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Pre-Bar Quizzer in Political Law

(Doctinal Rulings, Requisites and Definitions

1 1
July, 2008
Prepared by
Professor of Law
Baguio City
(Political Law)
Cosmopolitan Reiew Cente! (CRC)
Baguio City B!anc"# $C# Baguio City
Baguio Powe!"aus Law Reiew Cente!
Baguio City
PART I---Constitution of Government
1. Define Political Law
It is t"at &!anc" o' pu&lic law w"ic" (eals wit" t"e o!gani)ation an(
ope!ations o' t"e goe!nmental o!gans o' t"e *tate an( (e'ines t"e
!elations o' t"e *tate wit" t"e in"a&itants o' its te!!ito!y+ PEOPLE
VS! PERFECTO" #$ P%i&! ''()
2. What are included in Political Law?
Constitutional Law,
A(minist!atie Law
Law o' Pu&lic O''ice!s
Law on Pu&lic Co!po!ation
Election Law
3. What is the doctrine of constitutional supremacy?
$n(e! t"e (oct!ine o' constitutional sup!emacy# i' a law
o! cont!act iolates any no!m o' t"e constitution t"at law o!
cont!act w"et"e! p!omulgate( &y t"e legislatie o! &y t"e
e-ecutie &!anc" o! ente!e( into &y p!iate pe!sons 'o! p!iate
/"e e-aminee is p!esume( to "ae maste!e( t"e Constitutional p!oisions+
pu!poses is null an( oi( an( wit"out any 'o!ce an( e''ect+
/"us# since t"e Constitution is t"e 'un(amental# pa!amount an(
sup!eme law o' t"e nation# it is (eeme( w!itten in ee!y statute
an( cont!act+
4. What are the requisites for the eercise of !people"s initiati#e$ to
amend the %onstitution?
It is p!oi(e( un(e! *ection 0# A!t+ 1VII o' t"e Constitution w"ic"
p!oi(es t"at 2Amen(ments to t"is Constitution may li3ewise &e (i!ectly
p!opose( &y t"e people t"!oug" initiatie upon a petition o' at least .04 o'
t"e total num&e! o' !egiste!e( ote!s# o' w"ic" ee!y legislatie (ist!ict must
&e !ep!esente( &y at least 54 o' t"e !egiste!e( ote! t"e!ein+6 /"e Cong!ess
s"all p!oi(e 'o! t"e implementation o' t"e e-e!cise o' t"is !ig"t+
&. 's there a law which would pro#ide for the mechanism for the
people to propose amendments to the %onstitution by people"s initiati#e?
W"ile Cong!ess "a( enacte( RA 7859 pu!po!te(ly to p!oi(e t"e
mec"anisms 'o! t"e people:s e-e!cise t"e powe! to amen( t"e Constitution
&y people:s initiatie# t"e *up!eme Cou!t in ;IRIA; <EFE=*OR>
*A=/IAGO# et al+ Vs+ CO;ELEC# G+R+ =o+ .08509# ;a!c" .?# .??8 @
Aune .B# .??8# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at RA *($+ is in,om-&ete"
in./e0u.te or 1.ntin2 in essenti.& terms .n/ ,on/itions insof.r .s
initi.tive on .men/ments to t%e Constitution is ,on,erne/! Its &.,un.e
on t%is su3st.ntive m.tter .re f.t.& .n/ ,.nnot 3e ,ure/ 34
5em-o1erin26 t%e CO7ELEC to -romu&2.te su,% ru&es .n/
re2u&.tions .s m.4 3e ne,ess.r4 to ,.rr4 t%e -ur-oses of t%is .,t!
In LA78INO VS! CO7ELEC" %o1ever" t%e Su-reme Court on
Novem3er 9:" 9;;*" in t%e 7inute Reso&ution of t%e -etitioner<s 7otion
for Re,onsi/er.tion %e&/ t%.t RA No! *($+ is ./e0u.te .n/ ,om-&ete for
t%e -ur-ose of -ro-osin2 .men/ments to t%e Constitution t%rou2%
-eo-&e<s initi.tive 34 . vote of :; mem3ers .s -er Certifi,.tion of t%e En
8.n,<s C&er= of Court!
&(a. )ay the question !Do you appro#e the amendment of *rticles
+' and +'' of the 1,-. Philippine %onstitution chan/in/ the form of
/o#ernment from Presidential(0icameral to Parliamentary(1nicameral$
be allowed to be submitted to the people for their ratification or re2ection
as a means of amendin/ the %onstitution by people"s initiati#e if the
requisite number of si/natories 3124 nationwide and at least 34 for e#ery
le/islati#e district5 are met?
=o 'o! two (0) !easons+
.+ /"e sai( 2p!oposal6 (i( not in(icate w"ic" p!oisions o' A!ticles
VI an( VII a!e actually &eing amen(e( w"ic" is a must un(e! *ection 0# A!t+
1VII+ Ot"e!wise# w"o s"all ma3e t"e amen(ments i' t"e people in a
ple&iscite app!oe t"e same,
0 0
0+ C"anging t"e 'o!m o' goe!nment '!om p!esi(ential to
pa!liamenta!y is an act o' REVI*I=G t"e Constitution w"ic" is not allowe(
un(e! A!t+ 1VII# *ection 0+ People:s initiatie may only &e allowe( to
p!opose amen(ments to t"e Constitution# not !eision+
6. What are the requisites before an amendment to the %onstitution
by !people"s initiati#e$ is sufficient in form and in substance?
In t"e case o' RA$L L+ LA;BI=O an( ERICO B+ A$;E=/A<O #
toget"e! wit" 7#508#?90 !egiste!e( ote!s s+ /CE CO;;I**IO= O=
ELEC/IO=*# G+R+ =o+ .8D.95# Octo&e! 09# 0BB7# 9B9 *CRA .7B# t"e
'ollowing !eEuisites must &e p!esentF
.+ /"e people must aut"o! an( must sign t"e enti!e p!oposal+ =o
agent o! !ep!esentatie can sign 'o! an( on t"ei! &e"al',
0+ As an initiatie upon a petition# /CE PROPO*AL ;$*/ BE
/"ese essential elements a!e p!esent only i' t"e 'ull te-t o' t"e
p!opose( amen(ments is 'i!st s"own to t"e people w"o will e-p!ess t"ei!
assent &y signing suc" complete p!oposal in a petition+ /"us# an amen(ment
.. Distin/uish !7e#ision$ from !amendment$ of the %onstitution.
5Revision6 is t"e alte!ations o' t"e (i''e!ent po!tions o'
t"e enti!e (ocument HConstitutionI+ It may !esult in t"e
!ew!iting w"et"e! t"e w"ole constitution# o! t"e g!eate! po!tion
o' it# o! pe!"aps some o' its impo!tant p!oisions+ But w"atee!
!esults t"e !eision may p!o(uce# t"e 'acto! t"at c"a!acte!i)es it
as an act o' !eision is t"e o!iginal intention an( plan aut"o!i)e(
to &e ca!!ie( out+ /"at intention an( plan must contemplate a
consi(e!ation o' all t"e p!oisions o' t"e Constitution to
(ete!mine w"ic" one s"oul( &e alte!e( o! supp!esse( o!
w"et"e! t"e w"ole (ocument s"oul( &e !eplace( wit" an
enti!ely new one+
5Amen/ment6 o' t"e Constitution# on t"e ot"e! "an(#
enisages a c"ange o! only a 'ew speci'ic p!oisions+ /"e
intention o' an act to amen( is not to consi(e! t"e a(isa&ility
o' c"anging t"e enti!e constitution o! o' consi(e!ing t"at
possi&ility+ /"e intention !at"e! is to imp!oe speci'ic pa!ts o'
t"e e-isting constitution o! to a(( to it p!oisions (eeme(
essential on account o' c"ange( con(itions o! to supp!ess
po!tions o' it t"at seem o&solete# o! (ange!ous# o! mislea(ing in
5 5
t"ei! e''ect+ (*I=CO# Vicente# PCILIPPI=E POLI/ICAL
-. )ay %on/ress propose amendments to the %onstitution while at
the same time callin/ for a %onstitutional %on#ention to amend the
Yes, there is no prohibition for Congress to propose
amendments to the Constitution and at the same time call for the convening
of a Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. The word or in
the provision Congress, upon a vote of of all its members; ! "#$ %
constitutional Convention under &ection ', %rt. ()** also means %+,.
-.+/%01& )&. C2101C, 0. *CRA 88D3
,. What is the !Doctrine of Proper 8ubmission$ in connection with
proposed amendments to the %onstitution?
,octrine of 4roper &ubmission means all the proposed
amendments to the Constitution shall be presented to the people for the
ratification or re5ection at the same time, not piecemeal. -T01+T*+ )&.
C2101C, 6' &C!% 78#3
.B+ W"at is t"e a!c"ipelagic (oct!ine o! a!c"ipelago t"eo!yJ
It is t"e 0
sentence o' *ection .# A!t+ I o' t"e Constitution w"ic"
states t"at 2t"e wate!s a!oun(# &etween an( connecting t"e islan(s o' t"e
a!c"ipelago# !ega!(less o' t"ei! &!ea(t" an( (imensions# 'o!m pa!t o' t"e
inte!nal wate!s o' t"e P"ilippines+6
11. What are the elements of !state$?

As "el( in C001CT! )&. C%24& !91,%, 6# &C!% #:, the
elements o' a state a!e+
.+ people
0+ te!!ito!y
5+ soe!eignty
D+ goe!nment
12. *re the two(fold function of /o#ernment as enumerated by the
8upreme %ourt in 0*%*9' +8. 9*%:%:; 1<< Phil. 46- 3)inistrant
=merely directory> and %onstituent =)andatory> ?unctions5 still applicable
+o more as held in %CC;% )&. C9.C, :8 &C!% <6=. This is (ue
to comple-ities o' t"e c"anging society# t"e two>'ol( 'unction o' t"e
goe!nment as classi'ie( &y P!esi(ent Wilson is no longe! !eleant as a
!esult o' t"e c"anging society w"e!ein w"at a!e consi(e!e( me!ely minist!ant
'unctions o' t"e *tate &e'o!e a!e now consi(e!e( constituent # o! ice e!sa+
13. What @ind of /o#ernment was the !*quino Ao#ernment$ after
former President )arcos left )alaqcanan/ for Bawaii due to the CD8*
7e#olution in ?ebruary 1,-6.
%s held in *n !e> SATURNINO 8ER7UDE>" :#+ SCRA :*;" t"e
same is (e Ku!e+ A goe!nment 'o!me( as a !esult o' a people:s !eolution# is
consi(e!e( (e Ku!e i' it is al!ea(y accepte( &y t"e 'amily o' nations o! ot"e!
count!ies li3e t"e $nite( *tates# G!eat B!itain# Ge!many# Aapan# an( ot"e!s+
:#! ?%.t .re t%e t%ree $) =in/s of /e f.,to 2overnment@
As "el( in CO AI7 CHA7 VS! VALDE> TAN AEH" (+ P%i&!
::$" t"e t"!ee (5) 3in(s o' (e 'acto goe!nments a!eF
a+ /"e 'i!st# o! goe!nment (e 'acto in a p!ope! legal
sense# is t"at goe!nment t"at gets possession an(
cont!ol o'# o! usu!ps# &y 'o!ce o! &y t"e oice o'
t"e maKo!ity# t"e !ig"t'ul legal goe!nments an(
maintains itsel' against t"e will o' t"e latte!# suc"
as t"e goe!nment o' Englan( un(e! t"e
Commonwealt"# 'i!st &y Pa!liament an( late! &y
C!omwell as P!otecto!+
&+ /"e secon( is t"at w"ic" is esta&lis"e( an(
maintaine( &y milita!y 'o!ces w"o ina(e an(
occupy a te!!ito!y o' t"e enemy in t"e cou!se o'
wa!# an( w"ic" is (enominate( a goe!nment o'
pa!amount 'o!ce# as t"e cases o' Castine# in ;aine#
w"ic" was !e(uce( to B!itis" possession in t"e wa!
o' .L.0# an( /ampico# ;e-ico# occupie( (u!ing
t"e wa! wit" ;e-ico# &y t"e t!oops o' t"e $nite(
c+ An( t"e t"i!( is t"at esta&lis"e( as an in(epen(ent
goe!nment &y t"e in"a&itants o' a count!y w"o
!ise in insu!!ection against t"e pa!ent state o' suc"
as t"e goe!nment o' t"e *out"e!n Con'e(e!acy in
!eolt not conce!ne( in t"e p!esent case wit" t"e
'i!st 3in(# &ut only wit" t"e secon( an( t"i!( 3in(s
o' (e 'acto goe!nments+
MBut t"e!e is anot"e! (esc!iption o'
goe!nment# calle( also &y pu&licists a
goe!nment (e 'acto# &ut w"ic" mig"t# pe!"aps# &e
mo!e aptly (enominate( a goe!nment o'
pa!amount 'o!ce+ Its (istinguis"ing c"a!acte!istics
(.)# t"at its e-istence is maintaine( &y actie
milita!y powe! wit" t"e te!!ito!ies# an( against t"e
!ig"t'ul aut"o!ity o' an esta&lis"e( an( law'ul
goe!nment, an(
9 9
(0)# t"at w"ile it e-ists it necessa!ily &e
o&eye( in ciil matte!s &y p!iate citi)ens w"o# &y
acts o' o&e(ience !en(e!e( in su&mission to suc"
'o!ce# (o not &ecome !esponsi&le# o! w!ong(oe!s#
'o! t"ose acts# t"oug" not wa!!ante( &y t"e laws o'
t"e !ig"t'ul goe!nment+
1&. What is the postliminy theory or 2us postliminium?
W"en a 'o!eign powe! occupies a state an( e-e!cises t"e powe!s o'
goe!nment# t"e political laws o' t"e sai( state a!e (eeme( automatically
suspen(e( &ut t"e 'o!me! goe!nment automatically comes to li'e an( will
&e in 'o!ce an( in e''ect again upon t"e !e>esta&lis"ment o' t"e 'o!me!
goe!nment+ (/aylo!# Inte!national Law# p+ 7.9+)
16. What is the doctrine of so#erei/nty as !auto limitation$?
In t"e succinct language o' Aelline3# it Mis t"e p!ope!ty o'
a state>'o!ce (ue to w"ic" it "as t"e e-clusie capacity o' legal
sel'>(ete!mination an( sel'>!est!iction!B A st.te t%en" if it
,%ooses to" m.4 from t%e eCer,ise of 1%.t ot%er1ise
is i&&imit.3&e ,om-eten,e!B /"e opinion was at pains to point
out t"oug" t"at een t"en# t"e!e is at t"e most (iminution o'
Ku!is(ictional !ig"ts# not its (isappea!ance+ (Cite( in Reagan s+
Commissione!# 41401 )&. ./, ?: &C!% 67< and
C22*&&*+1! )&. !@1!T&+, '6: &C!% :=73
1.. What is the !incorporation theory$ or the !'ncorporation
%lause$ of the %onstitution?
It is t"e p!inciple em&o(ie( in *ection 0# A!ticle II o' t"e Constitution
w"ic" states t"at 2T%e P%i&i--ines ./o-ts t%e 2ener.&&4 .,,e-te/
-rin,i-&es of intern.tion.& &.1 .s -.rt of t%e &.1 of t%e &.n/6!
DALANDONI" '$ P%i& :(:# an( AGUSTIN VS! EDU" '' SCRA :E+)!
1-. 'n case of conflict between a constitutional ri/ht of a citiDen and
a /enerally accepted principle of international law; which shall pre#ail?
In t"e case o'
REYES VS! 8AGATSING":9+ SCRA ++$# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at
t"e constitutional !ig"t s"all p!eail+ /"oug" A!ticle 00 o' t"e Vienna
Conention on <iplomatic Relations p!o"i&its !allies wit"in 9BB 'eet o'
any 'o!eign em&assy# t"e same s"all gie way to t"e constitutional !ig"t
o' t"e citi)ens to 2peacea&ly assem&le an( to petition t"e goe!nment 'o!
!e(!ess o' t"ei! g!ieances6+
1,. )ay a citiDen refuse to render personal military ser#iceEtrainin/
because he does not ha#e military inclination or he does not want to @ill or
be @illed?
7 7
=o as "el( in PC:PLC +8. L*A)*9; 66 Phil. 13. The appellantAs
argument that he does not want to 5oin the armed forces because he
does not want to Bill or be Billed and that he has no militarC
inclination is not acceptable because it is his obligation to 5oin the
armed forces in connection with the defense of the &tate provision of
the Constitution.
0B. 's the !separation of church and state$ a myth or a reality?
It is a !eality as s"own &y t"e 'ollowing p!oisions o' t"e Constitution+
.+ ART! III" Se,! +! =o law s"all &e ma(e !especting an
esta&lis"ment o' !eligion# o! p!o"i&iting t"e '!ee e-e!cise t"e!eo'+
/"e '!ee e-e!cise an( enKoyment o' !eligious p!o'ession an(
wo!s"ip# wit"out (isc!imination o! p!e'e!ence# s"all 'o!ee! &e
allowe(+ =O RELIGIO$* /E*/ *CALL BE REN$IRE< FOR
0+ ART! VI" Se,! 9' $)! C"a!ita&le institutions# c"u!c"es# mosEues#
non>p!o'it cemete!iesOactually# (i!ectly an( e-clusiely use( 'o!
!eligious# c"a!ita&le# o! e(ucational pu!poses s"all &e e-empt
'!om ta-ation+
5+ ART! VI" Se,! 9E !9)! =o pu&lic money o! p!ope!ty s"all &e
app!op!iate(# applie(# pai(# 'o! t"e &ene'it# (i!ectly o! in(i!ectly#
'o! t"e use# &ene'it# o! suppo!t o' any sect# c"u!c"# (enomination
o! !eligion# e-cept w"en suc" p!iest# ministe!++ is assigne( to t"e
a!me( 'o!ces# o! to any penal institution# o! goe!nment
o!p"anage o! lep!osa!ium+
D+ ART! IF" C" 9+)! Religious (enominations an( sects s"all not &e
!egiste!e(Oas political pa!ties+ (=O/EF Religious o!gani)ations
a!e also p!o"i&ite( ion connection wit" secto!al !ep!esentaties
un(e! A!t+ VI)
9+ ART! FIV" Se,! $$)+ At t"e option in w!iting &y pa!ents#
!eligion s"all &e allowe( to &e taug"t to t"ei! c"il(!en in
elementa!y an( "ig" sc"ools wit"in t"e !egula! class "ou!s &y
inst!ucto!s (esignate( o! app!oe( &y !eligious aut"o!ities to
w"ic" sai( c"il(!en &elong# wit"out a((itional cost to t"e
21. What are the factors to be considered by the Philippines in
dealin/ with other nations?
As p!oi(e( in *ection 8 o' A!t+ II# /"e P"ilippines s"all pu!sue an
in(epen(ent 'o!eign policy+ In its !elations wit" ot"e! states t"e pa!amount
consi(e!ation s"all &e H.I n.tion.& soverei2nt4" G9H territori.& inte2rit4" G$H
n.tion.& interest" .n/ G#H t%e ri2%t to se&f-/etermin.tion"
8 8
22. 's there absolute prohibition for the Philippines to be equipped
with nuclear weapons?
=o# as state( in *ection L# A!t+ II# 2t"e P"ilippines# consistent with
the national interest# a(opts an( pu!sues a policy o' '!ee(om '!om nuclea!
weapons in its te!!ito!y+6 As suc"# i' it is consistent wit" national inte!est#
t"e same is not p!o"i&ite(+
23. 's !di#orce$ prohibited by the 1,-. Philippine %onstitution?
Fat"e! Be!nas opines t"at t"e p!oision o' t"e Constitution (*ection
.0# A!t+ III) w"ic" p!oi(es in pa!t t"at t"e 2*tate s"all st!engt"en t"e
'amily6 (oes not ta3e a stan( on (io!ce t"oug" it appea!s t"at a (io!ce law
woul( 2&!ea36 t"e 'amily instea( o' 2st!engt"ening6 it+ As suc"# a <io!ce
Law to &e passe( &y Cong!ess may o! may not &e unconstitutional+
23. 's abortion allowed in the Philippines?
*ection .0# A!t+ II p!o"i&its all 'o!ms o' a&o!tion e-cept 2t"e!apeutic
a&o!tion6 o! w"en t"e li'e o' t"e mot"e! is in (ange!+ (=oteF In t"e $nite(
*tates# a&o!tion is allowe( &ut only up to t"e 0
t!imeste! o' t"e p!egnancy
0D. 's a law prohibitin/ the sale of !/irlie3bold5 ma/aDines$ to
minors #iolates the ri/ht of parents in rearin/ their children for ci#ic
=o# as "el( in t"e case o' GINS8ERG VS! NE? YORA" $E; US
*9E :E*E)# a law p!o"i&iting t"e sale o' 2gi!lie maga)ines6 H&ol(J) is
constitutional an( (oes not iolate t"e a&oe p!oision+ /"is is so &ecause
pa!ents coul( &uy sai( maga)ines 'o! t"ei! c"il(!en i' t"ey &eliee t"e same
is al!ea(y suita&le to t"e un(e!stan(ing o' t"ei! c"il(+ /"is is in acco!(ance
wit" t"is p!oision w"ic" states t"at t"e pa!ents "ae t"e 2natu!al an(
p!ima!y !ig"t in !ea!ing t"ei! c"il( 'o! ciic e''iciencyO6
2&. )ay the 8tate prohibit the teachin/ of a particular lan/ua/e in
any school?
=o as "el( in ;EGER V*+ =EBRA*PA# 07B $* 07B (.?00) &ecause
t"e c"il( is not a me!e c!eatu!e o' t"e *tate an( t"e pa!ents "ae t"e natu!al
!ig"t an( (uty o' !ea!ing t"ei! c"il(!en 'o! ciic e''iciency+
26. )ay the 8tate require parents to enroll their small children only
to public schools #alid?
:E9+)# a law !eEui!ing small 3i(s to &e en!olle( in pu&lic sc"ools only is
unconstitutional since it inte!'e!es wit" t"e !ig"t o' pa!ents in !ea!ing t"ei!
c"il(!en+ /"ey "ae t"e !ig"t to c"oose w"ic" sc"ool is &est suite( 'o! t"e
(eelopment o' t"ei! c"il(!en wit"out inte!'e!ence '!om t"e *tate+ /CI* I*
/CE */A/E+
2.. Do we practice the free enterprise system in the Philippines or is
it the welfare state concept? Distin/uish the two.
As "el( in ACCFA V*+ C$GCO# 5B *CRA 7D? t"e P"ilippines
nee! p!actice( t"e '!ee ente!p!ise system+ It is t"e wel'a!e>state concept
w"ic" is &eing 'ollowe( as s"own &y t"e constitutional p!oision on ag!a!ian
!e'o!m# "ousing# p!otection to la&o!O (=O/E# "owee!# t"at t"e .?L8
Constitution "ae p!oisions w"ic" p!oi(e 'o! 2'!ee ente!p!ise)+ /"e sai(
(oct!ine was !eite!ate( in PCILIPPI=E COCO=$/ <E*ICCA/OR* V*+
PCILIPPI=E COCO=$/ A$/CORI/G# 0L7 *CRA .B? w"e!e it was "el(
t"at t"e P"ilippine Constitutions# sta!ting '!om t"e .?59 (ocument# CAVE
REP$<IA/E< laisseD faire (o! t"e (oct!ine o' '!ee ente!p!ise) as an
economic p!inciple# an( alt"oug" t"e p!esent Constitution ens"!ines '!ee
ente!p!ise as a policy# it nee!t"eless !ese!es to t"e goe!nment t"e powe!
to inte!ene w"enee! necessa!y to p!omote t"e gene!al wel'a!e+ As suc"#
'!ee ente!p!ise (oes not call 'o! t"e !emoal o' 2p!otectie !egulations6 'o!
t"e &ene'it o' t"e gene!al pu&lic+ /"is is so &ecause un(e! A!t+ 1II# *ections
7 an( ?# it is e!y clea! t"at t"e goe!nment !ese!es t"e powe! to inte!ene
w"enee! necessa!y to p!omote t"e gene!al wel'a!e an( w"en t"e pu&lic
inte!est so !eEui!es+
9(-.! 7.4 t%e PCGG Commissioners refuse to .--e.r 3efore .
Sen.te Committee ,on/u,tin2 .&&e2e/ irre2u&.rities ,ommitte/ 34 t%em
1%i&e sittin2 in t%e 8o.r/ of PHILCO7SAT" . -riv.te firm se0uestere/
34 t%e 2overnment on .,,ount of ECe,utive Or/er No! : -rovi/in2 t%.t
t%e4 s%ou&/ not 3e t%e su3Ie,t of .n4 investi2.tion in ,onne,tion 1it%
t%eir .,ts in ,onne,tion 1it% t%e -erform.n,e of t%eir /uties .s su,%@
=o+ *uc" act woul( iolate *ection 0L# A!t+ II o' t"e Constitution
man(ating (isclosu!e o' all pu&lic t!ansactions inoling t"e pu&lic inte!est+
*uc" act woul( also iolate t"e 2!ig"t to in'o!mation on matte!s o' pu&lic
conce!n6 as well as t"e 2pu&lic accounta&ility o' pu&lic o''icials6 as
em&o(ie( in *ection .# A!t+ 1I o' t"e .?L8 Constitution# not to mention t"at
suc" woul( !en(e! nugato!y t"e powe! o' Cong!ess un(e! *ection 0.# A!t+
VI+ (*ABIO V*+ GOR<O=# 9BD *CRA 8BD)
2-. What *re the limitations to the %on/ress power to eercise
le/islati#e power?
/"e limitations a!eF
.+ it cannot pass i!!epeala&le laws
0+ p!inciple o' sepa!ation o' powe!s
5+ non>(elega&ility o' legislatie powe!s
2,. What are the constitutionally allowed !dele/ation of le/islati#e
power$ by %on/ress?
? ?
/"e pe!missi&le (elegation o' legislatie powe! a!e+
.) Se,! 9$ 9) of Arti,&e VI (Eme!gency powe!s to t"e
P!esi(ent in case o' wa! o! ot"e! national eme!gency# 'o! a limite(
pe!io( an( su&Kect to suc" !est!ictions as Cong!ess may p!oi(e# to
e-e!cise powe!s necessa!y an( p!ope! to ca!!y out a (ecla!e( national
policy+ $nless soone! wit"(!awn &y Resolution o' Cong!ess# suc"
powe!s s"all cease upon t"e ne-t a(Kou!nment t"e!eo'+
0) Se,! 9' 9) of Arti,&e VI! /"e Cong!ess may &y law#
aut"o!i)e t"e P!esi(ent to 'i- wit"in speci'ie( limits# an( su&Kect to
suc" limitations an( !est!ictions as it may impose# ta!i'' !ates# impo!t
an( e-po!t Euotas# tonnage an( w"a!'age (ues# an( ot"e! (uties o!
imposts wit"in t"e '!amewo!3 o' t"e national (eelopment p!og!am o'
t"e goe!nment+
5) <elegation to local goe!nments
D) <elegation o' Rule>ma3ing powe! to a(minist!atie &o(ies
9) <elegation to t"e People *ection 0# A!t+ 1VII o' t"e
Constitution an( *ection 50# A!ticle VI>>>/"e Cong!ess s"all# as ea!ly as
possi&le# p!oi(e 'o! a system o' initiatie an( !e'e!en(um# an( t"e
e-ceptions t"e!e'!om# w"e!e&y t"e people can (i!ectly p!opose an( enact
laws o! app!oe o! !eKect any act o! law o! pa!t t"e!eo' passe( &y t"e
Cong!ess o' local legislatie &o(y a'te! t"e !egist!ation o' a petition t"e!eo'
signe( &y at least .B4 o' t"e total num&e! o' !egiste!e( ote!s# o' w"ic"
ee!y legislatie (ist!ict must &e !ep!esente( &y at least 54 o' t"e !egiste!e(
ote!s t"e!eo'+
3<. What is the completeness test? Fhe sufficiency of standard test?
(a) %ompleteness Fest simply means t"at t"e law must &e complete in
itsel' w"en it le't Cong!ess+ It must set 'o!t" t"e!ein t"e policy to &e
e-ecute(# ca!!ie( out o! implemente( &y t"e (elegate w"ic" is not gien
any (isc!etion, an(
(&) 8ufficiency of 8tandards Fest simply !eEui!es Cong!ess to 'i- a
stan(a!(# t"e limits o' w"ic" a!e su''iciently (ete!minate o! (ete!mina&le to
w"ic" t"e (elegate must con'o!m in t"e pe!'o!mance o' "is 'unctions+ *ome
o' t"e stan(a!(s to gui(e t"e (elegate a!e gene!al wel'a!e# pu&lic inte!est#
31. 's a ?ilipino citiDen who became a member of the 18 *rmed
?orces and therefore at one time a 18 %itiDen considered !natural born$
for purposes of complyin/ with the qualifications of a member of the
Bouse of 7epresentati#esJ
.B .B
Ges as "el( in A=/O=IO BE=G*O= III V*+ CO$*E OF
598 *CRA 9D9 &ecause Rep+ Act =o+ 075B p!oi(es t"at 2Any pe!son w"o
"a( lost "is P"ilippine Citi)ens"ip &y !en(e!ing se!ice to# o! accepting
commission in# t"e A!me( Fo!ces o' t"e $nite( *tates# o! a'te! sepa!ation
'!om t"e A!me( Fo!ces o' t"e $nite( states# acEui!e( $* citi)ens"ip# ;AG
PCILIPPI=E*+ /"e sai( Oat" o' allegiance s"all contain a !enunciation o'
any ot"e! citi)ens"ip+6 An( "e s"all still &e consi(e!e( 2natu!al &o!n6
Filipino citi)en+
32. 'f the candidate for %on/ressman is subsequently disqualified
for non(compliance of the residence requirement under *rt. +'; may the
placer be declared the winner in his place? When may the 2
placer be
allowed to be declared the winner?
It (epen(s+ As "el( in OCA7PO VS! HOUSE ELECTORAL
TRI8UNAL .n/ 7ARIO CRESPO" .!=!.! 7ARA DI7ENE>" Dune :+"
.+ /"e!e must &e a 'inal Ku(gment (isEuali'ying a can(i(ate in o!(e! t"at
t"e otes o' a (isEuali'ie( can(i(ate can &e consi(e!e( 2st!ay6+ /"is
'inal Ku(gment must &e !en(e!e( 8EFORE THE ELECTION+ /"is
was t"e !uling in t"e case o' CO<ILLA V*+ <E VE=ECIA+ Cence#
w"en a can(i(ate "as not &een (isEuali'ie( &y 'inal Ku(gment (u!ing
t"e election (ay "e was ote( 'o!# t"e otes cast in "is 'ao! cannot &e
(ecla!e( st!ay+ /o (o so woul( amount to (isen'!anc"ising t"e
electo!ate in w"om soe!eignty !esi(es+ /"e !eason &e"in( t"is is t"at
t"e people ote( 'o! "im &ona 'i(e an( in t"e "onest &elie' t"at t"e
can(i(ate was t"en Euali'ie( to &e t"e pe!son to w"om t"ey woul(
ent!ust t"e e-e!cise o' t"e powe!s o' goe!nment+
0+ /"e (isEuali'ication o' a can(i(ate w"o o&taine( t"e "ig"est num&e!
o' otes AFTER THE ELECTION (oes not entitle t"e secon( place!
to &e (ecla!e( t"e winne!+ /"e sai( p!inciple was lai( (own as ea!ly as
.?.0 an( !eite!ate( in t"e cases o' LA8O VS! CO7ELEC"
33. 'n case of #acancy in the 8enate or in the Bouse of
7epresentati#es under 8ection , of *rticle +''; is it automatic for
the %:)CLC% to hold a special election?

=o# t"e!e must &e a law passe( &y Cong!ess app!op!iating t"e 'un(s
'o! t"e sai( pu!pose+ ( 0/%,% vs. C2101C, '#8 &C!% ::73
$#! ?%i&e . 7em3er of Con2ress is not .&&o1e/ to .--e.r .s
,ounse& for .n4 -.rt4 in ,ourt or 3efore ./ministr.tive 3o/ies" m.4 %e
/o so .s . 5sto,=%o&/er6@
.. ..
No .s %e&/ in PUYAT vs! DE GU>7AN" ::$ SCRA $:! W"at
coul( not &e (one (i!ectly coul( not li3ewise &e (one in(i!ectly+ *o a
mem&e! o' Cong!ess w"o is a stoc3"ol(e! o' t"e co!po!ation inole( in a
case is not allowe( to appea! un(e! t"e guise t"at "e is appea!ing as suc"#
not as counsel 'o! t"e co!po!ation+
3&. )ay a court suspend a member of %on/ress when 8ection 16
=3>; *rticle +' appears to /i#e such eclusi#e power to each Bouse only
for disorderly beha#ior; and with the concurrence of 2E3 of all its
members; suspend or epel a )ember. * penalty of suspension; when
imposed; shall mot eceed sity days?

