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SATELLITE SYSTEM APPLICATION FOR PATH DEVIATION OF AN ASTEROID BETWEEN

MOON AND EARTH TO AVERT DISASTER


C. Sathiya Vel Avioi!" S!hola# $ D#. A. %ai Ra& C#yo'ei!" P#o(e""o#
De)a#t*et o( Ae#oa+ti!al E'iee#i', PSN Colle'e o( E'iee#i' $ Te!holo'y
Melathe-iyoo#./01230, Palaya*4ottai Tal+4, Ti#+elveli Di"t#i!t, Ta*il Na-+, I-ia
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. There are also located at the stable
Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system. Most asteroids consist of carbon-rich minerals, which most meteorites are
composed stony iron. The mass of near earth Asteroids as a function of its diameter is the range of densities from
1.g!cm
"
to ".#g!cm
"
.$or e%ample, a &-m diameter asteroid with a density of 1.g!cm
"
has a mass of order ',( )g. *f this
Asteroid falls on earth then the earth will be destroyed. The present pro+ect is how we can a,ert this great danger for near
future with the abo,e mass of Asteroid. The present analyses a new satellite system for the application of path de,iation of
an Asteroid between moon and earth. This de,iates angle from -1 to -& with help of Satellite system .$igure A/. The
satellite is includes the following subsystem - communication subsystem, electric propulsion subsystem, parasuite
subsystem, control system mechanism, solar power subsystem and thermal control subsystem. The Simulation 0ased on
studying of path de,iation of a near earth Asteroid between Moon and Earth. The totally fi,e 1uantity of Electric propulsion
techni2ues is used. The satellite will go around the earth in this initial orbit the point which is at minimum distance from the
earth in that orbit.perigee/ is at &(( )m height and the point ma%imum distance in that orbit is at &(,333 )m. The asteroid
is passes through orbit of capture mechanism .satellite/,its after satellite system is mo,e in the pitch up direction, due to
nearest of the asteroid with help of one 1uantity of Electric propulsion techni2ues, then the parasuite is released and the
shrin)s of parasuite together with of Asteroid. The path of hea,y asteroid could be de,iated from -1 to -& with help of
another 4 2uantity of Electric propulsion Techni2ues. Electric propulsion thruster system is e%pected to become popular
with the de,elopment of ion-ion pair techni2ues because of their stimulated of low propellant5 the re2uired amount of path
de,iation thrust range is 46 with high ,elocity 1.1(%13
(
m!s .The chlorine gas is used for this application.
Fi'+#e A . Satellite "y"te* a))li!atio (o# )ath -eviatio o( a a"te#oi-
Let us see more details about these disasterous stones. There are many small solid ob+ects in the
Solar System called asteroids. The ,ast ma+ority are found in a swarm called the asteroid belt, located
between the orbits of Mars and 7upiter at an a,erage distance of &.1 to "." astronomical units .A8/ from
the Sun. Scientists )now of appro%imately 9,333 large asteroids of a diameter of 1 )ilometer or more, and
of millions of small asteroids with a diameter of " meters or more. :eres, ;allas, and <esta are the three
largest asteroids, with diameters of ',#(, 913 and 4(3 )m respecti,ely. =thers range all the way down to
meteorite si>e. *n 11 the ?alileo probe pro,ided the first close-up ,iew of the asteroid :aspra5 although
the Martian moons .already seen close up/ may also be asteroids, captured by Mars. There are many
small asteroids, meteorites, and comets outside the asteroid belt. $or e%ample, scientists )now of 1,333
asteroids of diameter larger than one )ilometer located near the Earth. E,ery day 1 ton meteorites with
mass of o,er # )g fall on the Earth. The orbits of big asteroids are well )nown. The small asteroids .from 1
)g/ may be also located and their tra+ectory can be determined by radio and optical de,ices at a distance
of hundreds of )ilometers. @adar obser,ations enable to discern of asteroids by measuring the
distribution of echo power in time delay .range/ and Aoppler fre2uency. They allow a determination of the
asteroid tra+ectory and spin and the creation of an asteroid image.
The mass of all the ob+ects of the asteroid belt, lying between the orbits of Mars and 7upiter, is
estimated to be about &.#-".&B13
&1
)g, or about 4 C of the mass of the Moon. =f this, :eres comprises
3.(B13
&1
)g, a third of the total. Adding in the ne%t three most massi,e ob+ects, <esta .C/, ;allas .'C/,
and Dygiea ."C/, brings this figure up to (1C5 while the three after that, (11 Aa,ida .1.&C/, '34
*nteramnia .1.3C/, and (& Europa .3.C/, only add another "C to the total mass. The number of
asteroids then increases rapidly as their indi,idual masses decrease. The ma+ority of )nown asteroids
orbit within the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and 7upiter, generally in relati,ely low-eccentricity
.i.e., not ,ery elongated/ orbits. This belt is now estimated to contain between 1.1 and 1. million
asteroids larger than 1 )m .3.9 mi/ in diameter, and millions of smaller ones. These asteroids may be
remnants of the protoplanetary dis), and in this region the accretion of planetesimals into planets during
the formati,e period of the Solar System was pre,ented by large gra,itational perturbations by 7upiter.
