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Welcome back!

This is our second issue of The


Mathematical Bridge newsletter. This
issue continues our focus on the
Number and Algebra strand and
looks more closely at the progress of
Patterns and Algebra, Linear
Relationships and Algebraic
Techniques across Stage 3 and 4
Mathematics and the connections to
other substrands. We see these
connections as important as these
concepts become prerequisite
knowledge for our students by the
time they leave primary school.
We hope you find these resources
useful and we welcome any
feedback and/or suggestions.
Nagla Jebeile and Katherin
Cartwright, Mathematics Advisors,
Australian curriculum

Plane sailing! Locating
coordinates in the primary
syllabus
It is important to note that many
areas of mathematics in the primary
syllabus sit in a variety of
substrands. As we progress through
the syllabus and into Stage 4, many
of these separate concepts come
together. One of the focuses in this
issue is on Linear Relationships. The
beginnings of these relationships sit
in Whole Numbers, Patterns and

Algebra, Two-Dimensional Space
and Position, in the K-6 syllabus.
We start with Stage 2 Position 1
where coordinates are introduced as
grid references on maps. These
skills incorporate visualising skills
and spatial awareness. Students
who have developed a sense of the
grid in relation to arrays in
multiplication and the area model will
be able to use this across and up, or
across and down visualisation
technique to assist them.

Many students will not have
experienced this birds-eye view of
maps and may need to build some
field knowledge by looking at, and
exploring examples of these, prior to
making their own maps. Students
also need to build knowledge of
positional language that is used with
coordinates.

As students look at Linear
Relationships in Stage 4, they also
deal with transformations,
translations and rotations. It is
important to note that in K-6
mathematics, these skills are
developed in Stage 2 Two-
Dimensional Space 2. This
language builds on from Stage 1
where these are referred to as flip,
slide and turn. There is also a focus
on language of clock-wise, anti-
clockwise, half-turns and quarter-
turns from Stage 1 in the new
syllabus.
Syllabus content Pedagogy Teaching ideas
2011 Year 5 NAPLAN
Easter Show map

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In Stage 3 in Two-Dimensional
Space 1 and 2 this focus on rotation
is explored with rotating 2D shapes
around a point.
Rotation about a point- GeoGebra
You will need to download GeoGebra to
view this applet
In Stage 4 this point is then placed
on the Cartesian Plane and the
movement of the shape, picture or
object is described based on its x
and y coordinates.
It is important to note the connection
between the Cartesian plane and the
map of the globe. We use
coordinates to locate longitude and
latitude in a similar way, first
horizontal then vertical. You can
imagine the flat plane stretched
around the globe to form a circle. It is
not exactly the same, as the
longitude lines converge at a central
point (the poles) but it is helpful for
students to see the similarities.
"Maps courtesy of www.theodora.com/maps,
used with permission."
Linear relationships
The basis for teaching linear
relationships starts with location of
grid points on maps, using the
conventional grid reference system
where the horizontal component
direction is named first followed by
the vertical component. For example
using grid references to describe
position, the butterfly is at A3.
This is a precursor to introducing the
Cartesian coordinate number system
in Stage 3, where the horizontal
coordinate is first followed by the
vertical coordinate.
The Cartesian plane is named after
the French philosopher and
mathematician Ren Descartes and
consists of a coordinate system with
ordered pairs (x,y) describing the
horizontal position x, followed by the
vertical position y.
A linear relationship is a relationship
of direct proportionality, when plotted
on a Cartesian plane produces a
straight line.
With a linear relationship any change
to an independent variable will
produce a corresponding change in
the dependent variable. Functions
are used to represent the
relationship. Examples for linear
relationships are the money Sam
makes depending on how many
hours he works, speed which
depends on distance travelled and
time taken or conversion of one
currency to another.
Looking along the continuum of
learning you can see Patterns and
Algebra outcome MA3-8NA students
locate points on a Cartesian plane,
students learn that a number plane is
a visual way of describing location
on a grid; they recognise that the
number plane consists of horizontal
and vertical axes that meet at right
angles at the origin.
Students develop an understanding
of the Cartesian coordinate system
using all four quadrants, plotting
points on the number plane and
understanding how to plot a
sequence of coordinates to create a
picture.
2009 Year 3 NAPLAN
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3
Progressing into Stage 4 students
identify and label coordinates on the
Cartesian plane whose coordinates
are not whole numbers, followed by
investigating translations, reflections
in an axis and rotations of 90
0

multiples on the Cartesian plane.
Shapes undergo transformations in
various ways. Transformations
include enlargements, reflections,
rotations and translations. We
encourage students to investigate
reflection of points in the x-axis and
the y-axis.
Rotation
Further investigations for
understanding translations involve
shifting a figure in a plane without
turning. To describe a translation we
say how far left or right and how far
up or down a figure is moved. We
would like students to understand
that all the points in a figure move
the same distance in a translation.
Translation
Activities include using the notation
P to name the image after the
transformation of a point P on the
plane. Students investigating and
describing the relationship between
the point P and P, for example the
x-coordinate has changed, and the
y-coordinate has the same
magnitude but is opposite in sign.
Another activity is to ask students to
translate triangle ABC 9 units down
on the Cartesian plane.
The translated image is shown below
each point is moved 9 units down on
the Cartesian plane.
Students investigations for rotation
include rotations of multiples of 90
0

