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P AWAN HANS HE L I C OP T E RS L T D ( P HHL )

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


(EXECUTIVE SUMMARY)


FOR

DEVELOPMENT OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI,
NEW DELHI










November, 2010





RI TES L I MI TE D
(A GOVERNMENT OF I NDI A ENTERPRI SE)
PL OT NO. 1, S ECTOR 29,
GURGAON, HARYANA, I NDI A
WW W. R I T E S . C O M





ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 RITES LTD.

0. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

0.1 INTRODUCTION

Background: The rapid economic growth in India has generated considerable traffic demand for
development of various mode of transportation system. At present, there is no Heliport in India
for independent Heliport operartion. Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited (PHHL) intends to develop
a heliport for VFR and IFR operations at New Delhi, with the primary objective of providing
independent helicopter operations from New Delhi. Accordingly, a site in Sector-36, Rohini, New
Delhi was earmarked by Delhi Development Authority (DDA) vide Gazette of India vide S.O.No.
1752 (E) dated 14
th
July 2009 and transferred to Ministry of Civil Aviation (MOCA). MOCA has
handed over the land to Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited, Noida, (A Government of India
Enterproses) under Ministry of Civil Aviation to develop the proposed heliport. RITES Ltd. (A
Government of India Enterprise) has been appointed by PHHL, as consultant, to examine the
feasibility of the selected site to develop the heliport and to carry out the Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) study as per the approved Terms of Reference (TOR) issued by Expert Appraisal
Committee (EAC) of MoEF for Environmental Clearance of the project.

Need of the project: The Heliport would provide a location for the voluntary basing of helicopter
operators providing commercial services from New Delhi and is also intended to support the
tourism, medical, security and emergency services with adequate facilities. Independent
operation of Helicopter would decongest the IGI Airport.

Objectives and scope of the study: The objective of the study is to safeguard the Environment
due to location, construction and operation of the heliport and obtaining environmental
clearance vide EIA notification of 14
th
September, 2006. The Scope of Work is briefly described as
below.

To establish the baseline environmental and social scenario of the project area.
Carry out Environmental impact Assessment and prepare Environmental Management
Plans (EMP) to mitigate the negative impacts due to the project.
To develop mitigation measures so as to minimize pollution, environmental disturbance
and nuisance during construction and operations of the development.
To design and specify the monitoring requirements necessary to ensure the
implementation and the effectiveness of the mitigation measures suggested.
To work out the cost of environmental mitigation and monitoring requirements.
To assess the opinion of the public as observed in the public hearing, including the
suggestions given by the public and the response of the project authorities.
To get the environmental clearance from Ministry of Environment and Forest.

0.2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Project and its location: The proposed project site is located at Sector 36, Rohini in the North
West district of Delhi. The project site is easily accessible and located at a distance of 5.5 km in
the direction of North West from Rithala Metro Station and 2.5 kms to the North West of
Prahladpur Bangar Village. The project envisages construction of Parking Apron, Maintenance
Facilities, Passenger Terminal Complex, Parking and other support facilities. Latitude and
Longitude of the project site are 2845'7.30"N and 7703'30.19"E respectively.

The Ministry of Urban Development has changed the land use of an area measuring 25 acres
from Recreational (District Park) to Transportation (Heliport) as notified in Gazette of India vide
S.O.No. 1752 (E) dated 14
th
July 2009.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 RITES LTD.


Approach and methodology: The approach of the study is to follow the sequence of steps
adopted in an EIA study. The basic concept is to ascertain the existing baseline conditions and
assess the impacts as a result of construction and operation of the project. For the purpose of
environmental assessment, areas within 10 km radius of the project have been studied based on
the Final Terms of Reference as given by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, India. The
consultant collected and compiled the environmental baseline data for environmental attributes
from primary and secondary sources. The impacts are assessed for various phases of project cycle
namely - Impacts due to project location, Impacts due to project design, Impacts due to project
construction, and Impacts due to project operation. The cost of management and monitoring
programs are estimated on the basis of mitigation measures suggested for negative impacts and
environmental monitoring programme during construction and operation. Risk Analysis study has
been conducted and Disaster Management Plan is suggested for safe operation of Heliport.