6ear-Earth asteroids, or 6EAs, are asteroids that ha,e orbits that pass close to that of Earth.
Asteroids that actually cross the EarthEs orbital path are )nown as Earth-crossers. As of May &313, ',3'(
near-Earth asteroids are )nown and the number o,er one )ilometre in diameter is estimated to be (33F
1,333. There are significantly fewer near-Earth asteroids in the mid-si>e range than pre,iously thought.
These are ob+ects of (3 meters or more in diameter in a near-Earth orbit without the tail or coma of a
comet. As of May &31&, #,##3 near-Earth asteroids are )nown, ranging in si>e from 1 meter up to G"&
)ilometers .13"9 ?anymed/. The number of near-Earth asteroids o,er one )ilometer in diameter is
estimated to be about #1. The composition of near-Earth asteroids is comparable to that of asteroids
from the asteroid belt, reflecting a ,ariety of asteroid spectral types.
6EAs sur,i,e in their orbits for +ust a few million years. They are e,entually eliminated by
planetary perturbations which cause e+ection from the Solar System or a collision with the Sun or a planet.
Hith orbital lifetimes short compared to the age of the Solar System, new asteroids must be constantly
mo,ed into near-Earth orbits to e%plain the obser,ed asteroids. The accepted origin of these asteroids is
that asteroid-belt asteroids are mo,ed into the inner Solar System through orbital resonances with 7upiter.
The interaction with 7upiter through the resonance perturbs the asteroidEs orbit and it comes into the inner
Solar System. The asteroid belt has gaps, )nown as Iir)wood gaps, where these resonances occur as
the asteroids in these resonances ha,e been mo,ed onto other orbits. 6ew asteroids migrate into these
resonances, due to the Jar)o,s)y effect that pro,ides a continuing supply of near-Earth asteroids.
A small number of 6E=s are e%tinct comets that ha,e lost their ,olatile surface materials,
although ha,ing a faint or intermittent comet-li)e tail does not necessarily result in a classification as a
near-Earth comet, ma)ing the boundaries somewhat fu>>y. The rest of the near-Earth asteroids are
dri,en out of the asteroid belt by gra,itational interactions with 7upiter.There are three families of near-
Earth asteroidsK
The Atens, which ha,e a,erage orbital radii less than one A8 and aphelia of more than EarthEs
perihelion .3.#" A8/, placing them usually inside the orbit of Earth.
The Apollos, which ha,e a,erage orbital radii more than that of the Earth and perihelia less than
EarthEs aphelion .1.31' A8/.
The Amors, which ha,e a,erage orbital radii in between the orbits of Earth and Mars and
perihelia slightly outside EarthEs orbit .1.31'F1." A8/. Amors often cross the orbit of Mars, but
they do not cross the orbit of Earth.
Many Atens and all Apollos ha,e orbits that cross .though not necessarily intersect/ that of the Earth,
so they are a threat to impact the Earth on their current orbits. Amors do not cross the EarthEs orbit and
are not immediate impact threats. Dowe,er, their orbits may e,ol,e into Earth-crossing orbits in the future.
Also sometimes used is the Ar+una asteroid classification, for asteroids with e%tremely Earth-li)e orbits.
There are also the asteroids located at the stable Lagrange points of the EarthFMoon system. Most as of
teroids consist of carbon-rich minerals, while most meteorites are composed of stony-iron. The ma+ority of
6EAs ha,e densities between 1. g!cm
"
and ".# g!cm
"
. ;resent Inowledge is G&3,(336EAs L
133metersK about &(C disco,ered to date5 Millions of 6EAs L 13meters and billions of 6EAs L &meters.
The satellite is includes the following subsystem - communication subsystem, electric propulsion
subsystem, parasuit subsystem, control system mechanism, solar power subsystem and thermal control
subsystem.