Ges# t"is was t"e !ulings o' t"e *up!eme Cou!t in t"e cases o'
RA $;:E .--&ies to .&& 2overnment offi,ers .n/ em-&o4ees!
36. 'n case of conflict between the entries in a 2ournal of both
Bouses of %on/ress and etraneous e#idence li@e affida#its of witnesses;
which shall pre#ail?
%s held in 9.&. vs. 4+&, :6 4hil. 7#=, the 5ournal prevails over
eEtraneous evidence liBe accounts of newspaper 5ournalists and
reporters as to what the proceedings all about.
3.. 'n case of conflict between the 2ournal and the enrolled bill;
which shall pre#ailF
*n C%&C 4G*0. )&. .*21+1/, 7 &C!% :67, it was held bC the
&upreme Court that /"e en!olle( &ill p!eails oe! t"e Kou!nal+ I'
t"e en!olle( &ill p!oi(es t"at it is u!ea 'o!mal(e"y(e is t"e one
e-empt '!om ta-# an( not u!ea an( 'o!mal(e"y(e w"ic" appea!s in
t"e Kou!nal w"ic" was !eally app!oe(# t"e 'o!me! p!eails an( only
=O/ A$<ICIAL LEGI*LA/IO=+ Cowee!# i' t"e P!esi(ent o' t"e
P"ilippines# *enate P!esi(ent an( t"e *pea3e! o' t"e Couse o'
Rep!esentaties wit"(!aw t"ei! signatu!es as a !esult o' an anomaly
su!!oun(ing t"e p!inting o' t"e 'inal copy o' t"e &ill# t"en# t"e
Kou!nal will p!eail since w"at is le't is no longe! consi(e!e( an
2en!olle( &ill+6
(=O/E# "owee!# t"at t"e Kou!nal p!eails oe! t"e en!olle( &ill
on all matte!s !eEui!e( to &e ente!e( in t"e Kou!nals# li3e yeas an( nays
on t"e 'inal !ea(ing o' a &ill o! on any Euestion at t"e !eEuest o' .R9
o' t"e mem&e!s p!esent+ HAustice Isagani C!u)I)
3-. )ay %on/ress chan/e the eistin/ membership of the
%ommission on *ppointments or Clectoral Fribunals as a result of
the chan/es of membership of the different political parties?
.0 .0
Yes *f the changes in the political partC affiliations of the
members of Congress is substantial and at the same time permanent
so as to dramaticallC increase the membership of one partC while
significantlC reducing the other, the number of representatives of the
different parties in the Commission on %ppointments maC also be
changed in proportion to their actual memberships. -+T1> *n
Cunanan vs. Tan, the membership of the &enators was onlC
temporarC so as not to result in the change of membership in the
Commission on %ppointments3
3-(a. )ay a political party 3LDP5 replace its representati#e in the
Bouse of 7epresentati#es Clectoral %ommission who; in a
preliminary #otin/ in a protest case a/ainst an LDP )ember; #oted
in fa#or of the other party and a/ainst the candidate of his #ery own
Hhile as a rule the different political parties maC change their
representatives in the 1lectoral Tribunal or Commission on
%ppointments, it maC not change a 2ember who completelC heard and
participated in a particular case "and has alreadC indicated his vote to
the members of the tribunal$ and replace him with another who has no
participation therein, eEcept onlC to vote for a partCImate who is
involved in the protest. &uch would be a travestC of 5ustice. -@+,C
)&. 4*+1,%, &eptember #<, '=='3
3,. )ay a committee of %on/ress cite a person for contempt of
court for refusin/ to answer its questions durin/ in#esti/ations in aid of
le/islation? Bow lon/ may it imprison such witness?
As "el( in %!+%90T vs. +%/%!1+, J7 4hil. #=, 5A 1itness 1%o
refuses to .ns1er . 0uer4 34 t%e Committee m.4 3e /et.ine/ /urin2 t%e
term of t%e mem3ers im-osin2 s.i/ -en.&t4 3ut t%e /etention s%ou&/ not
3e too &on2 .s to vio&.te t%e 1itness< ri2%t to /ue -ro,ess of &.1!6
4<. )ay the President #alidly prohibit members of the %abinet and
those of the eecuti#e department from appearin/ before any %ommittee
of %on/ress without her consent?
It (epen(s+ I' t"e appea!ance is (ue to t"e powe! o' Cong!ess to
inestigate in ai( o' legislation un(e! *ection 0.# A!t+ VI# suc" act o' t"e
P!esi(ent is unconstitutional 'o! it woul( iolate t"e oe!sig"t powe!s o'
Cong!ess an( &ecause t"e appea!ance o' sai( e-ecutie o''ice!s is
;A=<A/ORG+ It woul( also iolate t"e !ig"t to in'o!mation on t"e pa!t o'
t"e citi)ens+ Cowee!# i' t"e initation to appea! is &ase( on *ection 00# A!t+
VI o! (u!ing t"e 2Euestion "ou!6# t"en t"e P!esi(ent may ali(ly (eman(
t"at t"ey must get "e! consent 'i!st &ecause suc" appea!ance is
SEC! EDUARDO ER7ITA" ET AL!" G!R! No! :*E((" A-ri& 9;" 9;;* "
#'' SCRA :)
.5 .5

4<(a. While a )ember of the %abinet may be compelled to appear
before %on/ress under 8ection 21; *rt. +' of the %onstitution; may he be
compelled to answer questions re/ardin/ his con#ersations with the
President on matters sub2ect of the in#esti/ationEinquiry in aid of
=o i' t"e cone!sations a!e coe!e( &y t"e 2e-ecutie p!iilege6+
4<(b. Cplain the !eecuti#e pri#ile/e$ doctrine. Distin/uish the
!presidential communications pri#ile/e$ and the !deliberati#e
process pri#ile/e$ which comprise said !eecuti#e pri#ile/e$.
Who are co#ered by this rule?

/"e +iEon an( postIHatergate cases esta&lis"e( t"e &!oa( contou!s o'
t"e -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e+
In 9nited &tates v.
t"e $+*+ Cou!t !ecogni)e( a g!eat pu&lic inte!est in p!ese!ing
5t%e ,onfi/enti.&it4 of ,onvers.tions t%.t t.=e -&.,e in t%e Presi/ent<s
-erform.n,e of %is offi,i.& /uties!6 It t"us consi(e!e( p!esi(ential
communications as 2-resum-tive&4 -rivi&e2e/+6 Appa!ently# t"e
p!esumption is 'oun(e( on t"e 2Presi/ent<s 2ener.&iKe/ interest in
,onfi/enti.&it4+6 /"e p!iilege is sai( to &e necessa!y to gua!antee t"e
can(o! o' p!esi(ential a(iso!s an( to p!oi(e 2t%e Presi/ent .n/
t%ose 1%o .ssist %imL 1it% free/om to eC-&ore .&tern.tives in t%e
-ro,ess of s%.-in2 -o&i,ies .n/ m.=in2 /e,isions .n/ to /o so in . 1.4
m.n4 1ou&/ 3e un1i&&in2 to eC-ress eC,e-t -riv.te&4!6
In *n !e> &ealed Case,
t"e $+*+ Cou!t o' Appeals (ele( (eepe!+
It !ule( t"at t"e!e a!e two (0) 3in(s o' e-ecutie p!iilege, one is t"e
-resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e an(# t"e ot"e! is t"e /e&i3er.tive
-ro,ess -rivi&e2e+ /"e 'o!me! pe!tains to 5,ommuni,.tions" /o,uments
or ot%er m.teri.&s t%.t ref&e,t -resi/enti.& /e,ision-m.=in2 .n/
/e&i3er.tions .n/ t%.t t%e Presi/ent 3e&ieves s%ou&/
,onfi/enti.&!6 /"e latte! inclu(es M./visor4 o-inions" re,ommen/.tions
.n/ /e&i3er.tions ,om-risin2 -.rt of . -ro,ess 34 1%i,% 2overnment.&
/e,isions .n/ -o&i,ies .re formu&.te/!6

Acco!(ingly# t"ey a!e c"a!acte!i)e( &y ma!3e( (istinctions+
Presi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e applies to /e,ision-m.=in2 of t%e
Presi/ent w"ile# t"e /e&i3er.tive -ro,ess -rivi&e2e# to /e,ision-m.=in2
of eCe,utive offi,i.&s+ /"e first is !oote( in t"e constitutional p!inciple o'
sepa!ation o' powe! an( t"e P!esi(ent:s uniEue constitutional !ole,
t"e se,on/ on common law p!iilege+ $nli3e t"e /e&i3er.tive -ro,ess
-rivi&e2e# t"e -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e applies to
/o,uments in t%eir entiret4" .n/ ,overs fin.& .n/ -ost-/e,ision.&
m.teri.&s .s 1e&& .s -re-/e&i3er.tive ones
As a conseEuence#
0 H0LI
CR* Repo!t 'o! Cong!ess# P!esi(ential Claims o' E-ecutie P!iilegeF Cisto!y# Law#
P!actice an( Recent <eelopments at p+ 0+
D.L $+*+ 7L5+
*n !e> &ealed Case +o+ ?7>5.0D# Aune .8# .??8+
.D .D
cong!essional o! Ku(icial negation o' t"e -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions
-rivi&e2e is always su&Kect to g!eate! sc!utiny t"an (enial o' t"e /e&i3er.tive
-ro,ess -rivi&e2e+
/u!ning on w"o a!e t"e o''icials coe!e( &y t"e -resi/enti.&
,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e# *n !e> &ealed Case con'ines t"e p!iilege only
to W"ite Couse *ta'' t"at "as 2ope!ational p!o-imity6 to (i!ect p!esi(ential
(ecision>ma3ing+ /"us# t"e p!iilege is meant to encompass only t"ose
'unctions t"at 'o!m t"e co!e o' p!esi(ential aut"o!ity# inoling w"at t"e
cou!t c"a!acte!i)e( as 2Euintessential an( non>(elega&le P!esi(ential
powe!#6 suc" as comman(e!>in>c"ie' powe!# appointment an( !emoal
powe!# t"e powe! to g!ant pa!(ons an( !ep!iees# t"e sole>aut"o!ity to
!eceie am&assa(o!s an( ot"e! pu&lic o''ice!s# t"e powe! to negotiate
t!eaties# etc+

/"e situation in Kudicial Hatch, *nc. v. ,epartment of Kustice
teste( t"e *n !e> &ealed Case p!inciples+ /"e!e# w"ile t"e p!esi(ential
(ecision inole( is t"e e-e!cise o' t"e P!esi(ent:s pa!(on powe!# a non>
(elega&le# co!e>p!esi(ential 'unction# t"e <eputy Atto!ney Gene!al an( t"e
Pa!(on Atto!ney we!e (eeme( to &e too !emote '!om t"e P!esi(ent an( "is
senio! W"ite Couse a(iso!s to &e p!otecte(+ /"e Cou!t conce(e( t"at
'unctionally t"ose o''icials we!e pe!'o!ming a tas3 (i!ectly !elate( to t"e
P!esi(ent:s pa!(on powe!# &ut conclu(e( t"at an o!gani)ational test was
mo!e app!op!iate 'o! con'ining t"e potentially &!oa( sweep t"at woul( !esult
'!om t"e *n !e> &ealed CaseAs 'unctional test+ /"e maKo!ity conclu(e(
t"at# t"e lesse! p!otections o' t"e (eli&e!atie p!ocess p!iilege woul(
su''ice+ /"at p!iilege was# "owee!# 'oun( insu''icient to Kusti'y t"e
con'i(entiality o' t"e D#5D. wit""el( (ocuments+
But mo!e speci'ic classi'ications o' communications coe!e( &y
e-ecutie p!iilege a!e ma(e in ol(e! cases+ Cou!ts !ule( ea!ly t"at t"e
E-ecutie "as a !ig"t to wit""ol( (ocuments t"at mig"t !eeal mi&it.r4 or
st.te se,rets"
i/entit4 of 2overnment informers in some
an( inform.tion re&.te/ to -en/in2 investi2.tions+
An a!ea w"e!e t"e p!iilege is "ig"ly !ee!e( is in forei2n re&.tions+
;aKo!ity o' t"e a&oe Ku!isp!u(ence "ae 'oun( t"ei! way in ou!
Ku!is(iction+ In ChaveD v. 4C..
, t"is Cou!t "el( t"at t"e!e is a
2goe!nmental p!iilege against pu&lic (isclosu!e wit" !espect to state
sec!ets !ega!(ing milita!y# (iplomatic an( ot"e! secu!ity matte!s+6 In
ChaveD v. 41%,
t"e!e is also a !ecognition o' t"e con'i(entiality o'
P!esi(ential cone!sations# co!!espon(ences# an( (iscussions in close(>(oo!
CR* Repo!t 'o! Cong!ess# P!esi(ential Claims o' E-ecutie P!iilegeF Cisto!y# Law# P!actice an(
Recent <eelopments at pp+ .L>.?+
8 H55I
579 F+5( ..BL# 57. $+*+App+<+C+ .L5# 7D Fe(+ R+ Ei(+ *e!+ .D.+
*ee 9nited &tates v. !eCnolds, 5D9 $+*+ .# 7>L (.?95), Chicago v. %irlines, *nc. v. Haterman
&teamship Corp., 555 $+*+ .B5# ..., Totten v. 9nited &tates, ?0 $+*+ .B9# .B7>.B8 (.L89)+
? H59I
!oviaro v. 9nited &tates# 595 $+*+ 95# 9?>7.+
.B H57I
*ee ;riedman v. @ache GalseC &tuart &hields, *nc. 85L F+ 0( .557#.5D.>D5 (<+C+ Ci!+
.. H5LI
57B P"il+ .55 (.??L)+
.9 .9
Ca&inet meetings+ In &enate v. 1rmita# t"e concept o' -resi/enti.&
,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e is 'ully (iscusse(+
As may &e gleane( '!om t"e a&oe (iscussion# t"e claim o' e-ecutie
p!iilege is "ig"ly !ecogni)e( in cases w"e!e t"e su&Kect o' inEui!y !elates to
a powe! te-tually committe( &y t"e Constitution to t"e P!esi(ent# suc" as t"e
a!ea o' milita!y an( 'o!eign !elations+ $n(e! ou! Constitution# t"e P!esi(ent
is t"e !eposito!y o' t"e comman(e!>in>c"ie'#
an( (iplomatic
powe!s+ Consistent wit" t"e (oct!ine o' sepa!ation o'
powe!s# t"e in'o!mation !elating to t"ese powe!s may enKoy g!eate!
con'i(entiality t"an ot"e!s+
/"e a&oe cases# especially# +iEon, *n !e &ealed Case an( Kudicial
Hatch, some"ow p!oi(e t"e elements o' -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions
-rivi&e2e# to witF
:) /"e p!otecte( communication must !elate to a
2Euintessential an( non>(elega&le p!esi(ential powe!+6
9) /"e communication must &e aut"o!e( o! 2solicite( an(
!eceie(6 &y a close a(iso! o' t"e P!esi(ent o! t"e
P!esi(ent "imsel'+ /"e Ku(icial test is t"at an a(iso! must
&e in 2ope!ational p!o-imity6 wit" t"e P!esi(ent+
$) /"e -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e !emains a
Euali'ie( p!iilege t"at may &e oe!come &y a s"owing o'
a(eEuate nee(# suc" t"at t"e in'o!mation soug"t 2li3ely
contains impo!tant ei(ence6 an( &y t"e unaaila&ility o'
t"e in'o!mation elsew"e!e &y an app!op!iate inestigating

*imply put# t"e &ases a!e -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e an(
e-ecutie p!iilege on matte!s !elating to /i-&om.,4 or forei2n re&.tions+
$sing t"e a&oe elements# we a!e conince( t"at# in(ee(# t"e
communications elicite( &y t"e t"!ee (5) Euestions a!e coe!e( &y t"e
-resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e+ ?irst# t"e communications !elate
to a 2Euintessential an( non>(elega&le powe!6 o' t"e P!esi(ent# i+e+ t"e
powe! to ente! into an e-ecutie ag!eement wit" ot"e! count!ies+ /"is
aut"o!ity o' t"e P!esi(ent to ente! into eEecutive agreements wit"out t"e
concu!!ence o' t"e Legislatu!e "as t!a(itionally &een !ecogni)e( in
P"ilippine Ku!isp!u(ence+
8econd; t"e communications a!e 2!eceie(6
&y a close a(iso! o' t"e P!esi(ent+ $n(e! t"e 2ope!ational p!o-imity6 test#
petitione! can &e consi(e!e( a close a(iso!# &eing a mem&e! o' P!esi(ent
*ection .L# A!ticle VII+
*ection .7# A!ticle VII+
.9 HD0I
*ection .?# A!ticle VII+
.7 HD5I
*ection 0B an( 0.# A!ticle VII+
CR* Repo!t 'o! Cong!ess# P!esi(ential Claims o' E-ecutie P!iilegeF Cisto!y# Law P!actice an(
Recent <eelopments# supra..
Be!nas# *+A+# /"e .?L8 Constitution o' t"e Repu&lic o' t"e P"ilippines# A Commenta!y# 0BB5 E(+
p+ ?B5+
.7 .7
A!!oyo:s ca&inet+ %nd third# t"e!e is no a(eEuate s"owing o' a compelling
nee( t"at woul( Kusti'y t"e limitation o' t"e p!iilege an( o' t"e
un.v.i&.3i&it4 o' t"e in'o!mation elsew"e!e &y an app!op!iate inestigating

NOTEJ In NiCon" t%e US
Su-reme Court %e&/ t%.t invo,.tion
of 5eCe,utive -rivi&e2e6 is
un.v.i&in2 if it invo&ves t%e
,ommission of . ,rime .n/ t%ere is
.&re./4 . -en/in2 ,rimin.& ,.se!)
We see no (ispute on t"is+ It is settle( in 9nited &tates v. +iEon
t"at 2(emonst!ate(# speci'ic nee( 'o! ei(ence in -en/in2 ,rimin.& tri.&6
outweig"s t"e P!esi(ent:s 2gene!ali)e( inte!est in con'i(entiality+6
Cowee!# t"e p!esent case:s (istinction wit" t"e +iEon case is e!y ei(ent+
In +iEon# t"e!e is a pen(ing c!iminal p!ocee(ing w"e!e t"e in'o!mation
is !eEueste( an( it is t"e (eman(s o' (ue p!ocess o' law an( t"e 'ai!
a(minist!ation o' c!iminal Kustice t"at t"e in'o!mation &e (isclose(+ /"is
is t"e !eason w"y t"e $+*+ Cou!t was Euic3 to 2&imit t%e s,o-e of its
/e,ision!6 It st!esse( t"at it is 5not ,on,erne/ %ere 1it% t%e 3.&.n,e
3et1een t%e Presi/ent<s 2ener.&iKe/ interest in ,onfi/enti.&it4 C C C
.n/ ,on2ression.& /em.n/s for inform.tion!6 $nli3e in +iEon# t"e
in'o!mation "e!e is elicite(# not in a c!iminal p!ocee(ing# &ut in a legislatie
inEui!y+ In t"is !ega!(# &enate v. 1rmita st!esse( t"at t"e ali(ity o' t"e
claim o' e-ecutie p!iilege (epen(s not only on t"e g!oun( ino3e( &ut#
also# on t"e -ro,e/ur.& settin2 o! t"e ,onteCt in w"ic" t"e claim is ma(e+
Fu!t"e!mo!e# in +iEon, t"e P!esi(ent (i( not inte!pose any claim o' nee( to
p!otect milita!y# (iplomatic o! sensitie national secu!ity sec!ets+ In t"e
p!esent case# E-ecutie *ec!eta!y E!mita catego!ically claims e-ecutie
p!iilege on t"e g!oun(s o' -resi/enti.& ,ommuni,.tions -rivi&e2e in
!elation to "e! e-ecutie an( policy (ecision>ma3ing p!ocess an( (iplomatic
41. )ay a person #alidly refuse to honor an in#itation to appear
before the 8enate 0lue 7ibbon %ommittee in connection with its alle/ed
in#esti/ation !in aid of le/islation$?
Ges+ In Beng)on# A!+ s+ *enate Blue Ri&&on Committee# =o+ 0B#
.??.# it was "el( t"at 2t"e powe! o' &ot" "ouses o' Cong!ess to con(uct
inEui!ies in ai( o' legislation is not# a&solute o! unlimite(+ M/"e !ig"ts o'
pe!sons appea!ing in o! a''ecte( &y suc" inEui!ies s"all &e !especte(+M It
'ollows t"en t"at t"e !ig"ts o' pe!sons un(e! t"e Bill o' Rig"ts must &e
!especte(# inclu(ing t"e !ig"t to (ue p!ocess an( t"e !ig"t not to &e
compelle( to testi'y against oneSs sel'+ But &!oa( as is t"is powe! o' inEui!y#
it is not unlimite(+ /"e!e is no gene!al aut"o!ity to e-pose t"e p!iate a''ai!s
o' in(ii(uals wit"out Kusti'ication in te!ms o' t"e 'unctions o' Cong!ess+
=o! is t"e Cong!ess a law en'o!cement o! t!ial agency+ /"ese a!e 'unctions
.8 .8
o' t"e e-ecutie an( Ku(icial (epa!tments o' goe!nment+ =o inEui!y is an
en( in itsel', it must &e !elate( to an( in 'u!t"e!ance o' a legitimate tas3 o'
Cong!ess+ Inestigations con(ucte( solely 'o! t"e pe!sonal agg!an(i)ement
o' t"e inestigato!s o! to Mpunis"M t"ose inestigate( a!e in(e'ensi&le+
41. )ay local le/islati#e bodies #alidly cite a person in contempt of
court 3as what %on/ress could do5 for refusin/ to appear therein or to
answer the questions of the members thereof?
*A=GG$=IA=G PA=GL$=G*O< OF <$;AG$E/E CI/G# G+R+ =o+
80D?0# =o+ 9# .?L8# .99 *CRA D0.# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at suc"
powe! was not (elegate( &y Cong!ess to local goe!nment units+
42. What are the bills that must eclusi#ely ori/inate from the
Bouse of 7epresentati#es?
$n(e! *ection 0D# A!t+ VI# All app!op!iations# !eenue o! ta!i'' &ills#
&ills aut"o!i)ing inc!ease o' t"e pu&lic (e&t# &ills o' local application# an(
p!iate &ills s"all o!iginate e-clusiely in t"e Couse o' !ep!esentaties# &ut t"e
*enate may p!opose o! concu! wit" amen(ments+ (NOTEJ In To&entino vs!
Se,ret.r4 of Fin.n,e# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at t"e E>VA/ Law is
constitutional een i' t"e same was t"e VER*IO= w"ic" came '!om t"e *enate#
not '!om t"e Couse o' Rep!esentaties+ /"is is so &ecause t"e *enate is allowe(
to 2p!opose amen(ments6 to &ills w"ic" must e-clusiely o!iginate '!om t"e
Couse o' Rep!esentaties+)
43. When is transfer of appropriations allowed by the %onstitutionJ
Only t"ose coe!e( &y *ection 09 H9I w"ic" p!oi(es t"at 2=o law
s"all &e passe( aut"o!i)ing any t!ans'e! o' app!op!iations, "owee!# t"e
P!esi(ent# t"e P!esi(ent o' t"e *enate# t"e *pea3e! o' t"e "ouse o'
Rep!esentaties# t"e C"ie' Kustice o' t"e *up!eme Cou!t# an( t"e "ea(s o' t"e
constitutional commissions may# &y law# &e aut"o!i)e( to augment any item
in t"e gene!al app!op!iations law 'o! t"ei! !espectie o''ices '!om saings in
ot"e! items o' t"ei! !espectie app!op!iations+6
44. What is the so(called !eecuti#e impoundment$?
It means t"at alt"oug" an item o' app!op!iation is not etoe( &y t"e
P!esi(ent# "e "owee! !e'uses 'o! w"atee! !eason# to spen( 'un(s ma(e
possi&le &y Cong!ess+ It is t"e 'ailu!e to spen( o! o&ligate &u(get aut"o!ity
o' any type+ P!oponents o' impoun(ment "ae ino3e( at least t"!ee (5)
p!incipal sou!ces o' aut"o!ity o' t"e P!esi(ent+ H.I aut"o!ity to impoun(
gien to "im &y Cong!ess# eit"e! e-p!essly o! implie(ly, H0I t"e e-ecutie
powe! (!awn '!om "is powe! as Comman(e!>in>c"ie', an( H5I t"e Fait"'ul
e-ecution clause o' t"e Constitution+ =ote t"at in t"is case t"e *C "el( t"at
t"e Count!ysi(e <eelopment Fun( (C<F) o! 2Po!3 Ba!!el6 o' Cong!essmen
an( *enato!s is CO=*/I/$/IO=AL &ecause t"e same is 2set asi(e 'o!
Tin'!ast!uctu!e# pu!c"ase o' am&ulances an( compute!s an( ot"e! p!io!ity
.L .L
p!oKects an( actiities# an( c!e(it 'acilities to Euali'ie( &ene'icia!ies as
p!opose( an( i(enti'ie( &y sai( *enato!s an( Cong!essmen+ (PCILCO=*A
V*+ E=RIN$EQ# 059 *CRA 9B7)
4&. )ay the President refuse to enforce a law on the /round that in
his opinion it is unconstitutional?
=o+ Ot"e!wise# "e will &e iolating t"e (oct!ine o' sepa!ation o'
powe!s &ecause &y (oing so# "e will &e a!!ogating unto "imsel' t"e powe! to
inte!p!et t"e law# not me!ely to implement it+ (0.&. 2+ L C. )&.
G%!!*&+, 6: 4hil.:J3
#3 .)MT. )&. &4!*+.1!, ?8 4hil. ?#=, read also the separate
46. Fhe President of the Philippines; by *dministrati#e :rder;
mandates the !*D:PF':9 :? * 9*F':9*L %:)P1FC7'GCD
'DC9F'?'%*F':9 7C?C7C9%C 8H8FC)$ and appropriatin/ funds
therefore?'s this within his !eecuti#e power$?
=o as "el( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t in BLA* OPLE V*+ R$BE=
/ORRE*# E/ AL+# G+R+ =o+ .087L9# Auly 05# .??L# t"e AO esta&lis"es a
system o' i(enti'ication t"at is all>encompassing in scope# a''ects t"e li'e an(
li&e!ty o' ee!y Filipino citi)ens an( 'o!eign !esi(ents an( t"e!e'o!e# it is
suppose( to &e a law passe( &y Cong!ess t"at implements it# not &y an
A(minist!atie O!(e! issue( &y t"e P!esi(ent+ A(minist!atie Powe!# w"ic"
is suppose( to &e e-e!cise( &y t"e P!esi(ent# is conce!ne( wit" t"e wo!3 o'
applying policies an( en'o!cing o!(e!s as (ete!mine( &y p!ope!
goe!nmental o!gans+ It ena&les t"e P!esi(ent to 'i- a uni'o!m stan(a!( o'
a(minist!atie e''iciency an( c"ec3 t"e o''icial con(uct o' "is agents+
P!escin(ing '!om t"e 'o!egoing p!ecepts# AO 5BL inoles a su&Kect t"at is
not app!op!iate to &e coe!e( &y an A(minist!atie O!(e!+ An a(minist!atie
o!(e! is an o!(inance issue( &y t"e P!esi(ent w"ic" !elates to speci'ic
aspects in t"e a(minist!atie ope!ation o' t"e goe!nment+ It must &e in
"a!mony wit" t"e law an( s"oul( &e 'o! t"e sole pu!pose o' implementing
t"e law an( ca!!ying out t"e legislatie policy+ /"e su&Kect o' AO 5BL
t"e!e'o!e is &eyon( t"e powe! o' t"e P!esi(ent to issue an( it is a usu!pation
o' legislatie powe!+