Proposed facilities: Facility requirements for the proposed Heliport has been assessed for their
development in accordance with the standards and recommended practices of International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO). The proposed project envisages facilities as Airfield, Parking Apron,
Maintenance Facilities, Passenger Terminal Complex, Ground Access and Parking, Support
Facilities, Crash Fire Rescue Facilities, and water supply and Sewerage system. An indicative
estimated cost of ` 639,882,680/- is worked out for the construction of proposed Heliport for
immediate implementation of non-instrument, day and special VFR operations. The construction
period of the project is 9 months.

0.3 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL

The collection of environmental baseline data is required to see the impacts of project activities
on the environment. The data have been compiled for: Land Environment (Physiographic and
soils), Water Environment (Water resources, water use, water quality), Air Environment
(Meteorology and air quality), Noise Environment (Noise levels), Ecological Environment (Flora
and Fauna) and Socio-Economic Environment (Demography, socio economics, etc)

The National Capital Territory of Delhi where project falls is categorized as plain, except Yamuna
flood plain and the ridge. The ridge constitutes the most dominating physiographic features of
this territory. The average elevation of Delhi plain is 198 m to 200 m above the mean sea level
(msl). The Delhi ridge which is the northernmost extension of Aravalli Mountain consists of
quartzite rocks and extends from southern parts of the territory to western bank of Yamuna for
about 35 kilometers. The soils of the Delhi area are mostly light with subordinate amount of
medium texture soils are represented by loam and silty loam. Soils in the project area (10 km
radius from Heliport) are generally classified as sandy soils. A study by Central Ground Water
Board in 2002 shows that the water level is ranging 5 to 10 mts below ground level. In the seismic
zoning map of India prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS code: IS 1893: Part-1:2002), the
area lies in Zone IV. The land use/land cover data for the study area was derived using the latest
cloud free satellite imagery acquired on 11
th
March, 2010 which indicates prevalence of
agriculture land. As per the Master Plan of Delhi 2021, DDA has prepared Zonal Development
Plan for Zone M (Rohini Sub-city) with an approval of Government of India. Zonal Development
Plan comprises of development of Rohini Sub-city, Phase III, IV and V. Sector-36 is part of the
development of Phase IV & V. Implementation of the project as per Master Plan would make
prevalence of built up area within 10 km radius. The landuse breakup of Sector 36 indicates
prevalence of residential area (48.17%) followed by recreational areas (25.85%). The Helicopter
measuring 25.0 acres falls in recreational areas occupying 22% of the area(recreational). The two
major natural drains Nangloi and Daryapur drain covers the entire area and flows in the
Southward direction. The entire area is drained in the natural process through these channels.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 RITES LTD.

The latest meteorological data of 5 years i.e., 2005 to 2009 have been collected from Indian
Meteorological Department, Safdarjung, New Delhi for the Monthly Mean Maximum and
Minimum Temperature, Mean Maximum Relative Humidity, Mean Minimum Humidity and
Monthly Rainfall. Average temperature of the area is 17.6
0
C minimum and 31.6
0
C maximum.
During winter, temperature varies between 5.3
0
C and 25.3
0
C, in summer 13.7
0
C and 41.5
0
C, and
in autumn (post-monsoon) 11.2
0
C and 36.3
0
C. Monsoon arrives at the end of June, bringing some
respite from the heat, but increasing humidity at the same time. The average annual rainfall is
approximately 714 mm, most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. Mean
maximum humidity is 81.5 %, while Mean minimum humidity is 40 % respectively. The high
humidity is in the months of June, July and August. The surface winds are mostly East-West. The
predominant wind direction is North West - South East. Early March sees a reversal in the
direction of wind from the north-western direction to the south-western. Out of 1483 sq km of
Delhis area, 151 sq.km (10%) constitutes the forest area. The terrestrial fauna of the project area
has been noted based on the information collected from the secondary sources. Monkeys and
cows are a pretty common sight. Bird life thanks to the citys parks and gardens is profuse and
includes Mynahs, Shovellers, Mallards, Common coots, Crow, Sparrow, parrots, and bush quail.
Peafowl are numerous on the hilly ridges. Rohu and Betchwa were among the varieties of fish
that are plentiful.

FIELD STUDIES

Soil: Four soil samples were collected from near Rithala Metro Station, Heliport Site, Kanjhawala
and Puth khurd area. The analysis of the soils tested for its productivity potential reveals that
composition of soil sample is predominantly sand and clay. The pH of soils is moderately alkaline
and varies in the pH range of 7.80 to 8.30. Organic matter varies from 3.4 to 5.1kg/hectare which
is low to moderate. The nutrient content of soil like Nitrogen is high.

