Sodium chloride
Sodium fluoride
Sodium bromide
Potassium fluoride
Potassium chloride
Potassium bromide
Carbon dioxide
Carbontetrachloride
Carbon disulphide
Carbon monoxide
Water

CH3COOH
CH3COCH3
C 6H 7N
C 6H 6
CHCl3
C6H10
C 4H 8O 2
CH3OH
C2H5OH
C3H7OH
C3H7OH
C4H9OH
C4H9OH
C 7H 8
LiF
LiCl
LiBr
NaF
NaCl
NaBr
KF
KCl
KBr
CO2
CCl4
CS2
CO
H 2O

MW
60
58
93
78
119
82
88
32
46
60
60
74
74
92
25.9
42.39
86.9
42.0
58.4
102.9
58.1
74.6
119.0
44
154
76
28
18

Density
(kg m3)
1049
787
1026
877

779

791
789
804
786
810
808
867
2635
2068
3464
2558
2165
3203
2480
1984
2750

1632
1293

998

Melting
point
(K)
289.75
177.8
266.85
278.65
209.55
279.65
189.55
179.25
155.85
146.65

183.65
298.55
178.15
1118
878
823
1266
1074
1020
1131
1043
1007
216.55

162.35
74.15
273.15

Boiling
point
(K)
391.1
329.3
457.6
353.2
334.4
353.8
350.2
337.7
351.5
370.3

390.35
372.65
383.8
1949
1620(*)
1538
1968
1686
1663
1778
1273(s)
1708
194.7

319.6
81.7
373.15

Enthalpy of
fusion
(kJ mol 1)
11.535
5.691
10.555
9.951
8.800
2.630
10.481
3.177
5.021
5.195

9.282
6.786
6.851

4.395

5.994

Enthalpy of
vaporisation
(kJ mol 1)

40.608

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these figures resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.3 Comparison of NAEe with the experimental value of the latent heat of vaporisation L. The
final column shows the ratio of these two quantities NAEe/L. The values of E e are drawn from Table
9.12.
Substance
Copper
Silver
Gold
Aluminium
Tin
Helium
Neon
Argon
Krypton
Xenon

NADEe
L
DEe(J)
10-21 (kJ mol1) (kJ mol1) NADEe/L
486
292.7
300.5
0.97
403
242.7
255.06
0.95
516
310.7
324.43
0.96
447
269.2
290.8
0.92
436
262.6
290.37
0.90
0.13
0.078
0.08
0.98
3.23
1.95
1.77
1.10
10.8
6.50
6.52
0.99
17.2
10.36
9.03
1.15
24.4
14.69
12.64
1.16

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.4 The critical parameters of various substances discussed in Chapter 6 and Chapter 8. PC,VC
and TC are the critical pressure, molar volume and temperature. ZC is the compression factor which is
discussed in 11.5.3. The next column gives the density at the critical point, calculated from the molecular mass and V C . This may be compared with the density of the substance in the liquid state well
away from TC . For the inorganic substances where the liquid density data is not available, the solid density has been used instead The final column gives the ratio of the density at the critical point to that at a
temperature well below the critical point.
PC
Substance
(MPa)
Methanol, CH3OH
8.09
Ethanol, C2H5OH
6.14
Propan-1-ol , C3H7OH
5.17
5.79
Acetic acid, C2H4O2
Acetone, C3H6O
4.7
Aniline, C6H7N
5.3
Benzene, C6H6
4.9
Bromoethane, C2H5Br
6.23
Chloroform, CHCl3
5.5
Cyclohexane, C6H10
4.02
Ethyl acetate, C4H8O2
3.83
Toluene, C7H8
4.11
Carbon monoxide, CO
3.50
Carbon dioxide, CO2
7.38
Carbon disulphide, CS2 7.9
Carbon tetrachloride, 4.56
CCl4
Hydrogen, H2
1.294
Nitrogen, N2
3.39
Oxygen, O2
5.08
7.71
Chlorine, Cl2
Bromine, Br2
10.3
Helium, He
0.229
Neon, Ne
2.73
Argon, Ar
4.86
Krypton, Kr
5.50
Xenon, Xe
5.88
Radon, Rn
6.3
Water, H2O
22.12
Heavy water, D2O
21.88

VC
1
(106 m3
mol )
118
167
219
171
213
274
254
215
240
308
286
320
93.1
94.0
173
276