4.. What is the !totality test$ used by the 8upreme %ourt in holdin/
that former President Ioseph Cstrada resi/ned as President on Ianuary
2<; 2<<.?
/O /CE I**$E+
4-. 's President Aloria )acapa/al *rroyo a de 2ure or a de facto
President? 'f de 2ure; how did she succeed? 7esi/nation or permanent
disability of former President Cstrada?
.? .?
*ince &ot" Couses o' Cong!ess "a( !ecogni)e( t"at A!!oyo is t"e
P!esi(ent w"en t"ey passe( Resolution 2e-p!essing t"ei! suppo!t to t"e
a(minist!ation o' Ce! E-cellency Glo!ia ;acapagal A!!oyo# P!esi(ent o' t"e
P"ilippines6 w"ic" was passe( on Aanua!y 0D# 0BB., anot"e! !esolution
(ate( Aanua!y 0D# 0BB. 2e-p!essing 'ull suppo!t to t"e assumption into o''ice
&y VP A!!oyo as P!esi(ent o' t"e P"ilippines6, an( t"e Resolution (ate(
Fe&!ua!y 8# 0BB. 2con'i!ming P!esi(ent A!!oyo:s nomination o' *enato!
/eopisto Guingona# A!+ as Vice P!esi(ent o' t"e P"ilippines6# "e!
goe!nment is (e Ku!e+
4,. )ay the President ma@es appointment to #acancies in the
2udiciary within two months immediately before the net presidential
election and up to the end of his term$ in order to comply with the
requirement of 8ections 4 and -; *rt. +''' for him to fill up #acancies in
the 2udiciary within ,< days from the submission of the list of nominees by
the Iudicial and 0ar %ouncil?
=o+ *ection .9# A!ticle VII applies only to tempo!a!y appointments
to e-ecutie positions w"en continue( acancies t"e!ein will p!eKu(ice
pu&lic se!ice o! en(ange! pu&lic sa'ety an( not to t"e Ku(icia!y+
&<. What appointments made by the President shall be the sub2ect of
confirmation by the %ommission on *ppointments?
Only t"ose coe!e( &y t"e .
sentence o' *ection .7# A!t+ VII w"ic"
a!e t"e "ea(s o' t"e e-ecutie (epa!tments# am&assa(o!s# ot"e! pu&lic
ministe!s an( consuls# o! o''ice!s o' t"e a!me( 'o!ces '!om t"e !an3 o'
colonel o! naal captain# an( ot"e! o''ice!s a!e este( in "im in t"is
&1. )ay the President ma@e temporary appointments in#ol#in/ the
members of the %abinet while %on/ress in session or not in session?
Distin/uish ad interim appointment and appointment in an actin/
Ges p!oi(e( t"e tempo!a!y appointments o' ca&inet mem&e!s (o not
e-cee( one (.) yea!+ (*E=+ AN$ILI=O PI;E=/EL# et al+# s+ E1EC+
*ECRE/ARG E<$AR<O ER;I/A# et al+# D80 *CRA 9L8)
.+ /"e tempo!a!y appointments a!e ali(+ /"e powe! to appoint is
essentially e-ecutie in natu!e an( t"e legislatu!e may not inte!'e!e
wit" t"e e-e!cise o' t"is e-ecutie powe! e-cept in t"ose instances
w"en t"e Constitution e-p!essly allows it to inte!'e!e+ /"e essence
o' an appointment in an acting capacity is its tempo!a!y natu!e+ It
is a stop>gap measu!e inten(e( to 'ill an o''ice 'o! a limite( time
until t"e appointment o' a pe!manent occupant to t"e o''ice+ In
case o' acancy in an o''ice occupie( &y an alte! ego o' t"e
P!esi(ent# suc" as t"e o''ice o' a (epa!tment sec!eta!y# t"e
P!esi(ent must necessa!ily appoint an alte! ego o' "e! c"oice as
0B 0B
acting sec!eta!y &e'o!e t"e pe!manent appointee o' "e! c"oice
coul( assume o''ice+ Cong!ess# t"!oug" a law cannot impose on
t"e P!esi(ent t"e o&ligation o' automatically appointing t"e
$n(e!sec!eta!y as "e! alte! ego+ Ce must &e o' t"e P!esi(ent:s
con'i(ence an( p!oi(e( t"at t"e tempo!a!y appointment (oes not
e-cee( one (.) yea!+
/"e!e is a nee( to (istinguis" a( inte!im appointments an(
appointments in an acting capacity+ W"ile &ot" a!e e''ectie upon
acceptance# a( inte!im appointments a!e e-ten(e( only (u!ing t"e
!ecess o' Cong!ess# w"e!eas acting appointments may &e e-ten(e(
any time t"at t"e!e is a acancy+ ;o!eoe!# a( inte!im appointments
a!e su&mitte( to t"e Commission on Appointments 'o! con'i!mation
o! !eKection, acting appointments a!e not su&mitte( to t"e
Commission on appointments+ Acting appointments a!e a way o'
tempo!a!ily ci!cumenting t"e nee( o' con'i!mation &y t"e
Commission on Appointments+
&2. What is the !ta@e care power$ of the President of the
It is t"e powe! o' t"e P!esi(ent un(e! *ection .8# A!t+ VII w"ic"
p!oi(es t"at /"e P!esi(ent s"all "ae cont!ol o' all t"e e-ecutie
(epa!tments # &u!eaus an( o''ices+ He s%.&& ensure t%.t t%e &.1s 3e eCe,ute/!
&3. What is the power of control of the President. Distin/uish it
from power of super#ision+
MCont!olM "as &een (e'ine( as Mt"e powe! o' an o''ice! to alte! o!
mo(i'y o! nulli'y o! set asi(e w"at a su&o!(inate o''ice! "a( (one in t"e
pe!'o!mance o' "is (uties an( to su&stitute t"e Ku(gment o' t"e 'o!me! 'o!
test o' t"e latte!+M M*upe!isionM on t"e ot"e! "an( means Moe!seeing o! t"e
powe! o! aut"o!ity o' an o''ice! to see t"at su&o!(inate o''ice!s pe!'o!m t"ei!
(uties+ (;O=<A=O V*+ *ILVO*A)
&4. )ay the President #alidly require all officers and employees
under the eecuti#e department to maintain 'D systems and ha#e 'D
Ges in acco!(ance wit" "e! powe! o' cont!ol un(e! *ection .8# A!t+
VII o' t"e Constitution+ (PIL$*A=G ;AGO $=O V*+ E1EC$/IVE
*ECRE/ARG E<$AR<O ER;I/A# E/ AL+# Ap!il .?# 0BB7 @ Aune 0B#
0BB7) But not 'o! a national I< system w"ic" inclu(es ciilians as "el( in
Ople s+ /o!!es# sup!a+
&&. What is the doctrine of qualified political a/ency?
It simply means t"at 2t%e Presi/ent is not eC-e,te/ to -erform in
-erson .n t%e mu&tif.rious eCe,utive .n/ ./ministr.tive fun,tions!
0. 0.
T%e Offi,e of t%e ECe,utive Se,ret.r4 is .n .uCi&&.r4 unit 1%i,%
.ssists t%e Presi/ent! Un/er our ,onstitution.& set-u-" t%e
ECe,utive Se,ret.r4 .,ts for .n/ in 3e%.&f of t%e Presi/entJ .n/
34 .ut%orit4 of t%e Presi/ent" %e %.s un/is-ute/ Iuris/i,tion to
.ffirm" mo/if4" or even reverse .n4 or/er of t%e Se,ret.r4 of
N.tur.& Resour,es .n/ ot%er C.3inet Se,ret.ries+ W"e!e t"e
E-ecutie *ec!eta!y acts M&y aut"o!ity o' t"e P!esi(entM "is (ecision is
t"at o' t"e P!esi(ent+ (Lacson>;agallanes Co+# Inc+ s+ Pano# 0.
*CRA L?9)+
&6. What are the differences between the power of the President to
declare martial law or suspend the pri#ile/e of the writ of habeas
corpus under the 1,-. %onstitution and the pre#ious %onstitutions?
$n(e! t"e .?L8 P"ilippine Constitution# suc" acts o' t"e P!esi(ent
may &e !eiewe( not only &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t &ut also t"e Cong!ess o'
t"e P"ilippines+ P!eiously# suc" woul( &e consi(e!e( 2political Euestion6
w"ic" is &eyon( t"e !eiew powe!s o' t"e cou!ts+ Li3ewise# t"e!e is a
(e'inite pe!io( 'o! t"e sai( suspension unli3e &e'o!e an( mo!e
impo!tantly# t"e g!oun(s a!e only inasion an( !e&ellion WCE= /CE
P$BLIC *AFE/G REN$IRE* I/+ /"e *up!eme Cou!t may !eiew# in
an app!op!iate p!ocee(ing 'ile( &y any citi)en# t"e su''iciency o' t"e
'actual &asis o' t"e p!oclamation o' ma!tial law o! suspension o' t"e
p!iilege o' t"e w!it o! t"e e-tension t"e!eo'# an( must p!omulgate its
(ecision t"e!eon wit"in 5B (ays '!om its 'iling+
A state o' ma!tial law (oes not suspen( t"e ope!ation o' t"e
Constitution# no! supplant t"e 'unctioning o' t"e ciil cou!ts o! legislatie
assem&lies# no! aut"o!i)e t"e con'e!ment o' Ku!is(iction on milita!y cou!ts
an( agencies oe! ciilians w"e!e ciil cou!ts a!e a&le to 'unction# no!
automatically suspen( t"e p!iilege o' t"e w!it+
/"e suspension o' t"e p!iilege o' t"e w!it s"all apply only to pe!sons
Ku(icially c"a!ge( 'o! !e&ellion o! o''enses in"e!ent in o! (i!ectly connecte(
wit" inasion+
<u!ing t"e suspension o' t"e p!iilege o' t"e w!it# any pe!son t"us
a!!este( o! (etaine( s"all &e Ku(icially c"a!ge( wit"in 5 (ays# ot"e!wise# "e
s"all &e !elease(+
&.. )ay the President under the 1,-. %onstitution #alidly issue
decrees after declarin/ a state of national emer/ency. )ay she direct the
ta@e o#er of business affected with national interest by reason of the
!emer/ency$ which she herself proclaimed?
I n t " e c a s e o ' PROF! RANDOLF S! DAVID" et A&
CO77ANDER-IN-CHIEF" et .&!" G!R! No! :(:$E*" 7.4 $" 9;;*# it was
"el( t"at in (ecla!ing a state o' national eme!gency# P!esi(ent A!!oyo (i(
not only !ely on *ection .L# A!ticle VII o' t"e Constitution# a p!oision
00 00
calling on t"e AFP to p!eent o! supp!ess lawless iolence# inasion o!
!e&ellion+ *"e also !elie( on *ection .8# A!ticle 1II# a p!oision on t"e
*tate:s e-t!ao!(ina!y powe! to ta3e oe! p!iately>owne( pu&lic utility an(
&usiness a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est+ /"e *up!eme Cou!t !ule( t"at t"e
assaile( PP .B.8 is unconstitutional inso'a! as it g!ants P!esi(ent A!!oyo t"e
aut"o!ity to p!omulgate 2(ec!ees+6 Legislatie powe! is peculia!ly wit"in
t"e p!oince o' t"e Legislatu!e+ *ection .# A!ticle VI catego!ically states
t"at 2HtI"e legislatie powe! s"all &e este( in t"e Cong!ess o' t"e
P"ilippines w"ic" s"all consist o' a *enate an( a Couse o' Rep!esentaties+6
/o &e su!e# neit"e! ;a!tial Law no! a state o' !e&ellion no! a state o'
eme!gency can Kusti'y P!esi(ent A!!oyo:s e-e!cise o' legislatie powe! &y
issuing (ec!ees+
Li3ewise# t"e e-e!cise o' eme!gency powe!s# suc" as t"e ta3ing oe!
o' p!iately owne( pu&lic utility o! &usiness a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est# is
also unconstitutional+ /"is !eEui!es a (elegation '!om Cong!ess+
&-. What are the requisites of 2udicial re#iew?
Cou!ts may e-e!cise t"e powe! o' Ku(icial !eiew only w"en t"e
'ollowing !eEuisites a!e p!esentF first, t"e!e must &e an actual case o!
cont!oe!sy, second, petitione!s "ae to !aise a Euestion o'
unconstitutionality, third, t"e constitutional Euestion must &e !aise( at t"e
ea!liest oppo!tunity, an( fourth, t"e (ecision o' t"e constitutional Euestion
must &e necessa!y to t"e (ete!mination o' t"e case itsel'+
&,. When may the courts still #alidly decide moot and academic
A moot an( aca(emic case is one t"at ceases to p!esent a Kusticia&le
cont!oe!sy &y i!tue o' supe!ening eents#
so t"at a (ecla!ation t"e!eon
woul( &e o' no p!actical use o! alue+ Gene!ally# cou!ts (ecline Ku!is(iction
oe! suc" case
o! (ismiss it on g!oun( o' mootness+ /"e 5moot .n/
.,./emi,6 p!inciple is not a magical 'o!mula t"at can automatically
(issua(e t"e cou!ts in !esoling a case+ Cou!ts will (eci(e cases# ot"e!wise
moot an( aca(emic# i'F
first, t"e!e is a g!ae iolation o' t"e Constitution (Provin,e of
8.t.n2.s vs! Romu&o" !R! No! :+9((#" 7.4 9(" 9;;#" #9E SCRA
second# t"e e-ceptional c"a!acte! o' t"e situation an( t"e
pa!amount pu&lic inte!est is inole( L.,son vs! PereK" G!R! No!
:#((';" 7.4 :;" 9;;:" $+( SCRA (+*)N
third, w"en constitutional issue !aise( !eEui!es 'o!mulation o'
cont!olling p!inciples to gui(e t"e &enc"# t"e &a!# an( t"e pu&lic
(Provin,e of 8.t.n2.s vs! Romu&o), an(
4rovince of @atangas v. !omulo# G+R+ =o+ .9088D# ;ay 08# 0BBD# D0? *CRA 857+
!oCal Cargo Corporation v. Civil %eronautics @oard, G+R+ =os+ .B5B99>97# Aanua!y 07# 0BBD# D0. *CRA 0., )da. ,e ,abao v. Court of
%ppeals# supra+
05 05
fourth, t"e case is capa&le o' !epetition yet ea(ing !eiew
(*lbaJa #. %ommission on Clections; G!R! No! :*$$;9" Du&4 9$"
9;;#" #$+ SCRA E'" *cop #. Auin/ona; Ir.; G!R! No! :$#'++" Du&4
9" 9;;9" $'$ SCRA +((" 8anla@as #. Cecuti#e 8ecretary" G!R!
No! :+E;'+" Fe3ru.r4 $" 9;;#" #9: SCRA *+*! )
6<. Define locus standi.
0ocus standi is (e'ine( as 2a !ig"t o' appea!ance in a cou!t o' Kustice
on a gien Euestion+6
In p!iate suits# stan(ing is goe!ne( &y t"e 2!eal>
pa!ties>in inte!est6 !ule as containe( in *ection 0# Rule 5 o' t"e .??8 Rules
o' Ciil P!oce(u!e# as amen(e(+ It p!oi(es t"at 2ever4 .,tion must 3e
-rose,ute/ or /efen/e/ in t%e of t%e re.& -.rt4 in interest+6
Acco!(ingly# t"e 2!eal>pa!ty>in inte!est6 is 2t%e -.rt4 1%o st.n/s to 3e
3enefite/ or inIure/ 34 t%e Iu/2ment in t%e suit or t%e -.rt4 entit&e/ to
t%e .v.i&s of t%e suit!6
*uccinctly put# t"e plainti'':s stan(ing is &ase( on
"is own !ig"t to t"e !elie' soug"t+

61. What are the tests of locus standi in the PhilippinesJ
/"e o!iginal wasF H.I I' t"e act inoles t"e (is&u!sement o' pu&lic
'un(s# me!e ta-paye! "as t"e capacity to sue an( Euestion suc" act+ H0I I' it
(oes not inole (is&u!sement o' pu&lic 'un(s# only t"ose w"o a!e 2(i!ectly
inKu!e(6 &y t"e sai( law o! cont!act ente!e( into &y t"e goe!nment+
Case law in most Ku!is(ictions now allows &ot" 2citi)en6 an(
2ta-paye!6 stan(ing in pu&lic actions+ /"e (istinction was 'i!st lai( (own in
@eauchamp v. &ilB#
w"e!e it was "el( t"at t"e plainti'' in a ta-paye!:s suit
is in a (i''e!ent catego!y '!om t"e plainti'' in a citi)en:s suit+ In t%e former"
t%e -&.intiff is .ffe,te/ 34 t%e eC-en/iture of -u3&i, fun/s" 1%i&e in t%e
&.tter" %e is 3ut t%e mere instrument of t%e -u3&i, ,on,ern
Cowee!# to p!eent Kust a&out any pe!son '!om see3ing Ku(icial
inte!'e!ence in any o''icial policy o! act wit" w"ic" "e (isag!ee( wit"# an(
t"us "in(e!s t"e actiities o' goe!nmental agencies engage( in pu&lic
se!ice# t"e $nite( *tate *up!eme Cou!t lai( (own t"e mo!e st!ingent
2/ire,t inIur46 test in 1E 4arte 0evitt#
late! !ea''i!me( in Tileston v.
/"e same Cou!t !ule( t"at 'o! a p!iate in(ii(ual to ino3e t"e
Ku(icial powe! to (ete!mine t"e ali(ity o' an e-ecutie o! legislatie action#
%e must s%o1 t%.t %e %.s sust.ine/ . /ire,t inIur4 .s . resu&t of t%.t
.,tion" .n/ it is not suffi,ient t%.t %e %.s . 2ener.& interest ,ommon to
.&& mem3ers of t%e -u3&i,!
Blac3:s Law <ictiona!y# 7
E(+ .??.# p+ ?D.+
&alonga v. Harner @arnes L Co., LL P"il+ .09 (.?9.)+
089 Py ?.# .0B *W0( 879 (.?5L)+
5B0 $+*+ 755+
5.L $+*+ DD7+
0D 0D
/"is Cou!t a(opte( t"e 5/ire,t inIur46 test in ou! Ku!is(iction+ In
4eople v. )era#
it "el( t"at t"e pe!son w"o impugns t"e ali(ity o' a
statute must "ae 2. -erson.& .n/ su3st.nti.& interest in t%e ,.se su,%
t%.t %e %.s sust.ine/" or 1i&& /ire,t inIur4 .s . resu&t+6 /"e )era
(oct!ine was up"el( in a litany o' cases# suc" as# Custodio v. 4resident of
the &enate#
2anila !ace Gorse TrainersA %ssociation v. ,e la ;uente#
4ascual v. &ecretarC of 4ublic HorBs
an( %ntiIChinese 0eague of the
4hilippines v. ;eliE.
Cowee!# &eing a me!e p!oce(u!al tec"nicality# t"e !eEui!ement o'
locus standi may &e waie( &y t"e Cou!t in t"e e-e!cise o' its (isc!etion+
/"is was (one in t"e :E#E Emer2en,4 Po1ers" %raneta v.
w"e!e t"e 2tr.ns,en/ent.& im-ort.n,e6 o' t"e cases p!ompte(
t"e Cou!t to act li&e!ally+ *uc" li&e!ality was neit"e! a !a!ity no! acci(ental+
In %Nuino v. Comelec#
t"is Cou!t !esole( to pass upon t"e issues !aise(
(ue to t"e 2f.r-re.,%in2 im-&i,.tions6 o' t"e petition notwit"stan(ing its
catego!ical statement t"at petitione! t"e!ein "a( no pe!sonality to 'ile t"e
suit+ In(ee(# t"e!e is a c"ain o' cases w"e!e t"is li&e!al policy "as &een
o&se!e(# allowing o!(ina!y citi)ens# mem&e!s o' Cong!ess# an( ciic
o!gani)ations to p!osecute actions inoling t"e constitutionality o! ali(ity
o' laws# !egulations an( !ulings+

/"us# t"e Cou!t "as a(opte( a !ule t"at een w"e!e t"e petitione!s
"ae 'aile( to s"ow (i!ect inKu!y# t"ey "ae &een allowe( to sue un(e! t"e
p!inciple o' 2tr.ns,en/ent.& im-ort.n,e+6 Pe!tinent a!e t"e 'ollowing
79 P"il+ 97 (.?58)+
G+R+ =o+ ..8# =oem&e! 8# .?D9 ($n!epo!te()+
G+R+ =o+ 0?D8# Aanua!y ..# .?9? ($n!epo!te()+
..B P"il+ 55. (.?7B)+
88 P"il+ .B.0 (.?D8)+
LD P"il+ 57L (.?D?) /"e Cou!t "el(F 2A&oe all# t"e t!anscen(ental impo!tance to t"e pu&lic o' t"ese cases (eman(s t"at t"ey &e settle(
p!omptly an( (e'initely# &!us"ing asi(e# i' we must# tec"nicalities o' p!oce(u!e+6
L>=o+ DBBBD# Aanua!y 5.# .?89# 70 *CRA 089+
FaJada #. Fu#era, G+R+ =o+ 75?.9# Ap!il 0D# .?L9# .57 *CRA 08# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at w"e!e t"e Euestion is one o' pu&lic (uty an(
t"e en'o!cement o' a pu&lic !ig"t# t"e people a!e t"e !eal pa!ty in inte!est# an( it is su''icient t"at t"e petitione! is a citi)en inte!este( in t"e
e-ecution o' t"e law,
Le/aspi #. %i#il 8er#ice %ommission, G+R+ =o+ 80..?# ;ay 0?# .?L8# .9B *CRA 95B# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at in cases inoling an
asse!tion o' a pu&lic !ig"t# t"e !eEui!ement o' pe!sonal inte!est is satis'ie( &y t"e me!e 'act t"at t"e petitione! is a citi)en an( pa!t o' t"e gene!al
pu&lic w"ic" possesses t"e !ig"t+
Kapatiran n/ m/a 9a/lilin/@od sa Pamahalaan n/ Pilipinas; 'nc. #. Fan, L+ =o+ L.5..# Aune 5B# .?LL# .75 *CRA 58.# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el(
t"at o&Kections to ta-paye!s: lac3 o' pe!sonality to sue may &e (is!ega!(e( in (ete!mining t"e ali(ity o' t"e VA/ law,
*lbano #. 7eyes, G+R+ =o+ L599.# Auly ..# .?L?# .89 *CRA 07D# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at w"ile no e-pen(itu!e o' pu&lic 'un(s was inole(
un(e! t"e Euestione( cont!act# nonet"eless consi(e!ing its impo!tant !ole in t"e economic (eelopment o' t"e count!y an( t"e magnitu(e o' t"e
'inancial consi(e!ation inole(# pu&lic inte!est was (e'initely inole( an( t"is clot"e( petitione! wit" t"e legal pe!sonality un(e! t"e (isclosu!e
p!oision o' t"e Constitution to Euestion it+
*ssociation of 8mall Landowners in the Philippines; 'nc. #. 8ec. of */rarian 7eform; G+R+ =o+ 8L8D0# Auly .D# .?L?# .89 *CRA 5D5# w"e!e
t"e Cou!t !ule( t"at w"ile petitione!s a!e st!ictly spea3ing# not coe!e( &y t"e (e'inition o' a 2p!ope! pa!ty#6 nonet"eless# it "as t"e (isc!etion to
waie t"e !eEui!ement# in (ete!mining t"e ali(ity o' t"e implementation o' t"e CARP+
AonDales #. )acarai/; Ir!# G+R+ =o+ L8757# =oem&e! .?# .??B# .?. *CRA D90# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at it enKoys t"e open (isc!etion to
ente!tain ta-paye!:s suit o! not an( t"at a mem&e! o' t"e *enate "as t"e !eEuisite pe!sonality to &!ing a suit w"e!e a constitutional issue is !aise(+
)aceda #. )acarai/; Ir., G+R+ =o+ LL0?.# ;ay 5.# .??.# .?8 *CRA 88.# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at petitione! as a ta-paye!# "as t"e pe!sonality
to 'ile t"e instant petition# as t"e issues inole(# pe!tains to illegal e-pen(itu!e o' pu&lic money,
:smeJa #. %omelec, G+R+ =o+ .BB5.L# .BB5BL# .BBD.8#.BBD0B# Auly 5B# .??.# .?? *CRA 89B# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at w"e!e se!ious
constitutional Euestions a!e inole(# t"e 2t!anscen(ental impo!tance6 to t"e pu&lic o' t"e cases inole( (eman(s t"at t"ey &e settle( p!omptly
an( (e'initely# &!us"ing asi(e tec"nicalities o' p!oce(u!es,
De Auia #. %omelec, G+R+ =o+ .BD8.0# ;ay 7# .??0# 0BL *CRA D0B# w"e!e t"e Cou!t "el( t"at t"e impo!tance o' t"e issues inole(
conce!ning as it (oes t"e political e-e!cise o' Euali'ie( ote!s a''ecte( &y t"e appo!tionment# necessitates t"e &!us"ing asi(e o' t"e p!oce(u!al
!eEui!ement o' locus standi+
09 09
:) ChaveD v. 4ublic 1states %uthoritC,
w"e!e t"e Cou!t
!ule( t"at t%e enfor,ement of t%e ,onstitution.& ri2%t to
inform.tion .n/ t%e e0uit.3&e /iffusion of n.tur.& resour,es
.re m.tters of tr.ns,en/ent.& im-ort.n,e 1%i,% ,&ot%e t%e
-etitioner 1it% locus standiN

32) @agong %lCansang 2aBabaCan v. /amora,
t"e Cou!t "el( t"at 52iven t%e tr.ns,en/ent.& im-ort.n,e of
t%e issues invo&ve/" t%e Court m.4 re&.C t%e st.n/in2
re0uirements .n/ .&&o1 t%e suit to -ros-er /es-ite t%e &.,=
of /ire,t inIur4 to t%e -.rties see=in2 Iu/i,i.& revie16 o' t"e
Visiting Fo!ces Ag!eement,

$) 0im v. 1Eecutive &ecretarC#
w"ile t"e Cou!t note(
t"at t"e petitione!s may not 'ile suit in t"ei! capacity as
ta-paye!s a&sent a s"owing t"at 2Bali3atan B0>B.6 inoles t"e
e-e!cise o' Cong!ess: ta-ing o! spen(ing powe!s# it
!eite!ate( its !uling in @agong %lCansang 2aBabaCan v.
t%.t in ,.ses of tr.ns,en/ent.& im-ort.n,e" t%e
,.ses must 3e sett&e/ -rom-t&4 .n/ /efinite&4 .n/ st.n/in2
re0uirements m.4 3e re&.Ce/+
By way o' summa!y# t"e 'ollowing !ules may &e culle( '!om t"e
cases (eci(e( &y t"is Cou!t+ /a-paye!s# ote!s# conce!ne( citi)ens# an(
legislato!s may &e acco!(e( stan(ing to sue# p!oi(e( t"at t"e 'ollowing
!eEui!ements a!e metF
.+ t"e cases inole constitutional issues,
0+ 'o! t.C-.4ers# t"e!e must &e a claim o' illegal (is&u!sement o'
pu&lic 'un(s o! t"at t"e ta- measu!e is unconstitutional,
5+ 'o! voters# t"e!e must &e a s"owing o' o&ious inte!est in t"e
ali(ity o' t"e election law in Euestion,
D+ 'o! ,on,erne/ ,itiKens# t"e!e must &e a s"owing t"at t"e issues
!aise( a!e o' t!anscen(ental impo!tance w"ic" must &e settle(
ea!ly, an(
9+ 'o! &e2is&.tors# t"e!e must &e a claim t"at t"e o''icial action
complaine( o' in'!inges upon t"ei! p!e!ogaties as legislato!s+
*igni'icantly# !ecent (ecisions s"ow a ce!tain toug"ening in t"e
Cou!t:s attitu(e towa!( legal stan(ing+
G+R+ =o+ .5509B# Auly ?# 0BB0# 5LD *CRA .90+

G+R+ =os+ .5L98B# .5L980# .5L9L8# .5L7LB# .5L7?L# Octo&e! .B# 0BBB# 5D0 *CRA DD?+

G+R+ =o+ .9.DD9# Ap!il ..# 0BB0# 5LB *CRA 85?+


07 07
In OilosbaCan, *nc. v. 2orato#
t"e Cou!t !ule( t"at t"e status o'
OilosbaCan as a people:s o!gani)ation (oes not gie it t"e !eEuisite
pe!sonality to Euestion t"e ali(ity o' t"e on>line lotte!y cont!act# mo!e so
w"e!e it (oes not !aise any issue o' constitutionality+ ;o!eoe!# it cannot
sue as a ta-paye! a&sent any allegation t"at pu&lic 'un(s a!e &eing misuse(+
=o! can it sue as a conce!ne( citi)en as it (oes not allege any speci'ic inKu!y
it "as su''e!e(+
In Telecommunications and @roadcast %ttorneCs of the 4hilippines,
*nc. v. Comelec#
t"e Cou!t !eite!ate( t"e 2(i!ect inKu!y6 test wit" !espect to
conce!ne( citi)ens: cases inoling constitutional issues+ It "el( t"at 2t"e!e
must &e a s"owing t"at t"e citi)en pe!sonally su''e!e( some actual o!
t"!eatene( inKu!y a!ising '!om t"e allege( illegal o''icial act+6
In 0acson v. 4ereD#
t"e Cou!t !ule( t"at one o' t"e petitione!s# 0aban
ng ,emoBratiBong 4ilipino (L<P)# is not a !eal pa!ty>in>inte!est as it "a( not
(emonst!ate( any inKu!y to itsel' o! to its lea(e!s# mem&e!s o! suppo!te!s+
In &anlaBas v. 1Eecutive &ecretarC#
t"e Cou!t !ule( t"at only t"e
petitione!s w"o a!e mem&e!s o' Cong!ess "ae stan(ing to sue# as t"ey claim
t"at t"e P!esi(ent:s (ecla!ation o' a state o' !e&ellion is . usur-.tion of t%e
emer2en,4 -o1ers of Con2ress" t%us im-.irin2 t%eir &e2is&.tive -o1ers+
As to petitione!s &anlaBas, 4artido 2anggagawa, and &ocial Kustice
&ocietC# t"e Cou!t (ecla!e( t"em to &e (eoi( o' stan(ing# eEuating t"em
wit" t"e L<P in 0acson+

62. What is the !ta@e o#er$ pro#ision of the %onstitution. )ay the
President #alidly eercise the same?

/"is is *ection .8# A!ticle 1II # w"ic" !ea(sF

Se,! :(! In times o' national eme!gency# w"en t"e pu&lic
inte!est so !eEui!es# t"e *tate may# (u!ing t"e eme!gency an(
un(e! !easona&le te!ms p!esc!i&e( &y it# tempo!a!ily ta3e oe!
o! (i!ect t"e ope!ation o' any p!iately>owne( pu&lic utility o!
&usiness a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est+

W"ile t"e P!esi(ent alone can (ecla!e a state o' national
eme!gency# "owee!# wit"out legislation# "e "as no powe! to ta3e oe!
p!iately>owne( pu&lic utility o! &usiness a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est+
/"e P!esi(ent cannot (eci(e w"et"e! e-ceptional ci!cumstances e-ist
wa!!anting t"e ta3e oe! o' p!iately>owne( pu&lic utility o! &usiness
a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est+ =o! can "e (ete!mine w"en suc" e-ceptional
ci!cumstances "ae cease(+ Li3ewise# 1it%out &e2is&.tion, t"e P!esi(ent "as
no powe! to point out t"e types o' &usinesses a''ecte( wit" pu&lic inte!est
G+R+ =o+ ..L?.B# =oem&e! .7# .??9# 09B *CRA .5B+
G+R+ =o+ .50?00# Ap!il 0.# .??L# 0L? *CRA 558+
G+R+ =o+ .D88LB# .D88L.# .D88??# .D8L.B# ;ay .B# 0BB.# 598 *CRA 897+
G+R+ =o+ .9?BL9# Fe&!ua!y 5# 0BBD# D0. *CRA 797+
08 08
t"at s"oul( &e ta3en oe!+ In s"o!t# t"e P!esi(ent "as no a&solute aut"o!ity
to e-e!cise all t"e powe!s o' t"e *tate un(e! *ection .8# A!ticle VII in t"e
a&sence o' an eme!gency powe!s act passe( &y Cong!ess+
75. What are the limitations of the President"s power of eecuti#e
/"e same is not aaila&le in cases o' impeac"ment as well as iolation
o' election laws# !ules an( !egulations wit"out t"e 'ao!a&le
!ecommen(ation o' t"e Commission on Elections+ (*ection .?# A!t+ VII an(
*ection 9# A!t+ I1>C))
64. Distin/uish pardon from amnesty+
As "el( in BARRION$I=/O V*+ FER=A=<EQ# L0 P"il+ 7D0# t"e
(istinctions a!e as 'ollowsF
H.I Pa!(on is g!ante( &y t"e C"ie' E-ecutie an( as suc" it is a
p!iate act w"ic" must &e plea(e( an( p!oe( &y t"e pe!son pa!(one(#
&ecause t"e cou!ts ta3e no notice t"e!eo', w"ile amnesty &y
P!oclamation o' t"e C"ie' E-ecutie wit" t"e concu!!ence o' Cong!ess#
an( it is a pu&lic act o' w"ic" t"e cou!ts s"oul( ta3e Ku(icial notice+
H0I Pa!(on is g!ante( to one a'te! coniction (o' o!(ina!y c!imes)
, w"ile amnesty is g!ante( to classes o' pe!sons o! communities w"o
may &e guilty o' political o''enses# gene!ally &e'o!e o! a'te! t"e
institution o' t"e c!iminal p!osecution an( sometimes a'te! coniction+
H5I Pa!(on loo3s 'o!wa!( an( !eliees t"e o''en(e! '!om t"e
conseEuences o' an o''ense o' w"ic" "e "as &een conicte(# t"at is# it
a&olis"e( o! 'o!gies t"e punis"ment# an( 'o! t"at !eason it (oes MMno!
wo!3 t"e !esto!ation o' t"e !ig"ts to "ol( pu&lic o''ice# o! t"e !ig"t o'
su''!age# unless suc" !ig"ts &e e-p!essly !esto!e( &y t"e te!ms o' t"e
pa!(on#M an( it Min no case e-empts t"e culp!it '!om t"e payment o' t"e
ciil in(emnity impose( upon "im &y t"e sentenceM a!ticle 57# Reise(
Penal Co(e)+ w"ile amnesty loo3s &ac3wa!( an( a&olis"es an( puts
into o&liion t"e o''ense itsel'# it so oe!loo3s an( o&lite!ates t"e
o''ense wit" w"ic" "e is c"a!ge( t"at t"e pe!son !elease( &y amnesty
stan(s &e'o!e t"e law p!ecisely as t"oug" "e "a( committe( no o''ense+
(section .BH7I# A!ticle VII# P"ilippine Constitution, *tate s+ Blaloc3#
70 =+C+# 0D0# 0D8, In !e B!iggs# .59 =+C+# ..L, D8 *+E+ DB0+# DB5, E-
pa!te Law# 59 GA+# 0L9# 0?7, *tate e- !el An"euse!Busc" B!ewing
AssSn+ s+ E&y# .8B ;o+# D?8, 8. *+W 90# 7., Bu!(ic3 s $nite( *tates#
=+G+# 59 *+ Ct+# 078, 08., 057 $+*+# 8?, 9? Law+ e(+# D87+)
HDI Pa!(on is complete wit" t"e act o' t"e P!esi(ent w"ile Amnesty is
ali( only wit" t"e concu!!ence o' t"e maKo!ity o' t"e mem&e!s o' all
t"e mem&e!s o' Cong!ess+
0L 0L
6&. 's it required for the person applyin/ for amnesty to admit his
/uilt before his amnesty application be considered?
Ye,s as held in )1!% )&. 41401, 7 &C!% '?#. Be'o!e one may
ali(ly apply 'o! e-ecutie clemency (pa!(on o! amnesty) "e ;$*/
I= CI* I;PRI*O=;E=/+ /"is !ule a&an(one( t"e cont!a!y !uling in
Ba!!ioEuinto s+ Fe!nan(e)+
66. )ay a public officer; who has been /ranted an absolute pardon
by the %hief Cecuti#e; entitled to automatic reinstatement to her former
position without need of a 9ew appointment?
+o. %s held in 7ONSANTO VS! FACTORAN"Fe3ru.r4" :E'E"
a pa!(on loo3s to t"e 'utu!e+ It is not !et!ospectie+ It ma3es no
amen(s 'o! t"e past+ It a''o!(s no !elie' 'o! w"at "as &een su''e!e(
&y t"e o''en(e!+ It (oes not impose upon t"e goe!nment any
o&ligation to ma3e !epa!ation 'o! w"at "as &een su''e!e(+ M*ince
t"e o''ense "as &een esta&lis"e( &y Ku(icial p!ocee(ings# t"at
w"ic" "as &een (one o! su''e!e( w"ile t"ey we!e in 'o!ce is
p!esume( to "ae &een !ig"t'ully (one an( Kustly su''e!e(# an( no
satis'action 'o! it can &e !eEui!e(+M T%is 1ou&/ eC-&.in 1%4
-etitioner" t%ou2% -.r/one/" ,.nnot 3e entit&e/ to
reinst.tement" un&ess .--ointe/ 34 t%e .--ointin2
.ut%orit4" re,eive 3.,=-.4 for &ost e.rnin2s .n/ 3enefits+

6.. )ay the power of eecuti#e clemency applied to administrati#e
cases li@e the suspension of a Pro#incial Ao#ernor?
Yes! T%is 1.s t%e ru&in2 of t%e Su-reme Court in L&.m.s vs!
ECe,! Se,! Or3os" O,t! :+" :EE:! T%e 1or/ 5,onvi,tion in Se,tion :E"
Art! VII of t%e Constitution may &e use( eit"e! in a c!iminal case o! in an
a(minist!atie case+
6-. 's the mere filin/ of a criminal case a/ainst a recipient of a
conditional pardon with the condition Lnot a/ain #iolate any of the penal
laws of the Philippines and this condition be #iolated; he will be
proceeded a/ainst in the manner prescribed by lawL sufficient to re#o@e
such conditional pardon without first securin/ con#iction a/ainst the

Ges+ As "el( in /ORRE* V*+ GO=QALE*# .90 *CRA 080# t"e
(ete!mination o' w"et"e! t"e con(itions o' a conict:s pa!(on "a( &een
&!eac"e( !ests e-clusiely in t"e soun( Ku(gment o' t"e P!esi(ent an( t"at
suc" (ete!mination woul( not &e !eiewe( &y t"e cou!ts+ As "el( in /eso!o
s+ <i!ecto! o' P!isons# in accepting t"e te!ms un(e! w"ic" t"e pa!ole "a(
&een g!ante(# /eso!o "a( in e''ect ag!ee( t"at t"e Goe!no!>Gene!alSs
(ete!mination (!at"e! t"an t"at o' t"e !egula! cou!ts o' law) t"at "e "a(
0? 0?
&!eac"e( one o' t"e con(itions o' "is pa!ole &y committing a(ulte!y w"ile "e
was con(itionally at li&e!ty# was &in(ing an( conclusie upon "im+
6,. What are the requisites before the President or his
representati#es may #alidly contract or /uarantee forei/n loans?
$n(e! *ection 0B# A!t+ VII# t"e P!esi(ent may cont!act o! gua!antee
'o!eign loans on &e"al' o' t"e Repu&lic o' t"e P"ilippines su&Kect to t"e
'ollowing con(itionsF
a+ t"e!e must &e p!io! concu!!ence o' t"e ;oneta!y Boa!(,
&+ su&Kect to suc" limitations as may &e p!oi(e( 'o! &y law+
Fu!t"e!# t"e ;oneta!y Boa!( s"all# wit"in 5B (ays '!om t"e en( o'
ee!y Eua!te! o' t"e calen(a! yea!# su&mit to t"e Cong!ess a complete !epo!t
o' its (ecisions on applications 'o! loans to &e cont!acte( o! gua!antee( &y
t"e goe!nment o! goe!nment owne( an( cont!olle( co!po!ations w"ic"
woul( "ae t"e e''ect o' inc!easing t"e 'o!eign (e&t# an( containing ot"e!
matte!s as may &e p!oi(e( 'o! &y law+
.<. What is 2udicial power?
Au(icial powe! inclu(es t"e (uty o' t"e cou!ts o' Kustice to settle actual
cont!oe!sies inoling !ig"ts w"ic" a!e legally (eman(a&le an(
en'o!cea&le# an( to (ete!mine w"et"e! o! not t"e!e "as &een a g!ae a&use o'
(isc!etion amounting to lac3 o! in e-cess o' Ku!is(iction on t"e pa!t o' any
&!anc" o! inst!umentality o' t"e goe!nment+
.1. )ay 2udicial power be eercised by the 8upreme %ourt in cases
of decisions of the Bouse of 7epresentati#es Clectoral tribunal since
8ection 16; *rt. +' of the %onstitution pro#ides that the B7CF is the !sole
2ud/e$ of all contestests in#ol#in/ the election; returns and qualifications
of the members of the Bouse of 7epresentati#es?
Ges i' t"e!e is allegation o' g!ae a&use o' (isc!etion amounting to
lac3 o! in e-cess o' Ku!is(iction on t"e pa!t o' t"e CRE/ (BO=<OC V*+
.2. What is a political question?
*n %02%!* )&. %0@%, '#7 &C!% <, it was defined as a Euestion
w"ic" (eals wit" t"e necessity# e-pe(iency an( wis(om o' a pa!ticua! act#
t"e same is political an( not Kusticia&le