Water: Six water samples collected from groundwater sources were analyzed for physical,
chemical and biological constituents. The results of water analysis are compared with IS: 10500-
1991, Drinking Water Standards. All the parameters tested for drinking water specification are
within permissible limit except chloride, TDS and hardness for sample of location at Puth khurd.

Ambient Air Quality: The monitoring was carried out for one season for SO
2
, NO
x,,
PM
10
, PM
2.5
,
HC and Pb in the months of June, July and August 2010 at four locations. The results obtained are
analysed and compared with ambient air quality standards of Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB) wherein it is observed that Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and PM10 values are exceeding to
the standards, while sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are lower than the permissible limits.

Noise Quality: Noise level survey is conducted at four locations recording on hourly equivalent
noise level for 24 hours twice in a week for one week in order to have an assessment of the Day
and Night time noise levels. . The noise during construction would be temporary in nature
however, during operation, it would be permanent and intermittent during landing and take-offs
of Helicopter. A prediction of noise has been made with the help of Integrated Noise Model
(INM) developed by the Federal Aviation Administration. INM is standard tool to predict the noise
level in the vicinity due to helicopter.

Ecological Environment: The baseline of Ecological Environment is based on secondary data
available in literature, books and reports. Additional information was documented through field
visits, surveys and visual inspection. In the project area around 10 km radius, the common trees
are Jamun (Eucalyptus cinerea), Peepal (Ficus religiosa), Neem (Melia indica), Babul (Acacia
Arabia), Mango (Mangifera indica), Eucalypyus (Eucalyptus cinerea) and Teak Wood (Techtona
grandis). There are about 59 numbers of trees (58 Jamun and 1 Peepal) and Teakwood plantation
at North West corner falling inside and outside of the Heliport.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 RITES LTD.


0.4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

This section discusses the potential impacts on environment to predict the impacts due to
proposed project identifying the negative as well as positive impacts on various aspects of the
environment likely to result from the proposed development.

Displacement of People: The proposed Heliport project has no issue for displacement of people
since land is already in possession of DDA which has been transferred to Ministry of Civil Aviation
(MOCA) for development of Heliport through Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited (PHHL).

Change in Land use Pattern: The Ministry of Urban Development has changed the land use for
the construction of Heliport from Recreational (District Park) in Sector 36 to Transportation
(Heliport) as notified in Gazette of India vide S.O.No. 1752 (E) dated 14th July 2009 as indicated in
the approved layout plan of sector 36.

Impact on Soil Quality/Erosion: The topsoil shall be disturbed during the construction stage due
to excavation and movement of vehicles and equipment which will result into soil erosion during
monsoon. Good construction practices and avoidance of construction work during monsoon will
prevent soil erosion.

Risk due to Earthquakes: The project area falls under seismic zone IV as per the Seismic Zoning
Map of India. Necessary seismic factors (horizontal and vertical ground acceleration), as per
relevant Indian Standard Code (IS: 1893 Part 1: 2002), shall be adopted for designing the
structures to ensure the

Impact due to Solid Waste Disposal: Solid Waste would have no impact since inorganic solid
waste will be reused in parking pavement and in road construction whereas domestic waste will
be sent to municipal disposal site.

Water Use and Quality: Water demand for Construction activities and Domestic use would be
provided from municipal water supply. The water demand during construction is estimated as
18.55 KLD and the quantity of wastewater generated from construction site and labour camp will
be 7.47 KLD. The waste water generated will be treated in septic tank followed by soak pit during
construction period.

During operation of the project, the water requirement at the heliport would be around 15.65
KLD which will be met from the Municipal water supply. Sewage is worked out to 10.03 KLD,
which will be connected to municipal sewer.

Drainage System: The terrain of the proposed Heliport is flat; hence proper drainage network
with adequate slope is required to be provided to prevent the flooding of the area. In any case,
quick drain off from the runway and its adjacent areas is required avoiding stagnation of water.

Impacts on air environment: Emissions during construction of Heliport are due to various
construction activities like clearing of land, excavation, compaction, use of construction
machinery, erectioning of structures, generation of solid wastes and debris, transport of building
materials and supplies onto the site, transport of wastes off site, movement of vehicles along
roadways and paths in and out of the site and within the site and application of surface coatings
and finishes using paints and adhesives etc. During the construction phase, pollution emission
sources shall be distributed throughout the project site and shall fall under the category of area
source.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 RITES LTD.

