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T 1.1 Explain the difference between act and rule deontologists as between act and rule utilitarian.

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Deontologists and Utilitarianism are two major normative ethical theories that attempt to specify
and justify moral rules and principles by examining standards for the rightness and wrongness of
actions. The major difference between these theories is that deontology focuses on moral
obligations and duties (i.e. what is right) whereas Utilitarianism focus on moral value or goodness
(i.e. what is good) as it is teleological.
Utilitarianism holds that an action is right if it leads to the maximum utility i.e. the most happiness
for the greatest number of people. There are two forms of utilitarianisms i.e. act utilitarianism and
rule utilitarianism and both oppose each other. The first form is based more on the consequences of
actions whereas the second form is based on rules that include rules of conduct and similar
principles. In simple terms, act utilitarianism first considers the consequence of an act and then
chooses the one with the better consequences. Conversely, rule utilitarianism first considers the
consequences of choosing what rule to follow and then chooses the rule that generates the highest
utility or happiness.
Deontology judges the rightness of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules, and
hence is also called duty or obligation based ethics. Like the utilitarianism, this theory can be
subdivided into two separate forms as act deontology and rule deontology. And these two forms
also have similar differences as between act and rule utilitarians. In rule deontology rules are set
based on explicit duties which must be applied in relevant circumstances. These duties may include
things such as always tell the truth and dont harm. The basic foundation of rule deontology is
quite alike to rule utilitarianism which is also based on rules of conduct. Conversely, in act
deontology, no duties are defined before the act which is being judged and the context in which
actions take place is taken into account. It looks into the consequences of the actions to see what
will promote good over evil. This is also quite similar to the basic foundation of act utilitarianism
which is also based more on the consequences of actions.
T 1.2 Explain the utilitarian theories analyzing the theory of value, principle of utility and the
decision procedure. 20
Theory of value
There are several theories of value that outline good and bad.
1. Hedonism - equates good with pleasure, bad or evil with pain.
2. Eudemonism - equates good with happiness, bad or evil with unhappiness.
3. Agathism - views good as an indefinable, intrinsic feature of various situations and states,
evil as either an indefinable, intrinsic feature of other situations and states, or simply as the
absence of good.
4. Agapeism - equates good with live, bad with hate.
5. Values pluralism - holds that there are many good, including pleasure and happiness, but
also knowledge, friendship, love, and so forth. These may or may not be viewed as differing
in importance or priority.

Principle of utility
The principle of utility states that an action or a behavior is right if it promotes happiness or
pleasure, wrong if it tends to produce unhappiness or pain. The basis of this theory is that happiness
and pleasure are fundamentally valuable and suffering and pain are fundamentally valueless.
Decision procedure
Decision procedure describes how the judgment is made considering relative maximum utility or
relative minimum disutility of an act. Utilitarian theories are subdivided into two forms over this
issue as act utilitarian theories and rule utilitarian theories. As explained in the previous section,
these two theories oppose each other. Act utilitarianism form is based more on the consequences
of actions whereas the rule utilitarianism is based on rules that include rules of conduct and similar
principles.
In simple terms, act utilitarianism first considers the consequence of an act and then chooses the
one with the better consequences. Conversely, rule utilitarianism first considers the consequences
of choosing what rule to follow and then chooses the rule that generates the highest utility or
happiness.
T1.3 Apply teleological theories to the scenario in terms providing employment opportunities for
developing countries discussing the facts of the scenario. 25


1.4 Demonstrate the contribution of Kant and Mill for the development of business ethics. 15
Contribution of Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant is best known for his metaphysical and epistemological theories, and his
deontological moral theory. In terms of ethics, the most well-known works of him are Groundwork
in the Metaphysics of Morals (1785), Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and Metaphysics of Morals
(1798). These texts constitute the foundation of Kants own moral philosophy, mostly focusing on
morality and action.

Contribution of John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill is best known for his contributions to utilitarianism. His views were influenced by
both his father, James Mill and the founder of the utilitarian school of ethical thought, Jeremy
Bentham as well as his own firm beliefs in the principles of liberalism. The most well-known work of
him the collection of essays in the book Utilitarianism (1861) which is his main dissertation on
Utilitarianism. He has referenced his theory at several other points in his published works as well.


1.5 Compare and contrast absolute and relative morality with illustrations. - 20
Absolute morality is when someone has a view they are sure of. This view can be applied to any life
situation, and it is a view that will never change. It is absolute. For example, if someone says
abortion is wrong, and always will be, then this is their absolute rule. It does not necessarily mean
that it is right, but it is a belief that the person themself thinks is right and that it will never change.
Relative morality is when someone believes in something, but it changes depending on the situation.
For example, if someone says abortion should be prevented, unless it is the most kind and loving
thing to do. This idea could be applied to a situation if, for example, a young girl was raped, and her
future would be better without a baby. Aborting the baby could be called the most kind and loving
thing to do. This is relative morality.
The main difference between absolute and relative morality is the exceptions. Absolute morality has
no exceptions, it is not dependent on the situation and it will never change. Relative morality is full
of exceptions, and a large part of relative morality is depending on the ethics of the situation.
Absolute morality is supposedly truth to the individual, whereas relative morality is full of different
opinions. Absolute morality tends to be more religion orientated. In the Bible there are the Ten
Commandments, such as Thou shalt not kill meaning you must not murder. Any Christian will not
question these rules, because they are from God. And so it goes without question that this is an
absolute rule. Anyone who doesnt follow a religion may tend to be more of a relativist, and they
may say Murder should be prevented, unless murdering one person could stop the murder of
hundreds more, (like in the case of Osama Bin Laden or other terrorists).