on the Cartesian plane, describing
the relationship between the
coordinates of P and P following a
rotation of 180
0
about the origin,
such as x and y coordinates having
the same magnitude but opposite in
sign.
Students are also encouraged to
conduct investigations which involve
using a combination of translations
and reflections to produce the same
result as a single rotation.
Rotation
Students modelling the
concept of linear
relationships
Many activities can be designed to
develop the concept further.
The following videos show strategies
for teaching linear relationships with
students as coordinates, plotting
themselves on a life size Cartesian
plane.
As the teacher changes the slope
and y-intercept of the equation
students position themselves to
create the graph of the linear
relationship.
Li near Graphs: Li fe-sized
Coordi nate Pai rs (5 mi n)
Graphi ng Li near Equati ons: Ful l
Body Styl e (5 mi n)
Find it Fast Numeracy
Stage 3 students locate positions on
maps, grid references and
coordinates. Teaching notes, Smart
notebook included. Note these
activities are linked to current
syllabus outcomes.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

ISSUE 1 | FEBRUARY 2014
Continuum of learning Mathematics K-10 Number and Algebra Strand
Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Whole Numbers:
A student applies place value to order,
read and represent numbers of up to
five digits
Whole Numbers:
A student orders, reads and represents
integers of any size and describes
properties of whole numbers



Part 1
Count forwards and backwards by tens
and hundreds from any starting point.
State the place value of digits in
numbers of up to four digits. Read, write
and order numbers of up to four digits

Part 2
State the place value of digits in
numbers of up to five digits.
Read, write and order numbers of up to
five digits. Record numbers of up to five
digits using expanded notation.

Whole Numbers Part 1
Read, write and order numbers of any
size. State the place value of digits in
numbers of any size. Record numbers
of any size using expanded notation.
Determine factors and multiples of
whole numbers.

Whole number Part 2
Recognise the location of negative
numbers in relation to zero on a number
line. Identify and describe prime and
composite numbers. Model and
describe square and triangular numbers.


Patterns and Algebra:
A student generalises properties of odd
and even numbers, generates number
patterns, and completes simple number
sentences by calculating missing values
Patterns and Algebra:
A student analyses and creates
geometric and number patterns,
constructs and completes number
sentences, and locates points on the
Cartesian plane

Algebraic Techniques:
A student generalises number
properties to operate with algebraic
expressions

Part 1
Identify, continue, create, describe and
record increasing and decreasing
number patterns
Identify odd and even numbers of up to
four digits

Part 2
Find missing numbers in number
sentences involving addition or
subtraction on one or both sides of the
equals sign
Investigate and use the properties of
odd and even numbers
Recognise, continue and describe
number patterns resulting from
performing multiplication
Find missing numbers in number
sentences involving one operation of
multiplication or division


Part 1
Identify, continue create and describe
increasing and decreasing number
patterns with fractions, decimals and
whole numbers
Find missing numbers in number
sentences involving multiplication or
division on one or both sides of the
equals sign

Part 2
Continue, create, record and describe
geometric and number patterns in words
Determine the rule for geometric and
number patterns in words and use the
rule to calculate values
Locate and record the coordinates of
points in all four quadrants of the
Cartesian plane

















Part 1
Use letters to represent numbers
Recognise and use simple equivalent
algebraic expressions
Simplify algebraic expressions involving
the four operations

Part 2
Substitute into algebraic expressions
Expand and factorise simple algebraic
expressions



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Stage 4 Stage 5.1 Stage 5.2 Stage 5.3
Indices: A student operates with
positive integer and zero indices
of numerical bases

Indices: A student operates
with algebraic expressions
involving positive-integer
and zero indices, and
establishes the meaning of
negative indices for
numerical bases
Indices: A student applies
index laws to operate with
algebraic expressions
involving integer indices
Surds and Indices:
A student performs
operations with surds and
indices
Use index notation for positive
integral indices. Express a
whole number as a product of
its prime factors. Apply the order
of operations to evaluate
numerical expressions involving
indices. Determine and apply
tests of divisibility. Find square
roots and cube roots. Determine
and apply the index laws for
numerical expressions with
positive-integer indices.
Determine and apply the
meaning of the zero index.
Apply the index laws to
simplify algebraic
expressions with positive-
integer indices and the zero
index
Convert algebraic
expressions with negative
indices to expressions with
positive indices and vice
versa
Simplify algebraic
expressions involving
positive, negative and zero
indices
Define the system of real
numbers and distinguish
between rational and
irrational numbers
Perform operations with
surds
Convert between surd and
index form and vice versa
Equations: A student uses
algebraic techniques to solve
simple linear and quadratic
equations
Equations: A student
solves linear and simple
quadratic equations, linear
inequalities and linear
simultaneous equations,
using analytical and
graphical techniques
Equations: A student
solves complex linear,
quadratic, simple cubic and
simultaneous equations,
and rearranges literal
equations
Solve simple linear equations
using algebraic techniques.
Solve simple quadratic
equations of the form x
2
=c
Solve linear equations
involving grouping symbols.
Solve linear equations
involving algebraic fractions
Solve quadratic equations of
the form ax
2
=c. Solve
quadratic equations of the
form ax
2
+bx +c =0 (where
a =1) using factors.
Solve equations resulting
from substitution into
formulas. Solve word
problems using linear
equations. Solve linear
inequalities. Solve linear
simultaneous equations
using algebraic and
graphical techniques