Since the asteroidMs orbit would be by selection similar to EarthMs, the ma%imum communication
distance would be G & A8. :ommunication to AS6 "4 meter sites at Ia-band and N-band would be
needed before, during, and after the capture of the asteroid. The upper limit on the spin rate of the
asteroid is 1 re,olution per minute or 9 degrees per second. The asteroid capture process is assumed to
ta)e & hours with no interacti,e feedbac) loop with Earth. The process to de-spin is assumed to ta)e an
additional 4( minutes. The high initial possible spin rate of 9 degrees per second of the asteroid ma)es
the communication difficult. 6ormally antennas can trac) a target while communication with a spin rate of
& degrees per second. Also, the antenna must be able to rotate continuously in both a%es. This resulted in
the preliminary selection of phased array antennas although this trade will be re-e,aluated in future
studies. An N-band capability is included in the design for safe mode communication. This capability is
based on a &33-H N-band system with =mni directional antennas, and would pro,ide a minimum data
rate of &3 bps from the spacecraft to Earth. The E; subsystem concept includes a total of fi,e 13-)H Dall
thrusters and ;ower ;rocessor 8nits .;;8s/. A ma%imum of 4 thruster!;;8 strings are operated at a
time. *t also includes chlorine propellant tan)s, a propellant management assembly, and &-a%is gimbals
for each ion-ion thruster. The electric propulsion subsystem concept incorporates one spare
thruster!gimbals !;;8!N$: string to be single fault tolerant.
Each thruster is estimated to ha,e a mass of 1 )g, and would operate at a specific impulse of up to
",333 s at a ;;8 input power le,el of G13 )H. The chlorine propellant tan) design is based on a
cylindrical, composite o,erwrap pressure ,essel .:=;</ design with a seamless aluminum liner. Such
tan)s are pro+ected to ha,e a tan) age fraction for :hlorine of appro%imately 4C. .$or reference, the
Aawn %enon tan) had a tan)age fraction of (C./ A total of se,en chlorine tan)s would be needed to
store the 1&,333 )g of chlorine re2uired for this mission. Each tan) would ha,e a diameter of 9(3 mm
and would be appro%imately ",(33 mm long. Attitude control during SE; thrusting would be pro,ided by
gimbaling the ion-ion thrusters. This would pro,ide pitch, yaw, and roll control for the spacecraft.
Thrusting with the electric propulsion system would be the normal operating mode for the spacecraft, i.e.,
this is the mode in which the spacecraft would spend the ,ast ma+ority of its time during the mission. At
other times attitude control and spacecraft translation would be pro,ided by a monopropellant hydra>ine
reaction control system or The same Method.*on-*on Thruster/ due to Asteroid Mass. The asteroid is
passes through orbit of capture Mechanism.satellite/,its after satellite system is mo,e in the pitch up
direction, due to nearest of the asteroid with help of one 1uantity of Electric propulsion techni2ues, then
the parasuite is released and the shrin)s of parasuite together with of Asteroid.
The satellite controlling due to Earth station which is used to the Earth Telemetry station. The
telemetry subsystem transmits information about the satellite to the earth station, while the command
subsystem recei,es command signal from the earth station, often in response to telemeter information.
The pitch, yaw ,roll motion of satellite with help of thruster ,ector control .Aesigning of Thrust ,ector
control in ion-ion thruster of small roc)et system.The power system design is si>ed to pro,ide 41.& )H at
1&3 <A: to the user input at E=L. *t would use two 13.'-m diameter 8ltrafle% solar arrays with ""C
efficient, ad,anced *n,erted Metamorphic .*MM/ solar cells and &3-mil co,erglass on front and bac) sides.
The solar arrays could be canted toward the aft portion of the ,ehicle during asteroid capture and would
be off-pointed at most #(O and pro,ide at least ".9 )H. A secondary lithium ion battery would pro,ide "&
H-hr at up to1(C A=A. 8p to 1(4 H-hr a,ailable at &3O: and #3C A=A. The 1&3 <A: power from
solar array would be down-con,erted to &# <A: for use by the rest of the spacecraft .non-E;/ loads. The
thermal control subsystem is ,ery useful to the a,oid the solar radiation heat from sun to reflect of
instrument and other thermal property.
The Simulation 0ased on studying of path de,iation of a near earth Asteroid between Moon and
Earth. The totally fi,e 1uantity of Electric propulsion techni2ues is used. The satellite goes round the
earth in this initial orbit the point which is at minimum distance from the earth in that orbit .perigee/ is at
&(()m height and the point ma%imum distance in that orbit is at &(,333 )m. The asteroid is passes
through orbit of capture Mechanism.satellite/, its after satellite system is mo,e in the pitch up direction,
due to nearest of the asteroid with help of one 1uantity of Electric propulsion techni2ues, then the
parasuite is released and the shrin)s of parasuite together with of Asteroid. The path of hea,y asteroid
could be de,iated from -1 to -& with help of another 4 2uantity of Electric propulsion Techni2ues.