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Mathematical Bridge newsletter. This

issue continues our focus on the

Number and Algebra strand and

looks more closely at the progress of

Patterns and Algebra, Linear

Relationships and Algebraic

Techniques across Stage 3 and 4

Mathematics and the connections to

other substrands. We see these

connections as important as these

concepts become prerequisite

knowledge for our students by the

time they leave primary school.

We hope you find these resources

useful and we welcome any

feedback and/or suggestions.

Nagla Jebeile and Katherin

Cartwright, Mathematics Advisors,

Australian curriculum

Plane sailing! Locating

coordinates in the primary

syllabus

It is important to note that many

areas of mathematics in the primary

syllabus sit in a variety of

substrands. As we progress through

the syllabus and into Stage 4, many

of these separate concepts come

together. One of the focuses in this

issue is on Linear Relationships. The

beginnings of these relationships sit

in Whole Numbers, Patterns and

Algebra, Two-Dimensional Space

and Position, in the K-6 syllabus.

We start with Stage 2 Position 1

where coordinates are introduced as

grid references on maps. These

skills incorporate visualising skills

and spatial awareness. Students

who have developed a sense of the

grid in relation to arrays in

multiplication and the area model will

be able to use this across and up, or

across and down visualisation

technique to assist them.

Many students will not have

experienced this birds-eye view of

maps and may need to build some

field knowledge by looking at, and

exploring examples of these, prior to

making their own maps. Students

also need to build knowledge of

positional language that is used with

coordinates.

As students look at Linear

Relationships in Stage 4, they also

deal with transformations,

translations and rotations. It is

important to note that in K-6

mathematics, these skills are

developed in Stage 2 Two-

Dimensional Space 2. This

language builds on from Stage 1

where these are referred to as flip,

slide and turn. There is also a focus

on language of clock-wise, anti-

clockwise, half-turns and quarter-

turns from Stage 1 in the new

syllabus.

Syllabus content Pedagogy Teaching ideas

2011 Year 5 NAPLAN

Easter Show map

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

2

In Stage 3 in Two-Dimensional

Space 1 and 2 this focus on rotation

is explored with rotating 2D shapes

around a point.

Rotation about a point- GeoGebra

You will need to download GeoGebra to

view this applet

In Stage 4 this point is then placed

on the Cartesian Plane and the

movement of the shape, picture or

object is described based on its x

and y coordinates.

It is important to note the connection

between the Cartesian plane and the

map of the globe. We use

coordinates to locate longitude and

latitude in a similar way, first

horizontal then vertical. You can

imagine the flat plane stretched

around the globe to form a circle. It is

not exactly the same, as the

longitude lines converge at a central

point (the poles) but it is helpful for

students to see the similarities.

"Maps courtesy of www.theodora.com/maps,

used with permission."

Linear relationships

The basis for teaching linear

relationships starts with location of

grid points on maps, using the

conventional grid reference system

where the horizontal component

direction is named first followed by

the vertical component. For example

using grid references to describe

position, the butterfly is at A3.

This is a precursor to introducing the

Cartesian coordinate number system

in Stage 3, where the horizontal

coordinate is first followed by the

vertical coordinate.

The Cartesian plane is named after

the French philosopher and

mathematician Ren Descartes and

consists of a coordinate system with

ordered pairs (x,y) describing the

horizontal position x, followed by the

vertical position y.

A linear relationship is a relationship

of direct proportionality, when plotted

on a Cartesian plane produces a

straight line.

With a linear relationship any change

to an independent variable will

produce a corresponding change in

the dependent variable. Functions

are used to represent the

relationship. Examples for linear

relationships are the money Sam

makes depending on how many

hours he works, speed which

depends on distance travelled and

time taken or conversion of one

currency to another.

Looking along the continuum of

learning you can see Patterns and

Algebra outcome MA3-8NA students

locate points on a Cartesian plane,

students learn that a number plane is

a visual way of describing location

on a grid; they recognise that the

number plane consists of horizontal

and vertical axes that meet at right

angles at the origin.

Students develop an understanding

of the Cartesian coordinate system

using all four quadrants, plotting

points on the number plane and

understanding how to plot a

sequence of coordinates to create a

picture.

2009 Year 3 NAPLAN

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

3

Progressing into Stage 4 students

identify and label coordinates on the

Cartesian plane whose coordinates

are not whole numbers, followed by

investigating translations, reflections

in an axis and rotations of 90

0

multiples on the Cartesian plane.

Shapes undergo transformations in

various ways. Transformations

include enlargements, reflections,

rotations and translations. We

encourage students to investigate

reflection of points in the x-axis and

the y-axis.

Rotation

Further investigations for

understanding translations involve

shifting a figure in a plane without

turning. To describe a translation we

say how far left or right and how far

up or down a figure is moved. We

would like students to understand

that all the points in a figure move

the same distance in a translation.

Translation

Activities include using the notation

P to name the image after the

transformation of a point P on the

plane. Students investigating and

describing the relationship between

the point P and P, for example the

x-coordinate has changed, and the

y-coordinate has the same

magnitude but is opposite in sign.