Helicopter emission during operation phase has been worked out using helicopter emission
factors. As per feasibility report for 2029-30, 56712 flights per annum are expected in most likely
scenario. Hence 155 flights per day are taken for emission calculation. The fugitive
emissions/dust generation due to 100 numbers of car/delivery trucks are estimated during
operation.

Impact on noise environment: Noise at a construction site varies and depends on the
construction activities in progress. The prime sources of noise levels during the construction
phase are the construction machinery and the vehicular noise due to material movement at the
site. For an approximate estimation of dispersion of noise in the surroundings form the source
point a standard mathematical model for sound wave propagation is used. The equation for
sound wave propagation used is as follows:

Noise
(receptor)
= Noise
(source)
- 20Log[distance
(receptor)
/ distance
(source)
]

As per modeling, the impact of noise produced during the construction will be limited to a
distance of about 475 m meters where it will come down below 55 dB (A). Due to the high noise
levels of construction machinery, the personnel operating the machines and the workers
stationed close to the machines will be prone to exposure of high levels of noise.

Impact during Operation: Both main and tail rotors of Heliport are important noise contributors.
Rotating blades are highly directional sound sources. With the main rotor operating in the
horizontal plane and the tail rotor in the vertical, helicopters can have highly complex, directional
noise characteristics, in both the horizontal and vertical planes.

The dispersion of noise has been assessed tentatively with the help of INM version 7 Software
developed by the Federal Aviation Administrations Office of Environment and Energy (AEE). INM
is standard tool to predict the noise in the vicinity of aircrafts and heliports.

Helicopter is a mobile source of noise. Receiver of noise is at ground level. During the operation
of heliport due to landing and take-offs of helicopter, noise would influence its surroundings with
diminishing noise levels with respect to the distance travelled. Noise level is maximum when
helicopter takes off from the ground. As the height of helicopter increases, noise level reaching
the receiver decreases. The model has been run with Bell 407 helicopter with 55 flights per hour.

The expected noise level contours during various phases of helicopter operation are
superimposed on the Delhi Development Authority land use planning map of Rohini Sector 36
taking Heliport site as centre. As per CPCB draft guidelines, the ambient noise level due to
aircraft is 65 dB (A) Day Night Average Sound Level (DNL) which is predicted at a distance of 425
m from Heliport site.

The other noise expected during operation is the noise generated from working of DG set in case
of power failure and passenger car movement outside heliport. The modeling for impacts of
noise from DG set operation has also been worked out using the above mentioned equation.
According to the CPCB, the maximum permissible sound pressure level for DG sets with rated
capacity up to 1000 KVA shall be 75dB(A) at 1m from the enclosure surface.

It could be concluded that noise in the operation phase of the project would have minor or no
negative impact.

Impacts on biological environment: Out of 59 trees, 21 Nos are on PHHL land and 38 Nos are on
DDA land. The Teak wood plantation of 305 trees (on PHHL Land (150 Nos) and on DDA Land(155
Nos) having girth between 15 cm to 20 cm and height of about 3.5 m are not in the takeoff and

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6 RITES LTD.

landing funnel but are existing in the close vicinity of the funnel. No encroachment on nature
reserve is anticipated as the project area and its surroundings are not declared as nature reserve.
There are no rare and endangered species reported in the project area.

Obstacles to the project: The North West side has trees that are forming obstruction to the
approach for takeoff and landing of Helicopter. The main obstruction in the approach funnel is
wires of High Tension Electric Power Towers passing through the funnel of Heliport and trees.
There are no obstructions towards south-east side of the Heliport.

Socio- economic impacts: Land for construction of the project is in possession of the project
proponent (PHHL) and hence does not involve any social issues. The proposed heliport would also
create indirect business and employment opportunities during operation.

Loss of Historical and Cultural Monuments: No Historical or Cultural Monuments will be
affected/ lost due to the construction of the project.

Impacts on Aesthetics: The project area is going to improve upon the aesthetics of the entire
place by way of providing a pleasing architectural design of the building that blends with the
landscape. The green belt surrounding the terminal buildings will also add to the improvement of
the aesthetics in the area.

POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Increased Tourism Potential: Delhi is the famous tourist place due to capital of India, historical
and archeological monuments i.e. the Kutubminar, Red Fort, Akshardham, Lotus Temple, Jama
Masjid are some of important places. It would improve the air transport between and other parts
of the country. Increased air transportation facility would attract more tourists, which will work
as a catalyst for economic growth of Delhi as well as India.