In *ani(a( s+ Comelec# 85 *CRA 555# political Euestions was
(e'ine( as Euestions w"ic" a!e neatly associate( wit" t"e wis(om# not t"e
legality o' a pa!ticula! act+ W"e!e t"e o!te- o' t"e cont!oe!sy !e'e!s to t"e
legality o! ali(ity o' t"e conteste( act# t"e matte! is (e'initely Kusticia&le o!
5B 5B
In /ana(a s+ Cuenco# .B5 P"il+# political Euestion was (e'ine( as
Euestions to &e answe!e( &y t"e people in t"ei! soe!eign capacity o! in
!ega!( to w"ic" 'ull (isc!etiona!y aut"o!ity is este( to t"e e-ecutie o!
legislatie &!anc" o' t"e goe!nment+
O! in Gon)ales s+ CO;ELEC# 0. *CRA 88D # w"en t"e c!u- o' t"e
p!o&lem (eals wit" t"e wis(om o' an act# it is political)+
.3. What is the etent of the fiscal autonomy /ranted to the 2udiciary
under the 1,-. %onstitution?
As p!oi(e( un(e! *ection 5# At+ VIII# t"e Ku(icia!y s"all enKoy
'iscal autonomy an( as suc" app!op!iations 'o! t"e Ku(icia!y may not
&e !e(uce( &y t"e legislatu!e &elow t"e amount app!op!iate( 'o! t"e
p!eious yea! an(# a'te! app!oal# s"all &e automatically an( !egula!ly
.4. What are the cases to be decided by the 8upreme %ourt en banc?
All cases inoling t"e constitutionality o' a t!eaty# inte!national o!
e-ecutie ag!eement# o! law# w"ic" s"all &e "ea!( &y t"e *up!eme
Cou!t en &anc# inclu(ing t"ose inoling t"e constitutionality#
application# o! ope!ation o' p!esi(ential (ec!ees# p!oclamations# o!(e!s#
inst!uctions# o!(inances# an( ot"e! !egulations# s"all &e (eci(e( wit"
t"e concu!!ence o' a maKo!ity o' t"e mem&e!s w"o actually too3 pa!t in
t"e (eli&e!ations on t"e issues in t"e case an( ote( t"e!eon+ Also# no
(oct!ine o! p!inciple o' law lai( (own &y t"e cou!t en &anc o! in
(iision may &e mo(i'ie( o! !ee!se( e-cept &y t"e cou!t sitting en
Also i' two (0) (iisions o' t"e *up!eme Cou!t "ae con'licting
(ecisions# t"e same s"all &e !esole( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t en &anc+
Cases !e'e!!e( to &y t"e (iision to t"e &anc inoling noel Euestions
o' law # t"e same s"all &e (eci(e( &y t"e en &anc accepte( &y t"e
Finally# (ismissal o' Ku(ges an( (is&a!ment o' lawye!s a!e also
(eci(e( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t en &anc+
89+ W"at a!e t"e powe!s o' t"e *up!eme Cou!tJ
As enume!ate( in A!t+ VIII# *ection 9# t "e *up!eme Cou!t s"all "ae
t"e 'ollowing powe!sF
:) ECer,ise ori2in.& Iuris/i,tion over ,.ses .ffe,tin2" ot%er -u3&i, ministers .n/ ,onsu&s" .n/
over -etitions for ,ertior.ri" -ro%i3ition" m.n/.mus" 0uo
1.rr.nto" .n/ %.3e.s ,or-us!
9) Revie1" revise" reverse" mo/if4" or .ffirm on .--e.& or
,ertior.ri .s t%e &.1 or t%e Ru&es of Court m.4 -rovi/e"
fin.& Iu/2ments .n/ or/ers of &o1er ,ourts inJ
5. 5.
.) A&& ,.ses in 1%i,% t%e ,onstitution.&it4 or
v.&i/it4 of .n4 tre.t4" intern.tion.& or
eCe,utive .2reement" &.1" -resi/enti.&
/e,ree" -ro,&.m.tion" or/er" instru,tion"
or/in.n,e" or re2u&.tion is in 0uestionN
3)A&& ,.ses invo&vin2 t%e &e2.&it4 of .n4 t.C"
im-ost" .ssessment" or to&&" or .n4 -en.&t4
im-ose/ in re&.tion t%eretoN
,) A&& ,.ses in 1%i,% t%e Iuris/i,tion of .n4
&o1er ,ourt is in issueN
/)A&& ,rimin.& ,.ses in 1%i,% t%e -en.&t4
im-ose/ is re,&usion -er-etu. or %i2%erN
e) A&& ,.ses in 1%i,% on&4 .n error or 0uestion
of &.1 is invo&ve/!
$) Assi2n tem-or.ri&4 Iu/2es of &o1er ,ourts to ot%er
st.tions .s -u3&i, interest m.4 re0uire! Su,% tem-or.r4
.ssi2nment s%.&& not eC,ee/ * mont%s 1it%out t%e
,onsent of t%e Iu/2e ,on,erne/!
#) Or/er . ,%.n2e of venue or -&.,e of tri.& to .voi/ .
mis,.rri.2e of Iusti,e!
+) Promu&2.te ru&es ,on,ernin2 t%e -rote,tion .n/
enfor,ement of ,onstitution.& ri2%ts" -&e./in2 " -r.,ti,e "
.n/ -ro,e/ure in .&& ,ourts" t%e ./mission to t%e -r.,ti,e
of &.1" t%e Inte2r.te/ 8.r" .n/ &e2.& .ssist.n,e to t%e
un/er-rivi&e2e/! Su,% ru&es s%.&& -rovi/e . sim-&ifie/
.n/ ineC-ensive -ro,e/ure for t%e s-ee/4 /is-osition of
,.ses" s%.&& 3e uniform for .&& ,ourts of t%e 2r./e"
.n/ s%.&& not /iminis%" in, or mo/if4 su3st.ntive
ri2%ts! Ru&es of -ro,e/ure of s-e,i.& ,ourts .n/
Iu/i,i.& 3o/ies s%.&& effe,tive un&ess /is.--rove/
34 t%e Su-reme Court!
*) A--oint .&& offi,i.&s .n/ em-&o4ees of t%e Iu/i,i.r4 in
.,,or/.n,e 1it% t%e ,ivi& servi,e &.1!
.6. What is the !writ of amparo$?
It is a w!it issue( &y t"e cou!ts 'o! t"e -rote,tion .n/
enfor,ement of t%e ,onstitution.& ri2%ts of . -erson un/er
/etention! Se,tion + +)" Art! VIII)
... What are the 3(fold ?unctions of Iudicial 7e#iew?
/"ese a!e t"eF
.) legitimi)ing 'unction
0) c"ec3ing 'unction
5) sym&olic o! e(ucational 'unction
50 50
.-. )ay inferior courts also eercise the power of 2udicial re#iew
3declarin/ a law; treaty; etc. unconstitutional5 in the li/ht of the
requirements of 8ection 4325 of *rticle +''' that not e#en any of the
8upreme %ourt"s three 335 di#isions; sittin/ separately could not declare a
law; treaty; etc.; unconstitutional?
Ges &ecause t"e powe! o' Ku(icial !eiew is Kust a pa!t o' Ku(icial
powe! w"ic" is aaila&le to all cou!ts (*ection .# A!t+ VIII)+ Li3ewise# as
s"own &y *ection 9 H0I (a)# t"e (ecision o' lowe! cou!ts (ecla!ing a law
unconstitutional is su&Kect to !eiew &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t+ (YNOT VS!
IAC" 7.r,% 9;" :E'()
.,. What is the !operati#e fact doctrine$?
It simply means t"at t"e (ecla!ation o' unconstitutionality o' a law#
t!eaty# etc+# is p!ospectie+ As suc"# all acts (one in connection wit" t"e sai(
law &e'o!e its (ecla!ation o' unconstitutionality s"all &e consi(e!e( legal#
ali( an( &in(ing+ It is only t"e (ecla!ation o' unconstitutionality w"ic" is
t"e 2ope!atie 'act6 w"ic" woul( stop t"e people '!om complying wit" its
p!oisions+ (,1 %.@%Y%+* )&. 4+@, :J &C!% 6#=3
-<. What are the qualities of one aspirin/ to become a member of
the 2udiciary aside from the citiDenship and a/e qualifications?
A mem3er of t%e Iu/i,i.r4 must 3e . -erson of -roven
,om-eten,e" inte2rit4" -ro3it4 .n/ in/e-en/en,e!
-1. 1nder the 1,-. %onstitution; may the salaries of the members
of the 2udiciary be taed without #iolatin/ 8ection 1<; *rticle +''' which
would ha#e the effect of decreasin/ the same@
=o+ /"is was t"e !uling in +*T%;%+ )&. C22*&&*+1!, '?#
&C!% #J6 which abandoned the contrarC rulings in the cases of
41!;1CT )&. 211!, J? 4hil. ??# and 1+,1+C*% )&. ,%)*,, =:
4hil. <=<
-2. 1p to when are members of the 2udiciary entitled to hold on to
their positions?
*ection ..# A!t+ VIII p!oi(es t"at t"e ;em&e!s o' t"e *up!eme
Cou!t an( Ku(ges o' t"e lowe! cou!t s"all "ol( o''ice (u!ing goo( &e"aio!
until t"ey !eac" t"e age o' 8B yea!s o! &ecome incapacitate( to (isc"a!ge t"e
(uties o' t"ei! o''ice+ /"e *up!eme Cou!t en &anc s"all "ae t"e powe! to
(iscipline Ku(ges o' lowe! cou!ts# o! o!(e! t"ei! (ismissal &y a ote o'
maKo!ity o' t"e mem&e!s w"o actually too3 pa!t in t"e (eli&e!ations on t"e
issues in t"e case an( ote( t"e!eon!
L5+ ;ay an R/C Au(ge &e appointe( as a mem&e! o' t"e P!oincial
Peace an( O!(e! Council o' t"e place w"e!e "e "ol(s o''iceJ
55 55
=o+ T%e mem3ers of t%e Su-reme Court .n/ ot%er ,ourts
est.3&is%e/ 34 &.1 s%.&& not 3e /esi2n.te/ to .n4 .2en,4 -erformin2,i.& or ./ministr.tive fun,tions! *+ !1> K9,.1 !,0;
2%+/%+, ctober ?, '=JJ3
LD+ A!e t"e (i''e!ent a(minist!atie an( Euasi>Ku(icial &o(ies
(CO;ELEC# =LRC# =APOLCO;# ;ILI/ARG CO;;I**IO=*) &oun(
&y t"e !eEui!ement o' Se,tion :#" Art! VIII t%.t 5No /e,ision s%.&& 3e
ren/ere/ 34 .n4 ,ourt 1it%out eC-ressin2 t%erein ,&e.r&4 .n/ /istin,t&4
t%e f.,ts .n/ t%e &.1 on 1%i,% it is
No! It .--&ies on&4 to t%e ,ourts .s /efine/ or in,&u/e/ 34 Se,tion
:" Art! VIII! %*! ;!%+C1 )&. C%!!%&C&, 'J &C!% '??" ),% ,1
1&4*!*T9 )&. C;*, 67 &C!% :?6" @9&C%Y+ )&. 1+!*01, '8# &C!% 7"
2%+.C% )&. C2101C, ''# &C!% #7:" )%00%,0*, )&. *+C*+.,
'#' &C!% #8?" +%40C2 )&. 0,, '#7 &C!% 7?, +9+%0 )&. C%,
'<= &C!% :?< .n/ 2angelen vs. C%, #'? &C!% #:83
-&. What are the periods /i#en to the different courts to decide cases
before them?
$n(e! *ection .9# A!t+ VIII# all cases o! matte!s 'ile( a'te! t"e
e''ectiity o' t"is Constitution must &e (eci(e( o! !esole( wit"in 0D mont"s
'!om (ate o' su&mission 'o! t"e *up!eme Cou!t# an( unless !e(uce( &y t"e
*up!eme Cou!t# .0 mont"s 'o! all lowe! collegiate cou!ts# an( 5 mont"s 'o!
all ot"e! lowe! cou!ts+ A case s"all &e (eeme( su&mitte( 'o! (ecision o!
!esolution upon t"e 'iling o' t"e last plea(ing# &!ie' o! memo!an(um
!eEui!e( &y t"e Rules o' Cou!t o! &y t"e cou!t itsel'+
-6. 's the requirement under 8ection 1&; *rt. +''' mandatory or
merely directory?
*ection .9# A!t+ VIII is man(ato!y in all cou!ts e-cept t"e *up!eme
Cou!t w"e!e sai( p!oision is consi(e!e( me!ely (i!ecto!y+ /"is is so
&ecause it is 2impossi&le6 'o! t"e *up!eme Cou!t to comply wit" suc"
p!oision consi(e!ing t"e olume o' cases 'ile( &e'o!e it+ C!49& )&. C%
=J &C!% 6#6" 2%0%C!% )&. C%, ''7 &C!% 6:?" 2%!C10*+ )&.
C!9/, '#' &C!% ?' .n/ ,1 !2% )&. C%, '?# &C!% #8?3
'(. What are co#ered by the powers of the %i#il 8er#ice
$n(e! *ection 0# A!ticle I1>B o' t"e Constitution# t"e ciil se!ice
em&!aces all &!anc"es# su&(iisions# inst!umentalities# an( agencies o' t"e
goe!nment# inclu(ing goe!nment owne( an( cont!olle( co!po!ations
--. What are the requirements before one may be appointed in the
ci#il ser#ice? Cceptions?
5D 5D
Appointments in t"e C* s"all &e ma(e only acco!(ing to me!it an(
'itness to &e (ete!mine( as 'a! as p!actica&le# an( eC,e-t .s to -ositions
1%i,% .re -o&i,4 /eterminin2" -rim.ri&4 ,onfi/enti.& or %i2%&4 te,%ni,.&#
&y competitie e-amination+
L?+ <e'ine t"e t"!ee (5) e-ceptions to t"e !ule t"at t"e appointee must
&e c"osen &ase( on me!it an( 'itness to &e (ete!mine( &y competitie
Po&i,4 /eterminin2 is one c"a!ge( wit" laying (own o' p!incipal o!
'un(amental gui(elines o! !ules# suc" as t"at "ea( o' a (epa!tment+
Prim.ri&4 ,onfi/enti.& -osition is one (enoting not only con'i(ence
in t"e aptitu(e o' t"e appointee 'o! t"e (uties o' t"e o''ice &ut
p!ima!ily close intimacy w"ic" ensu!es '!ee(om o' inte!cou!se
wit"out em&a!!assment o! '!ee(om '!om misgiings o! &et!ayals o'
t"e pe!sonal t!ust on con'i(ential matte!s o' t"e state (E-ampleF C"ie'
Legal Counsel o' t"e P=B# Besa s+ P=B# 55 *CRA 55B)
Hi2%&4 te,%ni,.& -osition !eEui!es t"e appointee t"e!eto to possess
tec"nical s3ill o! t!aining in t"e sup!eme o! supe!io! (eg!ee+
?B. 's the position of %ity Cn/ineer of 0a/uio %ity a !hi/hly
technical$ positionJ
=o+ /"e position o' City Enginee! o' Baguio City is tec"nical 2&ut not
"ig"ly so+6 (,1 0& &%+T& )&. 2%00%!1, J7 4hil. #J=3
,1. 's there such a thin/ as !net(in(ran@$ or seniority rule in
fillin/ up #acancies in the classified ci#il ser#ice?
+o. %s held in 2edenilla vs. C&C, ;ebruarC '=, '==', there is no
need to wait for the deadwoods to retire before one maC be promoted to
fillIup a vacancC as a result of the presence of other emploCees with longer
Cears of service or neEtIinIranB. Hhat is important is that the appointee
meets all the Nualifications for the said position.
,2. What is the etent of the powers of the %8% in appointment
*t has onlC the power to approve the appointment if the appointee
meets all the Nualifications and the power to denC the appointment if the
appointee does not meet the Nualifications. *T ,1& +T G%)1 TG1
4H1! T &9@&T*T9T1 TG1 %44*+T11 CG&1+ @Y TG1
%44*+T*+. %9TG!*TY H*TG %+TG1! HG*CG *T @10*1)1& T
@1 2!1 P9%0*;*1,.
,3. 's the position of %ity or Pro#incial Le/al :fficer a primarily
confidential position?
59 59
Yes, as held in C%,*1+T1 )&. &%+T&, '6# &C!% 9';" t%e
Provin,i.& Le2.& Offi,er is . -rim.ri&4 ,onfi/enti.& offi,e" 3ut not %is
.ssist.nt! T%e 1.s reiter.te/ in &%2&+ )&. C%, '6? &C!% 1%ere
it 1.s %e&/ t%.t T%e Cit4 Le2.& offi,er is . -rim.ri&4 ,onfi/enti.&
,4. )ay /o#Mt. employees form unions for purposes of collecti#e
bar/ainin/ and to stri@e a/ainst the /o#ernment?
As "el( in %00*%+C1 ; .)T. H!O1!& )&. 201, '#6 &C!%
and 1Eecutive rder +o. 'J8 , Kune ', '=J7, government emploCees maC
form unions but not authoriDed to striBe or demand for collective bargaining
agreement with the government. authoriDing govt. emploCees to
form unions.
,&. )ay /o#ernment employees be remo#ed without cause as a
result of a /o#ernment reor/aniDation?
=o+ /"is is clea! '!om RA 7797# Aune .B# .?LL # w"ic" is 2An act to
p!otect t"e secu!ity o' tenu!e o' ciil se!ice o''ice!s an( employees in t"e
implementation o' goe!nment !eo!gani)ation+6 /"e!e must &e 'ull
compliance o' t"e (ue p!ocess !eEui!ement+ It must &e &ase( on Kust cause
an( wit" (ue p!ocess+( ,%!* )&. 2*&+, %ugust J, '=J=# ;0!1/% )&.
+.4*+, ;ebruarC #<, '==8# 21+,/% )&. P9*&92@*+., Kune 6,
'==8# ,TC vs. C&C, ctober :, '=='# !omualdeD vs. C&C, %ugust '#,
'==: an( Torio vs. C&C, #8= &C!% <773
,6. )ay a person be appointed in a temporary capacity as a
%ommissioner of the %ommission on Clections?
=o# *ection .# A!t+ I1>C p!oi(es t"at 2In no ,.se s%.&& .n4 mem3er
3e .--ointe/ or /esi2n.te/ in . tem-or.r4 or .,tin2 ,.-.,it4!
2)@rillantes vs. Yorac, ,ec. 'J, '=='3
,.. What are the more important powers of the %:)CLC%J
$n(e! Se,tion 9" Art! IF-C" its -o1ers .re to en'o!ce an( a(ministe!
all laws !elatie to t"e con(uct o' election# ple&iscite# initiatie# !e'e!en(um
an( !ecallO+o!iginal Ku!is(iction oe! all contests !elating to t"e elections#
!etu!ns# an( Euali'ications o' all electie !egional# p!oincial an( city
o''icials an( appellate Ku!is(iction oe! all contests inoling electie
municipal o''icials (eci(e( &y cou!ts o' gene!al Ku!is(iction an( electie
&a!angay o''icials (eci(e( &y t!ial cou!ts o' limite( Ku!is(iction+ Also# it "as
t"e powe! toF
.! De-utiKe &.1 enfor,ement .2en,ies" in,&u/in2 t%e AFP!!
3! Re2ister -o&iti,.& -.rties" eC,e-t re&i2ious 2rou-s
,! Fi&e ,om-&.ints for vio&.tion of e&e,tion &.1s
57 57
/! Re2u&.te t%e enIo4ment or uti&iK.tion of .&& fr.n,%ises for t%e
o-er.tion of tr.ns-ort.tion .n/ ot%er -u3&i, uti&ities" me/i. of
,-. Which court has 2urisdiction o#er election cases in#ol#in/
municipal and baran/ay officialsJ
Election cases inoling municipal o''icial s"all &e 'ile( &e'o!e t"e
R/C w"ose (ecision may &e appeale( to t"e CO;ELEC+ /"ose inoling
&a!angay o''icials s"all &e 'ile( wit" t"e ;/C w"ose (ecision is li3ewise
su&Kect to appeal to t"e CO;ELEC w"ose (ecision in &ot" instances is 'inal
an( not appeala&le+
,,. Where must election cases in#ol#in/ city and pro#incial officials
be filed?
It must &e 'ile( wit" t"e CO;ELEC# not wit" t"e cou!ts+
1<<. Does the President ha#e discretion on the release of the
'nternal 7e#enue *llotment 3'7*5 for the Local Ao#ernment 8er#ice
CqualiDation ?und 3LA8C?5 and may she #alidly impose conditions for
the release thereof?
=o# local goe!nments "ae 'iscal autonomy un(e! A!t+ 1 o' t"e .?L8
Constitution+ As "el( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t in t"e case o' PROVI=CE OF
BA/A=GA* V*+ CO=+ ALBER/O RO;$LO# E/ AL+# ;ay 08# 0BBD#
automatic !elease o' 'un(s o' Local Goe!nment $nits# pa!ticula!ly t"e IRA#
is man(ate( wit" no con(itions impose( 'o! its !elease+ /o allow t"e
P!esi(ent to impose con(itions 'o! t"e !elease o' t"e IRA amounts to cont!ol
to local goe!nment units w"en t"e P!esi(ent:s powe! oe! local goe!nment
units is con'ine( to gene!al supe!ision# not powe! o' cont!ol as enunciate(
in Dri&on vs! Lim" 9$+ SCRA :$+!
1<1. What are the requirements for a #alid chan/e of residence for
purposes of the requirement on !residence$ under the Local Ao#ernment
In t"e case o' <$;PI/>;ICCELE=A V*+ CO;ELEC# it was "el(
t"at to ali(ly e''ect a c"ange o' !esi(ence# t"e!e must &e animus manendi
coupled with animus non re#ertendi. /"e intent to !emain in t"e new
(omicile o' c"oice must &e 'o! an in(e'inite pe!io( o' time# must &e
olunta!y an( t"e !esi(ence at t"e new (omicile must &e actual+
.B0+ Is t"e 5>te!m limit o' electe( local o''icials applica&le to a te!m
acEui!e( t"!oug" successionJ
No" t%e $-term &imit .--&ies on&4 if t%e offi,i.& 1.s DULY
ELECTED to t%e s.i/ -osition for t%ree $) ,onse,utive terms" not 34
su,,ession! BE=AA;I= BORAA V*+ CO;ELEC# an( AO*E /+ CAPCO#
AR+# G+R+ =o+ .55D?9# *eptem&e! 5# .??L)
58 58
1<3. 'n the creation of a new pro#ince; city; municipality or
baran/ay or when it will be di#ided; mer/ed or abolished; or its boundary
substantially altered; who shall #ote in the plebiscite to be conductedJ
All t"e !esi(ents o' t"e political units a''ecte(# i+e+# 'o!me! an( new local
goe!nment unit to &e 'o!me(# must pa!ticipate in t"e ple&iscite+ (T%+ )&.
C2101C, '6# &C!% 7#7 and 4adilla vs. C2101C, #'6 &C!% 7:?
abandoning the doctrines in 4%!1,1& )&. 1(1C9T*)1 &1C!1T%!Y, '#J
&C!% < and 041/ )&. 21T! 2%+*0% C22*&&*+, ':< &C!% <::3
'86. Hhat are the grounds for impeachmentF
Only 'o! 2Culpa&le iolation o' t"e constitution# t!eason# &!i&e!y#
g!a't an( co!!uption# ot"e! "ig" c!imes# o! &et!ayal o' pu&lic t!ust6+
.B9+ W"at is t"e e-tent o' a Ku(gment in impeac"ment casesJ
Au(gment in cases o' impeac"ment s"all not e-ten( 'u!t"e! t"an
!emoal '!om o''ice an( (isEuali'ication to "ol( any ot"e! o''ice un(e! t"e
Repu&lic o' t"e P"ilippines &ut s"all nee!t"eless &e lia&le to p!osecution#
t!ial an( punis"ment acco!(ing to law+
.B7+ W"en is an impeac"ment complaint (eeme( 2initiate(6 to &a!
anot"e! complaint wit"in a pe!io( o' one yea!J
AL" #:+ SCRA ##" Novem3er :;" 9;;$" an impeac"ment complaint
(eeme( 2initiate(6 to &e a &a! to t"e 'iling o' anot"e! complaint wit"in a .>
yea! pe!io( upon its HaI 'iling, an( H&I CO$PLE< WI/C CO=GRE**
.B8+ W"o inestigates an( p!osecutes pu&lic o''icials 'o! c!imes
committe( in t"e pe!'o!mance o' t"ei! o''icial (utiesJ E-ception
It is t"e O''ice o' t"e Om&u(sman an( t"e O''ice o' t"e *pecial
P!osecuto! e-cept i' t"e o''ense is in iolation o' election laws# !ules an(
!egulations w"e!ein only t"e CO;ELEC "as t"e powe! to inestigate an( to
'ile t"e app!op!iate in'o!mation in cou!t+ -CorpuD vs. TanodbaCan, '6=
&C!% #J'3
1<-. What is co#ered by the !academic freedom$ pro#ision of the
1,-. %onstitution?
It coe!s not only aca(emic '!ee(om on t"e pa!t o' t"e sc"ool &ut
also t"ose o' t"e teac"e!s# p!o'esso!s an( t"e stu(ents &ecause t"e p!oision
states t"at 2Aca(emic '!ee(om s"all &e enKoye( in all institutions o' "ig"e!
lea!ning6 w"ile un(e! t"e .?85 Constitution# only institutions o' "ig"e!
lea!ning enKoy aca(emic '!ee(om &ecause t"e p!oision t"en states t"at 5.&&
5L 5L
institutions of %i2%er &e.rnin2 s%.&& enIo4 .,./emi, free/om Art! FV"
Se,tion ' G:H" :E($ Constitution!6
1<,. What is the etent of academic freedom on the part of schoolsJ
It inclu(es t"e powe! to (ete!mineF
a+ w"o may teac"#
&+ w"at may &e taug"t#
c+ "ow it s"all &e taug"t# an(
(+ w"o may &e a(mitte( to stu(yMS (Emp"asis supplie(, citing *inco#
P"ilippine Political Law# D?.# (.?70) an( t"e concu!!ing opinion
o' Austice F!an3'u!te! in *wee)y + =ew Camps"i!e (59D $* 05D
H.?98I# GARCIA V*+ FAC$L/G A<;I**IO=# 7L *CRA 088)+

11<. Does academic freedom on the part of the school carries with it
the power to re#o@e a de/ree or honor it has bestowed to its students?
Ges+ As "el( in $P BOAR< OF REGE=/* V*+ CA# August 5.#
.???# 2aca(emic F!ee(om inclu(es t"e powe! o' a $nie!sity to
REVOPE a (eg!ee o! "ono! it "as con'e!!e( to a stu(ent a'te! it was
'oun( out t"at t"e stu(ent:s g!a(uation was o&taine( t"!oug" '!au(+
Aca(emic '!ee(om is gien a wi(e sp"e!e o' aut"o!ity+ I' an
institution o' "ig"e! lea!ning can (eci(e on w"o can an( cannot stu(y
in it# it ce!tainly can also (ete!mine on w"om it can con'e! t"e "ono!
an( (istinction o' &eing its g!a(uates+
111. )ay a school punish its students for ille/al acts committed
outside the school premises and beyond school hours but within the
semester where they are enrolled?
Yes because theC still carrC the name of the school and their
actuations affect the reputation of the school. - %+.101& )&. &*&+, ''#
&C!% #<3 This rule was reiterated in the cased of ,1 0% &%001
9+*)1!&*TY )&. C% -#88J3 where a rumble between two fraternities tooB
place outside the school campus but the students involved were 1(41001,
bC the school. The &upreme Court, however, while conceding the power of
the school over its students held that the penaltC of eEpulsion is too harsh a
penaltC. *t should be 1(C09&*+, meaning, theC are not allowed to enroll
at the ,e 0a sale but theC should be given transfer credentials so that theC
maC enroll in another school.
112. What are the underlyin/ principles behind the constitutional
proscription that the 8tate cannot be sued without its consent?
@C reason of public policC -if everC citiDen is allowed to sue the
government, it will be distracted from performing its functions to serve the
people and it will be left 5ust answering cases in court3, bC reason of
sovereigntC -the people shall not be allowed to sue the verC entitC that gives
it said right;3 and bC reason of consent -when the people ratified the
5? 5?
Constitution which includes the provision that the &tate cannot be sued
without its consent, it has consented or waived said right to sue3.
113. Bow may the 8tate /i#es its consent to be sued?
E-p!essly w"en t"e!e is a law allowing it an( implie(ly w"en it ente!s
into a cont!act wit" an in(ii(ual &ecause in t"e latte!# it (escen(e( to t"e
leel o' an in(ii(ual ma3ing it suscepti&le to counte!claims o! suits+
114. )ay the /o#ernment be sued in the eercise of its
/o#ernmental functions?
Ges i' t"e goe!nment agency "as a c"a!te! w"ic" allows it to &e sue(+
(!%Y )&. C;* ; @90%C%+, ''8 &C!% 6?<3. %lso, the government is not
allowed to invoBe its immunitC from suit if bC doing so, it will be causing an
in5ustice to its citiDens. -2*+*&T1!* )&. C;* of Cebu, 68 &C!% and
&%+T*%. )&. !149@0*C, J7 &C!% #=63
11&. 's the 18 Ao#ernment also immune from suit in the
Philippines in connection with the eercise of its /o#ernmental functions?
Ges+ /"is was t"e !uling in 9.&. )&. !9*/, ':< &C!% where it was
held that even if there is a contract entered into bC the 9& .overnment but
the same involves its 5usre imperii functions -governmental functions, it
cannot be sued. *t is onlC when the contract involves its 5us gestiones or
business or proprietarC functions that it maC be sued.
''<! Are &o,.& 2overnments .&so entit&e/ to invo=e immunit4 from
11.. )ay a municipality be held liable for dama/es as a result of the
death of a person arisin/ from the collapse of a sta/e constructed by the
local /o#ernment in connection with its town fiesta?
+o, a town fiesta * a business or proprietarC function since no law
reNuires anC town, citC, province or barangaC to hold an annual fiesta.
-T!* )&. ;+T%+*00%, J? &C!% ?==3
11.. )ay the /o#ernment still be held liable to a pri#ate indi#idual if
the contract it entered into is #oid but the other party had already complied
with his obli/ations under said a/reement?
Yes, because the government shall not enrich itself at the eEpense of
its citiDens. (<EPAR/;E=/ OF CEAL/C V*+ C+V+ CA=CCELA# et al+#
D89 *CRA 0.L)

1. Define police power.
It is t"e powe! este( in t"e legislatu!e &y t"e Constitution to ma3e#
o!(ain# esta&lis" all manne! o' w"olesome an( !easona&le laws 'o! t"e goo(
an( wel'a!e o' t"e *tate an( its people+ (ER7ITA 7ALATE HOTEL VS!
CITY 7AYOR" Du&4 $:" :E*()
2. What are the basic purposesEaspects of police powerN
a+ to p!omote t"e gene!al wel'a!e# com'o!t an( conenience o' t"e
people, (A**OCIA/IO= OF *;ALL LA=<OW=ER* V*+
*ECRE/ARG# .89 *CRA 5D5, $* V*+ /ORIBIO# .9 P"il+ L9
&+ to p!omote an( p!ese!e pu&lic "ealt", (VILLA=$EVA V*+
CA*/A=E<A# *eptem&e! 0.# .?L8, <EC* V*+ *A= <IEGO#
CEAL/C# 9B P"il+ 9?9Uapp!e"en( an( con'ine lepe!s in a
c+ to p!omote an( p!otect pu&lic sa'ety, (AG$*/I= V*+ E<$# LL
*CRA .?9, /A1ICAB OPERA/OR* V*+ A$I=IO# ..? *CRA
L?8 )
(+ to maintain an( sa'egua!( peace an( o!(e!, (G$AQO= V*+ <E
e+ to p!otect pu&lic mo!als, (<E LA CR$Q V*+ PARA*# .05 *CRA
97?, ER;I/A ;ALA/E CO/EL V*+ CI/G ;AGOR# Auly 5.#
.?78, A;; PRO;O/IO=* V*+ CA# 07B *CRA 5.?, VELA*CO
V*+ VILLEGA*# Fe&!ua!y .5# .?L5)
'+ to p!omote t"e economic secu!ity o' t"e people+ (ICCO=G V*+
CER=A=<EQ# .B. P"il+ ...99)
3. Distin/uish police power with power of eminent domain.
/"e (istinctions a!eF
.+ /"e powe! o' eminent (omain is t"e in"e!ent !ig"t o' t"e
*tate to con(emn o! to ta3e p!iate p!ope!ty 'o! pu&lic
use upon payment o' Kust compensation w"ile police
powe! is t"e powe! o' t"e state to p!omote pu&lic wel'a!e
&y !est!aining an( !egulating t"e use o' li&e!ty an(
p!ope!ty wit"out compensation,
0+ In t"e e-e!cise o' police powe!# enKoyment o' a p!ope!ty
is !est!icte( &ecause t"e continue( use t"e!eo' woul( &e
inKu!ious to pu&lic wel'a!e+ In suc" case# t"e!e is no
compensa&le ta3ing p!oi(e( none o' t"e p!ope!ty
inte!ests is app!op!iate( 'o! t"e use o! 'o! t"e &ene'it o'
D. D.
t"e pu&lic+ Ot"e!wise# t"e!e s"oul( &e compensa&le
ta3ing i' it woul( !esult to pu&lic use+
5+ P!ope!ties con(emne( un(e! police powe! a!e usually
no-ious o! inten(e( 'o! no-ious pu!pose, "ence # no
compensation s"all &e pai(+ Li3ewise# in t"e e-e!cise o'
police powe!# p!ope!ty !ig"ts o' p!iate in(ii(uals a!e
su&Kecte( to !est!aints an( &u!(ens in o!(e! to secu!e t"e
gene!al com'o!t# "ealt" an( p!ospe!ity o' t"e state+
AL+# DL9 *CRA 9L7)
D. What are the tests for a #alid eercise of police power
a+ t"e inte!ests o' t"e pu&lic# not me!e pa!ticula! class# !eEui!e
t"e e-e!cise o' police powe!, (LA?FUL SU8DECT)
&+ t"e means employe( is !easona&ly necessa!y 'o! t"e
accomplis"ment o' t"e pu!pose an( not un(uly opp!essie to
in(ii(uals+ LA?FUL 7EANS)+ In s"o!t# t"e en( (oes
not Kusti'y t"e means+
&. Define due process+
<ue p!ocess is a law w"ic" "ea!s &e'o!e it con(emns#
w"ic" p!ocee(s upon inEui!y an( !en(e!s Ku(gment only a'te!
t!ial (Pe! <aniel We&ste! in t"e DART7OUTH COLLEGE
6. What are the Kinds of Due Process?
a+ su&stantie (ue p!ocess>>>!eEui!es t"e int!insic ali(ity o' t"e law
in inte!'e!ing wit" t"e !ig"ts o' t"e pe!son to li'e# li&e!ty o!
p!ope!ty+ In s"o!t# it is to (ete!mine w"et"e! it "as a ali(
goe!nmental o&Kectie li3e 'o! t"e inte!est o' t"e pu&lic as against
me!e pa!ticula! class+
&+ P!oce(u!al (ue p!ocess>>>one w"ic" "ea!s &e'o!e it con(emns# o!
t"e p!oce(u!e as pointe( out &y <aniel We&ste!+
.. What are the requisites of !2udicial due process$?