Another activity is to ask students to

translate triangle ABC 9 units down

on the Cartesian plane.

The translated image is shown below

each point is moved 9 units down on

the Cartesian plane.

Students investigations for rotation

include rotations of multiples of 90

0

on the Cartesian plane, describing

the relationship between the

coordinates of P and P following a

rotation of 180

0

about the origin,

such as x and y coordinates having

the same magnitude but opposite in

sign.

Students are also encouraged to

conduct investigations which involve

using a combination of translations

and reflections to produce the same

result as a single rotation.

Rotation

Students modelling the

concept of linear

relationships

Many activities can be designed to

develop the concept further.

The following videos show strategies

for teaching linear relationships with

students as coordinates, plotting

themselves on a life size Cartesian

plane.

As the teacher changes the slope

and y-intercept of the equation

students position themselves to

create the graph of the linear

relationship.

Li near Graphs: Li fe-sized

Coordi nate Pai rs (5 mi n)

Graphi ng Li near Equati ons: Ful l

Body Styl e (5 mi n)

Find it Fast Numeracy

Stage 3 students locate positions on

maps, grid references and

coordinates. Teaching notes, Smart

notebook included. Note these

activities are linked to current

syllabus outcomes.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

ISSUE 1 | FEBRUARY 2014

Continuum of learning Mathematics K-10 Number and Algebra Strand

Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Whole Numbers:

A student applies place value to order,

read and represent numbers of up to

five digits

Whole Numbers:

A student orders, reads and represents

integers of any size and describes

properties of whole numbers

Part 1

Count forwards and backwards by tens

and hundreds from any starting point.

State the place value of digits in

numbers of up to four digits. Read, write

and order numbers of up to four digits

Part 2

State the place value of digits in

numbers of up to five digits.

Read, write and order numbers of up to

five digits. Record numbers of up to five

digits using expanded notation.

Whole Numbers Part 1

Read, write and order numbers of any

size. State the place value of digits in

numbers of any size. Record numbers

of any size using expanded notation.

Determine factors and multiples of

whole numbers.

Whole number Part 2

Recognise the location of negative

numbers in relation to zero on a number

line. Identify and describe prime and

composite numbers. Model and

describe square and triangular numbers.

Patterns and Algebra:

A student generalises properties of odd

and even numbers, generates number

patterns, and completes simple number

sentences by calculating missing values

Patterns and Algebra:

A student analyses and creates

geometric and number patterns,

constructs and completes number

sentences, and locates points on the

Cartesian plane

Algebraic Techniques:

A student generalises number

properties to operate with algebraic

expressions

Part 1

Identify, continue, create, describe and

record increasing and decreasing

number patterns

Identify odd and even numbers of up to

four digits

Part 2

Find missing numbers in number

sentences involving addition or

subtraction on one or both sides of the

equals sign

Investigate and use the properties of

odd and even numbers

Recognise, continue and describe

number patterns resulting from

performing multiplication

Find missing numbers in number

sentences involving one operation of

multiplication or division

Part 1

Identify, continue create and describe

increasing and decreasing number

patterns with fractions, decimals and

whole numbers

Find missing numbers in number

sentences involving multiplication or

division on one or both sides of the

equals sign

Part 2

Continue, create, record and describe

geometric and number patterns in words

Determine the rule for geometric and

number patterns in words and use the

rule to calculate values

Locate and record the coordinates of

points in all four quadrants of the

Cartesian plane

Part 1

Use letters to represent numbers

Recognise and use simple equivalent

algebraic expressions

Simplify algebraic expressions involving

the four operations

Part 2

Substitute into algebraic expressions

Expand and factorise simple algebraic

expressions

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

5

Stage 4 Stage 5.1 Stage 5.2 Stage 5.3

Indices: A student operates with

positive integer and zero indices

of numerical bases

Indices: A student operates

with algebraic expressions

involving positive-integer

and zero indices, and

establishes the meaning of

negative indices for

numerical bases

Indices: A student applies

index laws to operate with

algebraic expressions

involving integer indices

Surds and Indices:

A student performs

operations with surds and

indices

Use index notation for positive

integral indices. Express a

whole number as a product of

its prime factors. Apply the order

of operations to evaluate

numerical expressions involving

indices. Determine and apply

tests of divisibility. Find square

roots and cube roots. Determine

and apply the index laws for

numerical expressions with

positive-integer indices.

Determine and apply the

meaning of the zero index.

Apply the index laws to

simplify algebraic

expressions with positive-

integer indices and the zero

index

Convert algebraic

expressions with negative

indices to expressions with

positive indices and vice

versa

Simplify algebraic

expressions involving

positive, negative and zero

indices

Define the system of real

numbers and distinguish

between rational and

irrational numbers

Perform operations with

surds

Convert between surd and

index form and vice versa

Equations: A student uses

algebraic techniques to solve

simple linear and quadratic

equations

Equations: A student

solves linear and simple

quadratic equations, linear

inequalities and linear

simultaneous equations,

using analytical and

graphical techniques

Equations: A student

solves complex linear,

quadratic, simple cubic and

simultaneous equations,

and rearranges literal

equations

Solve simple linear equations

using algebraic techniques.