Solve complex linear
equations involving
two or more algebraic
fractions
Solve quadratic equations
by factorising, by completing
the square or by using the
quadratic formula
Solve simple cubic
equations of the form
ax
3
=k
Rearrange literal equations
Solve simultaneous
equations where one
equation is non-linear, using
algebraic and graphical
techniques
Linear Relationships:
A students creates and displays
number patterns; graphs and
analyses linear relationships;
and performs transformations on
the Cartesian plane
Linear Relationships:
A student determines the
midpoint, gradient and
length of an interval, and
graphs linear relationships
Linear Relationships:
A student uses the gradient-
intercept form to interpret
and graph linear
relationships
Linear Relationships:
A student uses formulas to
find midpoint, gradient and
distance on the Cartesian
plane & applies standard
forms of the equation of a
straight line
Locate and describe points on
the Cartesian plane using
coordinates. Describe
translations and reflections in an
axis on the Cartesian plane.
Describe rotations of multiples of
90 on the Cartesian plane.
Recognise, describe and record
geometric and number patterns
in words and algebraic symbols.
Plot linear relationships created
from simple patterns and
equations. Solve simple linear
equations using graphical
techniques
Find the midpoint, gradient
and length of intervals on
the. Cartesian plane using
informal strategies.
Graph linear relationships
from equations. Determine
that parallel lines on the
Cartesian plane have equal
gradients.
Apply the gradient-intercept
form of the equation of a
straight line to interpret and
graph straight lines.
Apply the properties of the
gradients of parallel and
perpendicular lines on the
Cartesian plane.
Use formulas to find the
midpoint, gradient and
length of intervals on the
Cartesian plane.
Apply various standard
forms of the equation of a
straight line.
Solve problems involving
straight lines on
the Cartesian plane,
including parallel and
perpendicular lines.
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Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Cartesian Plane
This lesson is an excerpt from the BOSTES sampl e unit Cartesian Plane (with adjustments) that can
be found here http://syl labus.bos.nsw.edu.au/mathematics/mathemati cs-k10/programming/ under
Samples, in the sampl e units tab.

Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Patterns and Algebra 2
Outcomes:
MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical situations in a variety of ways using mathematical
terminology and some conventions
MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-solving strategies, including the use of digital
technologies, in undertaking investigations
MA3-3WM gives a valid reason for supporting one possible solution over another
MA3-8NA analyses and creates geometric and number patterns, constructs and completes number
sentences, and locates points on the Cartesian plane