As "el( in 8ANCO ESPANOL VS! PALANCA" $( P%i&! E9:! /"e
!eEuisites a!eF
.+ /"e!e must &e an impa!tial cou!t o! t!i&unal clot"e( wit"
Ku(icial powe! to "ea! an( (eci(e t"e matte! &e'o!e it,
0+ Au!is(iction must &e law'ully acEui!e( oe! t"e pe!son o' t"e
(e'en(ant o! oe! t"e p!ope!ty su&Kect o' t"e p!ocee(ings,
5+ /"e (e'en(ant must &e gien t"e oppo!tunity to &e "ea!(,
D+ Au(gment must &e !en(e!e( only a'te! law'ul "ea!ing+
D0 D0
-. What are the requisites of due process before administrati#e
As "el( in /IBAG V*+ CIR# 7? P"il+ 759# t"e !eEuisites a!eF
a+ t"e !ig"t to a "ea!ing w"ic" inclu(es t"e !ig"t to p!esent
&+ t"e t!i&unal must consi(e! t"e ei(ence p!esente(,
c+ t"e (ecision must "ae somet"ing to suppo!t itsel',
(+ t"e ei(ence must &e su&stantial,
e+ t"e (ecision must &e &ase( on t"e ei(ence p!esente( (u!ing t"e
'+ t"e t!i&unal o! &o(y must act on its own in(epen(ent
consi(e!ation o' t"e law o! 'acts,
g+ t"e &oa!( o! &o(y s"all in all cont!oe!sial Euestions# !en(e! its
(ecision in suc" a manne! t"at t"e pa!ties to t"e p!ocee(ings
can 3now t"e a!ious issues inole(+
,. 'f an accused was represented by a non(lawyer durin/ the trial of
his criminal case; what ri/ht of the said accused was #iolated? 's he
entitled to a new trial?
I' an accuse( was !ep!esente( &y a non>lawye! (u!ing t"e t!ial (t"oug"
"e t"oug"t t"at "e was a lawye!)# "is !ig"t to (ue p!ocess was iolate(
an( t"e!e'o!e entitle( to a new t!ial+ (<ELGA<O V*+ CA# =oem&e!
.B# .?L7)
1<. What are the requisites of procedural due process in
disciplinary actions a/ainst studentsJ
As "el( in G$Q;A= V*+ =$# .D0 *CRA 8B7# t"e !eEuisites a!eF
.+ t"e stu(ents must &e in'o!me( in w!iting o' t"e
natu!e an( cause o' any accusation against t"em,
0+ t"ey s"all "ae t"e !ig"t to answe! t"e c"a!ges
against t"em# wit" t"e assistance o' counsel,
5+ t"ey s"all &e in'o!me( o' t"e ei(ence against
D+ t"ey s"all "ae t"e !ig"t to a((uce ei(ence in
t"ei! own &e"al',
9+ t"e ei(ence must &e (uly consi(e!e( &y t"e
inestigating committee o! o''icial (esignate( &y t"e
sc"ool aut"o!ities to "ea! an( (eci(e t"e case+
11. What are the requisites of due process before an employee may
be dismissed from his wor@?
D5 D5
/"e !eEuisites o' <ue P!ocess &e'o!e t"e =LRC a!eF
.+ =otice, an(
0+ Cea!ing
12. 's due process satisfied in administrati#e proceedin/s if the
respondent is not assisted by counsel?
/"e!e is no law# w"et"e! t"e Ciil *e!ice Act o! t"e A(minist!atie
Co(e o' .?L8# w"ic" p!oi(es t"at a !espon(ent in an a(minist!atie case
s"oul( &e assiste( &y counsel in o!(e! t"at t"e p!ocee(ings t"e!ein is
consi(e!e( ali(+ =ot only# t"at# petitione! "e!ein was gien t"e oppo!tunity
see!al times to engage t"e se!ices o' a lawye! to assist "im &ut "e
con'i(ently in'o!me( t"e inestigato!s t"at "e coul( p!otect "imsel'+
13. What are the requisites for a #alid classificationJ

As "el( in People s+ Cayat# 7L P"il+ .0# t"e !eEuisites a!eF
a+ /"e!e must &e !eal an( su&stantial (istinctions,
&+ It must &e ge!mane tot "e pu!poses o' t"e law,
c+ It must not &e limite( to e-isting con(itions only, an(
(+ It must apply eEually to all mem&e!s o' t"e same class+
14. 's there #iolation of the equal protection clause if policemen
who are char/ed of a criminal offense punishable for more than si 365
years will remain suspended until after the his acquittal unli@e other
public officers whose maimum suspension e#en when facin/ /raft and
corrupt char/es is only three 335 months?
=o t"e!e is o iolation+ In CI;AGA= V*+ PEOPLE# t"e *up!eme
Cou!t "el( t"at t"e 'act t"at policemen c"a!ge( wit" a c!iminal o''ense
punis"a&le &y mo!e t"an 7 yea!s a!e to &e suspen(e( (u!ing t"e enti!e
(u!ation o' t"e case unli3e ot"e! goe!nment employees is ali( since it
!ests on ali( classi'ication &ecause policemen ca!!y weapons an( t"e
&a(ge o' t"e law w"ic" can &e use( to "a!ass o! intimi(ate witnesses
against t"em+
1&. What are the requisites of a #alid search warrant or warrant of
No se.r,% 1.rr.nt or 1.rr.nt of .rrest s%.&& issue eC,e-t u-on
-ro3.3&e ,.use to 3e /etermine/ -erson.&&4 34 t%e Iu/2e .fter
eC.min.tion un/er o.t% or .ffirm.tion of t%e ,om-&.in.nt .n/ t%e
1itnesses %e m.4 -ro/u,e" .n/ -.rti,u&.r&4 /es,ri3in2 t%e -&.,e to 3e
se.r,%e/ .n/ t%e -ersons or t%in2s to 3e seiKe/! Se,tion 9" Art! III)
In .//ition" Ru&e :9* of t%e Ru&es on Crimin.& Pro,e/ure re0uires
t%.t no 1.rr.nt s%.&& 3e issue/ for more t%.n one :) s-e,ifi, offense
.n/ t%.t in t%e im-&ement.tion of . se.r,% 1.rr.nt 1%en t%e
res-on/ent is not -resent" 1itnesses .re re0uire/! Fin.&&4" . Cir,u&.r
issue/ 34 t%e Su-reme Court re0uires t%.t no 1.rr.nt or 1.rr.nt of
.rrest s%.&& 3e im-&emente/ /urin2 t%e ni2%t" 1ee=-en/s or %o&i/.4s"
eC,e-t in eC,e-tion.& ,ir,umst.n,es!
=O/EF $n(e! t"e Cuman *ecu!ity ActRAnti>
/e!!o!ism Law# Repu&lic Act =o+ ?580# App!oe(
on ;a!c" 7# 0BB8 an( e''ectie on Auly .9# 0BB8
(/"is Law s"all &e automatically suspen(e( one
(.) mont" &e'o!e an( two (0) mont"s a'te! t"e
"ol(ing o' any election) a pe!son may &e ta3en
into custo(y &y t"e police i' t"e!e is a w!itten
aut"o!i)ation &y t"e Anti>/e!!o!ism Council an(
suc" (etention may &e e-ten(e( upon w!itten
app!oal o' t"e Commission o' Cuman Rig"ts in
case o' actual o! imminent te!!o!ist attac3++
8ec. 1-. Pe!io( o' (etention wit"out Ku(icial wa!!ant o' a!!est+>
/"e p!oisions o' A!ticle .09 o' t"e Reise( Penal Co(e#
notwit"stan(ing# any police o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnel#
1%o" %.vin2 3een /u&4 .ut%oriKe/ in 1ritin2 34 t%e Anti-
Terrorism Coun,i& "as ta3en custo(y o' a pe!son c"a!ge( wit"
o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o! t"e c!ime o'
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism s"all# WI/CO$/ I=C$RRI=G
counte( '!om t"e moment sai( c"a!ge( o! suspecte( pe!son "as
&een app!e"en(e( o! a!!este(# (etaine(# an( ta3en into custo(y
&y t"e sai( police# o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnelF P!oi(e(#
/"at t"e a!!est o' t"ose suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o!
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism must !esult '!om t"e
su!eillance un(e! *ection 8 an( e-amination o' &an3 (eposits
un(e! *ection 08 p' t"is Act+
/"e police o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnel conce!ne(
s"all# &e'o!e (etaining t"e pe!son suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o'
te!!o!ism# p!esent "im o! "e! &e'o!e any Ku(ge at t"e latte!:s
!esi(ence o! o''ice nea!est t"e place w"e!e t"e a!!est too3 place
at any time o' t"e (ay o! nig"t+ It s"all &e t"e (uty o' t"e Ku(ge#
among ot"e! t"ings# to asce!tain t"e i(entity o' t"e police o! law
en'o!cement pe!sonnel an( t"e pe!son o! pe!sons t"ey "ae
a!!este( an( p!esente( &e'o!e "im o! "e!# to inEui!e o' t"em t"e
!easons w"y t"ey "ae a!!este( t"e pe!son an( (ete!mine &y
Euestioning an( pe!sonal o&se!ation w"et"e! o! not t"e su&Kect
D9 D9
"as &een su&Kecte( to any p"ysical# mo!al o! psyc"ological
to!tu!e &y w"om an( w"y+ /"e Ku(ge s"all t"en su&mit a
w!itten !epo!t o' w"at "eRs"e "a( o&se!e( w"en t"e su&Kect
was &!oug"t &e'o!e "im to t"e p!ope! cou!t t"at "as Ku!is(iction
oe! t"e case o' t"e pe!son t"us a!!este(+
/"e Ku(ge s"all 'o!t"wit" su&mit "is !epo!t wit"in 5
calen(a! (ays '!om t"e time t"e suspect was &!oug"t to "isR"e!
!esi(ence o! o''ice+
Imme(iately a'te! ta3ing custo(y o' a pe!son c"a!ge(
wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o! conspi!acy to
commit te!!o!ism# t"e police o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnel s"all
noti'y in w!iting t"e Ku(ge o' t"e cou!t nea!est t"e place o'
app!e"ension o! a!!est, p!oi(e(# /"at w"e!e t"e a!!est is ma(e
(u!ing *atu!(ays# *un(ays# "oli(ays o! a'te! o''ice "ou!s# t"e
w!itten notice s"all &e se!e( at t"e !esi(ence o' t"e Ku(ge
nea!est t"e place w"e!e t"e accuse( was a!!este(+ /"e penalty
o' .B yea!s an( . (ay to .0 yea!s imp!isonment s"all &e
impose( upon t"e police o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnel w"o
'ails to noti'y any Ku(ge as p!oi(e( in t"e p!ece(ing pa!ag!ap"+
8ection 1,. Pe!io( o' <etention in t"e eent o' an actual
o! imminent te!!o!ist attac3+> In t"e ent o' an actual o!
imminent te!!o!ist attac3## suspects may not &e (etaine( 'o!
mo!e t"an t"!ee (ays wit"out t"e w!itten app!oal o' a
municipal# city# p!oincial o! !egional o''icial o' a Cuman
Rig"ts Commission# o! Ku(ge o' t"e municipal# !egional t!ial
cou!t# t"e *an(igan&ayan o! a Kustice o' t"e Cou!t o' Appeals
nea!est t"e place o' a!!est+ I' t"e a!!est is ma(e (u!ing
*atu!(ays# *un(ays o! "oli(ays# o! a'te! o''ice "ou!s# t"e
a!!esting police o' law en'o!cement pe!sonnel s"all &!ing t"e
pe!son t"us a!!este( to t"e !esi(ence o' any o' t"e o''icials
mentione( a&oe t"at is nea!est t"e place w"e!e t"e accuse(
was a!!este(+ /"e app!oal in w!iting o' any o' t"e sai( o''icials
s"all &e secu!e( &y t"e police o! law en'o!cement pe!sonnel
conce!ne( wit"in 'ie (ays a'te! t"e (ate o' t"e (etention o' t"e
pe!sons conce!ne(, P!oi(e(# "owee!# /"at wit"in t"!ee (ays
a'te! t"e (etention t"e suspects w"ose connection wit" t"e
te!!o! attac3 o! t"!eat is not esta&lis"e(# s"all &e !elease(
16. 'n case the place to be searched as indicated in the search
warrant is erroneous because it is different from the place mentioned by
the applicants who searched the place indicated by them in their affida#it;
are the thin/s seiDed admissible in e#idence?
=o+ As "el( in PEOPLE V*+ CA# 0?. *CRA DBB# ?HAT IS
D7 D7

1.. What are the different instances when a warrantless search and
seiDure is allowed under our eistin/ 2urisprudence?
Wa!!antless sea!c" is allowe( in t"e 'ollowing instancesF
.+ customs sea!c"es,
0+ sea!c"es o' moing e"icle,
5+ sei)u!e o' ei(ence in plain iew,
D+ consente( sea!c"es,
9+ sea!c" inci(ental to a law'ul a!!est, an(
7+ stop an( '!is3 measu!es+ (PEOPLE V*+ AR$/A# 0LL
*CRA 707)
1-. )ay a 2ud/e deputiDe his %ler@ of %ourt to ta@e the deposition of
the applicant for a search warrant sub2ect to clarificatory questions after
his hearin/ in other cases?
=o+ As "el( in Bac"e s+ Rui)# 58 *CRA L05# t"e e-amination o' t"e
complainant ant t"e witnesses "e may p!o(uce must &e (one pe!sonally &y
t"e Ku(ge+ Ot"e!wise# t"e wa!!ant s"all &e oi(+ As suc"# t"e *C "el( in
PE=<O= V*+ CA# =oem&e! .7# .??B t"at w"en t"e Euestions as3e( to t"e
applicant 'o! a sea!c" wa!!ant was p!e>type(# t"e same is not ali( since
t"e!e coul( "ae &een no sea!c"ing Euestions+
1,. )ay a search warrant be issued for the crimes of search warrant
for estafa; falsification; ta e#asion and insurance fraud?
=o# suc" woul( &e a 2gene!al wa!!ant6 an( iolates t"e !ule t"at a
wa!!ant s"all &e issue( 'o! one (.) speci'ic o''ense+ (Asian *u!ety s+
Ce!!e!a# 9D *CRA 5.0)

2<. What is a !scatter(shot warrant$?
It is a sea!c" wa!!ant issue( 'o! mo!e t"an one (.) speci'ic
o''ense li3e a sea!c" wa!!ant issue( 'o! mo!e t"an one speci'ic
o''ense li3e one 'o! esta'a# !o&&e!y# t"e't an( Euali'ie( t"e't6+
(/A;BA*E= V*+ PEOPLE# Auly .D# .??9, PEOPLE V*+ CA# 0.7
*CRA .B.)
21. )ay a 2ud/e #alidly issue a warrant of arrest based from the
'nformation and the 7esolution of the Prosecutor findin/ probable cause
a/ainst the accused?
=o+ /"e!e will &e no &asis 'o! t"e issuance since t"e P!osecuto! is
neit"e! t"e complainant no! t"e witness to t"e case+ Ce coul( not "ae
(ete!mine( p!o&a&le cause &ase( '!om t"e sai( (ocuments+ (VICENTE
D8 D8
EE;+#-+()+ As "el( in t"e case o' *olien s+ ;a3asia!# (eci(e( un(e! t"e
.?L8 Constitution# t"e Cou!t note( t"at t"e a((ition o' t"e wo!( pe!sonally
a'te! t"e wo!( (ete!mine( an( t"e (eletion o' t"e g!ant o' aut"o!ity &y t"e
.?85 Constitution to issue wa!!ants to ot"e! !espon(ent o''ice!s as to may &e
aut"o!i)e( &y law (oes not !eEui!e t"e Ku(ge to pe!sonally e-amine t"e
complainant an( "is witness in "is (ete!mination o' p!o&a&le cause 'o! t"e
issuance o' a wa!!ant o' a!!est+W"at t"e Constitution un(e!sco!es is t"e
e-clusie an( pe!sonal !esponsi&ility o' t"e issuing Ku(ge to satis'y "imsel'
o' t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause+ Following esta&lis"e( (oct!ine an(
p!oce(u!es# "e s"allF
(.) pe!sonally ealuate t"e !epo!ts an( t"e suppo!ting
(ocuments su&mitte( &y t"e 'iscal !ega!(ing t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le
cause an(# on t"e &asis t"e!eo'# issue a wa!!ant o' a!!est,
(0) I' on t"e &asis t"e!eo' "e 'in(s no p!o&a&le cause# "e
may (is!ega!( t"e 'iscalSs !epo!t an( !eEui!e t"e su&mission o'
suppo!ting a''i(aits o' witnesses to ai( "im in a!!iing at a
conclusion as to t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause+
/"e case o' People s+ Cono!a&le En!iEue B+ Inting !eite!ates
t"e 'ollowing (oct!inesF
(.) /"e (ete!mination o' p!o&a&le cause is a 'unction o' t"e
Ku(ge+ It is not 'o! t"e P!oincial Fiscal o! P!osecuto! no! 'o! t"e
Election *upe!iso! to asce!tain+ Only t"e Ku(ge alone ma3es t"is
(0) /"e p!elimina!y inEui!y ma(e &y t"e p!osecuto! (oes
not &in( t"e Ku(ge+ It me!ely assist "im to ma3e t"e (ete!mination o'
p!o&a&le cause+ /"e Ku(ge (oes not "ae to 'ollow w"at t"e
p!osecuto!Ss p!esent to "im+ By itsel'# t"e p!osecuto!Ss ce!ti'ication o'
p!o&a&le cause is ine''ectual+ It is t"e !epo!t# t"e a''i(aits# t"e
t!ansc!ipts o' stenog!ap"ic notes# an( all ot"e! suppo!ting (ocuments
&e"in( t"e p!osecuto!Ss ce!ti'ication w"ic" a!e mate!ial in assisting t"e
Ku(ge to ma3e "is (ete!mination+
(5) P!elimina!y inEui!y s"oul( &e (istinguis"e( '!om t"e
p!elimina!y inestigation p!ope!+ W"ile t"e 'o!me! see3s to (ete!mine
p!o&a&le cause 'o! t"e issuance o' wa!!ant o' a!!est# t"e latte!
asce!tains w"et"e! t"e o''en(e! s"oul( &e "el( 'o! t!ial o! &e !elease(+
22. *s to the requirement that the 2ud/e must !personally$
determine probable cause; must he eamine the complainant and his
witnesses face to face in order to comply with the said constitutional
It (epen(s+
In connection wit" t"e issuance o' a *EARCC WARRA=/# "e must
pe!sonally e-amine t"e complainant an( t"e witnesses# wit" sea!c"ing
Euestions# 'ace to 'ace+
In connection wit" t"e issuance o' a wa!!ant o' a!!est# "owee!# t"e
wo!( 5-erson.&&46 a'te! t"e wo!( (ete!mine( (oes not necessa!ily mean t"at
t"e Ku(ge s"oul( e-amine t"e complainant an( "is witnesses pe!sonally o!
'ace to 'ace &e'o!e issuing t"e wa!!ant o' a!!est &ut t"e e-clusie
!esponsi&ility on t"e pa!t o' sai( Ku(ge to satis'y "imsel' o' t"e e-istence o'
p!o&a&le cause+ As suc"# t"e!e is no nee( to e-amine t"e complainant an(
"is witnesses 'ace to 'ace+ It is su''icient i' t"e Ku(ge is conince( o' t"e
e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause upon !ea(ing t"e a''i(aits o! (eposition o' t"e
complainant an( "is witnesses+ SOLIVEN VS! 7AAASIAR" :*( SCRA
23. 's the 2ud/e bound by the findin/s of eistence of !probable
cause$ by the Prosecutor as indicated in his %ertification in the
information so that the issuance of a warrant of arrest is only ministerial?
'f not satisfied of the eistence of probable cause; may the 2ud/e require
the Prosecutor to submit additional e#idenceJ
/"e Ku(ge is not &oun( &y t"e 'in(ings o' t"e P!osecuto! &ecause t"e
sai( 'in(ing is only 2p!o&a&le cause6 t"at a c!ime was committe(+ P!o&a&le
cause to Kusti'y t"e issuance o' a wa!!ant o' a!!est is a Ku(icial 'unction
este( only in t"e Ku(ge+ In 'act# "e can !eEui!e t"e P!osecuto! to su&mit
a((itional ei(ence i' "e is not conince( o' t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le 'o!
t"e issuance o' a wa!!ant o' a!!est+ (P+ s+ Villanuea# ..B *CRA D79,
Place! s+ Villanuea# .07 *CRA D75)+
24. 's L:peration Kap@apL bein/ done by the police because the
suspect has somethin/ bul/in/ in his waist and @eeps on touchin/ his
abdomen as if touchin/ a /un #alid?
As "el( in PEOPLE V*+ ;E=GO/E# G+R+ =o+ L8B9?# Aune# .??0#
0.B *CRA .8D# 2OPERA/IO= PAPPAP6 o! wa!!antless sea!c" wit"out
p!o&a&le cause is unconstitutional+ *uc" sea!c" is ali( only i' coe!e( &y
*ection 9# A!ticle ..5 o' t"e Rules o' Cou!t w"ic" p!oi(esF
*ec+ 9+ A!!est wit"out wa!!ant, w"en law'ul+> A peace
o''ice! o! p!iate pe!son may# wit"out wa!!ant# a!!est a pe!sonF
(a) W"en# in "is p!esence# t"e pe!son to &e a!!este(
"as committe(# is actually committing# o! is attempting to
commit an o''ense,
(&) W"en an o''ense "as in 'act Kust &een
committe(# an( "e "as pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' 'acts
in(icating t"at t"e pe!son to &e a!!este( "as committe( it,
D? D?
(c) W"en t"e pe!son to &e a!!este( is a p!isone!
w"o "as escape( '!om a penal esta&lis"ment o! place
w"e!e "e is se!ing 'inal Ku(gment o! tempo!a!ily
con'ine( w"ile "is case is pen(ing# o! "as escape( w"ile
&eing t!ans'e!!e( '!om one con'inement to anot"e!+
Compa!e t"is case to ;A=ALILI V*+ PEOPLE# Octo&e! ?# .??8+ /"e
policemen saw see!al suspicious loo3ing men at (awn w"o !an w"en t"ey
went nea! t"em+ As t"e policemen !an a'te! t"em# an unlicense( 'i!ea!m was
con'iscate(+ /"e sea!c" was (ecla!e( ali( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t+ =ote#
"owee!# t"at in ;ALACA/ V*+ CA# 0L5 *CRA .9?# t"e *C "el( t"at
me!e suspicions not su''icient to ali(ate wa!!antless a!!est+
9+! 7.4 t%e I&oi&o Po&i,e .rrests 1it%out 1.rr.nt or se.r,% t%e
-erson /isem3.r=in2 from . s%i- -.ssen2er 1it%out 1.rr.nt
so&e&4 on .n inform.tion re&.4e/ to t%em 34 .n inform.nt t%.t t%e
sus-e,t<s 3.2 ,ont.ins m.riIu.n.@
=o+ As "el( in 41401 vs. %22*+9*,*+, '<: &C!% 68# a
wa!!antless a!!est o' t"e accuse( was unconstitutional+ /"is was e''ecte(
w"ile "e was coming (own t"e essel# to all appea!ances no less innocent
t"an t"e ot"e! (isem&a!3ing passenge!s+ Ce "a( not committe( no! was
actually committing o! attempting to commit an o''ense in t"e p!esence o'
t"e a!!esting o''ice!s+ Ce was not een acting suspiciously+ In s"o!t# t"e!e
was no p!o&a&le cause t"at# as t"e p!osecution inco!!ectly suggeste(#
(ispense( wit" t"e constitutional !eEui!ement o' a wa!!ant+
26. 'n arrests without warrant based on the fact that a crime has
2ust been committed; what @ind of @nowled/e is required on the part of the
arrestin/ officer?
In PEOPLE VS! GALVE>" $++ SCRA 9#*" t%e Su-reme Court
%e&/ t%.t t "e policeman a!!este( t"e accuse(>appellant on t"e &asis solely
o' w"at Reynal(o Cast!o "a( tol( "im an( not &ecause "e saw t"e accuse(>
appellant commit t"e c!ime c"a!ge( against "im+ In(ee(# t"e p!osecution
a(mitte( t"at t"e!e was no wa!!ant o' a!!est issue( against accuse(>appellant
w"en t"e latte! was ta3en into custo(y+ Consi(e!ing t"at t"e accuse(>
appellant was not committing a c!ime at t"e time "e was a!!este( no! (i( t"e
a!!esting o''ice! "ae any pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' 'acts in(icating t"at
accuse(>appellant committe( a c!ime# "is a!!est wit"out a wa!!ant cannot &e
2.. What is the effect on the ille/ality of the arrest by the subsequent
act of the accused in postin/ bond for his pro#isional liberty and enterin/
a plea durin/ his arrai/nment?
By ente!ing a plea o' not guilty (u!ing t"e a!!aignment# t"e accuse(>
appellant waie( "is !ig"t to !aise t"e issue o' illegality o' "is a!!est+ I/ I*
9B 9B
2-. 's a warrantless search and seiDure by a pri#ate indi#idual #alid?
Ges since t"e constitutional p!oision is not applica&le to "im+
Aanua!y .L# .??., *ILACI* I=/ER=A/IO=AL CO/EL# I=C+ V*+
2,. What are the requisites of a #alid search incidental to a #alid
As "el( in =OLA*CO V*+ PA=O# .5? *CRA 9D.# a sea!c"
inci(ental to a ali( a!!est must &e (one at t"e place w"e!e t"e accuse( is
a!!este(+ As suc"# i' accuse( was a!!este( w"ile insi(e a Keepney# t"e!e is no
ali( sea!c" inci(ental to a ali( a!!est i' s"e will &e &!oug"t to "e! !esi(ence
an( t"e!ea'te! sea!c" t"e sai( place+ O! as "el( in E*PA=O V*+ CA# 0LL
*CRA 9LL# i' t"e accuse( was a!!este( in t"e st!eet (u!ing a &uy>&ust
ope!ation# t"e sea!c" o' "is "ouse nea!&y is not a ali( sea!c" inci(ental to a
ali( a!!est+
3<. 'f the accused was #alidly arrested without warrant inside a
ni/ht club for ille/al possession of firearm; may the arrestin/ officers
#alidly search his car par@ed se#eral meters from the place of arrest based
on !search incidental to a #alid arrest$?
W"e!e t"e gun tuc3e( in a pe!son:s waist is plainly isi&le to t"e
police# no sea!c" wa!!ant is necessa!y an( in t"e a&sence o' any license 'o!
sai( 'i!ea!m# "e may &e a!!este( at once as "e is in e''ect committing a c!ime
in t"e p!esence o' t"e police o''ice!s+ =o wa!!ant is necessa!y in suc" a
situation# it &eing one o' t"e !ecogni)e( e-ceptions un(e! t"e Rules+ As a
conseEuence o' t"e accuse(:s ali( wa!!antless a!!est insi(e t"e nig"tclu&#
"e may &e law'ully sea!c"e( 'o! (ange!ous weapons o! anyt"ing w"ic" may
&e use( as p!oo' o' t"e commission o' an o''ense# wit"out a sea!c" wa!!ant
in acco!(ance wit" *ection .0# Rule .07+ /"is is a ali( sea!c" inci(ental to
a law'ul a!!est+
9. 9.
In 'act# t"e su&seEuent (iscoe!y in "is ca! w"ic" was pa!3e( in a In 'act# t"e su&seEuent (iscoe!y in "is ca! w"ic" was pa!3e( in a
(istant place '!om w"e!e t"e illegal possession o' 'i!ea!m was committe( (istant place '!om w"e!e t"e illegal possession o' 'i!ea!m was committe(
Ha'te! "e !eEueste( t"at "e will &!ing "is ca! to t"e Police *tation a'te! "is Ha'te! "e !eEueste( t"at "e will &!ing "is ca! to t"e Police *tation a'te! "is
wa!!antless a!!est) # o' a (!ug pa!ap"e!nalia an( s"a&u# CA==O/ BE *AI< wa!!antless a!!est) # o' a (!ug pa!ap"e!nalia an( s"a&u# CA==O/ BE *AI<
/O CAVE BEE= ;A<E <$RI=G A= ILLEGAL *EARCC &ecause o' "is /O CAVE BEE= ;A<E <$RI=G A= ILLEGAL *EARCC &ecause o' "is
consent# not (ue to sea!c" inci(ental to a ali( a!!est+ As suc"# t"e items (o consent# not (ue to sea!c" inci(ental to a ali( a!!est+ As suc"# t"e items (o
not 'all un(e! t"e e-clusiona!y !ule an( t"e unlicense( 'i!ea!ms# (!ug not 'all un(e! t"e e-clusiona!y !ule an( t"e unlicense( 'i!ea!ms# (!ug
pa!ap"e!nalia an( t"e s"a&u# can &e use( as ei(ence against t"e accuse( pa!ap"e!nalia an( t"e s"a&u# can &e use( as ei(ence against t"e accuse(. .
- -PEOPLE VS! GO" $+# SCRA $$') PEOPLE VS! GO" $+# SCRA $$')
31. )ay the police authorities #alidly search the rented apartment of
a suspect without a search warrant or without the consent of the said
person 01F W'FB FBC %:98C9F :? FBC :W9C7 :? FBC
=o+ PEOPLE V*+ <A;A*O# 0.0 *CRA 9D8 a&an(one( t"e !uling in
Lope) s+ Commissione!+ In o!(e! t"at t"e!e is a ali( consent to a
wa!!antless sea!c"# t"e consent must come '!om t"e pe!son (i!ectly a''ecte(
&y sai( wa!!antless sea!c"+
32. What is the !plain #iew doctrine$ in connection with
warrantless search and seiDure?
As %e&/ in PEOPLE VS! VALDE>" $#: SCRA 9+" t%e !plain
#iew$ doctrine" 1%i,% m.4 Iustif4 . se.r,% 1it%out 1.rr.nt" APPLIES
vie1 /o,trine ,ou&/ not 3e use/ to Iustif4 t%e seiKure of .n un&i,ense/
fire.rm in Peo-&e vs!" su-r." 1%i,% 1.s seen on to- of . t.3&e
.fter t%e o-enin2 of t%e .-.rtment<s /oor 1it%out . 1.rr.nt nor
,onsent of t%e o,,u-.nt t%erein!
33. Define probable cause in connection with the issuance of a
search warrant.
/"e Mp!o&a&le causeM 'o! a ali( sea!c" wa!!ant# "as &een (e'ine( Mas
suc" 'acts an( ci!cumstances w"ic" woul( lea( a !easona&ly (isc!eet an(
p!u(ent man to &eliee t"at an o''ense "as &een committe(# an( t"at t"e
o&Kects soug"t in connection wit" t"e o''ense a!e in t"e place soug"t to &e
sea!c"e(M+ (Nuinte!o s+ =BI# Aune 05# .?LL)+ /"is p!o&a&le cause must &e
s"own to &e wit"in t"e pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' t"e complainant o! t"e
witnesses "e may p!o(uce an( not &ase( on me!e "ea!say+ (P+ V*+ *G
A$CO# 7D PCIL+ 778, ALVAREQ V*+ CFI# 7D PCIL+ 55, $* V*+
A<<I*O=# 0L PCIL+ 977)+
34. What is the !sufficiency test$ in connection with applications
for a search warrant?
90 90
M/"e t!ue test o' su''iciency o' a (eposition o! a''i(ait to wa!!ant
issuance o' a sea!c" wa!!ant is w"et"e! it was (!awn in a manne! t"at
pe!Ku!y coul( &e c"a!ge( t"e!eon an( t"e a''iant &e "el( lia&le 'o! (amage
cause(+ /"e oat" !eEui!e( must !e'e! to t"e t!ut" o' t"e 'acts wit"in t"e
pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' t"e applicant o' a sea!c" wa!!ant an(Ro! "is
witnesses# not o' t"e 'acts me!ely !epo!te( &y a pe!son w"om one consi(e!s
to &e !elia&le+M (<R+ =E;E*IO PR$<E=/E V*+ /CE CO=+ E1EC$/IVE
A$<GE ABELAR<O ;+ <AGRI/# R/C 55# ;anila @ People o' t"e
P"ilippines# GR =o+ L0L8B# <ecem&e! .D# .?L?)
3&. )ay the police and military authorities #alidly search the
citiDens without warrant in chec@points set up by them? What is the etent
of the search that they may conduct?
L5?LL# *eptem&e! 0?# .?L?# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at wa!!antless
sea!c"es an( sei)u!es in milita!y an( police c"ec3points a!e not illegal as
t"ese measu!es to p!otect t"e goe!nment an( sa'egua!(s t"e lies o' t"e
people+ /"e c"ec3points a!e legal as w"e!e t"e su!ial o' t"e o!gani)e(
goe!nment is on t"e &alance# o! w"e!e t"e lies an( sa'ety o' t"e people a!e
in g!ae pe!il+ Cowee!# t"e *up!eme Cou!t cla!i'ie( t"at t"e milita!y
o''ice!s manning t"e c"ec3points may con(uct VI*$AL *EARCC O=LG#
36. 's an unlicensed firearm seiDed in the house of the accused
without warrant by the military authorities; after they were /i#en consent
by the said owner of the house for them to search for rebel soldiers;
admissible in e#idenceJ
=o+ In VEROY VS! LAYAGUE" 9:; SCRA E(# t"e *up!eme Cou!t
"el( t"at t"e owne! o' t"e "ouse allowe( t"e policemen to ente! "is "ouse
&ecause t"ey will &e sea!c"ing 'o! !e&el sol(ie!s &ut w"en insi(e t"e "ouse#
t"ey instea( sei)e( an unlicense( 'i!ea!m+ As suc"# t"e!e was no consent to
sea!c" 'o! 'i!ea!ms an( as a conseEuence# t"e 'i!ea!m is not a(missi&le as
3.. 'f the 2ud/e finds that thereMs probable cause; must he issue a
warrant of arrest as a matter of courseJ
It (epen(sF
.+ SA7ULDE VS! SALVANI" SEPTE78ER 9*" :E'' (=o
&ecause a wa!!ant is issue( in o!(e! to "ae Ku!is(iction o' t"e
cou!t oe! t"e pe!son o' an accuse( an( to assu!e t"e cou!t o'
"is p!esence w"enee! "is case is calle( in cou!t+ As suc"# i' t"e
cou!t &eliees t"at t"e p!esence o' t"e accuse( coul( &e "a(
een wit"out a wa!!ant o' a!!est# t"en "e may not issue sai(
wa!!ant+ =oteF /"is case inoles a mino! o''ense)
0+ GO>O VS! TAC-AN" $;; SCRA 9*+ + I' t"e o''ense
committe( is a se!ious one li3e t"at o&taining in t"is case 'o!
95 95
mu!(e!# t"e Au(ge must issue a wa!!ant o' a!!est a'te!
(ete!mining t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause)
3-. 'f the applicant for a search warrant testifies that his @nowled/e
of the facts and circumstances was deri#ed from a !hi/hly reliable
informant$; would such fact sufficient to con#ince the court of the
eistence of !probable cause$?
=o# 3nowle(ge &ase( on "ea!say in'o!mation (oes not Kusti'y t"e
e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause+ (P!u(ente s+ <ay!it# sup!a+) In 'act# w"en t"e
statements in t"e a''i(aits o' witnesses a!e me!e gene!alities# me!e
conclusions o' law# an( not positie statements o' pa!ticula! acts# t"e
wa!!ant issue( &y i!tue t"e!eo' is not ali(+ Ponsica s+ Ignalaga# Auly
3,. 'n the seiDure of alle/ed pirated tapes; what must the applicant
submit to the court in order that the search warrant to be issued shall be
In Centu!y Fo- s+ CA# .7D *CRA 799 an( COL$;BIA
PIC/$RE* V*+ CA# 07. *CRA .DD# it was "el( t"at t"e maste! copy o' t"e
allege(ly pi!ate( tape s"oul( &e p!esente( &e'o!e t"e Ku(ge in o!(e! to
conince "im o' t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause)
4<. What is the effect on the e#idence obtained in #iolation of
8ections 2 and 3 of *rticle '''?
Any ei(ence o&taine( in iolation o' *ections 0 an( 5 o' A!ticle III
s"all &e ina(missi&le 'o! any pu!pose in any p!ocee(ing+
41. 1nder the Buman 8ecurity *ctE*nti(Ferrorism Law; 7epublic
*ct 9o. ,3.2; *ppro#ed on )arch 6; 2<<. and effecti#e on Iuly 1&; 2<<.;
may police authorities the listen to; intercept and record; with the use of
any mode; form or @ind or type of electronic or other sur#eillance
equipment or interceptin/ and trac@in/ de#ices; or with the use of any
other suitable ways or means for that purpose; any communication;
messa/e; con#ersation; discussion; or spo@en or written words of a person
without #iolatin/ the ri/ht to pri#acy?
Ges un(e! *ections 8 an( L o' t"e law w"ic" p!oi(esF