Solve simple quadratic

equations of the form x

2

=c

Solve linear equations

involving grouping symbols.

Solve linear equations

involving algebraic fractions

Solve quadratic equations of

the form ax

2

=c. Solve

quadratic equations of the

form ax

2

+bx +c =0 (where

a =1) using factors.

Solve equations resulting

from substitution into

formulas. Solve word

problems using linear

equations. Solve linear

inequalities. Solve linear

simultaneous equations

using algebraic and

graphical techniques

Solve complex linear

equations involving

two or more algebraic

fractions

Solve quadratic equations

by factorising, by completing

the square or by using the

quadratic formula

Solve simple cubic

equations of the form

ax

3

=k

Rearrange literal equations

Solve simultaneous

equations where one

equation is non-linear, using

algebraic and graphical

techniques

Linear Relationships:

A students creates and displays

number patterns; graphs and

analyses linear relationships;

and performs transformations on

the Cartesian plane

Linear Relationships:

A student determines the

midpoint, gradient and

length of an interval, and

graphs linear relationships

Linear Relationships:

A student uses the gradient-

intercept form to interpret

and graph linear

relationships

Linear Relationships:

A student uses formulas to

find midpoint, gradient and

distance on the Cartesian

plane & applies standard

forms of the equation of a

straight line

Locate and describe points on

the Cartesian plane using

coordinates. Describe

translations and reflections in an

axis on the Cartesian plane.

Describe rotations of multiples of

90 on the Cartesian plane.

Recognise, describe and record

geometric and number patterns

in words and algebraic symbols.

Plot linear relationships created

from simple patterns and

equations. Solve simple linear

equations using graphical

techniques

Find the midpoint, gradient

and length of intervals on

the. Cartesian plane using

informal strategies.

Graph linear relationships

from equations. Determine

that parallel lines on the

Cartesian plane have equal

gradients.

Apply the gradient-intercept

form of the equation of a

straight line to interpret and

graph straight lines.

Apply the properties of the

gradients of parallel and

perpendicular lines on the

Cartesian plane.

Use formulas to find the

midpoint, gradient and

length of intervals on the

Cartesian plane.

Apply various standard

forms of the equation of a

straight line.

Solve problems involving

straight lines on

the Cartesian plane,

including parallel and

perpendicular lines.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

6

Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Cartesian Plane

This lesson is an excerpt from the BOSTES sampl e unit Cartesian Plane (with adjustments) that can

be found here http://syl labus.bos.nsw.edu.au/mathematics/mathemati cs-k10/programming/ under

Samples, in the sampl e units tab.

Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Patterns and Algebra 2

Outcomes:

MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical situations in a variety of ways using mathematical

terminology and some conventions

MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-solving strategies, including the use of digital

technologies, in undertaking investigations

MA3-3WM gives a valid reason for supporting one possible solution over another

MA3-8NA analyses and creates geometric and number patterns, constructs and completes number

sentences, and locates points on the Cartesian plane

Activity 1: Creating a Col ossal Cartesian Plane

This activity is best completed on a large flat space, such as the floor of the school hall or a playground. A

space that has a square-grid structure (e.g. the grout lines separating large square tiles) is preferable,

if available. If the space to be used does not have a square-grid structure, the teacher should create a

square grid of 30 units 30 units prior to the activity. In addition, construct a large-scale number line through

the middle of the grid labelled from 15 to 15.

Review the concept of positive and negative numbers (integers) and model the placement of

integers on the large-scale number line.

Call out numbers from 15 to 15 and have each student, one by one, find the specified position

on the number line. Continue until all students have a position on the number line.

Adjustment: Reinforce associated terminology when discussing position on the number line

through the use of left/negative and right/positive.

Explain that the number line allows us to identify a particular position on a single line using a

number, but that this limits us to describing position only on the one line. Ask a few students to

find a position nearby that is not on the line (include positions on both sides of the line).

Generate discussion about how the position of someone who is not on the line could be

described. Guide students to think of the important features needed to describe position

accurately, such as:

- side of the line

- distance from the line.

Guide student responses to the idea of two number lines placed at right angles to each other and

intersecting at zero on each line. Use masking tape or chalk to construct the second number line

on the ground from (roughly) 15 to 15 using the same scale as on the first line.

Introduce the term number plane and inform students that Ren Descartes was one of the first

mathematicians to represent position in two dimensions using this method, hence the title

Cartesian plane.

Introduce terminology associated with the Cartesian plane and use either large prepared labels

or chalk to label these on the colossal Cartesian plane. It is important that students realise that,

by convention, mathematicians refer to the horizontal axis as the x-axis, and the vertical axis as

the y-axis. This allows a common understanding of the Cartesian plane in all parts of the world.