Activity 1: Creating a Col ossal Cartesian Plane
This activity is best completed on a large flat space, such as the floor of the school hall or a playground. A
space that has a square-grid structure (e.g. the grout lines separating large square tiles) is preferable,
if available. If the space to be used does not have a square-grid structure, the teacher should create a
square grid of 30 units 30 units prior to the activity. In addition, construct a large-scale number line through
the middle of the grid labelled from 15 to 15.
Review the concept of positive and negative numbers (integers) and model the placement of
integers on the large-scale number line.
Call out numbers from 15 to 15 and have each student, one by one, find the specified position
on the number line. Continue until all students have a position on the number line.
Adjustment: Reinforce associated terminology when discussing position on the number line
through the use of left/negative and right/positive.
Explain that the number line allows us to identify a particular position on a single line using a
number, but that this limits us to describing position only on the one line. Ask a few students to
find a position nearby that is not on the line (include positions on both sides of the line).
Generate discussion about how the position of someone who is not on the line could be
described. Guide students to think of the important features needed to describe position
accurately, such as:
- side of the line
- distance from the line.
Guide student responses to the idea of two number lines placed at right angles to each other and
intersecting at zero on each line. Use masking tape or chalk to construct the second number line
on the ground from (roughly) 15 to 15 using the same scale as on the first line.
Introduce the term number plane and inform students that Ren Descartes was one of the first
mathematicians to represent position in two dimensions using this method, hence the title
Cartesian plane.
Introduce terminology associated with the Cartesian plane and use either large prepared labels
or chalk to label these on the colossal Cartesian plane. It is important that students realise that,
by convention, mathematicians refer to the horizontal axis as the x-axis, and the vertical axis as
the y-axis. This allows a common understanding of the Cartesian plane in all parts of the world.
Terminology to be introduced includes:
horizontal axis (x-axis), vertical axis (y-axis), intersect: the number plane is created
using two axes, the horizontal axis (x-axis) and the vertical axis (y-axis), which intersect
at right angles
point of intersection, origin: the name given to the point of intersection of the axes of
the Cartesian plane is the origin. Students should be made aware that, by convention,
the origin is denoted by the capital letter O
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quadrant: the axes divide the Cartesian plane into four quadrants (remind students of
the word stem quad-, meaning four, and recall known words that use this stem,
eg quadrilateral).
With the aid of the labels, and later without, students practise responding to the terminology as
the teacher asks all students (or a single student) to move to that feature of the Cartesian plane,
eg Ali, go to the origin, Everyone stand on the x-axis, Tam, go to the point of intersection of
the axes.
Issue each student with a card marked with the coordinates of a point. The set of points used
should include points in each quadrant, the origin, and points on the x-axis and y-axis, eg (2, 5),
(7, 4), (13, 1), (6, 8), (5, 3), (12, 6), (8, 10), (1, 7), (0, 3), (0, 14), (12, 0), (4, 0),
(10, 12), (10, 12), (6, 6), (7, 12), (0, 2), (10, 0), (10, 10), (8, 0), (14, 8), (13, 8), (0, 12),
(0, 0), (0, 3), (3, 8), (11, 5), (11, 5), (4, 13), (6, 2).
Explain the following:
Coordinates of the origin are (0, 0) and all other points are located by starting
(originating) at the origin.
By convention, a point on the Cartesian plane is recorded as a pair of numbers,
separated by a comma, in parentheses (brackets).
By convention, the first number in parentheses always refers to the x-coordinate of the
point and indicates the position that is moved to on the x-axis to the right (positive) or to
the left (negative) of the origin, ie the position moved to horizontally starting from the
origin.
The second number always refers to the y-coordinate of the point and indicates the
position that is moved to up (positive) or down (negative) from the origin, ie the position
moved to vertically.
Note: a useful memory aid for the order of the coordinates is that x comes before y in
the alphabet, and so the x-coordinate comes before the y-coordinate when we locate or
record points on the Cartesian plane.
Adjustment: Some students may be provided with visual aids that include the coordinates of
the given point and a description in words of the location of the point (incorporating the
mathematical terms), eg (2, 4) is 2 units to the right of the origin along the x-axis and
4 units down from the origin along the y-axis.
One by one, each student finds the point on the ground that corresponds to the point on his or
her card and sits at that point. Each student must start at the origin and walk to the number
corresponding to the x-coordinate on the x-axis BEFORE considering the y-coordinate.
Adjustment: Some students may require modelling by the teacher and/or peers first, followed by
guided practice with a teachers assistant or peer. Some students may prefer to place an object
rather than sit on the ground themselves.
Once students are seated at their given points, the teacher gives instructions that re-affirm the
terminology associated with the Cartesian plane, eg Stand up if your point is:
on an axis
on the x-axis (What do all of these points have in common?)
on the y-axis (What do all of these points have in common?)
at the origin
in a quadrant
a point with a y-coordinate of 12
a point with an x-coordinate of 0
a point with the same value for the
x-coordinate and the y-coordinate
a point with a positive y-coordinate (Where are all of these points in relation to the
axes?)
a point with a negative x-coordinate (Where are all of these points in relation to the
axes?).
Adjustment: Some students may require verbal prompting to ensure inclusivity.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014


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Let's Plot Points! - Cartesian Plane | Stage 3 | Mathematics Sample lesson by Caringbah PS
Lesson Overview

Students will understand and be able to correctly solve problems using coordinate geometry to describe spatial
relationships. They will specify locations using common language and geometric vocabulary, using coordinate
systems to specific locations while finding the distance between points along horizontal and vertical lines of the
coordinate system.
Outcomes Assessment overview

Mathematics K-10
MA3-8NA analyses and creates geometric and number
patterns, constructs and completes number sentences,
and locates points on the Cartesian plane

MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical
situations in a variety of ways using mathematical
terminology and some conventions

MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-
solving strategies, including the use of digital
technologies, in undertaking investigations




Students plot points to successfully complete a
coordinate picture or find a point on a coordinate
grid.
Teacher observes and makes anecdotal notes.