8ection .+ *u!eillance o' suspects an( inte!ception an(
!eco!(ing o' communications+ /"e p!oisions o' RA D0BB
(Anti>Wi!etapping Law) to t"e cont!a!y notwit"stan(ing# a
police o! law en'o!cement o''icial an( t"e mem&e!s o' "is team
may# upon a w!itten o!(e! o' t"e Cou!t o' Appeals# listen to#
inte!cept an( !eco!(# wit" t"e use o' any mo(e# 'o!m o! 3in( o!
type o' elect!onic o! ot"e! su!eillance eEuipment o!
inte!cepting an( t!ac3ing (eices# o! wit" t"e use o' any ot"e!
suita&le ways o! means 'o! t"at pu!pose# any communication#
9D 9D
message# cone!sation# (iscussion# o! spo3en o! w!itten wo!(s
&etween mem&e!s o' a Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe(
te!!o!ist o!gani)ation# association# o! g!oup o' pe!sons o! o' any
pe!son c"a!ge( wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o!
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism+
P!oi(e(# /"at su!eillance# inte!ception an( !eco!(ing
o' communications &etween lawye!s an( clients# (octo!s an(
patients# Kou!nalists an( t"ei! sou!ces an( con'i(ential &usiness
co!!espon(ence s"all not &e aut"o!i)e(+
8ection -+ Fo!mal Application 'o! Au(icial
Aut"o!i)ation+> /"e w!itten o!(e! o' t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o'
t"e Cou!t o' Appeals to t!ac3 (own# tap# listen# inte!cept# an(
!eco!( communications# messages# cone!sations# (iscussions#
o! spo3en o! w!itten wo!(s o' any pe!son suspecte( o' t"e c!ime
o' te!!o!ism o! t"e c!ime o' conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism#
s"all only &e g!ante( &y t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o' t"e Cou!t o'
Appeals $PO= A= E1>PAR/E w!itten application o' a police
o! law en'o!cement o''icial w"o "as &een (uly aut"o!i)e( in
w!iting &y t"e Anti>/e!!o!ism Council c!eate( in *ection 95 o'
t"is Act to 'ile suc" e->pa!te application# an( upon e-amination
un(e! oat" an( a''i!mation o' t"e applicant an( t"e witnesses
w"o may p!o(uce to esta&lis"F
/"at t"e!e is p!o&a&le cause to &eliee &ase( on
pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' 'acts an( ci!cumstances t"at
t"e sai( c!ime o' te!!o!ism o! conspi!acy to commit
te!!o!ism "as &een committe(# o! is &eing committe(#
o! is a&out to &e committe(,
/"at t"e!e is p!o&a&le cause to &eliee &ase( on
pe!sonal 3nowle(ge o' 'acts an( ci!cumstances t"at
ei(ence w"ic" is essential to t"e coniction o' any
c"a!ge( o! suspecte( pe!son 'o!# o! to t"e solution o!
p!eention o' any suc" c!imes# will &e o&taine(, an(
/"at t"e!e is no ot"e! e''ectie means !ea(ily
aaila&le 'o! acEui!ing suc" ei(ence+
8ec. ,+ Classi'ication an( Contents o' t"e O!(e! o' t"e
Cou!t+ /"e w!itten o!(e! g!ante( &y t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o'
t"e Cou!t o' Appeals as well as its o!(e!# i' any# to e-ten( o!
!enew t"e same# t"e o!iginal application o' t"e applicant#
inclu(ing "is application to e-ten( o! !enew# i' any# an( t"e
w!itten aut"o!i)ations o' t"e Anti>/e!!o!ism Council s"all &e
(eeme( an( a!e "e!e&y (ecla!e( as classi'ie( in'o!mationF
P!oi(e(# /"at t"e pe!son &eing su!eille( o! w"ose
communications# lette!s# pape!s# messages# cone!sations#
(iscussions# spo3en o! w!itten wo!(s an( e''ects "ae &een
monito!e(# listene( to# &ugge( o! !eco!(e( &y law en'o!cement
99 99
aut"o!ities "as t"e !ig"t to &e in'o!me( o' t"e acts (one &y t"e
law en'o!cement aut"o!ities in t"e p!emises o! to c"allenge# i'
"e o! s"e inten(s to (o so# t"e legality o' t"e inte!'e!ence &e'o!e
t"e Cou!t o' Appeals w"ic" issue( sai( w!itten o!(e!+ /"e
w!itten o!(e! o' t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o' t"e cou!t o' Appeals
s"all speci'y t"e 'ollowingF
/"e i(entity# suc" as name an( a((!ess# i' 3nown#
o' t"e c"a!ge( o' suspecte( pe!sons w"ose
communications# messages# cone!sations#
(iscussions# o! spo3en o! w!itten wo!(s a!e to &e
t!ac3e( (own# tappe(# listene( to# inte!cepte( o!
!eco!(e( an(# in case o' !a(io# elect!onic# o!
telep"one (w"et"e! wi!eless o! ot"e!wise)
communications# messages# cone!sations#
(iscussions# o! spo3en o! w!itten wo!(s# t"e
elect!onic t!ansmission systems o! t"e telep"one
num&e!s to &e t!ac3e( (own# tappe(# listene( to#
inte!cepte(# an( !eco!(e( an( t"ei! locations i' t"e
pe!son suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o!
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism is not 'ully 3nown#
suc" pe!son s"all &e su&Kect to continuous
su!eillance p!oi(e( t"e!e is !easona&le g!oun(
to (o so,
/"e i(entity (name an( a((!ess# an( t"e police o!
law en'o!cement o!gani)ation) o' t"e mem&e!s o'
"is team Ku(icially aut"o!i)e( to t!ac3 (own# tap#
listen to# inte!cept# an( !eco!( t"e communications#
messages# cone!sations# (iscussions# o! spo3en o!
w!itten wo!(s,
/"e o''ense o! o''enses committe(# o! &eing
committe(# o! soug"t to &e p!eente(, an(
/"e lengt" o' time w"ic" t"e aut"o!i)ation s"all &e
use( o! ca!!ie( out+
8ection. 1<. E''ectie Pe!io( o' Au(icial Aut"o!i)ation+
Any aut"o!i)ation g!ante( &y t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o' t"e
cou!t o' AppealsOs"all only &e e''ectie 'o! t"e lengt" o' time
speci'ie( in t"e w!itten o!(e! o' t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o' t"e
Cou!t o' Appeals# w"ic" s"all not e-cee( 5B (ays '!om t"e (ate
o' !eceipt o' t"e w!itten o!(e! o' t"e aut"o!i)ing (iision o' t"e
cou!t o' Appeals &y t"e applicant police o! law en'o!cement
/"e CA may e-ten( o! !enew t"e sai( aut"o!i)ation 'o!
anot"e! non>e-ten(i&le pe!io(# w"ic" s"all not e-cee( 5B (ays
'!om t"e e-pi!ation o' t"e o!iginal pe!io(O/"e e->pa!te
application 'o! !enewal "as &een (uly aut"o!i)e( &y t"e Anti>
te!!o!ism Council in w!iting+
97 97
42. 1nder the Buman 8ecurity *ctE*nti(Ferrorism Law; 7epublic
*ct 9o. ,3.2; *ppro#ed on )arch 6; 2<<. and effecti#e on Iuly 1&; 2<<.;
may police authorities eamine the ban@ accounts of indi#iduals without
#iolatin/ their ri/ht to pri#acy?
Ges un(e! *ections 08 an( 0L o' t"e sai( law+ It p!oi(esF
8ection 2.+ Au(icial aut"o!i)ation !eEui!e( to e-amine &an3 (eposits#
accounts an( !eco!(s+
/"e Kustices o' CA (esignate( as special cou!t to "an(le anti>te!!o!ism
cases a'te! satis'ying t"emseles o' t"e e-istence o' p!o&a&le cause in a
"ea!ing calle( 'o! t"at pu!pose t"atF
A pe!son c"a!ge( wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o!
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism,
O' a Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe( te!!o!ist o!gani)ation o!
g!oup o' pe!sons,
O' a mem&e! o' suc" Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe(
o!gani)ation# association o! g!oup o' pe!sons# may aut"o!i)e in
w!iting any police o! law en'o!cement o''ice! an( t"e mem&e!s
o' "is team (uly aut"o!i)e( in w!iting &y t"e anti>te!!o!ism
council toF
.+ e-amine o! cause t"e e-amination o'# t"e (eposits#
placements# t!ust accounts# assets# an( !eco!(s in a &an3
o! 'inancial institution, an(
0+ gat"e! o! cause t"e gat"e!ing o' any !eleant in'o!mation
a&out suc" (eposits# placements# t!ust accounts# assets#
an( !eco!(s '!om a &an3 o! 'inancial institution+ /"e &an3
o! 'inancial institution s"all not !e'use to allow suc"
e-amination o! to p!oi(e t"e (esi!e( in'o!mation# w"en
so o!(e!e( &y an( se!e( wit" t"e w!itten o!(e! o' t"e
Cou!t o' Appeals+
8ec. 2-+ Application to e-amine (eposits# accounts an( !eco!(s+
/"e w!itten o!(e! o' t"e CA aut"o!i)ing t"e e-amination o' &an3
(eposits# placements# t!ust accounts# assets an( !eco!(sF
A pe!son c"a!ge( wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism o!
conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism,
O' a Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe( te!!o!ist o!gani)ation o!
g!oup o' pe!sons,
O' a mem&e! o' suc" Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe(
o!gani)ation# association o! g!oup o' pe!sons# in a &an3 o!
'inancial institution>
98 98
w"o "as &een (uly aut"o!i)e( &y t"e Anti>/e!!o!ism Council to 'ile suc" e->
pa!te application an( upon e-amination un(e! oat" o! a''i!mation o' t"e
applicant an( "is witnesses "e may p!o(uce to esta&lis" t"e 'acts t"at will
Kusti'y t"e nee( an( u!gency o' e-amining an( '!ee)ing t"e &an3 (eposits#
placements# t!ust accounts# assets an( !eco!(sF
O' A pe!son c"a!ge( wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism
o! conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism,
O' a Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe( te!!o!ist o!gani)ation o!
g!oup o' pe!sons,
O' a mem&e! o' suc" Ku(icially (ecla!e( an( outlawe(
o!gani)ation# association o! g!oup o' pe!sons+
43. )ay a wife #alidly seiDe the diaries; chec@s and /reetin/ cards
of the alle/ed paramours of her husband and use the same as e#idence in
a le/al separation case between them?
As "el( in >ULUETA VS! CA" Fe3ru.r4 :;" :EE*# t"e ei(ence
o&taine( &y t"e wi'e w"o 'o!ci&ly opene( t"e (!awe!s at t"e clinic o' "e!
(octo!>"us&an( an( too3 (ia!ies# c"ec3s an( g!eeting ca!(s o' "is allege(
pa!amou!s is ina(missi&le as ei(ence+ /"is is so &ecause t"e intimacies o'
"us&an( an( wi'e (oes not Kusti'y t"e &!ea3ing o' ca&inets to (ete!mine
ma!ital in'i(elity+
43. 's the freedom of speech and epression affected by the Buman
8ecurity *ct?
Ges# un(e! 8ection 26 o' t"e law# it p!oi(es t"at pe!sons w"o "ae
&een c"a!ge( wit" te!!o!ism o! conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism>>>een i'
t"ey "ae &een g!ante( &ail &ecause ei(ence o' guilt is not st!ongUcan &eF
2P!o"i&ite( '!om using any cellula! p"ones# compute!s# o! ot"e! means o'
communications wit" people outsi(e t"ei! !esi(ence+6
44. What is the rule on criticisms on the acts of public officers?
A pu&lic o''icial s"oul( not &e too onion>s3inne( wit" !e'e!ence to
comments upon "is o''icial acts+ /"e inte!est o' t"e goe!nment an( t"e
society (eman(s 'ull (iscussion o' pu&lic a''ai!s+ ($* s+ Bustos# 58 P"il+
4&. )ay the abo#e rule applicable to pri#ate indi#iduals who are
public fi/ures or pri#ate indi#iduals who are candidates for public office?
As "el( &y t"e *up!eme Cou!t in t"e case o' BAG$IO ;I<LA=<
LABO# AR+# DDD *CRA 0L H=oem&e! 09# 0BBD # t"e a!ticle inoling a
p!iate in(ii(ual !unning 'o! ;ayo! o' Baguio City is still wit"in t"e
9L 9L
mantle o' p!otection gua!antee( &y t"e '!ee(om o' e-p!ession p!oi(e( in
t"e Constitution since it is t"e pu&lic:s !ig"t to &e in'o!me( o' t"e mental#
mo!al an( p"ysical 'itness o' can(i(ates 'o! pu&lic o''ice+ /"is was
!ecogni)e( as ea!ly as t"e case o' $* V*+ *E<A=O# .D P"il+ 55L H.?B?I
an( t"e case o' =EW GORP /I;E* V*+ *$LLIVA=# 587 $+*+ 09D w"e!e
t"e $* *up!eme Cou!t "el(F
5Lit is of t%e utmost ,onse0uen,e
t%.t t%e -eo-&e s%ou&/ /is,uss t%e
,%.r.,ter .n/ 0u.&ifi,.tions of ,.n/i/.tes
for t%eir suffr.2es! T%e im-ort.n,e to t%e
St.te .n/ to so,iet4 of su,% /is,ussions is
so" .n/ t%e ./v.nt.2es /erive/ so
2re.t" t%.t t%e4 more t%.n ,ounter3.&.n,e
t%e in,onvenien,e of -riv.te -ersons
1%ose ,on/u,t m.4 3e invo&ve/" .n/
o,,.sion.& inIur4 to t%e re-ut.tions of
in/ivi/u.&s must 4ie&/ to t%e -u3&i,
1e&" .&t%ou2% .t times su,% inIur4
m.4 3e 2re.t! T%e -u3&i, 3enefit from
-u3&i,it4 is so 2re.t .n/ t%e ,%.n,e of
inIur4 to -riv.te ,%.r.,ter so sm.&&" t%.t
su,% /is,ussion must 3e -rivi&e2e/! 5
C&e.r&4" t%e 0uestione/ .rti,&es ,onstitute ,omment on .
m.tter of -u3&i, interest .s it /e.&t 1it% t%e ,%.r.,ter of t%e -riv.te
res-on/ent 1%o 1.s runnin2 for t%e to- e&e,tive -ost in 8.2uio Cit4 .t
t%.t time!
46. )ay the %:)CLC% #alidly prohibit columnists; radio
announcers and F+ commentator for commentin/ for or a/ainst any issue
durin/ the plebiscite period since they can air their #iews in a pro/ram
sponsored by the %:)CLC% itselfJ
=o# suc" woul( &e an un(ue inte!'e!ence on t"e '!ee(om o'
e-p!ession+ I/ I* */ILL A RE*/RIC/IO= O= /CE COL$;=I*/#
WCERE CE ;AG E1PRE** CI* VIEW+ Ple&iscite issues a!e matte!s o'
pu&lic conce!n an( impo!tance+ /"e peopleSs !ig"t to &e in'o!me( an( to &e
a&le to '!eely an( intelligently ma3e a (ecision woul( &e &ette! se!e( &y
access to an una&!i(ge( (iscussion o' t"e issues# I=CL$<I=G /CE
FOR$;+ /"e people a''ecte( &y t"e issues p!esente( in a ple&iscite s"oul(
not &e un(uly &u!(ene( &y !est!ictions on t"e 'o!um w"e!e t"e !ig"t to
e-p!ession may &e e-e!cise(+ (P*0L'F: +. 8*9'D*D +8. %:)CLC%;
G+R+ =O+ ?BL8L# Aanua!y 0?# .??B)
4.. What are the requisites that a newspaper must comply in order
that its news item on an on/oin/ trial in court will not be actionable for
bein/ libelous?
9? 9?
In Eli)al(e s+ Gutie!!e)#87 *CRA DDL# it was "el( t"at in o!(e! t"at
any news item !elating to a Ku(icial p!ocee(ing will not &e actiona&le# t"e
same must &e HaI a t!ue an( 'ai! !epo!t o' t"e actual p!ocee(ings, H&I must &e
(one in goo( 'ait", an( HcI no comments no! !ema!3s s"all &e ma(e &y t"e
4-. What are the tests of obscenity?
/"e t"!ee (5) tests as "el( in ;ille! s+ Cali'o!nia# 58 L+ E(+ 0( D.?
.+ W"et"e! t"e ae!age pe!son applying to contempo!a!y
community stan(a!(s woul( 'in( t"e wo!3 appeals to p!u!ient
0+ W"et"e! t"e wo!3 (epicts o! (esc!i&es a patently o''ensie
se-ual con(uct,
5+ W"et"e! t"e wo!3 as a w"ole lac3s se!ious lite!a!y # a!tistic#
political o! scienti'ic alue+

4,. )ay the %ity )ayor order the confiscation without a search
warrant ma/aDines which he belie#es to be obscene? What is the correct
procedure for him to follow?
=o+ (Pita s+ CA# .8L *CRA 570)+ A City ;ayo! may not o!(e! t"e
wa!!antless sei)u!e o' maga)ines w"ic" "e &eliees to &e o&scene,
ot"e!wise# "e will &ecome t"e complainant# p!osecuto! an( Ku(ge at t"e same
time+ Ce s"oul( o&tain a sea!c" wa!!ant '!om a Ku(ge &y 'ollowing t"e
p!oce(u!e lai( (own &y t"e Rules on "ow to secu!e a sea!c" wa!!ant+
&<. )ay public school teachers #alidly file mass lea#es; instead of
/oin/ on stri@e; after their demand to the /o#ernment was not met$
In GESITE et .&! vs! COURT OF APPEALS" ### SCRA +: %e&/
t%.t 5t%ese .,tions 1ere to .&& intents .n/ -ur-oses . stri=eN t%e4
,onstitute/ . ,on,erte/ .n/ un.ut%oriKe/ sto--.2e of" or .3sen,e from"
1or= 1%i,% it 1.s t%e te.,%ers< /ut4 to -erform" un/ert.=en for
essenti.&&4 e,onomi, re.sons!6 It is un/is-ute/ f.,t t%.t t%ere 1.s .
1or= sto--.2e .n/ t%.t -etitioners< -ur-ose 1.s to re.&iKe t%eir
/em.n/s 34 1it%%o&/in2 t%eir servi,es! T%e f.,t t%.t t%e ,onvention.&
term 5stri=e6 1.s not use/ 34 t%e stri=in2 em-&o4ees to /es,ri3e t%eir
,ommon ,ourse of .,tion is in,onse0uenti.&" SINCE THE SU8STANCE
T%e ri2%t of 2overnment em-&o4ees to or2.niKe IS LI7ITED TO
CA" 9(* SCRA *:E)
7B 7B
&1. What is the procedure to be followed in the application of rally
permits before the %ity or )unicipal )ayor in accordance with 0P 0ilan/
/"e applicants 'o! a pe!mit to "ol( an assem&ly s"oul( in'o!m t"e
licensing aut"o!ity o' t"e (ate# t"e pu&lic place w"e!e an( t"e time when it
will ta3e place+ I' it we!e a p!iate place# only t"e consent o' t"e owne! o!
t"e one entitle( to its legal possession is !eEui!e(+ *uc" application s"oul(
&e 'ile( well a"ea( in time to ena&le t"e pu&lic o''icial conce!ne( to app!aise
w"et"e! t"e!e may &e ali( o&Kections to t"e g!ant o' t"e pe!mit o! to its
g!ant &ut at anot"e! pu&lic place+ It is an in(ispensa&le con(ition to suc"
!e'usal o! mo(i'ication t"at t"e clea! an( p!esent (ange! test &e t"e stan(a!(
'o! t"e (ecision !eac"e(+ I' "e is o' t"e iew t"at t"e!e is suc" an imminent
an( g!ae (ange! o' a su&stantie eil# t"e applicants must &e "ea!( on t"e
matte!+ /"e!ea'te!# "is (ecision# w"et"e! 'ao!a&le o! a(e!se# must &e
t!ansmitte( to t"em at t"e ea!liest oppo!tunity+ /"us i' so min(e(# t"ey can
"ae !ecou!se to t"e p!ope! Ku(icial aut"o!ity+ (8AYAN" AARAPATAN"
GA8RIELA s+ EDUARDO ER7ITA# in "is capacity as E-ecutie
*ec!eta!y# ;anila City ;ayo! LITO ATIEN>A# C"ie' o' t"e P"ilippine
=ational Police# Gen+ ARTURO 7! LO7I8AO" NCRPO C"ie' 7.I!
Gen! VIDAL OUEROL" an( Weste!n Police <ist!ict C"ie' Gen! PEDRO
8ULAONG# G+R+ =o+ .7?LDL# ;ay# 0BB7)
&2. 's 0P --< unconstitutional for bein/ #a/ue 3+oid for +a/ueness
Doctrine5 and o#erbroad 3:#erbreadth Doctrine)J
=o+ It is e!y clea! t"at it (eals only on pu&lic assem&lies t"at (eals
wit" !allies# mass actions an( simila! acts an( not all 3in(s o' pu&lic
assem&lies+ As suc"# it is not ague+
=eit"e! is t"e law oe!&!oa(+ It !egulates t"e e-e!cise o' t"e !ig"t to
peace'ul assem&ly an( petition on&4 to t"e e-tent nee(e( to aoi( a clea!
an( p!esent (ange! o' t"e su&stantie eils Cong!ess "as t"e !ig"t to p!eent+

&3. 's the %alibrated Pre(empti#e 7esponse 3%P75 of the *rroyo
*dministration towards rallyists constitutional?
/"e Cou!t !eite!ates its &asic policy o' up"ol(ing t"e 'un(amental
!ig"ts o' ou! people# especially '!ee(om o' e-p!ession an( '!ee(om o'
assem&ly+ Fo! t"is !eason# t"e so>calle( cali&!ate( p!eemptie !esponse
policy# t"e policy o' (ispe!sing !allyists t"!oug" wate! cannons# "as no
place in ou! legal 'i!mament an( must &e st!uc3 (own as a (a!3ness t"at
s"!ou(s '!ee(om+ It me!ely con'uses ou! people an( is use( &y some police
agents to Kusti'y a&uses+ On t"e ot"e! "an(# B+P+ =o+ LLB cannot &e
con(emne( as unconstitutional, it (oes not cu!tail o! un(uly !est!ict
'!ee(oms, it me!ely !egulates t"e use o' pu&lic places as to t"e time# place
an( manne! o' assem&lies+ Fa! '!om &eing insi(ious# 2ma-imum tole!ance6
is 'o! t"e &ene'it o' !allyists# not t"e goe!nment+ /"e (elegation to t"e
mayo!s o' t"e powe! to issue !ally 2pe!mits6 is ali( &ecause it is su&Kect to
t"e constitutionally>soun( 2clea! an( p!esent (ange!6 stan(a!(+ 8AYAN"
7. 7.
.n/ GA8RIELA s+ EDUARDO ER7ITA# in "is capacity as E-ecutie
*ec!eta!y# ;anila City ;ayo! LITO ATIEN>A# C"ie' o' t"e P"ilippine
=ational Police# Gen+ ARTURO 7! LO7I8AO" NCRPO C"ie' 7.I!
Gen! VIDAL OUEROL" an( Weste!n Police <ist!ict C"ie' Gen! PEDRO
8ULAONG# G+R+ =o+ .7?LDL# ;ay# 0BB7)
&4. Distin/uish !clear and present dan/er$; !dan/erous tendency
rule$ and !balancin/ of interest test$.