Terminology to be introduced includes:

horizontal axis (x-axis), vertical axis (y-axis), intersect: the number plane is created

using two axes, the horizontal axis (x-axis) and the vertical axis (y-axis), which intersect

at right angles

point of intersection, origin: the name given to the point of intersection of the axes of

the Cartesian plane is the origin. Students should be made aware that, by convention,

the origin is denoted by the capital letter O

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

7

quadrant: the axes divide the Cartesian plane into four quadrants (remind students of

the word stem quad-, meaning four, and recall known words that use this stem,

eg quadrilateral).

With the aid of the labels, and later without, students practise responding to the terminology as

the teacher asks all students (or a single student) to move to that feature of the Cartesian plane,

eg Ali, go to the origin, Everyone stand on the x-axis, Tam, go to the point of intersection of

the axes.

Issue each student with a card marked with the coordinates of a point. The set of points used

should include points in each quadrant, the origin, and points on the x-axis and y-axis, eg (2, 5),

(7, 4), (13, 1), (6, 8), (5, 3), (12, 6), (8, 10), (1, 7), (0, 3), (0, 14), (12, 0), (4, 0),

(10, 12), (10, 12), (6, 6), (7, 12), (0, 2), (10, 0), (10, 10), (8, 0), (14, 8), (13, 8), (0, 12),

(0, 0), (0, 3), (3, 8), (11, 5), (11, 5), (4, 13), (6, 2).

Explain the following:

Coordinates of the origin are (0, 0) and all other points are located by starting

(originating) at the origin.

By convention, a point on the Cartesian plane is recorded as a pair of numbers,

separated by a comma, in parentheses (brackets).

By convention, the first number in parentheses always refers to the x-coordinate of the

point and indicates the position that is moved to on the x-axis to the right (positive) or to

the left (negative) of the origin, ie the position moved to horizontally starting from the

origin.

The second number always refers to the y-coordinate of the point and indicates the

position that is moved to up (positive) or down (negative) from the origin, ie the position

moved to vertically.

Note: a useful memory aid for the order of the coordinates is that x comes before y in

the alphabet, and so the x-coordinate comes before the y-coordinate when we locate or

record points on the Cartesian plane.

Adjustment: Some students may be provided with visual aids that include the coordinates of

the given point and a description in words of the location of the point (incorporating the

mathematical terms), eg (2, 4) is 2 units to the right of the origin along the x-axis and

4 units down from the origin along the y-axis.

One by one, each student finds the point on the ground that corresponds to the point on his or

her card and sits at that point. Each student must start at the origin and walk to the number

corresponding to the x-coordinate on the x-axis BEFORE considering the y-coordinate.

Adjustment: Some students may require modelling by the teacher and/or peers first, followed by

guided practice with a teachers assistant or peer. Some students may prefer to place an object

rather than sit on the ground themselves.

Once students are seated at their given points, the teacher gives instructions that re-affirm the

terminology associated with the Cartesian plane, eg Stand up if your point is:

on an axis

on the x-axis (What do all of these points have in common?)

on the y-axis (What do all of these points have in common?)

at the origin

in a quadrant

a point with a y-coordinate of 12

a point with an x-coordinate of 0

a point with the same value for the

x-coordinate and the y-coordinate

a point with a positive y-coordinate (Where are all of these points in relation to the

axes?)

a point with a negative x-coordinate (Where are all of these points in relation to the

axes?).

Adjustment: Some students may require verbal prompting to ensure inclusivity.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

8

Let's Plot Points! - Cartesian Plane | Stage 3 | Mathematics Sample lesson by Caringbah PS

Lesson Overview

Students will understand and be able to correctly solve problems using coordinate geometry to describe spatial

relationships. They will specify locations using common language and geometric vocabulary, using coordinate

systems to specific locations while finding the distance between points along horizontal and vertical lines of the

coordinate system.

Outcomes Assessment overview

Mathematics K-10

MA3-8NA analyses and creates geometric and number

patterns, constructs and completes number sentences,

and locates points on the Cartesian plane

MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical

situations in a variety of ways using mathematical

terminology and some conventions

MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-

solving strategies, including the use of digital

technologies, in undertaking investigations

Students plot points to successfully complete a

coordinate picture or find a point on a coordinate

grid.

Teacher observes and makes anecdotal notes.

Language

Number line -A line that shows numbers in order.

Positive numbers -Numbers greater than zero.

Negative numbers -Numbers less than zero.

Coordinate Plane [Rectangular Coordinate System] -Two number lines (including both positive and negative

numbers) perpendicular to one another and intersecting at the zero point of both lines.

Coordinate Grid -A coordinate plane placed on graph paper.

Axes -The names given to the number lines that run horizontally (x) and vertically (y) on the coordinate plane.

X-axi s -The horizontal line on a coordinate plane. The positive numbers are located to the right of the origin,

and the negative numbers are to the left of the origin.

Y-axis -The vertical line on a coordinate plane. The positive numbers are located above the origin, and the

negative numbers are below the origin.

Origin -The point where the x-axis and the y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane. The coordinates of the

origin are (0,0).

Ordered Pai r -A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate grid, such as (5,-2). The x-axis

coordinate is always first because "x" comes before "y" alphabetically.