Language


Number line -A line that shows numbers in order.
Positive numbers -Numbers greater than zero.
Negative numbers -Numbers less than zero.
Coordinate Plane [Rectangular Coordinate System] -Two number lines (including both positive and negative
numbers) perpendicular to one another and intersecting at the zero point of both lines.
Coordinate Grid -A coordinate plane placed on graph paper.
Axes -The names given to the number lines that run horizontally (x) and vertically (y) on the coordinate plane.
X-axi s -The horizontal line on a coordinate plane. The positive numbers are located to the right of the origin,
and the negative numbers are to the left of the origin.
Y-axis -The vertical line on a coordinate plane. The positive numbers are located above the origin, and the
negative numbers are below the origin.
Origin -The point where the x-axis and the y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane. The coordinates of the
origin are (0,0).
Ordered Pai r -A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate grid, such as (5,-2). The x-axis
coordinate is always first because "x" comes before "y" alphabetically.
Coordinates -One of the numbers in an ordered pair. The x value is the first coordinate of the pair and the y
value is the second coordinate.
X-coordinate- Identifies the position of the point along the horizontal (x) axis.
Y-coordinate -Identifies the position of the point along the vertical (y) axis.
Quadrants -The four regions of the coordinate plane that the axes divide it into. There are 4 quadrants,
labeled in counter-clockwise order with quadrant I in the upper right corner. I (+, +), II (-, +), III (-,-), IV (+,-). The
sign of the x-value and y-value are noted in the ordered pair (x,y).


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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources
Stage 3 - Patterns and Algebra 2

Introduce the Cartesian
coordinate system using all
four quadrants (ACMMG143)
recognise that the
number plane
(Cartesian plane) is a
visual way of describing
location on a grid
recognise that the
number plane consists
of a horizontal axis (x-
axis) and a vertical axis
(y-axis), creating four
quadrants
recognise that the
horizontal axis and
the vertical axis meet
at right angles
(Reasoning)
identify the point of
intersection of the two
axes as the origin,
having coordinates
(0, 0)
plot and label points,
given coordinates, in all
four quadrants of the
number plane
plot a sequence of
coordinates to create
a picture
(Communicating)

identify and record the
coordinates of given
points in all four
quadrants of the
number plane
recognise that the
order of coordinates
is important when
locating points on the
number plane,
eg (2, 3) is a location
different from (3, 2)
(Communicating)

Introducing the Concept
Distribute coordinate planes to the class.
Introduce or review the following vocabulary:
number line, positive numbers, negative
numbers, coordinate grid, x-axis, y-axis, origin,
quadrants, ordered pair, coordinate, x-coordinate
and y-coordinate. The handout, Coordinate
Geometry Vocabulary, includes vocabulary and
concepts students need to know in order to
understand the coordinate system and can be
distributed as a future reference.

Display a Cartesian Plane on the Smartboard
and plot several points together as a class. To
help students plot points the following tips may be
helpful:
To remember which axis is which, remind the
students that the bottom of the Y goes up and
down like the Y axis does.
To help students remember which coordinate
comes first in an ordered pair, remind them that x
comes before y in the alphabet; just like it does in
an ordered pair.

Concept Development
Reinforce the importance of the order of the x and
y axis. Graph (1,3), (2,4), and (3,5) on the
coordinate grid. Connect the points with a line.
Next, graph (3,1), (4,2), and (5,3) on the same
grid. Connect these points with a different colour.
Discuss with the students what they observe.

To plot a point, first start at the origin. Look at the
first coordinate in the pair. If it is a positive
number, count over that many points to the right.
If it is a negative number, count that many points
to the left. Next look at the second number in the
ordered pair. If it is positive, go up that number of
points from the point you are at on the x-axis. If
the number is negative, go down that many points
from your location to find the location.
Remember, do not count the point you are on
when you count the points (left or right and up or
down).


Strengthening the Concept
Distribute a paper copy of a coordinate grid.
Provide the students with a set of points that will
result in a picture when plotted. The Coordinate
Grid Pictures handout contains the coordinates
for 4 pictures, and the links include sources for
additional coordinate grid pictures


Coordinate Grid Paper
Coordinate Geometry
Vocabulary Handout
Coordinate Grid Pictures
Handout
Lets Plot Points Rubric
Battleship Grid Paper

Coordinate Grid Paper
http://www.donnayoung.
org/math/c-grids.htm

Coordinate Grid Paper
http://www.printfreegrap
hpaper.com/

Coordinate Grid Paper
http://themathworksheet
site.com/coordinate_plan
e.html

Battleship
http://themathworksheet
site.com/coordinate_plan
e.html

Dinosaur Picture
http://www.mathsisfun.c
om/t_rex.html

Cat Picture
http://www.mathcats.co
m/crafts/grids/catgrid2.ht
ml

Ice Cream Sundae
Picture
http://www.uen.org/Less
onplan/preview.cgi?LPid=
15431

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014


10
Observations Modifications
Some of the students
originally found the
Battleship activity
challenging.
Using a PDF file with
Smartboard Technologies
Tools was not always user
friendly.
Students became more
confident with drawing the
pictures by using the
coordinates. Likewise, the
more games of battleship
they played, the students
began to correctly locate
and describe coordinates.
Make the Battleship activity a Gifted and Talented activity. Use
http://smartboards.typepad.com/smartboard/files/coordinates1.swf

to introduce Cartesian planes instead of the PDF file.
Show
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2-TO8XBNbU
to revise the concept of the Cartesian Plane. Use the Rubric below to assess
the students ability to plot points on a Cartesian Plane