TC
(K)
512.6
513.9
536.8
594.5
508.1
698.9
562.2
503.8
536.4
553.4
523.2
591.8
133
304.2
552
556.4

65.5
90.1
78
124
135
58
41.7
75.2
92.3
119

59.1
54.9

32.99
126.2
154.8
417
584
5.2
44.4
150.7
209.4
289.7
377
647.3
644.2

ZC=
PCVC/R
TC
0.224
0.240
0.254
0.200
0.237
0.250
0.266
0.320
0.296
0.269
0.252
0.267
0.295
0.274
0.298
0.272

Critical
Density
(kgm3)
271
275
274
351
272
339
307
507
500
266
287
288
300.75
468.09
439.31
550.72

Liquid
Density
(kgm3)
791
789
804
1049
787
1026
879
1456
1498
941.6
900.6
868.8

1263
1604

Density
Ratio
0.343
0.349
0.340
0.334
0.346
0.330
0.349
0.348
0.333
0.282
0.319
0.331

0.348
0.343

0.309
0.291
0.308
0.276
0.287
0.307
0.309
0.292
0.292
0.291

30.534
310.77
410.26
572.58
1185.2
68.966
479.62
531.91
910.08
1100.8

304.57
364.30

89
1035
1460
2030
3120
120
1442
1656
3000
3560
4400
1000
1100

0.343
0.300
0.281
0.282
0.380
0.575
0.333
0.321
0.303
0.309

0.243
0.224

0.305
0.331

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these figures resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.5 The cohesive energies Uo of the elements in units of kJ mol1. Uo is the energy required to
separate the atoms of a solid at T = 0 K into isolated neutral atoms.

Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Element
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Silicon
Phosphorous
Sulphur
Chlorine
Argon
Potassium
Calcium
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Copper
Zinc
Gallium

Uo
(kJ mol1 )

158
320
561
711
474
251
81
1.92
107
145
327
446
331
275
135
7.74
90.1
178
376
468
512
395
282
413
424
428
336
130
271

Z
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Element
Germanium
Arsenic
Selenium
Bromine
Krypton
Rubidium
Strontium
Yttrium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum
Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Indium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Iodine
Xenon
Caesium
Barium
Lanthanum
Cerium
Praseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium

Uo
(kJ mol1 )
372
285.3
237
118
11.2
82.2
166
422
603
730
658
661
650
554
376
284
112
243
303
265
211
107
15.9
77.6
183
431
417
357
328

206

Z
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

Element
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Mercury
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Polonium
Astatine
Radon
Francium
Radium
Actinium
Thorium
Protactinium
Uranium

Uo
(kJ mol1 )
179
400
391
294
302
317
233
154
428
621
782
859
775
788
670
564
368
65
182
196
210
144

18.5

160
410
598

536

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these tables resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.6 The equilibrium vapour pressure (Pa) of water substance above the solid or liquid surface as
a function of temperature. The shaded data on the liquid corresponds to data taken on supercooled water.

T (C)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16

Solid
0.009
0.053
0.258
1.077
3.940
12.88
38.12
42.27
46.80
51.87
57.34
63.47
70.14
77.34
85.34
94.01
103.4
113.8
125.2
137.5
151.0

Liquid

T (C)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Solid
165.5
181.5
198.7
217.6
238.0
260.0
284.2
310.2
338.3
368.7
401.8
437.4
475.8
517.4
562.4
610.6

Liquid
191.50
208.03
225.50
244.57
264.98
286.58
310.18
335.26
362.06
390.86
421.80
454.74
489.81
527.55
567.83
610.6
656.9
706.0
758.1
813.6
872.5
935.2
1002
1073
1148
1228.1
1312.7
1402.6
1497.7
1598.5
1705.3

Extracted from Understanding the properties of matter by Michael de Podesta.


The copyright of these figures resides with Taylor and Francis.
They may be used freely for educational purposes but their source must be acknowledged.
For more details see www.physicsofmatter.com

Table 11.7 The melting, boiling and triple-point temperatures of various substances. The Ttr values are
often known extremely accurately. The TM and TB values are typically known to within 10mK.

Substance
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Argon
Water

T M (K)
54.35
63.15
83.75
273.15

T Tr (K)
54.3584
63.150
83.8058
273.16

T B (K)
90.188
77.352
87.29
373.15

UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER: WEB CHAPTER 2


Table W2.1 Molar magnetic susceptibility of the elements at around room temperature. The data are summarised in Figure
W2.3. The shading in the table corresponds to the shading in Figure and highlights elements with a large susceptibilities.
Element, atomic mass (u) and denZ sity (kg m3)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Hydrogen, H
Helium, He
Lithium, Li
Beryllium, Be
Boron, B
Carbon, C
Nitrogen, N
Oxygen, O
Fluorine, F
Neon, Ne
Sodium, Na
Magnesium, Mg
Aluminium, Al
Silicon, Si
Phosphorus, P
Sulphur, S
Chlorine, Cl
Argon, A
Potassium, K
Calcium, Ca
Scandium, Sc
Titanium, Ti
Vanadium, V
Chromium, Cr
Manganese, Mn
Iron, Fe
Cobalt, Co
Nickel, Ni
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn
Gallium, Ga
Germanium, Ge
Arsenic, As
Selenium, Se
Bromine, Br
Krypton, Kr
Rubidium, Rb
Strontium, Sr
Yttrium, Y
Zirconium, Zr
Niobium, Nb
Molybdenum, Mo
Technetium, Tc
Ruthenium, Ru
Rhodium, Rh
Palladium, Pd
Silver, Ag
Cadmium, Cd
Indium, In
Tin, Sn