Coordinates -One of the numbers in an ordered pair. The x value is the first coordinate of the pair and the y

value is the second coordinate.

X-coordinate- Identifies the position of the point along the horizontal (x) axis.

Y-coordinate -Identifies the position of the point along the vertical (y) axis.

Quadrants -The four regions of the coordinate plane that the axes divide it into. There are 4 quadrants,

labeled in counter-clockwise order with quadrant I in the upper right corner. I (+, +), II (-, +), III (-,-), IV (+,-). The

sign of the x-value and y-value are noted in the ordered pair (x,y).

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

9

Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources

Stage 3 - Patterns and Algebra 2

Introduce the Cartesian

coordinate system using all

four quadrants (ACMMG143)

recognise that the

number plane

(Cartesian plane) is a

visual way of describing

location on a grid

recognise that the

number plane consists

of a horizontal axis (x-

axis) and a vertical axis

(y-axis), creating four

quadrants

recognise that the

horizontal axis and

the vertical axis meet

at right angles

(Reasoning)

identify the point of

intersection of the two

axes as the origin,

having coordinates

(0, 0)

plot and label points,

given coordinates, in all

four quadrants of the

number plane

plot a sequence of

coordinates to create

a picture

(Communicating)

identify and record the

coordinates of given

points in all four

quadrants of the

number plane

recognise that the

order of coordinates

is important when

locating points on the

number plane,

eg (2, 3) is a location

different from (3, 2)

(Communicating)

Introducing the Concept

Distribute coordinate planes to the class.

Introduce or review the following vocabulary:

number line, positive numbers, negative

numbers, coordinate grid, x-axis, y-axis, origin,

quadrants, ordered pair, coordinate, x-coordinate

and y-coordinate. The handout, Coordinate

Geometry Vocabulary, includes vocabulary and

concepts students need to know in order to

understand the coordinate system and can be

distributed as a future reference.

Display a Cartesian Plane on the Smartboard

and plot several points together as a class. To

help students plot points the following tips may be

helpful:

To remember which axis is which, remind the

students that the bottom of the Y goes up and

down like the Y axis does.

To help students remember which coordinate

comes first in an ordered pair, remind them that x

comes before y in the alphabet; just like it does in

an ordered pair.

Concept Development

Reinforce the importance of the order of the x and

y axis. Graph (1,3), (2,4), and (3,5) on the

coordinate grid. Connect the points with a line.

Next, graph (3,1), (4,2), and (5,3) on the same

grid. Connect these points with a different colour.

Discuss with the students what they observe.

To plot a point, first start at the origin. Look at the

first coordinate in the pair. If it is a positive

number, count over that many points to the right.

If it is a negative number, count that many points

to the left. Next look at the second number in the

ordered pair. If it is positive, go up that number of

points from the point you are at on the x-axis. If

the number is negative, go down that many points

from your location to find the location.

Remember, do not count the point you are on

when you count the points (left or right and up or

down).

Strengthening the Concept

Distribute a paper copy of a coordinate grid.

Provide the students with a set of points that will

result in a picture when plotted. The Coordinate

Grid Pictures handout contains the coordinates

for 4 pictures, and the links include sources for

additional coordinate grid pictures

Coordinate Grid Paper

Coordinate Geometry

Vocabulary Handout

Coordinate Grid Pictures

Handout

Lets Plot Points Rubric

Battleship Grid Paper

Coordinate Grid Paper

http://www.donnayoung.

org/math/c-grids.htm

Coordinate Grid Paper

http://www.printfreegrap

hpaper.com/

Coordinate Grid Paper

http://themathworksheet

site.com/coordinate_plan

e.html

Battleship

http://themathworksheet

site.com/coordinate_plan

e.html

Dinosaur Picture

http://www.mathsisfun.c

om/t_rex.html

Cat Picture

http://www.mathcats.co

m/crafts/grids/catgrid2.ht

ml

Ice Cream Sundae

Picture

http://www.uen.org/Less

onplan/preview.cgi?LPid=

15431

PUBLIC SCHOOLS NSW LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP DIRECTORATE ISSUE APRIL 2014

10

Observations Modifications

Some of the students

originally found the

Battleship activity

challenging.

Using a PDF file with

Smartboard Technologies

Tools was not always user

friendly.

Students became more

confident with drawing the

pictures by using the

coordinates. Likewise, the

more games of battleship

they played, the students

began to correctly locate

and describe coordinates.

Make the Battleship activity a Gifted and Talented activity. Use

http://smartboards.typepad.com/smartboard/files/coordinates1.swf

to introduce Cartesian planes instead of the PDF file.

Show

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2-TO8XBNbU

to revise the concept of the Cartesian Plane. Use the Rubric below to assess

the students ability to plot points on a Cartesian Plane

Extension Activity

Play the game Battleship on a coordinate grid.

Use the worksheet generator to make paper for

the Battleship game. Each person will need a

sheet of paper with two coordinate grids. On the

top grid you will plot your ships (Aircraft carrier-5

points long, Battleship-4 points long, Submarine-3

points long, Destroyer-3 points long and PT Boat-

2 points long). On the lower grid you will indicate

where you have shot missiles trying to sink your

partners fleet. Be sure to mark if part of one of

your ships was hit and what boats you have hit.