Extension Activity
Play the game Battleship on a coordinate grid.
Use the worksheet generator to make paper for
the Battleship game. Each person will need a
sheet of paper with two coordinate grids. On the
top grid you will plot your ships (Aircraft carrier-5
points long, Battleship-4 points long, Submarine-3
points long, Destroyer-3 points long and PT Boat-
2 points long). On the lower grid you will indicate
where you have shot missiles trying to sink your
partners fleet. Be sure to mark if part of one of
your ships was hit and what boats you have hit.
The partners take turns calling out points (i.e. x-
coordinate 5, y-coordinate -2) until one player has
sunk all the parts of his partners ships. Since
players must call out the coordinates of each
point they wish to guess, the game provides lots
of practice using the coordinate grid. It might be a
good idea to write down the points each player
calls in order to mediate possible disputes later.
Lesson Wrap Up
Discuss situations that require knowledge of
coordinate grids. We use a grid system when we
search for a city on a road map. Latitude and
longitude lines that are used to find locations on
maps work like a coordinate grid system. The
i-phone technology is based on a coordinate grid
system.
Discuss the impli cations in real-world
situations if either the directions were incorrect
or unclear, of if they were not followed properly
(e.g. an engineer writing directions for a
mechanic to build a machine the engineer
designed, an architect drawing plans for a builder
to follow, etc.)
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Further Resources on Cartesian Planes


Syll abus Bites Cartesi an Coordinate system -
http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/LRRView/14116/
14116_02.htm






Bill y Bug coordinate games-
http://www.oswego.org/ocsd-
web/games/BillyBug/bugcoord.html





nrich.maths.org activities

Attractive rotations- http://nrich.maths.org/6987









Mirror, mirror- http://nrich.maths.org/5458









On the Wall- http://nrich.maths.org/5459






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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Linear relationships
Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Linear Relationships
Outcomes: A student
MA4-9NA operates with positive integers and zero indices of numerical bases
MA4-1WM communicates & connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams & symbols
MA4-2WM applies mathematical techniques to solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning
Students:
Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane, and find coordinates for a given point (ACMNA178)
plot and label points on the Cartesian plane, given coordinates, including those with coordinates that are
not whole numbers
identify and record the coordinates of given points on the Cartesian plane, including those with
coordinates that are not whole numbers
Describe translations, reflections in an axis, and rotations of multiples of 90 on the Cartesian plane using
coordinates (ACMMG181)
use the notation to name the 'image' resulting from a transformation of a point on the Cartesian plane
plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from translating one or more times
plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from reflecting in either the x- or y-axis
investigate and describe the relationship between the coordinates of and following a reflection in the
x- or y-axis, eg if is reflected in the x-axis, has the same x-coordinate, and its y-coordinate has the
same magnitude but opposite sign (Communicating)
recognise that a translation can produce the same result as a single reflection and vice versa
(Reasoning)
plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from rotating by a multiple of 90 about the origin
investigate and describe the relationship between the coordinates of and following a rotation of 180
about the origin, eg if is rotated 180 about the origin, the x- and y-coordinates of have the same
magnitude but opposite sign (Communicating)
recognise that a combination of translations and/or reflections can produce the same result as a single
rotation and that a combination of rotations can produce the same result as a single translation and/or
reflection (Reasoning)
Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the second quadrant and third quadrant, label each coordinate. Reflect
each point in the y-axis. Label all the points of the reflected image and determine the coordinates of each.
GeoGebra Reflection of a polygon
http://www.geogebra.org/en/upload/files/MickH/Reflection%20of%20Polygons.html
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Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the first quadrant or second quadrant; label your shape including the
coordinates of each point. Reflect the shape in the x-axis and label all the points of the reflected image.
Describe the relationship between the coordinates in the image (P) and the coordinate in the reflected image
(P).
Student Activity: Translate point P
a) What are the coordinates of P?
b) Translate point P 7 units to the left. What are the coordinates of P? Did the x or y coordinate change?
c) Translate point P 10 units down. What are the coordinates of P? Did the x or y coordinate change?
Students Activity: Below is the link for a Learning object which demonstrates the transformation of a point
Syl l abus Bi tes Speedy Sl i di ng
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Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the fourth quadrant labelling each point and include the coordinate.
Translate the shape 9 units down on the Cartesian plane, plot each translated point with its new coordinate
and label the translated image.

Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the fourth quadrant labelling each coordinate, translate the shape 12
units to the right on the Cartesian plane by plotting each translated point, write the new coordinate and label
the translated image.

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Below is a link to four learning objects Speedy sliding which was mentioned above, Flipping and sliding,
Turbo turning and Mixing it up. These contain digital student activities which can be completed as a whole
class activity or in pairs. Each area explore the ideas of reflection, translation and rotation. Following the link
you will find a PDF of student activities which can be used by student as they progress through the digital
learning object to record their answers.






