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Transaction processing systems
Types of transaction
processing systems

S web-based : Transaction Processing systems which exist on
the web; for example airline booking systems
S non web-based: Transaction Processing systems which are not
on the web for example how many people attend a football
S on-line real time- the immediate processing of data an example
of this would be online banking.
S Batch: processing is the collection and storage of data for
processing at a scheduled time or when there is sufficient data
and example of this would be the use of cheques

Storing and retrieving
in transaction
processing systems
Characteristics of TPS
Rapid response: the turnaround time from the input of a transaction to the pr
oduction of the output must be a few seconds or less. Time is critical.
Reliability: TPS failure rate must be low. Quick & accurate recovery must be
possible due to well designed backup & recovery procedures.
Inflexibility: a TPS wants every transaction to be processed the same way. e
g. commercial airlines accept bookings from a number of travel agents. Their
data must be identical from agent to agent.
controlled processing: TPS processing must support an organisations opera
tions. eg. allocation of roles & responsibilities to particular employees should
be enforced, maintained by the TPS.

Storing and retrieving in
transaction processing

S storage of digital data in databases and files- Digital data can
be stored in a sequential, indexed sequential or a hashed file
S data backup and recovery, including
S Grandfather, father, and son -is three generations of the kept
files for successive backups.
S Off-site storage - Is used in case of vandalism or a natural
disaster that might destroy the premises and all the files stored
here. It is a location physical separated from the main system.
S Secure on-site storage- generally in a different location or
preferably a different building to the operation files. It refers to a
location that is physically close to the system and gives fast access
to the backup data but requires extra precautions.
S Full and partial backups- Full backups take the longest time to
perform but contain all of the files needed. Partial backups can
either contain a copy of files that contain changes since the last
backup or can contain just small parts of the required backup data.
S Mirroring- creating a copy or mirror image on a different media
S Rollback- previously rolling back to the previous known transaction
before the crash or interruption.
S retrieval of stored data to conduct further transaction
processing such as printing invoices- are warehoused
S Sequential data storage are the data records one after the
other in entry or key field order.
S Indexed sequential data storage- are records stored in any
order and with a separate index file.
S Hashed file storage will divide the disk space into numbered
locations with key fields.

S Real time updating-
Is suited to the direct access to the
storage system. This system usually
has hard drives which the business
can rely on. Data entry is updated
onto a daily transaction file and a
master file which are kept online on a
master file.
There is user interface with validation
fields used such as radio buttons and
pull down menus.

S Batch updating
Is suited to the use of sequential
tape-based storage systems. This is
used with paper records, magnetic
tape and punch cards.
Record deletion is required and a
new copy was made onto another
There may be use of user interface
but its not essential. The storage
system rarely have its own display.
Other information
processes in
processing systems

Collecting in transaction
processing systems
S Hardware - This is more commonly known as the
physical component of the system, e.g. keyboard,
mouse, monitor.
S collection from forms -
involves generating transaction data.
Involves the use of hardware & a variety of paper forms.
S screen design for on-line data collection
S web forms for transaction processing - Real time refers to
transactions that happen immediately (real-time), whilst
batch processing refers to transactions that are not real
time thus are delayed transactions, this is due to the
transaction being built up of many little transactions
batched into a big single transaction.
(real time and batch)

analysing data, in which output from
transaction processing is input to
different types of information systems

S decision support - A set of related computer programs
and the data required to assist with analysis and
decision-making within an organisation.
S management information systems - Management
information system, or MIS, broadly refers to a computer-
based system that provides managers with the tools to
organise, evaluate and efficiently manage departments
within an organisation.

S data warehousing systems (for data mining) - A copy of
transaction data specifically structured for query and
S enterprise systems - (ES) are large-scale application
software packages that support business processes,
information flows, reporting, and data analytics in
complex organisations.