The partners take turns calling out points (i.e. x-

coordinate 5, y-coordinate -2) until one player has

sunk all the parts of his partners ships. Since

players must call out the coordinates of each

point they wish to guess, the game provides lots

of practice using the coordinate grid. It might be a

good idea to write down the points each player

calls in order to mediate possible disputes later.

Lesson Wrap Up

Discuss situations that require knowledge of

coordinate grids. We use a grid system when we

search for a city on a road map. Latitude and

longitude lines that are used to find locations on

maps work like a coordinate grid system. The

i-phone technology is based on a coordinate grid

system.

Discuss the impli cations in real-world

situations if either the directions were incorrect

or unclear, of if they were not followed properly

(e.g. an engineer writing directions for a

mechanic to build a machine the engineer

designed, an architect drawing plans for a builder

to follow, etc.)

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Further Resources on Cartesian Planes

Syll abus Bites Cartesi an Coordinate system -

http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/LRRView/14116/

14116_02.htm

Bill y Bug coordinate games-

http://www.oswego.org/ocsd-

web/games/BillyBug/bugcoord.html

nrich.maths.org activities

Attractive rotations- http://nrich.maths.org/6987

Mirror, mirror- http://nrich.maths.org/5458

On the Wall- http://nrich.maths.org/5459

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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Linear relationships

Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Linear Relationships

Outcomes: A student

MA4-9NA operates with positive integers and zero indices of numerical bases

MA4-1WM communicates & connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams & symbols

MA4-2WM applies mathematical techniques to solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning

Students:

Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane, and find coordinates for a given point (ACMNA178)

plot and label points on the Cartesian plane, given coordinates, including those with coordinates that are

not whole numbers

identify and record the coordinates of given points on the Cartesian plane, including those with

coordinates that are not whole numbers

Describe translations, reflections in an axis, and rotations of multiples of 90 on the Cartesian plane using

coordinates (ACMMG181)

use the notation to name the 'image' resulting from a transformation of a point on the Cartesian plane

plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from translating one or more times

plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from reflecting in either the x- or y-axis

investigate and describe the relationship between the coordinates of and following a reflection in the

x- or y-axis, eg if is reflected in the x-axis, has the same x-coordinate, and its y-coordinate has the

same magnitude but opposite sign (Communicating)

recognise that a translation can produce the same result as a single reflection and vice versa

(Reasoning)

plot and determine the coordinates for resulting from rotating by a multiple of 90 about the origin

investigate and describe the relationship between the coordinates of and following a rotation of 180

about the origin, eg if is rotated 180 about the origin, the x- and y-coordinates of have the same

magnitude but opposite sign (Communicating)

recognise that a combination of translations and/or reflections can produce the same result as a single

rotation and that a combination of rotations can produce the same result as a single translation and/or

reflection (Reasoning)

Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the second quadrant and third quadrant, label each coordinate. Reflect

each point in the y-axis. Label all the points of the reflected image and determine the coordinates of each.

GeoGebra Reflection of a polygon

http://www.geogebra.org/en/upload/files/MickH/Reflection%20of%20Polygons.html

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Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the first quadrant or second quadrant; label your shape including the

coordinates of each point. Reflect the shape in the x-axis and label all the points of the reflected image.

Describe the relationship between the coordinates in the image (P) and the coordinate in the reflected image

(P).

Student Activity: Translate point P

a) What are the coordinates of P?

b) Translate point P 7 units to the left. What are the coordinates of P? Did the x or y coordinate change?

c) Translate point P 10 units down. What are the coordinates of P? Did the x or y coordinate change?

Students Activity: Below is the link for a Learning object which demonstrates the transformation of a point

Syl l abus Bi tes Speedy Sl i di ng

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Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the fourth quadrant labelling each point and include the coordinate.

Translate the shape 9 units down on the Cartesian plane, plot each translated point with its new coordinate

and label the translated image.

Student Activity: Draw a polygon in the fourth quadrant labelling each coordinate, translate the shape 12

units to the right on the Cartesian plane by plotting each translated point, write the new coordinate and label

the translated image.

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Below is a link to four learning objects Speedy sliding which was mentioned above, Flipping and sliding,

Turbo turning and Mixing it up. These contain digital student activities which can be completed as a whole

class activity or in pairs. Each area explore the ideas of reflection, translation and rotation. Following the link

you will find a PDF of student activities which can be used by student as they progress through the digital

learning object to record their answers.

Rotation of a point about the origin

Student Activity:

Plot the point A (0, 6) on the Cartesian

plane. Rotate point A 900 about the

origin.

What are the coordinates of A? Rotate

point A 1800 about the origin will the x

coordinate or y coordinate change?

What are the coordinates of the rotated

point?

Internet research: students investigate

logos and graphic design icons which

incorporate the reflection, rotation or

translation of a shape.

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Double click on the paperclip icon to view the entire Student Activity Reflection of a Point which

accompanies the Speedy Sliding Learning Object.