Clea! an( p!esent (ange! an( (ange!ous ten(ency !ule (w"et"e! t"e
wo!(s use( in suc" ci!cumstances an( a!e o' suc" a natu!e as to c!eate a
clea! an( p!esent (ange! t"at t"ey will &!ing a&out t"e su&stantie eils t"at
t"e *tate "as t"e !ig"t to p!eent)
<ange!ous ten(ency !ule (I' t"e wo!(s utte!e( c!eate a (ange!ous
ten(ency w"ic" t"e *tate "as t"e !ig"t to p!eent# t"en suc" wo!(s a!e

/"e &alancing>o'>inte!est test (W"en a pa!ticula! con(uct is !egulate(
in t"e inte!est o' t"e pu&lic o!(e!# an( t"e !egulation !esults in an in(i!ect#
con(itional# pa!tial a&!i(gment o' speec"# t"e (uty o' t"e cou!ts is to
(ete!mine w"ic" o' t"e 0 con'licting inte!ests (eman( g!eate! p!otection
un(e! t"e ci!cumstances p!esente(+)
&&. )ay 8enator Iuan Ponce Cnrile pre#ent the mo#ie producer of
the CD8* ' 7e#olution mo#ie from includin/ his participation durin/ the
uprisin/ since it #iolates his ri/ht to pri#acy?
=o# as &etween En!ile:s !ig"t to p!iacy an( t"e '!ee(om o'
e-p!ession on t"e pa!t o' t"e moie p!o(uce!# t"e latte!:s !ig"t p!eail
&ecause En!ile:s pa!t in t"e moie (eals solely on "is acts as a pu&lic o''ice!
t"en+ /o e-clu(e "im as integ!al pa!t o' t"e !eolution woul( &e a (isto!tion
o' "isto!y+ (%Y1! 4!,9CT*+ )&. K9,.1 C%490+., K9%+ 4+C1
1+!*01, 1T %0., '<8 &C!% J<'3
&6. )ay the mother of a murdered )ayor stop the filmin/ of the life
story of her son which would include his alle/ed lo#e affairs which
would blac@en his memory?
Ges+ As &etween t"e !ig"t to p!iacy ino3e( &y t"e mot"e! an( t"e
'!ee(om o' e-p!ession ino3e( &y t"e moie p!o(uce!# t"e state s"all
&alance t"ei! !espectie inte!ests+ *ince t"e moie p!o(uce! is p!ima!ily a'te!
p!o'its only# t"e !ig"t to p!iacy s"all p!eail+ (Lagun)a( s+ Gon)ales)+

&.. What are the two 325 aspects of the 7'ABF F: 7CL'A':18
P7:?C88':9 *9D W:78B'P ? Distin/uish each+
.! Free/om to 3e&ieveN .n/
3! Free/om to .,t!
70 70
I= t"e 'i!st# suc" '!ee(om is a&solute+ Ce may in(ulge in "is own
t"eo!ies a&out li'e an( (eat", wo!s"ip any go( "e c"ooses# o! none at all+ Ce
may not &e punis"e( een i' "e cannot p!oe w"at "e &eliees+
In t"e secon(# i' t"e in(ii(ual e-te!nali)es w"at "e &eliees# "is
'!ee(om to (o so &ecomes su&Kect to t"e aut"o!ity o' t"e *tate+ /"is is so
&ecause !eligious '!ee(om can &e e-e!cise( only wit" (ue !ega!( to t"e
!ig"ts o' ot"e!s+ E-ampleF 2Go 'o!t" an( multiply>>>cannot ma!!y see!al
times Kust to comply+
&-. )ay a Ieho#ah"s Witnesses )ember who is the %ourt
'nterpreter of 7F% 0ranch 2&3; Las Pinas %ity; be held liable for !/rossly
immoral conduct$ for li#in/ with a married man while her #ery own
marria/e was still subsistin/J
: Reso&ution of t%e 7otion for Re,onsi/er.tion)" #;' SCRA :" t%e
Su-reme Court %e&/ t%.t s%e is not &i.3&e for g!ossly immo!al con(uct
*"e is a mem&e! o' t"e Ae"oa":s Witnesses an( t"e Watc" /owe!
/"at t"e conKugal a!!angement was in con'o!mity wit" t"ei!
!eligious &elie's,
/"at t"e conKugal a!!angement wit" Nuilapio "as t"e app!oal o'
"e! cong!egation+
Esc!ito! li3ewise claime( t"at s"e "a( e-ecute( a
2<ECLARA/IO= OF PLE<GI=G FAI/CF$L=E**6 in acco!(ance
wit" "e! !eligion w"ic" allows mem&e!s o' t"e Ae"oa":s witnesses
w"o "ae &een a&an(one( &y t"ei! spouses to ente! into ma!ital
!elations+ /"e <ecla!ation t"us ma3es t"e !esulting union mo!al an(
&in(ing wit"in t"e cong!egation all oe! t"e wo!l( e-cept in count!ies
w"e!e (io!ce is allowe(+ Esc!ito!:s conKugal a!!angement cannot &e
penali)e( as s"e "as ma(e out a case 'o! e-emption '!om t"e law
&ase( on "e! 'un(amental !ig"t to !eligion+
&,. )ay children of Ieho#ah"s Witnesses in public schools be forced
to sin/ the 9ational *nthemO recite the Patriotic Pled/eO and 8alute the
?la/ under pain of bein/ epelled for non(compliance?
=o since suc" is in iolation o' t"ei! !eligious &elie's+ (ROEL
*CCOOL* OF CEB$# ;a!c" .# .??5)+ Religious '!ee(om is supe!io! to t"e
statute !eEui!ing t"e pupils to sing the +ational %nthem; recite the 4atriotic
4ledge; and &alute the ;lag. The doctrine laid down in .erona vs.
&ecretarC of 1ducation was reversed.
75 75
<8. Gow maC the right to travel be impairedF
/"e li&e!ty o' a&o(e an( o' c"anging t"e same wit"in t"e limits
p!esc!i&e( &y law s"all not &e impai!e( e-cept upon law'ul o!(e! o' t"e
cou!t+ =eit"e! s"all t"e !ig"t to t!ael &e impai!e( e-cept in t"e inte!est o'
national secu!ity# pu&lic sa'ety# o! pu&lic "ealt"# as may &e p!oi(e( &y law+
7.. 's the ri/ht to tra#el affected by the Buman 8ecurity *ct?
Ges# 8ection 26 p!oi(es t"at pe!sons w"o "ae &een c"a!ge( wit"
te!!o!ism o! conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism>>>een i' t"ey "ae &een g!ante(
&ail &ecause ei(ence o' guilt is not st!ongUcan &eF
<etaine( un(e! "ouse a!!est,
Rest!icte( '!om t!aeling, an(Ro!
$pon application o' t"e p!osecuto!# t"e suspect:s !ig"t to t!ael
s"all &e limite( to t"e municipality o! city w"e!e "e !esi(es o!
w"e!e t"e case is pen(ing# in t"e inte!est o' national secu!ity an(
pu&lic sa'ety+ /!ael outsi(e o' sai( municipality o! city# wit"out
t"e aut"o!i)ation o' t"e cou!t# s"all &e (eeme( a iolation o' t"e
te!ms an( con(itions o' t"e &ail w"ic" s"all t"en &e 'o!'eite( as
p!oi(e( in t"e Rules o' Cou!t+
/"ese !est!ictions s"all &e te!minate( upon acEuittal o' t"e
accuse(, o! t"e (ismissal o' t"e case 'ile( against "im, o! ea!lie!
upon t"e (isc!etion o' t"e cou!t o! upon motion o' t"e p!osecuto!+
*9! 7.4 Presi/ent 7.r,os v.&i/&4 ,om-e& t%e 2overnment to issue
%im %is -.-ers in or/er t%.t %e ,ou&/ return to t%e P%i&i--ines
from %is US eCi&e@
=o+ (FER<I=A=< ;ARCO*# E/ AL+ V*+ CO=+ RA$L
;A=GLAP$*# E/ AL+# G+R+ =O+ LL0..# *eptem&e! .9# .?L? an( t"e
Resolution o' t"e ;otion 'o! Reconsi(e!ation (ate( Octo&e! 08# .?L?)+
W"at is p!oi(e( &y t"e P"ilippine Constitution is t"e !ig"t to t!ael an( not
t"e !ig"t to !etu!n+ /"ese two (0) !ig"ts a!e (i''e!ent un(e! t"e $nie!sal
<ecla!ation o' Cuman Rig"ts an( Inte!national Coenant on Ciil an(
Political Rig"ts+ /CE RIGC/ /O RE/$R= /O O=ES* CO$=/RG I*
I=/ER=A/IO=AL LAW# $=<ER O$R CO=*/I/$/IO=# I* PAR/ OF
63. What is the !residual power$ of the President?
7D 7D
It is t"e powe! o' t"e P!esi(ent in &alancing t"e gene!al wel'a!e an(
t"e common goo( against t"e e-e!cise o' !ig"ts o' ce!tain in(ii(uals+ /"e
powe! inole( is t"e P!esi(entSs RE*I<$AL POWER to p!otect t"e
gene!al wel'a!e o' t"e people+
64. )ay a person out on bail be #alidly allowed to tra#el abroad?
Ges# su&Kect to t"e 'ollowing !eEuisites ( ;anotoc s+ CA# .D0
*CRA .D?)F
Ce must "owee! H.I conince t"e cou!ts o' t"e u!gency o' "is t!ael#
H0I t"e (u!ation t"e!eo'# an( H5I t"at "is su!eties a!e willing to un(e!ta3e t"e
!esponsi&ility o' allowing "im to t!ael+
6&. 's the ri/ht to information on matters of public concern
=o+ W"ile t"e !ig"t o' t"e people to in'o!mation on matte!s o' pu&lic
conce!n s"all &e !ecogni)e( an( access to o''icial !eco!(sOs"all &e a''o!(e(
t"e citi)en# it must &e su&Kect to suc" limitations as may &e p!oi(e( &y law
as well as !easona&le con(itions impose( &y pu&lic o''icials in custo(y o'
sai( !eco!(s li3e t"e payment o' t"e e-penses o' !ep!o(uction o' pu&lic
(ocuments, t"e !eEuest must &e (one (u!ing o''ice "ou!s# etc+
66. )ay the %:)CLC% be compelled to publish the names of the
nominees of the different party(list /roups for the )ay 14; 2<<. elections
despite the prohibition on such publication as embodied by the Party(List
GE*# t"e CO;ELEC must pu&lis" t"e same (espite t"e
p!o"i&ition in t"e law+ *uc" p!o"i&ition iolates t"e !ig"t to in'o!mation
on matte!s o' pu&lic conce!n on t"e pa!t o' t"e citi)en+ (BA=/AG
6.. )ay the President #alidly prohibit members of her %abinet as
well as other officers in the eecuti#e department from attendin/
in#esti/ations in aid of le/islation by %on/ress?
=o+ *uc" woul( iolate t"e !ig"t o' t"e people to in'o!mation on
matte!s o' pu&lic conce!n+ It is only t"!oug" sai( inestigations t"at t"e
people will &e in'o!me( o' t"e wo!3ings o' t"e (i''e!ent (epa!tments o' t"e
goe!nment+ (*E=A/E OF /CE PCILIPPI=E*# !ep!esente( &y *E=A/E
PRE*I<E=/ FRA=PLI= <RILO=# E/ AL+# V*+ E1EC+ *EC+
E<$AR<O ER;I/A# E/ AL+# G+R+ =o+ .7?88# Ap!il 0B# 0BB7 )

6-. )ay a 0aran/ay #alidly eercise the power of eminent domain?
Ges# su&Kect to t"e app!oal &y t"e P!esi(ent+( Ba!angay ;atictic s+
El&inias# .DL *CRA L5)
79 79
6,. What are the requisites before an epropriator may #alidly
obtain a writ of possession to ta@e o#er possession of the epropriated
It (epen(sF
.+ I' t"e e-p!op!iation is 'o! a 2N.tion.& 2overnment -roIe,ts6 o!
2n.tion.& infr.stru,ture -roIe,ts6# li3e t"ose coe!e( &y t"e 2Buil(>
Ope!ate>/!ans'e!6# RA L?8D s"all &e 'ollowe(+ /"is means t"at t"e!e
must &e a HaI Complaint 'o! e-p!op!iation w"ic" is su''icient in 'o!m
an( in su&stance, an( H0I t"e .BB4 o' t"e ma!3et alue o' t"e p!ope!ty
soug"t to &e e-p!op!iate( must 'i!st &e pai( to t"e owne! o' t"e
0+ In o!(ina!y e-p!op!iation cases# t"e !ule is t"at in t"e case o'
P$R*$A=/ /O *EC/IO= 0# R$LE 78 OF /CE .??8 R$LE* OF
t%e fi&in2 of . ,om-&.int for eC-ro-ri.tion suffi,ient in form
.n/ su3st.n,eN .n/
t%e m.=in2 of . /e-osit e0uiv.&ent to t%e ASSESSED
5+ I' t"e e-p!op!iation is &eing (one &y a Local Goe!nment $nit# t"e
*up!eme Cou!t (ecision in t"e case o' THE CITY OF ILOILO VS!
&e complie( wit"F
.+ t"e complaint 'o! e-p!op!iation 'ile( in cou!t is
su''icient in 'o!m an( su&stance, an(
9! t%e eC-ro-ri.tor must /e-osit t%e .mount
e0uiv.&ent to :+P of t%e m.r=et v.&ue of
t%e -ro-ert4 to 3e eC-ro-ri.te/ on its
,urrent t.C /e,&.r.tion!
.<. Who determines the 2ust compensation in epropriation cases?
What are the factors to be considered in determinin/ the same?
<ete!mination o' Kust compensation is a Ku(icial 'unction wit" t"e
assistance o! !ecommen(ation o' t"e cou!t>appointe( commissione!s+
(;anoto3 s+ CA# ;ay 0.#.?L8)
77 77
/"e 'acto!s to &e consi(e!e( in (ete!mining t"e Kust
compensationRma!3et alue a!eF

.+ cost o' acEuisition,
0+ t"e cu!!ent alue o' li3e p!oe!ties,
5+ its actual o! potential uses,
D+ pa!ticula! case o' lan(s,
9+ t"ei! si)e# s"ape# location, an(
7+ t"e ta- (ecla!ations t"e!eon+
Finally# note t"at as "el( in t"e case o' Repu&lic s+ *antos# .D.
*CRA 5B# t"e ma!3et alue as !ecommen(e( &y t"e &oa!( o'
commissione!s appointe( &y t"e cou!t we!e at &est only A<VI*ORG
A=< PER*$A*IVE A=< BG =O ;EA=* FI=AL OR BI=<I=G+
REPU8LIC OF THE PHILIPPINES" <ecem&e! .D# .??0)+
.1. What are the requisites of !ta@in/$ in epropriation cases?
/"e ReEuisites o' ta3ing a!eF
a+ t"e e-p!op!iato! must ente! t"e p!ope!ty,
&+ t"e ent!ance must not &e 'o! Kust a momenta!y pe!io(,
c+ t"e ent!y must &e un(e! wa!!ant o' colo! o! title,
(+ t"e p!ope!ty must &e (eote( 'o! pu&lic use, an(
e+ t"e owne! must &e ouste( '!om &ene'icial use o' "is lan(+ ( Rep+ s+
Castelli# 9L *CRA 557)

.2. )ay a pri#ate property already used as a pri#ate cemetery be
epropriated for a public purposeJ
=o# a p!iate p!ope!ty w"ic" is al!ea(y (eote( to pu&lic use may not
&e e-p!op!iate( 'o! anot"e! pu&lic pu!pose+ (City o' ;anila s+ C"inese
Community# DB P"il+ 5D?)+
.3. What are the ri/hts of a person under custodial in#esti/ation
under the !)ahinay doctrine$ or the !Cpanded )iranda Doctrine$?
/"e !ig"ts a!eF
.+ /"e pe!son a!!este(# (etaine(# inite( o! un(e! custo(ial
inestigation must &e in'o!me( in a language 3nown to an(
un(e!stoo( &y "im o' t"e !eason 'o! t"e a!!est an( "e must
&e s"own a copy o' t"e wa!!ant o' a!!est# i' any, Ee!y ot"e!
wa!nings# in'o!mation o! communication must &e in a
language 3nown to an( un(e!stoo( &y sai( pe!son,
0+ Ce must &e wa!ne( t"at "e "as t"e !ig"t to !emain silent an(
t"at any statement "e ma3es may &e use( as ei(ence
against "im,
78 78
5+ Ce must &e in'o!me( t"at "e "as t"e !ig"t to &e assiste( at
all times an( "ae t"e p!esence o' an in(epen(ent an(
competent lawye!# p!e'e!a&ly o' "is own c"oice,
D+ Ce must &e in'o!me( t"at i' "e "as no lawye! o! cannot
a''o!( t"e se!ices o' a lawye!# one will &e p!oi(e( 'o! "im,
an( t"at a lawye! may also &e engage( &y any pe!son in "is
&e"al'# o! may &e appointe( &y t"e cou!t upon petition o' t"e
pe!son a!!este( o! one acting in "is &e"al',
9+ /"at w"et"e! o! not t"e pe!son a!!este( "as a lawye!# # "e
must &e in'o!me( t"at no custo(ial inestigation in any 'o!m
s"all &e con(ucte( e-cept in t"e p!esence o' "is counsel o!
a'te! a ali( waie! "as &een ma(e,
7+ /"e pe!son a!!este( must &e in'o!me( t"at# at any time# "e
"as t"e !ig"t to communicate o! con'e! &y t"e most
e-pe(ient means>>>telep"one# !a(io# lette! o! messenge!>>>
wit" "is lawye! (eit"e! !etaine( o! appointe()# any mem&e!
o' "is imme(iate 'amily, o! any me(ical (octo!# p!iest o!
ministe! c"osen &y "im o! &y any one '!om "is imme(iate
'amily o! &y "is counsel# o! &e isite( &yRcon'e! wit" (uly
acc!e(ite( national o! inte!national non>goe!nmental
o!gani)ation+ I/ *CALL BE /CE RE*PO=*IBILI/G OF
8+ Ce must &e in'o!me( t"at "e "as t"e !ig"t to waie any o'
sai( !ig"ts p!oi(e( it is ma(e olunta!ily# 3nowingly an(
intelligently an( ensu!e t"at "e un(e!stoo( t"e same,
L+ In a((ition# i' t"e pe!son a!!este( waies "is !ig"t to a
lawye!# "e must &e in'o!me( t"at it must &e (one in w!iting
A=< in t"e p!esence o' counsel# ot"e!wise# "e must &e
wa!ne( t"at t"e waie! is oi( een i' "e insist on "is waie!
an( c"ooses to spea3,
?+ /"at t"e pe!son a!!este( must &e in'o!me( t"at "e may
in(icate in any manne! at any time o! state o' t"e p!ocess
t"at "e (oes not wis" to &e Euestione( wit" t"e wa!ning t"at
once "e ma3es suc" in(ication# t"e police may not
inte!!ogate "im i' t"e same "a( not yet commence(# o! t"e
inte!!ogation "as &egun,
.B+/"e pe!son a!!este( must &e in'o!me( t"at "is initial waie!
o' "is !ig"t to !emain silent# t"e !ig"t to counsel o! any o' "is
!ig"ts (oes not &a! "im '!om ino3ing it at any ot"e! time
(u!ing t"e p!ocess# !ega!(less o' w"et"e! "e may "ae
7L 7L
answe!e( some Euestions o! oluntee!e( some in'o!mation
o! statements,
..+Ce must &e in'o!me( t"at any statement OR EVI<E=CE# as
t"e case may &e# o&taine( in iolation o' any o' t"e
'o!egoing# w"et"e! inculpato!y o! e-culpato!y# in w"ole o!
in pa!t# *CALL BE I=A<;I**IBLE I= EVI<E=CE+
.4. What are the ri/hts of a person under !custodial detention$ for
one suspected or arrested as a terrorist under the Buman 8ecurity *ct?
/"e !ig"ts a!e em&o(ie( un(e! *ection 0. t"e!eo' w"ic"
8ection 21+ Rig"ts o' a pe!son un(e! custo(ial (etention+> /"e
moment a pe!son c"a!ge( wit" o! suspecte( o' t"e c!ime o' te!!o!ism
o! t"e c!ime o' conspi!acy to commit te!!o!ism is app!e"en(e( o!
a!!este( an( (etaine(# "e s"all 'o!t"wit" &e in'o!me( &y t"e a!!esting
police o! law en'o!cement o''ice!s to w"ose custo(y t"e pe!son
conce!ne( is &!oug"t# o' "is o! "e! !ig"tF
.+ to &e in'o!me( o' t"e natu!e an( cause o' "is a!!est# to
!emain silent an( to "ae competent an( in(epen(ent
counsel p!e'e!a&ly o' "is own c"oice+ I' t"e pe!son
cannot a''o!( t"e se!ices o' counsel o' "is o! "e!
c"oice# t"e police o! law en'o!cement o''ice!s conce!ne(
s"all imme(iately contact t"e '!ee legal assistance unit o'
t"e IBP o! t"e Pu&lic atto!ney:s o''ice (PAO)+ It s"all &e
t"e (uty o' t"e '!ee legal assistance unit o' t"e IBP o! t"e
PAO:s t"us contacte( to imme(iately isit t"e pe!son
(etaine( an( p!oi(e "im wit" legal assistance+ /"ese
!ig"ts cannot &e waie( e-cept in w!iting an( in t"e
p!esence o' t"e counsel o' c"oice,
0+ in'o!me( o' t"e cause o! causes o' "is (etention in t"e
p!esence o' "is legal counsel,
5+ allowe( to communicate '!eely wit" "is legal counsel an(
to con'e! wit" t"em at any time wit"out !est!iction,
D+ allowe( to communicate '!eely an( p!iately wit"out
!est!ictions wit" t"e mem&e!s o' "is 'amily o! wit" "is
nea!est !elaties an( &e isite( &y t"em, an(
9+ allowe( '!eely to aail o' t"e se!ices o' a p"ysician o!
p"ysicians o' c"oice+
.&. *re the abo#e ri/hts a#ailable to a suspect if he is under
in#esti/ation but by a pri#ate person?
$G# AR+# et al+# D89 *CRA 0DL)+ /"e claim t"at "is a''i(ait is ina(missi&le
in ei(ence in acco!(ance wit" section .0 H.I o' t"e Bill o' Rig"ts is not
tena&le+ /"e 2inestigation6 un(e! sai( p!oision !e'e!s to 2custo(ial
7? 7?
inestigation w"e!e a suspect "as al!ea(y &een ta3en into police custo(y
an( t"at t"e inestigating o''ice!s &egin to as3 Euestions to elicit in'o!mation
an( con'essions o! a(missions '!om t"e suspect+ *uccinctly state(# custo(ial
inestigation !e'e!s to t"e c!itical p!e>t!ial stage w"en t"e inestigation
ceases to &e a gene!al inEui!y into an unsole( c!ime &ut "as &egan to 'ocus
on a pa!ticula! pe!son as a suspect (People s+ <uenas# A!+# D07 *CRA 777)+
Clea!ly# t"e!e'o!e# t"e !ig"ts enume!ate( &y t"e accuse( a!e not aaila&le
/"e p!otectie mantle o' section .0# a!ticle III (oes not apply to
a(minist!atie inestigations (People s+ Au(ge Ayson# .89 *CRA 0.7),
con'ession to a p!iate in(ii(ual (Pimpo s+ CA# 050 *CRA 95), e!&al
a(mission ma(e to a !a(io announce! w"o was not a pa!t o' t"e inestigation
(People s+ O!(ono# 55D *CRA 785), o! een to a ;ayo! app!oac"e( as a
pe!sonal con'i(ante an( not in "is o''icial capacity (People s+ Quela# 505
*CRA 9L?)+ In 'act# een a i(eotape( inte!iew w"e!e t"e accuse(
willingly a(mit "is guilt in t"e p!esence o' newsmen is not coe!e( &y t"e
sai( p!oision t"oug" t"e t!ial cou!ts we!e wa!ne( &y t"e sup!eme Cou!t to
ta3e e-t!eme caution in a(mitting simila! con'essions &ecause o' t"e (istinct
possi&ility t"at t"e police# wit" t"e conniance o' unsc!upulous me(ia
p!actitione!s# may attempt to legitimi)e coe!ce( e-t!aKu(icial con'essions
an( place t"em &eyon( t"e e-clusiona!y !ule &y "aing an accuse( a(mit an
o''ense on teleision (People s+ En(ino# 595 *CRA 5B8)+
7<. Hhen is custodial investigation deemed to have started so
as to entitle the suspect to be informed of his rights under the 2ahinaC
Custo/i.& investi2.tion 3e2ins 1%en it is no &on2er . 2ener.&
in0uir4 into .n unso&ve/ ,rime 3ut st.rts to fo,us on . -.rti,u&.r -erson
.s . sus-e,t" i!e!" 1%en t%e -o&i,e investi2.tor st.rts interro2.tin2 or
eC.,tin2 ,onfession from t%e sus-e,t in ,onne,tion 1it% .n .&&e2e/
1.s ,usto/i.& investi2.tion 1%en t%e -o&i,e .ut%orities" u-on t%eir
.rrest of some of t%e .,,use/" imme/i.te&4 .s=e/ t%em re2.r/in2 t%eir
-.rti,i-.tion in t%e ,ommission of t%e ,rime " even 1%i&e t%e4 1ere sti&&
1.&=in2 .&on2 t%e %i2%1.4 on t%eir 1.4 to t%e -o&i,e st.tion! PEOPLE
V*+ BARIN$I/# 5D. *CRA 7BB)
88+ A!e spontaneous a(missions ma(e &e'o!e a pe!son coul( &e
in'o!me( o' "is !ig"ts (u!ing custo(ial inestigation a(missi&le as ei(enceJ
Ges+ S-ont.neous st.tements vo&unt.ri&4 2iven" .s 1%ere
.--e&&.nt or.&&4 ./mitte/ =i&&in2 t%e vi,tim 3efore t%e 3.r.n2.4
, 1%o is neit%er . -o&i,e offi,er nor . &.1 enfor,ement
.2ent)" /o not f.&& un/er ,usto/i.& investi2.tion! Su,% ./mission"
8B 8B
even 1it%out t%e .ssist.n,e of . &.14er" /oes not vio&.te
.--e&&.nt<s ,onstitution.& ri2%ts AND THEREFORE
..87?B# 55? *CRA 9.9# *EP/+ .# 0BBB, PEOPLE V*+ ;AGORGA#
G+R+ =O+ .59DB9# 5D7 *CRA D9L# =OVE;BER 0?# 0BBB)+
7J. Hhat are the reNuisites before an eEtra5udicial confession is
To 3e ./missi3&e in evi/en,e" .n eCtr.Iu/i,i.& ,onfession
must 3eJ i) vo&unt.r4N ii) m./e 1it% t%e assistance of competent
and independent counselN iii) eC-ressN .n/ iv) in 1ritin2!
A sus-e,t<s ,onfession" 1%et%er ver3.& or non-ver3.&" 1%en
t.=en 1it%out t%e .ssist.n,e of ,ounse&" 1it%out . v.&i/ 1.iver of
su,% .ssist.n,e" re2.r/&ess of t%e .3sen,e of ,oer,ion or t%e f.,t
t%.t it %./ 3een vo&unt.ri&4 2iven" is in./missi3&e in evi/en,e"
even if .--e&&.nt<s ,onfession 1ere 2os-e& trut%! PEOPLE VS!
DANO" G!R! NO! ::(*E;" $$E SCRA +:+" SEPT! :" 9;;;N
PEOPLE VS! SA7OLDE" G!R! NO! :9'++:" $$* SCRA *$9" DUL!
$:" 9;;;)+
To 3e ./missi3&e in evi/en,e" .n eCtr.Iu/i,i.&
,onfession must 3eJ i) vo&unt.r4N ii) m./e 1it% t%e
assistance of competent and independent counselN iii)
eC-ressN .n/ iv) in 1ritin2!
A sus-e,t<s ,onfession" 1%et%er ver3.& or non-ver3.&"
1%en t.=en 1it%out t%e .ssist.n,e of ,ounse&" 1it%out .
v.&i/ 1.iver of su,% .ssist.n,e" re2.r/&ess of t%e .3sen,e of
,oer,ion or t%e f.,t t%.t it %./ 3een vo&unt.ri&4 2iven" is
ina(missi&le in ei(ence# een i' appellant:s con'ession we!e
gospel t!ut"+
7=. *s the presence of a lawCer to assist the suspect during
custodial investigation sufficient to complC with the reNuirements of the
No! As %e&/ in PEOPLE VS! PATUNGAN" $+# SCRA #:$"
t%e mere -resen,e of . &.14er is not suffi,ient ,om-&i.n,e 1it% t%e
,onstitution.& re0uirement of .ssist.n,e of ,ounse&! Assist.n,e of
,ounse& must 3e effe,tive" vi2i&.nt .n/ in/e-en/ent! A &.14er 1%o ,ou&/
Iust %e.r t%e investi2.tion 2oin2 on 1%i&e 1or=in2 on .not%er ,.se
%.r/&4 s.tisfies t%e minimum re0uirements of effe,tive .ssist.n,e of
,ounse&! Not on&4 1.s t%e .,,use/ su3Ie,te/ to ,usto/i.& investi2.tion
1it%out ,ounse&" %e 1.s &i=e1ise /enie/ effe,tive .ssist.n,e of ,ounse&
/urin2 t%e t.=in2 of %is eCtr.-Iu/i,i.& ,onfession!
8. 8.
-<. ?rom what time must the counsel assist the suspect durin/
custodial in#esti/ation? Who must choose such counsel?
In PEOPLE V+ AI;E=EQ# G+R+ =o+ L07BD+ <ecem&e! .0# .??.# it
was "el( t"at t"e counsel must &e p!esent '!om t"e inception o' t"e custo(ial
inestigation not at any time t"e!ea'te!+ Also# t"e lawye! w"o assists t"e
suspect un(e! custo(ial inte!!ogation s"oul( &e o' t"e latte!Ss own c"oice#
not one 'oiste( on "im &y t"e police inestigato!s o! ot"e! pa!ties+ In t"is
case# t"e 'o!me! Ku(ge w"ose assistance was !eEueste( &y t"e police was
ei(ently not o' ;a!cos Aimene)S own c"oice, s"e was t"e police o''ice!sS
own c"oice, s"e (i( not as3 ;a!cos i' "e was willing to "ae "e! !ep!esent
"im+ /"is is not t"e mo(e o' solicitation o' legal assistance contemplate( &y
t"e Constitution+ Fu!t"e!mo!e# t"e 'o!me! Ku(ge was not p!esent w"en
;a!cos was &eing inte!!ogate( &y t"e police+ W"ile s"e as3e( "im i' "e "a(
olunta!ily gien t"e statements containe( in t"e typew!itten (ocument# t"is
is 'a! '!om &eing su&stantial compliance wit" t"e constitutional (uty o'
police inestigato!s (u!ing custo(ial inte!!ogation+
-1. 's the etra2udicial confession of a suspect obtained without the
assistance of a lawyer; but spea@s of /ospel truth; admissible in e#idence?
=o+ In PEOPLE V*+ GALI/# .59 *CRA D79# PEOPLE V*+
PA=FILO CABILE*# 0LD *CRA .??, an( PEOPLE V*+ /A=# 0L7 *CRA
0B8# it was "el( t"at een i' t"e con'ession o' t"e accuse( spea3s t"e t!ut"# i'
it was ma(e wit"out t"e assistance o' counsel# it is ina(missi&le in ei(ence
!ega!(less o' t"e a&sence o' coe!cion o! een i' it was olunta!ily gien+
In o!(e! t"at a con'ession is a(missi&le# t"e 'ollowing !eEuisites must
&e p!esentF
a+ t"e con'ession must &e olunta!y,
&+ t"e con'ession must &e ma(e wit" t"e assistance o' a competent
an( in(epen(ent counsel,
c+ t"e con'ession must &e e-p!ess, an(
(+ t"e con'ession must &e in w!iting+
/"e a&oe !eEui!ements# "owee!# a!e not applica&le w"en t"e
suspect ma3es an spontaneous statement# not elicite( t"!oug" Euestioning
&y t"e aut"o!ities# B$/ GIVE= I= A= OR<I=ARG ;A==ER
CO;;I//E< /CE CRI;E+ /"is was t"e (ecision o' t"e *up!eme Cou!t in
t"e case o' PEOPLE VS! ANDAN" 7.r,% $" :EE( w"en t"e accuse( ma(e
a olunta!y an( e!&al con'ession to t"e ;unicipal ;ayo! t"at "e
committe( t"e c!ime impute( to "im+ As suc"# "is uncounselle( con'ession
is a(missi&le in ei(ence!
-2. What are the two 325 @inds of coerced or in#oluntary confessions
under 8ection 12; *rt. ''' of the %onstitution?
80 80
/"e two (0) 3in(s o' inolunta!y o! coe!ce( con'essions un(e! A!t+
III# *ection .0 o' t"e Constitution+ /"ese a!eF
a+ con'ession w"ic" a!e t"e p!o(uct o' t"i!( (eg!ee met"o(s suc" as
to!tu!e# 'o!ce# iolence# t"!eat# intimi(ation, an(
&+ t"ose w"ic" a!e gien wit"out t"e &ene'it o' ;i!an(a Wa!nings+
-3. What is the status of coerced confessions as e#idence in court?
Coe!ce( o! inolunta!y con'essions a!e ina(missi&le as ei(ence
&eing t"e 2'!uit o' t"e poisone( t!ee+6
-4. 's the ri/ht to counsel satisfied if the suspect was assisted by the
8tation %ommander of the Western Police District while he was bein/
in#esti/ated by the policemen of the same station? Bow about if the
in#esti/ation is bein/ conducted by the 90' and the suspect was ordered
assisted by a lawyer(applicant therein?
/"e!e is no compliance o' t"e constitutional !eEui!ement o' competent
an( in(epen(ent counsel to assist an accuse( (u!ing custo(ial inestigation
w"en t"e accuse( was assiste( &y t"e *tation Comman(e! o' t"e WP<# Atty+
<e los Reyes# w"ile &eing inestigate( &y ot"e! policemen o' t"e same
police station &ecause t"e inte!est o' t"e police is natu!ally a(e!se to t"e
accuse(+ In 'act# t"e *C in t"e case o' PEOPLE V*+ AA=$ARIO# 078 *CRA
7BL "el( t"at a lawye! applying 'o! a position in t"e =BI coul( not ali(ly
assist an accuse( &eing inestigate( t"en &y t"e =BI+ (PEOPLE V*+
OBRERO# 550 *CRA .?B)
-&. 's the ri/ht to counsel a#ailable to a suspect durin/ a police
/"e *up!eme Cou!t "a( con'licting (ecisions on t"is aspect &ut en(e(
up wit" t"e !ule t"at since t"e accuse( will not &e ma(e to ma3e any
testimony (u!ing t"e police line>up# t"en "e is not un(e! custo(ial
inestigation an( t"e!e'o!e# t"e!e is no nee( 'o! "im to &e assiste( &y a
lawye!+ ( P s+ $sman Cassan# .98 *CRA 07., Gam&oa s+ Au(ge C!u)# .70
*CRA 7D0, <E LA /ORRE V*+ CA# 0?D *CRA .?7 an( PEOPLE V*+
-6. 's there a #alid custodial in#esti/ation if the lawyer who assisted
him durin/ custodial in#esti/ation is a public attorney who was not chosen
by the accused himself but /i#en to him free of char/e? %ould the ?iscal
also represent the accused durin/ custodial in#esti/ation to satisfy the
requirement of the %onstitution that the accused is assisted by counsel?
/"e counsel must &e t"e c"oice o' t"e accuse( o! suspect+ (P+ s+
Aleg!ia# *eptem&e! 0L# .??B) Also# t"e Fiscal coul( not "ae p!otecte( t"e
!ig"ts o' t"e suspect# een i' t"ey a!e 3nown to eac" ot"e!# since t"e Fiscal is
85 85
t"e!e 'o! t"e p!iate complainant+ (P+ s+ ;atos>Vi(uaya# *eptem&e! ..#
-.. 'f the etra2udicial admission or confession of the accused is
declared inadmissible as e#idence; must the accused be acquitted as a
matter of ri/ht?
=o+ .09555# ;a!c" 0B# 0BB0# t"e *up!eme Cou!t "el( t"at t"oug" t"e
e-t!aKu(icial con'ession o' t"e accuse( was (ecla!e( ina(missi&le 'o!
iolation o' "is !ig"t to counsel# i' t"e!e a!e ei(ence su''icient to p!oe "is
guilt &eyon( !easona&le (ou&t# li3e ci!cumstantial ei(ence# t"en "e can still
&e conicte( o' t"e c!ime c"a!ge(+ /"is is so &ecause H.I t"e comp!omising
ci!cumstances we!e (uly p!oen w"ic" we!e consistent wit" eac" ot"e! an(
w"ic" lea( wit" mo!al ce!tainty to t"e conclusion t"at "e was guilty o' t"e
c!ime c"a!ge(, an( H0I t"e totality o' suc" ci!cumstances eliminate( &eyon(
(ou&t t"e possi&ility o' "is innocence+ In People s+ ;a"inay# it was "el(
t"at coniction may &e "a( on ci!cumstantial ei(ence p!oi(e( t"e
'ollowing !eEuisites a!e p!esentF HaI t"e!e is mo!e t"an one ci!cumstance, H&I
t"e 'acts '!om w"ic" t"e in'e!ences a!e (e!ie( a!e p!oen, an( HcI t"e
com&ination o' all ci!cumstances is suc" as to p!o(uce a coniction &eyon(
!easona&le (ou&t+
JJ. 2aC a convicted person be released from 5ail through
1.s %e&/ t%.t res-on/ent Du/2e is 2ui&t4 of 2ross i2nor.n,e of t%e &.1
for or/erin2 t%e re& of 8.2.-oro -en/in2 t%e .--rov.& of %is
.--&i,.tion for .n/ 3efore t%e ,om-&etion of t%e minimum -erio/
of t%e senten,e im-ose/ u-on %im! It is -.tent&4 erroneous to re& .
,onvi,t on re,o2niK.n,e! Se,tion 9#" Ru&e ::# -rovi/es t%.t t%ere s%.&&
no 3.i& for . ,onvi,t .fter fin.& Iu/2ment! T%e on&4 eC,e-tion is 1%en
t%e ,onvi,t .--&ies for Pro3.tion 3efore %e ,ommen,es to serve %is
senten,e .n/ t%.t t%e offense .n/ t%e -en.&t4 for t%e offense is 1it%in
t%e -urvie1 of t%e Pro3.tion L.1!
*ections 9 an( .7 o' Rule ..D o' t"e Rules o' Cou!t (on t"e (i''e!ent
3in(s o' &ail) APPLIE* O=LG /O A= ACC$*E< $=<ERGOI=G
A$<G;E=/ A=< ALREA<G *ERVI=G *E=/E=CE+
-,. )ay a 2ud/e require !cash bond$ only?
=o+ /"e Rules p!oi(es 'o! 'ou! (D) ways o' posting &on( an( it is
g!ae a&use o' (isc!etion to !eEui!e cas" &on( only+ (Alme(a s+ Villalu)# 77
*CRA 5L)+
8D 8D
,<. )ay an accused char/ed of a capital offense and the e#idence of
/uilt is stron/ be /ranted bail?
Ges+ /"e pu!pose o' t"e &on( is to assu!e t"e cou!t o' t"e p!esence o'
t"e accuse( (u!ing t"e t!ial o' "is case+ I' t"e p!o&a&ility o' 2'lig"t6 is nil#
t"en t"e accuse( may &e allowe( to post &ail+ (BEL/RA= V*+ /CE
*ECRE/ARG OF A$*/ICE# Ap!il# 0BB8)
,1. )ay a person sub2ect of etradition from another country and
where the cases a/ainst him in said country are bailable; be allowed to
post bail pendin/ the etradition hearin/s?
PURUGGANAN Q 7ARA DU7ENE>" Novem3er" 9;;9" . -erson
f.,in2 eCtr./ition -ro,ee/in2s is not entit&e/ to 3.i& even if t%e ,rime %e
1.s ,%.r2e/ of in . forei2n ,ountr4 is 3.i&.3&e! T%is is so 3e,.use t%e
,onstitution.& -rovision on t%e ri2%t to 3.i& un/er Art! III of t%e :E'(
Constitution .--&ies on&4 to ,rimin.& ,.ses" not in eCtr./ition
DUDGE" RTC :(" 7ANILA" #'$ SCRA 9E;)! T%is is so 3e,.use of t%e
-ossi3i&it4 of f&i2%t
,2. 'n etradition cases; is the respondent therein entitled to notice
and hearin/ before the issuance of a warrant of arrest a/ainst him?
=o+ In *ECRE/ARG OF A$*/ICE V*+ A$<GE LA=/IO=# 500
*CRA .7B (/"e ;a!3 Aimene) Case) # t"e *up!eme Cou!t on a ?>7 ote "el(
t"at t"e e-t!a(itee is entitle( to notice an( "ea!ing w"en a !eEuest 'o!
e-t!a(ition &y anot"e! count!y is still &eing ealuate(+ Cowee!# on ;otion
'o! Reconsi(e!ation in t"e same case# in a ?>7 (ecision# t"e *up!eme Cou!t
"el( t"at t"e p!ospectie e-t!a(itee is not entitle( to notice an( "ea!ing w"ile
"is case is still un(e! ealuation &ecause t"is woul( (e'eat t"e pu!pose o' t"e
a!!est wa!!ant since it coul( gie wa!ning t"at !espon(ents woul( &e a!!este(
an( een encou!age t"em to 'lee &ut entitle( to notice an( "ea!ing i' t"e case
is al!ea(y 'ile( in cou!t+ (E<$AR<O RO<RIG$EQ V*+ /CE PRE*I<I=G
A$<GE# R/C .8# ;A=ILA# DL5 *CRA 0?B)
It is a (i''e!ent matte! i' at 'i!st# t"e e-t!a(itee was allowe( &ail+ /"e
cancellation o' "is &ail &on( may &e ma(e only a'te! notice an( "ea!ing+
Ot"e!wise# "is !ig"t to (ue p!ocess o' law will &e iolate(+
,3. What is the !CP1'P:'8C 71LC$?
I' t"e ei(ence in a c!iminal case is eenly &alance(# t"e constitutional
p!esumption o' innocence tilts t"e scale o' Kustice in 'ao! o' t"e accuse(
an( "e s"oul( &e acEuitte( '!om t"e c!ime c"a!ge(+ W"e!e t"e inculpato!y
'acts an( ci!cumstances a!e capa&le o' two o! mo!e inte!p!etations one o'
w"ic" is consistent wit" t"e innocence o' t"e accuse( an( t"e ot"e!
consistent wit" "is guilt# t"en t"e ei(ence (oes not 'ul'ill t"e test o' mo!al
ce!tainty an( is not su''icient to suppo!t a coniction &ecause o' t"e
89 89
accuse(:s constitutional p!esumption o' innocence+(PEOPLE VS! DE LOS
SANTOS" $++ SCRA #:+)
,4. )ay the court re#erse the order of trial in a criminal case?
=o+ suc" woul( iolate t"e !ig"t o' t"e accuse( to p!esumption o'
innocence+ /o &e !eEui!e( to p!esent "is ei(ence 'i!st woul( &e ma3ing "im
p!oe "is innocence an( not t"e *tate p!oing "is guilt+ (AleKan(!o s+
Pepito# ?7 *CRA 500) Cowee!# i' t"e accuse( (oes not o&Kect to suc" a
p!oce(u!e# t"en a !ee!se o!(e! o' t!ial is allowe( &y t"e Rules+ (*acay s+
*an(igan&ayan# Auly .B#l?L7) In 'act it s"oul( &e note( t"at un(e! t"e newly
a(opte( .?L9 Rules o' C!iminal P!oce(u!e (*ec+ 5e)# Rule ..?)t"e sai(
p!oce(u!e is now e-p!essly sanctione(+ /"usF
MCowee!# w"en t"e accuse( a(mits t"e act o!
omission c"a!ge( in t"e complaint o! in'o!mation
&ut inte!poses a law'ul (e'ense# t"e o!(e! o' t!ial
may &e mo(i'ie( acco!(ingly+M
,&. What is the etent of the obli/ation of a counsel de oficio for an
accused in a criminal case?
W"ile an accuse( may &e gien a counsel (e o'icio w"ic" is not a
lawye! o' "is own c"oice &ecause "e coul( not a''o!( t"e se!ices o' a (e
pa!te lawye!# only t"e 'ait"'ul pe!'o!mance &y counsel o' "is (uty towa!(s
"is client can gie meaning an( su&stance to t"e accuse(:s !ig"t to (ue
p!ocess an( to &e p!esume( innocent until p!oen ot"e!wise+ Cence# a
lawye!:s (uty# especially t"at o' a (e'ense counsel# must not &e ta3en lig"tly+
It must &e pe!'o!me( wit" all t"e )eal an( igo! at "is comman( to p!otect
an( sa'egua!( t"e accuse(:s 'un(amental !ig"ts+ /"e caalie! attitu(e o'
Atty+ ;anolo B!otonel o' t"e PAO cannot go unnotice(+ It is (isce!ni&le in
HaI "is !e'usal to c!oss>e-amine Ole&y =a(e!a (t"e complainant 'o! RAPE),
H&I t"e manne! in w"ic" "e con(ucte( ;a!ic!is =a(e!a:s c!oss>e-amination,
an( HcI "is 'ailu!e not only to p!esent ei(ence 'o! t"e accuse( &ut to in'o!m
t"e accuse( o' "is !ig"t to (o so# i' "e (esi!es+ (PEOPLE V*+ =A<ERA# AR+#
50D *CRA D?B)
=<. *f the accused has the right to be present during the trial of
his case, can he also refuse to appear during the hearings of his caseF
No! Durin2 .rr.i2nment" -romu&2.tion of t%e /e,ision .n/
1%en %e is to 3e i/entifie/ 34 t%e 1itnesses for t%e -rose,ution" %e must
3e -resent! Ho1ever" %e ,.n v.&i/&4 1.ive %is -resen,e .fter
.rr.i2nment 1%en %e st.te in o-en ,ourt or in .n .ffi/.vit t%.t
1%enever . 1itness mentions %is /urin2 t%e -resent.tion of t%e
-rose,ution<s evi/en,e" %e ./mits t%.t %e is t%e one 3ein2 referre/ to!
A0uino vs! 7i&it.r4 Commission" *$ SCRA +#*N P vs! Du/2e" :9+
87 87
=7. Hhen maC speedC trial be raised bC the accused to cause
the dismissal of his caseF Hhat Bind of delaCs must occur before the same
could be invoBed@
In AAI;E BER=A/ V*+ *A=<IGA=BAGA=# ;ay 0B# 0BBD# it was
"el( t"at t"e !ig"t to spee(y t!ial is iolate( only i' t"e p!ocee(ings we!e
atten(e( &y e-atious# cap!icious an( opp!essie (elays+ /"e (ete!mination
o' w"et"e! t"e (elays a!e o' sai( natu!e is !elatie an( cannot &e &ase( on
me!e mat"ematical !ec3oning o' time+ Pa!ticula! !ega!( to t"e 'acts an(
ci!cumstances o' t"e case+ As "el( in t"e case o' <E LA PE=A V*+
*A=<IGA=BAGA=# ce!tain 'acto!s s"all &e consi(e!e( an( &alance( to
(ete!mine i' t"e!e is (elay# as 'ollowsF
Lengt" o' t"e (elay,
Reasons 'o! t"e (elay,
Asse!tion o! 'ailu!e to asse!t suc" !ig"t &y t"e accuse(, an(
P!eKu(ice( cause( &y t"e (elay+
/"e!e is no iolation o' t"e !ig"t to spee(y (isposition o' "is case
&ecause petitione! 'aile( to asse!t "is constitutional !ig"t to a spee(y
(isposition o' "is case+ <u!ing t"e L>yea! pe!io( p!io! to Ap!il .?# 0BB0#
petitione! (i( not complain a&out t"e long (elay in (eci(ing "is case+
,-. )ay the ri/ht to speedy disposition of cases be in#o@ed for the
dismissal of cases pendin/ before quasi(2udicial bodies li@e the :ffice of
the :mbudsman?
Ges# un!easona&le (elays li3e 'ailu!e to (eci(e a complaint against t"e
!espon(ent 'o! mo!e t"an t"!ee (5) yea!s '!om t"e time all t"e plea(ings we!e
'ile( iolates t"e !espon(ent:s !ig"t to a spee(y (isposition o' "is case an(
t"e case must &e (ismisse(+ (<$/ER/E V*+ *A=<IGA=BAGA=# 0L?
*CRA 80., A=GCCA=GCO V*+ O;B$<*;A=# 07? *CRA 5B.)
T%e /etermin.tion of 1%et%er .n .,,use/ %./ 3een /enie/ t%e
ri2%t to s-ee/4 tri.& /e-en/s on t%e surroun/in2 ,ir,umst.n,es of e.,%
,.se! A&t%ou2% it too= .3out ' 3efore t%e tri.& of t%is ,.se 1.s
resume/" su,% /e&.4 /i/ not .mount to vio&.tion of -etitioner<s ri2%t to
s-ee/4 tri.& ,onsi/erin2 t%.t su,% /e&.4 1.s not .ttri3ut.3&e to t%e
T%e f.,tors to ,onsi/er in /eterminin2 1%et%er or not su,% ri2%t
%.s 3een vio&.te/J
:! &en2t% of /e&.4"
9! re.sons for su,% /e&.4" .n/
$! .ssertion or f.i&ure to .ssert su,% ri2%ts 34 t%e
.,,use/ .n/ t%e -reIu/i,e ,.use/ 34 t%e /e&.4!
ii) S-ee/4 Tri.& A,t of :EE'! T%e .ut%orit4 of t%e
Se,ret.r4 of Dusti,e to revie1 reso&utions of %is
88 88
su3or/in.tes even .fter .n inform.tion %.s .&re./4 3een
fi&e/ in ,ourt /oes not -resent .n irre,on,i&.3&e ,onf&i,t 1it%
t%e $;-/.4 -erio/ -res,ri3e/ in Se,! ( of t%e S-ee/4 Tri.&
A,t of :EE'! *$;BA=G V*+ GE=+ CO$R/ ;AR/IAL#
G+R+ =O+ .DB.LL# 558 *CRA 008# A$G+ 5# 0BBB, BLA=CO
V*+ *A=<IGA=BAGA=# G+R+ =O*+ .57898 W 9L# 5D7 *CRA
.BL# =OV+ 08# 0BBB, *OLAR /EA; E=/ER/AI=;E=/#
I=C+ CO=+ COW# G+R+ =O+ .DBL75# 55L *CRA 9.# A$G+ 00#
,,. Was the failure of the court to ha#e a si/n lan/ua/e epert to
inform the accused who is a deaf(mute of the contents of the criminal
information fatal to the #alidity of the proceedin/s which resulted in the
con#iction of the said accused?
Ges &ecause t"e accuse( was (enie( o' t"e !ig"t to &e in'o!me( o' t"e
natu!e an( cause o' t"e accusation against "im+ As suc"# t"e enti!e
p!ocee(ings is null an( oi( an( anot"e! t!ial &e con(ucte( in t"e p!esence
o' a sign language e-pe!t to in'o!m t"e accuse( o' t"e p!ocee(ings+ (*ales
s+ CA# .7D *CRA 8.8, P s+ C!isologo# .9B *CRA 795)
1<<. )ay an accused in a !Bomicide$ case be con#icted of
!)urder$ without #iolatin/ his ri/ht to be informed of the nature and
cause of accusation a/ainst him?
Ges+ Een i' t"e In'o!mation was captione( 2Fo! Comici(e6 only &ut
t"e &o(y o' t"e In'o!mation alleges 2t!eac"e!y6 o! 2ei(ent p!eme(itation6
an( t"e same was !ea( to t"e accuse(# "e coul( &e conicte( o' ;u!(e!+ /"is
is so &ecause it is t"e &o(y o' t"e In'o!mation t"at is &in(ing# not t"e caption
t"e!eo' an( t"e!e'o!e# t"e accuse( was (uly in'o!me( o' t"e natu!e an( cause
o' accusation against "im+ (P s+ Resaaga# .9? *CRA D07)