Rotation of a point about the origin
Student Activity:
Plot the point A (0, 6) on the Cartesian
plane. Rotate point A 900 about the
origin.
What are the coordinates of A? Rotate
point A 1800 about the origin will the x
coordinate or y coordinate change?
What are the coordinates of the rotated
point?
Internet research: students investigate
logos and graphic design icons which
incorporate the reflection, rotation or
translation of a shape.
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Double click on the paperclip icon to view the entire Student Activity Reflection of a Point which
accompanies the Speedy Sliding Learning Object.
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Double click on the paperclip icon to view the entire Student Activity Reflection of a Point which
accompanies the Syllabus Bites learning object.
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Stage 3 Teaching ideas Pre- Algebraic Techniques
Patterns and Algebra
Note: In Stage 3 students learn about completing a table of values for geometric and numerical patterns
and describing the rule. In Stage 4, students create algebraic expressions for these patterns using
pronumeral s. Students then learn to plot these poi nts on a Cartesi an plane.
Click on the paperclip image below to view a few lessons on geometric patterns and tables. These lessons are
from the Talking about Patterns and Algebra resource that can be downloaded HERE
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Additional Resources for Patterns and Algebra
This activity is from the Red Dragonfl y Mathematics chall enge book that can be downloaded as a pdf
HERE
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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Algebraic Techniques
Outcomes
A student:
MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols
MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning
MA4-8NA generalises number properties to operate with algebraic expressions
Students:
Create algebraic expressions and evaluate them by substituting a given value for each variable (ACMNA176)
-substitute into algebraic expressions and evaluate the result
-calculate and compare the values of x
2
for values of x with the same magnitude but opposite sign
(Reasoning)
-generate a number pattern from an algebraic expression, e.g.
Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (ACMNA190)
-expand algebraic expressions by removing grouping symbols, e.g.
connect algebra with the distributive property of arithmetic to determine that
(Communicating)
Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (ACMNA191)
-factorise a single algebraic term, e.g.
-factorise algebraic expressions by finding a common numerical factor, e.g.
check expansions and factorisations by performing the reverse process (Reasoning)
Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying algebraic factors
-factorise algebraic expressions by finding a common algebraic factor, e.g.
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Teaching Algebraic Techniques using guided practise and formative assessment
The video below demonstrates how teacher Carl Munn uses the Cornell Note Taking strategy to develop critical
thinking and individual mini whiteboards for guided practise to develop fluency and understanding. Students are
given immediate feedback, develop skills methodically and build self-confidence through successful
accomplishment of meaningful tasks, the strategy allows teachers to assess students and students to assess
themselves.
Algebra Tools: The Distributive Property (5:18 min), further information on the Cornell note taking strategy
The video below demonstrates how Teacher Leah Alcala uses Formative Assessment when teaching Algebraic
techniques by analysing common algebraic mistakes with students during warm up lessons.
My Favourite No: Learning from mistakes (5:46 min)
The video below takes us into Mr Sinivirta classroom in Finland. We see how he connects with his students, respects
and encourages them so they discover answers by themselves. Promoting good questioning techniques and
allowing students time to discover reasonable solutions to problems. Finland is the top performing country in
mathematics for the international PISA.
Finland: The Human Factor in Math (14 min)
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Stage 4 Number Patterns
1. Draw the following table on the board, leaving out the title and row headings. Ask the students to suggest titles for
the table and headings for the rows and to justify their suggestions.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
Row headings in the above table could include:
Number of weeks and Number of days
Number of heptagons and Number of sides
Number and Number multiplied by 7.
2. Have the students create their own tables, omitting headings, for others to complete.
3. Repeat the activity with sequences of decreasing numbers.
For example:
Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number 19 18 17
Think, pair, share
Number pattern A
x 0 1 2 3 4
y -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
1. Look at number pattern A, are the numbers increasing or decreasing in the pattern?
2. Determine a rule in words to describe the pattern relating the position in the pattern to the value of the term.
3. Graph the following number patterns. Determine whether the number patterns below form a linear or non-linear
relationship.
Number pattern B
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 1 4 9 16 25
1. Look at number pattern B are the numbers increasing or decreasing in the pattern?
2. Determine a rule in words to describe the pattern relating the position in the pattern to the value of the term.
3. Graph the following number patterns. Determine whether the number patterns below form a linear or non-linear
relationship.
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Families of Linear Relationships
1. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.
Write a statement about the similarities and differences you found in this family of graphs.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.
Write a statement about the similarities and differences you found in this family of graphs.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Graphs Similarities Differences
y =3x
y =3x +2
y =3x -2
Graphs Similarities Differences
y =3x
y =2x
y =x
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3. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.
Explain how the graphs above are similar or different. Which features of the linear equation determine the shape?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Are all graphs linear relationships? What makes a graph non-linear? Write a description about the graphs you see.
Graphs Similarities Differences
y =-x
y =-2x
y =2x +2
y =-2x +2
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
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Relevance of Linear Relationships
Linear relationships are best taught within a context which has meaning to students. Linear relationships are