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Double click on the paperclip icon to view the entire Student Activity Reflection of a Point which

accompanies the Syllabus Bites learning object.

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Stage 3 Teaching ideas Pre- Algebraic Techniques

Patterns and Algebra

Note: In Stage 3 students learn about completing a table of values for geometric and numerical patterns

and describing the rule. In Stage 4, students create algebraic expressions for these patterns using

pronumeral s. Students then learn to plot these poi nts on a Cartesi an plane.

Click on the paperclip image below to view a few lessons on geometric patterns and tables. These lessons are

from the Talking about Patterns and Algebra resource that can be downloaded HERE

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Additional Resources for Patterns and Algebra

This activity is from the Red Dragonfl y Mathematics chall enge book that can be downloaded as a pdf

HERE

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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Algebraic Techniques

Outcomes

A student:

MA4-1WM communicates and connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols

MA4-2WM applies appropriate mathematical techniques to solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning

MA4-8NA generalises number properties to operate with algebraic expressions

Students:

Create algebraic expressions and evaluate them by substituting a given value for each variable (ACMNA176)

-substitute into algebraic expressions and evaluate the result

-calculate and compare the values of x

2

for values of x with the same magnitude but opposite sign

(Reasoning)

-generate a number pattern from an algebraic expression, e.g.

Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (ACMNA190)

-expand algebraic expressions by removing grouping symbols, e.g.

connect algebra with the distributive property of arithmetic to determine that

(Communicating)

Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (ACMNA191)

-factorise a single algebraic term, e.g.

-factorise algebraic expressions by finding a common numerical factor, e.g.

check expansions and factorisations by performing the reverse process (Reasoning)

Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying algebraic factors

-factorise algebraic expressions by finding a common algebraic factor, e.g.

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Teaching Algebraic Techniques using guided practise and formative assessment

The video below demonstrates how teacher Carl Munn uses the Cornell Note Taking strategy to develop critical

thinking and individual mini whiteboards for guided practise to develop fluency and understanding. Students are

given immediate feedback, develop skills methodically and build self-confidence through successful

accomplishment of meaningful tasks, the strategy allows teachers to assess students and students to assess

themselves.

Algebra Tools: The Distributive Property (5:18 min), further information on the Cornell note taking strategy

The video below demonstrates how Teacher Leah Alcala uses Formative Assessment when teaching Algebraic

techniques by analysing common algebraic mistakes with students during warm up lessons.

My Favourite No: Learning from mistakes (5:46 min)

The video below takes us into Mr Sinivirta classroom in Finland. We see how he connects with his students, respects

and encourages them so they discover answers by themselves. Promoting good questioning techniques and

allowing students time to discover reasonable solutions to problems. Finland is the top performing country in

mathematics for the international PISA.

Finland: The Human Factor in Math (14 min)

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Stage 4 Number Patterns

1. Draw the following table on the board, leaving out the title and row headings. Ask the students to suggest titles for

the table and headings for the rows and to justify their suggestions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70

Row headings in the above table could include:

Number of weeks and Number of days

Number of heptagons and Number of sides

Number and Number multiplied by 7.

2. Have the students create their own tables, omitting headings, for others to complete.

3. Repeat the activity with sequences of decreasing numbers.

For example:

Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Number 19 18 17

Think, pair, share

Number pattern A

x 0 1 2 3 4

y -2 -4 -6 -8 -10

1. Look at number pattern A, are the numbers increasing or decreasing in the pattern?

2. Determine a rule in words to describe the pattern relating the position in the pattern to the value of the term.

3. Graph the following number patterns. Determine whether the number patterns below form a linear or non-linear

relationship.

Number pattern B

x 1 2 3 4 5

y 1 4 9 16 25

1. Look at number pattern B are the numbers increasing or decreasing in the pattern?

2. Determine a rule in words to describe the pattern relating the position in the pattern to the value of the term.

3. Graph the following number patterns. Determine whether the number patterns below form a linear or non-linear

relationship.

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Families of Linear Relationships

1. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.

Write a statement about the similarities and differences you found in this family of graphs.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.

Write a statement about the similarities and differences you found in this family of graphs.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Graphs Similarities Differences

y =3x

y =3x +2

y =3x -2

Graphs Similarities Differences

y =3x

y =2x

y =x

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3. Compare the following linear graphs list all the similarities and differences in the table below.

Explain how the graphs above are similar or different. Which features of the linear equation determine the shape?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Are all graphs linear relationships? What makes a graph non-linear? Write a description about the graphs you see.

Graphs Similarities Differences

y =-x

y =-2x

y =2x +2

y =-2x +2

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

______________________________________

______________________________________

______________________________________

______________________________________

______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

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Relevance of Linear Relationships

Linear relationships are best taught within a context which has meaning to students. Linear relationships are

common in mathematics and science. The graph of two quantities can lead to a direct relationship or an inverse

relationship. Direct relationships represent situations where one quantity increases as another increases, for

example a mobile phone call cost increases with the length of the call. An inverse relationship represents situations

where one quantity decreases as another increases.