1<1. What is the effect of the testimony of a witness who did not
return to court for his cross eamination? Bow about if there is only
partial cross(eamination?
A witness w"o (i( not !etu!n to cou!t 'o! "is c!oss>e-amination woul(
!en(e! "is enti!e testimony ina(missi&le 'o! &eing "ea!say+ It li3ewise
iolate( t"e !ig"t o' con'!ontation on t"e pa!t o' t"e accuse(+ (O!tigas# AR+
s+ Lu't"ansa# 7D *CRA 7.B) I' t"e witness was pa!tially e-amine(# only t"e
po!tion o' "is (i!ect testimony w"e!e "e was c!oss>e-amine( s"all &e
a(missi&le as ei(ence+( P s+ *ene!is# ?? *CRA ?0)
1<2. What are the requisites of a #alid trial in absentia? )ay an
accused who 2umped bail after arrai/nment be #alidly con#icted by the
trial court?
/"e !eEuisites o' a ali( t!ial in a&sentia a!e t"e 'ollowingF
8L 8L
/"e accuse( was (uly a!!aigne(,
/"e accuse( was noti'ie( o' t"e "ea!ing, an(
/"e accuse(:s a&sence H(u!ing t"e t!ialI is unKusti'ia&le+
1<3. )ay an accused compel the trial court to issue subpoena to a
Physician who is already wor@in/ in the 1nited 8tates to testify on his
treatment of the accused? Would the failure of said witness to appear and
testify for the accused #iolates his ri/ht to subpoena witnesses and the
production of e#idence in his fa#orJ
=o+ *uc" witness is &eyon( t"e Ku!is(iction o' t"e P"ilippine Cou!ts+
Fu!t"e!# "is !ig"t to su&poena witnesses an( t"e p!o(uction o' ei(ence will
not &e iolate( since t"e "ospital coul( p!o(uce sai( !eco!(s an( anot"e!
p"ysician coul( testi'y on t"e contents t"e!eo'+ (Caili s+ Con+ Flo!en(o#
.9D *CRA 7.B, FaKa!(o s+ Ga!cia# ?L *CRA 9.D)
1<4. )ay the accused be presented by the prosecution as the latter"s
=o+ *uc" woul( iolate t"e !ig"t o' t"e accuse( against sel'>
inc!imination an( i' suc" "appene(# t"e p!ocee(ings s"all &e null an( oi(+
(C"ae) s+ CA# 0D *CRA 775)
1<&. Aenerally; to what @ind of e#idence does the ri/ht a/ainst self(
incrimination applies?
Gener.&&4" it .--&ies on&4 to 5testimoni.& ,om-u&sion!6 As
su,%" for,in2 . -erson to 2ive . s.m-&e of %is urine to /etermine
1%et%er . 1om.n is -re2n.nt Vi&&.f&or vs! Summers" #: P%i&! *9)N
1%et%er . -erson is sufferin2 from seCu.&&4 tr.nsmitte/ / US vs!
T.n2 Ten2" 9$ P%i&! :#+) or un/er t%e inf&uen,e of -ro%i3ite/ /ru2s
PEOPLE VS! 8ANIHIT" G!R! NO! :$9;#+" $$E SCRA '*" AUG! 9+"
9;;;N PEOPLE VS! CONTINENTE" G!R! NOS! :;;';:- ;9" $$E SCRA
:" AUG! 9+" 9;;;) /oes not vio&.te t%e -erson<s ri2%t .2.inst se&f-
in,rimin.tion! Li=e1ise for,in2 one to tr4 . of s%oes" -.nts or s%irt
/oes not f.&& un/er t%e .3ove -ros,ri-tion!
'8<. Gow about forcing a person to give a sample of his
/"oug" t"e same (oes not !eEui!e testimonial compulsion# t"e !ig"t
against sel'>inc!imination will &e iolate( &y sai( act+ /"is is so &ecause it
inoles t"e use o' t"e intelligence o' t"e pe!son+ (Belt!an s+ *amson# 9B
P"il+ 98B)
1<.. Does the ri/ht a/ainst self(incrimination applicable to ci#il and
administrati#e cases also?
8? 8?
Ges &ut unli3e in c!iminal cases w"e!e t"e accuse( coul( not &e
p!esente( &y t"e p!osecution an( "is !ig"t not to ta3e t"e witness stan( is
a&solute# an a(e!se pa!ty in a ciil o! a(minist!atie cases may &e p!esente(
&y t"e ot"e! pa!ty &ut coul( !e'use to answe! only i' t"e Euestion
p!opoun(e( calls 'o! an inc!iminato!y answe!+
1<-. )ay a court steno/rapher who had resi/ned from the
/o#ernment be compelled to transcribe her notes under pain of contempt
without #iolatin/ her ri/ht a/ainst in#oluntary ser#itude?
Ges+ /"is is so &ecause t"e testimony was ta3en w"ile s"e was still in
t"e goe!nment an( as suc"# it was "e! o&ligation to t!ansc!i&e t"e same#
"aing !eceie( "e! sala!y 'o! t"e (ay w"en t"e testimony was ta3en+
(Acla!acion s+ Gatmaitan# 7D *CRA .5.)

1<,. 's the Death Penalty already abolished by the 1,-.

W"ile t"e *up!eme Cou!t answe!e( t"e same in t"e a''i!matie in t"e
cases o' P s+ Gaa!!a# .99 *CRa 508, P s+ ;asang3ay# .99 *CRA ..5, P
s+ Atencio# .97 *CRA 0D0, P s+ Intino# *eptem&e! 07# .?LL it "el( in
People s+ ;uno)# .8B *CRA .B8 t"at it was me!ely suspen(e(+
11<. 's death as a penalty a cruel or unuasual punishment?
=o+ (P s+ Estoista# ?5 P"il+ 7D8)+ It is only w"en t"e punis"ment is
s"oc3ing to t"e conscience o' t"e community an( (isp!opo!tionate to t"e
o''ense c"a!ge( t"at t"e penalty &ecomes c!uel an( unusual+ In 'act# t"e
*up!eme Cou!t "el( in ECCEGARAG V*+ *ECRE/ARG OF A$*/ICE t"at
(eat" t"!oug" Let"al InKection is t"e most "umane way o' implementing t"e
(eat" penalty+
:::! ?%.t .re t%e re0uisites 3efore .n .,,use/ m.4 v.&i/&4 invo=e
/ou3&e Ieo-.r/4@
/"e!e is (ou&le Keopa!(y w"en t"e!e isF
H.I ali( complaint o' in'o!mation,
H0I 'ile( in a cou!t o' competent Ku!is(iction,
H5I t"e accuse( was ali(ly a!!aigne(, an(
HDI t"e accuse( was conicte( o! acEuitte(# o! t"e HDI t"e accuse( was conicte( o! acEuitte(# o! t"e
case was (ismisse( o! ot"e!wise te!minate( wit"out t"e case was (ismisse( o! ot"e!wise te!minate( wit"out t"e
e-p!ess consent o' t"e accuse(+ ( e-p!ess consent o' t"e accuse(+ (PEOPLE V*+ PEOPLE V*+
AL;ARIO# 599 *CRA .) AL;ARIO# 599 *CRA .)
112. 'f the dismissal was with the epress consent of the accused;
may the dismissal result in double 2eopardy?
Ges in two (0) instances+

As a gene!al !ule# i' t"e (ismissal is t"!oug"
t"e instance o' t"e accuse( o! wit" "is e-p!ess
consent# t"e!e is no (ou&le Keopa!(y+
Cowee!# t"is !ule a(mits o' two (0)
.) t"e motion to (ismiss is &ase( on
insu''iciency o' ei(ence, an(
#3 #3 t"e motion to (ismiss is &ase( on t"e (enial t"e motion to (ismiss is &ase( on t"e (enial
o' t"e accuse(:s !ig"t to spee(y t!ial o' t"e accuse(:s !ig"t to spee(y t!ial. - . -PEOPLE PEOPLE
V*+ AL;ARIO# 599 *CRA .) V*+ AL;ARIO# 599 *CRA .)
>(ou&le Keopa!(y "as set in+ In t"ese two (0) instances# t"e co!!ect
(esc!iption o' w"at "appene( is t"at t"e accuse( was 2acEuitte(6 an( not
2t"e case was (ismisse( wit" "is consent6+
It must &e pointe( out# "owee!# t"at in PEOPLE VS! TA7PAL"
9## SCRA 9;9 .n/ PEOPLE VS! LEVISTE" 9++ SCRA 9$'# t"e *C
!ee!se( t"e (ismissal o' t"e c!iminal case &y t"e t!ial cou!t &ase( on
2spee(y t!ial6 since t"e same was not p!e(icate( 2on t"e clea! !ig"t o' t"e
accuse( to spee(y t!ial+6 It is only w"en t"e!e is a clea! iolation o' t"e
accuse(:s !ig"t to spee(y t!ial t"at t"e (ismissal !esults in (ou&le Keopa!(y+
113. Fhe accused was char/ed of theft of electricity based on the
%ity :rdinance of 0atan/as %ity. *fter arrai/nment; the case was
dismissed because it was found out that the same has prescribed because it
was filed after more than 6< days. Fhe ?iscal filed another information
based on the 7e#ised Penal %ode. Bas double 2eopardy set in?
Ges+ I' t"e accuse( was c"a!ge( o' 2t"e't o' elect!icity6 &ase( on t"e
City O!(inance o' Batangas an( not &ase( on t"e Reise( Penal Co(e an(
late! on t"e case is (ismisse( &y t"e Ku(ge (ue to t"e 'act t"at t"e c!ime "as
p!esc!i&e(# t"e goe!nment can no longe! c"a!ge t"e accuse( o' t"e same
c!ime un(e! t"e Reise( Penal Co(e since (ou&le Keopa!(y "as set in+ I' an
act is punis"e( &y law an( an o!(inance# acEuittal o! coniction in one s"all
&a! p!osecution '!om t"e ot"e!+ (PEOPLE VS! RELOVA" :#' SCRA 9E9)
114. Fhe accused was char/ed of /ra#e coercion before the )F%
and was duly arrai/ned. Fhe Iud/e dismissed it without any motion form
the accused because the case is alle/edly outside the )F%"s 2urisdiction.
*nother information for the same offense was filed with the 7F% which
was li@ewise dismissed because of lac@ of 2urisdiction. *s such; the ?iscal
filed a 3
information for /ra#e coercion before the )F%. Fhe accused
pleaded double 2eopardy. 's he correctJ
Ges+ *ince t"e accuse( was al!ea(y a!!aigne( in t"e .
&e'o!e t"e ;/C w"ic" "as Ku!is(iction oe! t"e same an( t"e case was
L. L.
su&seEuently (ismisse( wit"out "is e-p!ess consent# t"en (ou&le Keopa!(y
"as set in+
11&. Fhe accused was arrai/ned of homicide and entered a plea of
/uilty but prayed that he be /i#en the chance to pro#e incomplete self(
defense which the court /ranted. *fter presentin/ his e#idence to pro#e
!incomplete self(defense$; the court acquitted him because what was
alle/edly pro#en by him was complete self(defense. )ay the accused
#alidly in#o@e double 2eopardy if the Prosecutor mo#es for the
reinstatement of the case for him to present the e#idence of the
=o &ecause one o' t"e !eEuisites o' (ou&le Keopa!(y is missing+ /"e!e
was no ali( a!!aignment+ /"is is so &ecause "is plea was one o' guilty an(
yet# "e was acEuitte(+ In t"is case# "e "as to &e !e>a!!aigne( 'o! "im to ente!
a plea o' 2not guilty6 in o!(e! t"at "e coul( &e ali(ly acEuitte(+
116. Fhe accused was con#icted of frustrated murder. Within 1&
days from promul/ation; he filed a )otion for 9ew Frial based on a
!newly(disco#ered e#idence$ which was /ranted by the court. *fter the
presentation of the alle/ed !newly(disco#ered e#idence$; the accused was
acquitted. )ay the prosecution appeal the acquittal since the e#idence
presented was not really a newly(disco#ered e#idence but a for/otten one
and that e#en assumin/ that the same is a newly(disco#ered e#idence; it
was insufficient to o#erturn the e#idence of /uilt as pro#en by the
In t"e case o' P s+ Au(ge Ce!nan(o# .BL *CRA .0.# t"e *up!eme
Cou!t "el( t"at in(ee(# t"e ei(ence p!esente( was not 2newly>(iscoe!e(
ei(ence6 an( t"at assuming it to &e so# it was not su''icient to oe!tu!n t"e
ei(ence o' guilt as s"own &y t"e p!osecution:s ei(ence+ Cowee!# t"oug"
t"e (ecision was e!!oneous# (ou&le Keopa!(y "as set in an( t"e goe!nment
coul( no longe! appeal t"e (ecision+ *o een i' t"e cou!t o&iously e!!e( in
t"e app!eciation o' t"e ei(ence !esulting in a (ecision o' acEuittal instea( o'
coniction# appeal woul( put t"e accuse( in (ou&le Keopa!(y+ (;a)o s+
;un+ Cou!t# ..5 *CRA 0.8)
11.. )ay the /o#ernment appeal a 2ud/ment of acquittal or for the
increase of the penalty imposed?
No sin,e /ou3&e Ieo-.r/4 %.s set in! PEOPLE VS! HON!
VELASCO" G!R! NO! :9(###" $#; SCRA 9;(" SEPT! :$" 9;;;)! As
m.n/.te/ 34 t%e Constitution" st.tutes .n/ ,o2n.te Iuris-ru/en,e" .n
.,0uitt.& is fin.& .n/ un.--e.&.3&e on t%e 2roun/ of /ou3&e Ieo-.r/4"
1%et%er it %.--ens .t t%e tri.& ,ourt of . Iu/2ment of .,0uitt.& 3rou2%t
3efore t%e Su-reme Court on ,ertior.ri ,.nnot 3e %./ un&ess t%ere is .
fin/in2 of mistri.&" .s in Aalman #s. 8andi/anbayan.
Ho1ever" if t%e .,,use/ 1.s t%e one 1%o .--e.&e/ t%e /e,ision of
t%e CFI ,onvi,tin2 %im of %omi,i/e t%ou2% %e 1.s ,%.r2e/ of mur/er)"
L0 L0
t%e .--e&&.te ,ourt m.4 ,onvi,t %im of mur/er if t%e evi/en,e 1.rr.nts
.n/ t%.t t%e &o1er ,ourt mis-.--re,i.te/ t%e evi/en,e! T%is is so
3e,.use if t%e .,,use/ .--e.&s t%e /e,ision" t%e 1i&& 3e su3Ie,t to .
,om-&ete re-eC.min.tion of t%e evi/en,e on re,or/!
11-. What is t he L8uper#enin/ ?act Doctrine.L
It simply p!oi(es t"at an accuse(:s coniction s"all not &e a &a! to
anot"e! p!osecution 'o! an o''ense w"ic" necessa!ily inclu(es t"e o''ense
c"a!ge( in t"e 'o!me! complaint o! in'o!mation w"en t"e g!ae! o''ense
(eelope( (ue to supe!ening 'acts a!ising '!om t"e same act o! omission
constituting t"e 'o!me! c"a!ge o! t"at t"e 'acts constituting t"e g!ae! c"a!ge
&ecame 3nown only o! we!e (iscoe!e( a'te! a plea was ente!e( in t"e
'o!me! complaint o! in'o!mation+ (*ection 8# Rule ..8# 0BBB Rules o'
C!iminal P!oce(u!e, P s+ /a!o3# 85 P"il+ 07B, P s+ Villasis# D7 O+G+ 07L,
;elo s+ People# L9 P"il+ 877, P s+ Buling# .B8 P"il+ 8.0, P s+ A(il# 87
*CRA D70, P+ s+ /ac>an# .L0 *CRA 7B., an( P s+ City Cou!t o' ;anila#
.0. *CRA 758

11,. When may the !e(post facto law$ rule be in#o@ed?
Only i' t"e law soug"t to &e applie( is a 2c!iminal law o! penal6+
Ot"e!wise# t"e same may not &e ino3e( as w"en t"e Euestione( law
inoles t"e Ku!is(iction o' t"e *an(igan&ayan w"ic" is not a penal law+
E- post 'acto law p!o"i&its t"e !et!ospectiity o' penal laws+ RA L0D? is
not a penal law+ It is a su&stantie law on Ku!is(iction w"ic" is not penal
in c"a!acte!+ (PA=FILO ;+ LAC*O= V*+ /CE E1EC$/IVE
FRA=CI*CO Q$BIA# AR+# G+R+ =o+ .0LB?7# Aanua!y 0B# .???)
12<. What are the different forms of e(post facto law?
In o!(e! t"at a law is an e- post 'acto law# t"e same must &e oneU
a+ w"ic" ma3es an act (one c!iminal &e'o!e t"e passing o' t"e
law an( w"ic" was innocent w"en committe(# an( punis"es
suc" action,
&+ w"ic" agg!aates a c!ime o! ma3es it g!eate! t"an w"en it
was committe(,
c+ w"ic" c"anges t"e punis"ment an( in'licts a g!eate!
punis"ment t"an t"e law anne-e( to t"e c!ime w"en it was
(+ w"ic" alte!s t"e legal !ules o' ei(ence an( !eceies less o!
(i''e!ent testimony t"an t"e law !eEui!e( a t"e time o' t"e
commission o' t"e o''ense in o!(e! to conict t"e (e'en(ant,
e+ ee!y law w"ic"# in !elation to t"e o''ense o! its
conseEuences# alte!s t"e situation o' a pe!son to "is
L5 L5
'+ t"at w"ic" assumes to !egulate ciil !ig"ts an( !eme(ies &ut
in e''ect imposes a penalty o! (ep!iation o' a !ig"t w"ic"
w"en (one was law'ul,
g+ (ep!ies a pe!son accuse( o' a c!ime o' some law'ul
p!otection to w"ic" "e "as &ecome entitle(# suc" as t"e
p!otection o' a 'o!me! coniction o! acEuittal# o! a
p!oclamation o' amnesty AAY VILLEGAS AA7I" $+