common in mathematics and science. The graph of two quantities can lead to a direct relationship or an inverse
relationship. Direct relationships represent situations where one quantity increases as another increases, for
example a mobile phone call cost increases with the length of the call. An inverse relationship represents situations
where one quantity decreases as another increases.
Linear Relationships
Situation Write the equation
J asmin prints calendars, she charges $3 per item printed.
Write a linear equation to represent the cost of printing
calendars.
Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian plane,
using a table of values.
Find the slope and y-intercept of the linear relationship.
Define your variables x and y:
Write your equation:
Table of Values
x
y
Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian Plane
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Linear Relationships
Situation Write the equation
J ay is a taxi driver. He charges $4 plus $2 per km for the
distance travelled.
Write a linear equation to represent the total cost of the
taxi service.
Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian plane,
using a table of values.
Find the slope and y-intercept of the linear relationship.
Define your variables x and y:
Write your equation:
Table of Values
x
y
Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian Plane
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Stage 3 and 4 NAPLAN teaching strategies for Patterns and Algebra
Click on the paperclip image below to open the pdf file of lesson activities.
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Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Fractions and Decimals
Note: In Stage 3, students are not required to learn the difference between terminating and reoccurring
decimal s (this is investigated in Fractions, Decimals and Percentages in Stage 4). However, in Fractions
and Decimals 2 in Stage 3, students multiply and divide decimals by whole numbers that result in
terminating decimals. It would be a good investigation with Stage 3 students to look at terminating (and
possibly reoccurring) decimals as a field building activity prior to solving problems with decimals using
money or measurement units.
Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Fractions and Decimals
Outcomes: A student
MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical situations in a variety of ways using mathematical
terminology and some conventions
MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-solving strategies, including the use of digital technologies,
in undertaking investigations
MA3-3WM gives a valid reason for supporting one possible solution over another
MA3-7NA compares, orders and calculates with fractions, decimals and percentages
Stage 3 Converting fractions to terminating deci mals
Terminating decimal s video to use as stimulus in class, this video references the US monetary system but
still provides information in cents. This is one of 5 videos in the sequence on converting decimals. There
is another video titled Converting a fraction to a terminating decimal with one- or two- digits, that is also
useful.
http://learnzillion.com/lessons/4437-convert-chal lenging-fractions-to-terminating-decimal s-using-visual-
representations
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Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Decimals
A great resources for teaching decimals is the Teaching and Learning about Decimals CD-ROM by Vicki
Steinle, Kaye Stacey and Dianne Chambers from the University of Melbourne. There is a sample of the
resources on the website, hyperlinked to the image below. You can purchase the CD-ROM directly from
The University of Melbourne (Ms Pam Firth: p.firth@unimelb.edu.au)
The curriculum support Counting On website also has advice and support for teaching decimals. It
includes the di agnostic short decimal test from the Teaching and Learning about decimals CD-ROM.
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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Rational and Irrational Numbers
Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Indices
Outcomes: A student
MA4-9NA operates with positive integers and zero indices of numerical bases
MA4-1WM communicates & connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams & symbols
MA4-2WM applies mathematical techniques to solve problems
MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning
Stage 4 - Rational and Irrational Numbers
Lesson openers, short YouTube clips for class discussion or homework viewing.
Rational and Irrational Numbers (6:40 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=q_wstDWjnKQ
Converting terminating decimal numbers to fractions (3:38 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyTFvx_ZVOs
Stage 5 Converting repeating decimal numbers to fractions
Converting repeating decimal numbers to fractions (8:26 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=xX1sqV1nSAQ
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Reasoning
How many different ways are there to answer a question? There is more than one path to do mathematics,
students are encouraged to think about the various ways a problem can be solved and reasoning to convince
us of the strategy they are using.
U.P.S Method is all about developing a logical thinking process, communicating and writing mathematical ideas.
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/ups-problem-solving-strategy?fd=1
Understand understand the problem and put it in your own words
Plan deductive reasoning to plan the steps to get to the answer
Solve statement and reasoning using formulas, definitions, theorems
UPS can be used for groups of students to collaborate and solve Geometry problems, see the clip below of
UPS in action in the mathematics classroom.
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Syllabus PLUS Series Recordings


Syll abus PLUS K-6 Maths series one and two recordings can be viewed here
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/mathematics/prolearn/workshops/index.htm





Syll abus PLUS 7-10 Maths series one, two and three recordings can be viewed here
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/mathematics/prolearn/workshops/index.htm



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Syllabus PLUS
Keep an eye out for the Syllabus
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Resources
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Conferences
Further information
Learning and Leadership Directorate
Primary Mathematics AC Advisor
Katherin.Cartwright@det.nsw.edu.au
Secondary Mathematics AC Advisor
Nagla.J ebeile@det.nsw.edu.au
Secondary Mathematics Advisor
Christopher.Robertson@det.nsw.edu.au
Level 3, 1 Oxford Street
Sydney NSW 2000
9266 8091 Nagla J ebeile
9244 5459 Katherin Cartwright
April 2014 NSW Department of Education
and Communities
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