Linear Relationships

Situation Write the equation

J asmin prints calendars, she charges $3 per item printed.

Write a linear equation to represent the cost of printing

calendars.

Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian plane,

using a table of values.

Find the slope and y-intercept of the linear relationship.

Define your variables x and y:

Write your equation:

Table of Values

x

y

Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian Plane

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Linear Relationships

Situation Write the equation

J ay is a taxi driver. He charges $4 plus $2 per km for the

distance travelled.

Write a linear equation to represent the total cost of the

taxi service.

Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian plane,

using a table of values.

Find the slope and y-intercept of the linear relationship.

Define your variables x and y:

Write your equation:

Table of Values

x

y

Graph the linear relationship on the Cartesian Plane

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Stage 3 and 4 NAPLAN teaching strategies for Patterns and Algebra

Click on the paperclip image below to open the pdf file of lesson activities.

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Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Fractions and Decimals

Note: In Stage 3, students are not required to learn the difference between terminating and reoccurring

decimal s (this is investigated in Fractions, Decimals and Percentages in Stage 4). However, in Fractions

and Decimals 2 in Stage 3, students multiply and divide decimals by whole numbers that result in

terminating decimals. It would be a good investigation with Stage 3 students to look at terminating (and

possibly reoccurring) decimals as a field building activity prior to solving problems with decimals using

money or measurement units.

Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Fractions and Decimals

Outcomes: A student

MA3-1WM describes and represents mathematical situations in a variety of ways using mathematical

terminology and some conventions

MA3-2WM selects and applies appropriate problem-solving strategies, including the use of digital technologies,

in undertaking investigations

MA3-3WM gives a valid reason for supporting one possible solution over another

MA3-7NA compares, orders and calculates with fractions, decimals and percentages

Stage 3 Converting fractions to terminating deci mals

Terminating decimal s video to use as stimulus in class, this video references the US monetary system but

still provides information in cents. This is one of 5 videos in the sequence on converting decimals. There

is another video titled Converting a fraction to a terminating decimal with one- or two- digits, that is also

useful.

http://learnzillion.com/lessons/4437-convert-chal lenging-fractions-to-terminating-decimal s-using-visual-

representations

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Stage 3 Teaching Ideas- Decimals

A great resources for teaching decimals is the Teaching and Learning about Decimals CD-ROM by Vicki

Steinle, Kaye Stacey and Dianne Chambers from the University of Melbourne. There is a sample of the

resources on the website, hyperlinked to the image below. You can purchase the CD-ROM directly from

The University of Melbourne (Ms Pam Firth: p.firth@unimelb.edu.au)

The curriculum support Counting On website also has advice and support for teaching decimals. It

includes the di agnostic short decimal test from the Teaching and Learning about decimals CD-ROM.

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Stage 4 Teaching ideas Rational and Irrational Numbers

Strand: Number and Algebra Substrand: Indices

Outcomes: A student

MA4-9NA operates with positive integers and zero indices of numerical bases

MA4-1WM communicates & connects mathematical ideas using appropriate terminology, diagrams & symbols

MA4-2WM applies mathematical techniques to solve problems

MA4-3WM recognises and explains mathematical relationships using reasoning

Stage 4 - Rational and Irrational Numbers

Lesson openers, short YouTube clips for class discussion or homework viewing.

Rational and Irrational Numbers (6:40 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=q_wstDWjnKQ

Converting terminating decimal numbers to fractions (3:38 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyTFvx_ZVOs

Stage 5 Converting repeating decimal numbers to fractions

Converting repeating decimal numbers to fractions (8:26 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=xX1sqV1nSAQ

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Reasoning

How many different ways are there to answer a question? There is more than one path to do mathematics,

students are encouraged to think about the various ways a problem can be solved and reasoning to convince

us of the strategy they are using.

U.P.S Method is all about developing a logical thinking process, communicating and writing mathematical ideas.

https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/ups-problem-solving-strategy?fd=1

Understand understand the problem and put it in your own words

Plan deductive reasoning to plan the steps to get to the answer

Solve statement and reasoning using formulas, definitions, theorems

UPS can be used for groups of students to collaborate and solve Geometry problems, see the clip below of

UPS in action in the mathematics classroom.

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Syllabus PLUS Series Recordings

Syll abus PLUS K-6 Maths series one and two recordings can be viewed here

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/mathematics/prolearn/workshops/index.htm

Syll abus PLUS 7-10 Maths series one, two and three recordings can be viewed here

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/mathematics/prolearn/workshops/index.htm

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Resources

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Conferences

Further information

Learning and Leadership Directorate

Primary Mathematics AC Advisor

Katherin.Cartwright@det.nsw.edu.au

Secondary Mathematics AC Advisor

Nagla.J ebeile@det.nsw.edu.au

Secondary Mathematics Advisor

Christopher.Robertson@det.nsw.edu.au

Level 3, 1 Oxford Street

Sydney NSW 2000

9266 8091 Nagla J ebeile

9244 5459 Katherin Cartwright

April 2014 NSW Department of Education

and Communities

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