W2.6

1.008
4.003
6.941
9.012
10.81
12.01
14.01
16
19
20.18
22.99
24.31
26.98
28.09
30.97
32.06
35.45
39.95
39.1
40.08
44.96
47.9
50.94
52
54.94
55.85
58.93
58.7
63.55
65.38
69.72
72.59
74.92
78.96
79.9
83.8
85.47
87.62
88.91
91.22
92.91
95.94
97
101.1
102.9
106.4
107.9
112.4
114.8
118.7

89
120
533
1846
2466
2266
1035
1460
1140
1442
966
1738
2698
2329
1820
2086
2030
1656
862
1530
2992
4508
6090
7194
7473
7873
8800
8907
8933
7135
5905
5323
5776
4808
3120
3000
1533
2583
4475
6507
8578
10222
11496
12360
12420
11995
10500
8647
7290
7285

cM
(m3 mol1)

Element, atomic mass (u) and


density (kg m3)

1.78 1010
1.17 1010
8.43 1011
7.57 1011

8.48 1011
2.02 1010
1.65 1010
2.08 1010
5.06 1011
3.41 1010
1.95 1010

2.62 1010
5.61 1010
3.96 109
1.92 109
3.20 109
2.31 109
6.59 109
Ferro
Ferro
Ferro
6.87 1011
1.44 1010
2.72 1010
9.64 1011
6.87 1011
3.16 1010

2.13 1010
1.16 109
2.40 109
1.53 109
2.56 109
1.15 109
3.01 109
5.43 1010
1.40 109
7.13 109
2.45 1010
2.48 1010
8.04 1010
4.75 1010

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95

Antimony, Sb
Tellurium, Te
Iodine, I
Xenon, Xe
Caesium, Cs
Barium, Ba
Lanthanum, La
Cerium, Ce
Praseodymium, Pr
Neodymium, Nd
Promethium, Pm
Samarium, Sm
Europium, Eu
Gadolinium, Gd
Terbium, Tb
Dysprosium, Dy
Holmium, Ho
Erbium, Er
Thulium, Tm
Ytterbium, Yb
Lutetium, Lu
Hafnium, Hf
Tantalum, Ta
Tungsten, W
Rhenium, Re
Osmium, Os
Iridium, Ir
Platinum, Pt
Gold, Au
Mercury, Hg
Thallium, Tl
Lead, Pb
Bismuth, Bi
Polonium, Po
Astatine, At
Radon, Rn
Francium, Fr
Radium, Ra
Actinium, Ac
Thorium, Th
Protactinium, Pa
Uranium, U
Neptunium, Np
Plutonium, Pu
Americium, Am

Michael de Podesta 2002

121.7
127.6
126.9
131.3
132.9
137.3
138.9
140.1
140.9
144.2
145
150.4
152
157.2
158.9
162.5
164.9
167.3
168.9
173
175
178.5
180.9
183.9
186.2
190.2
192.2
195.1
197
200.6
204.4
207.2
209
209
210
222
223
226
227
232
231
238
237
244
243

6692
6247
4953
3560
1900
3594
6174
6711
6779
7000
7220
7536
5248
7870
8267
8531
8797
9044
9325
6966
9842
13276
16670
19254
21023
22580
22550
21450
19281
13546
11871
11343
9803
9400

4400

5000
10060
11725
15370
19050
20250
19840
13670

cM
(m3 mol1)
1.22 109
4.98 1010
5.58 1010
5.51 1010
3.72 1010
2.61 1010
1.53 109
3.04 108
6.30 108
7.07 108

2.29 108
4.27 107
Ferro
1.83 106
1.30 106
9.05 107
5.57 107
3.21 107
3.13 109
2.28 1010
9.46 1010
1.94 109
7.36 1010
8.49 1010
1.24 1010
3.21 1010
2.54 109
3.51 1010

6.40 10-10
2.88 10-10
3.52 10-9

1.67 10-9

5.14 10-9

7.73 10-9
1.22 10-8

F: Properties of Matter: data tables

842

November 1, 2010