Emergency Rescue Operation: The helicopters can be converted as mini ICUs and provide
effective trauma care to individual/mass casualty event. Worldwide helicopters are used in
emergency and mass casualty events. In the event of local or regional disaster (i.e., fire,
earthquakes, floods and industrial accidents), helicopters will serve as emergency measures.

Employment Opportunities: The construction phase of the project is spread over a period of 9
months. During this period various categories of skilled, semiskilled and unskilled manpower
would be deployed for the project. About 50 persons would be working on the project during
peak construction period. This would create good opportunities of direct employment for the
local people. In addition, indirect employment opportunities would be created in the support
service sector. The post construction phase would also create similar job opportunities.

Improvement in Aesthetics: The project will lead to improved aesthetics of the surrounding by
way of providing a pleasing architectural design and green belt around the proposed building of
heliport. Tree plantation along the connecting road would also be provided. Grass Turfing on
open space within heliport premises would be done to increase the aesthetics of the project.

Better Connectivity: Heliport will provide better connectivity within cities and between Delhi and
remote areas of the country. During catastrophic incidents, evacuation of people needs
immediate services of helicopter which will be provided through helicopter operation at Delhi.

Decongestion of Air Traffic at IGI Airport: Helicopter has to wait for takeoff getting the ATC
clearance at IGI Airport. Construction of Heliport at Rohini would provide independent service
facilities to the operation of helicopter which will save time and people are encouraged to use
Helicopter services to reach at destination on time.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 RITES LTD.


Emergency Services: Development of Heliport at Rohini, Delhi would have all the facilities
required for operation of Helicopter. All the time, helicopter would be available here to provide
the services as per demand of the people especially in case of emergency situations. In case of
natural calamity, heliport would provide services saving the life of people.

Revenue Generation: Due to commercialization of Heliport, private operator would be
encouraged to takes the services of Heliport with their helicopter. This will generate revenue for
the PHHL. Attraction of Tourist to use the helicopter services will also generate revenue.

CHECKLIST OF IMPACTS

S.
No.
Parameter
Negative
Impact
No
Impact
Positive
Impact
Short
Term
Long
Term
A IMPACT ON LAND ENVIRONMENT
i) Displacement of people *
ii) Change of land use pattern *
iii) Impact on Soil quality/ Erosion * *
iv) Risk due to earthquake *
v) Impact due to solid waste * *
B IMPACT ON WATER ENVIRONMENT
i) Impact on Water resources * *
ii)
Impact on Water Quality during
construction
* *
iii)
Impact on Water Quality during
operation
*
C IMPACT ON AIR ENVIRONMENT
i) During Construction * *
ii) During Operation *
D IMPACT ON NOISE ENVIRONMENT
i) During Construction * *
ii) During Operation *
E IMPACT ON BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
i) Loss of trees * *
G SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT *
H IMPACT ON HUMAN USE VALUES
i)
Loss of Historical and Cultural
Monuments
*
ii) Impact on Aesthetics * *
I POSITIVE IMPACTS
i) Improved air transport facility * *
ii) Employment Opportunities * *
iv) Improvement in Aesthetics * *
v) Better connectivity * *
vi) Revenue Generation * *
Vii) Emergency Services * *

0.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Based on the planned project activities, environmental baseline conditions and anticipated
environmental impacts, this section spells out the set of measures to be undertaken during
project construction and operation to reduce or mitigate or bring down the adverse
environmental impacts to acceptable levels based on the proposed Environmental Management

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8 RITES LTD.

Plan (EMP). The EMP needs to be integrated in overall project planning process covering all
phases of project cycles i.e. location, design, construction and operation. Management by
provision of necessary safeguards in planning of the project itself can lead to reduction of adverse
environmental impacts due to project.

PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE

Compensation for Land: 25 acre of land required for the development of Heliport has already
been acquired by DDA while preparing the master plan of Zone M. The land has been
transferred to PHHL for the construction of proposed Heliport vide file No. F 20 (05) 2008/MP
dated 11
th
April 2009. Hence no social issues related to land acquisition, encroachers and
squatters is anticipated.

Tree Compensation: The proposed project may require removal of 59 numbers of trees. It is
therefore proposed to plant at least ten times of trees to be removed to compensate the tree
removal
1
. These 590 plants will be planted as compensatory measure for which compensatory
reafforestation cost including three years maintenance and fencing is estimated about ` 2.19
lakhs. The rest of trees in the project area which are not coming under the influence of landing &
take-off funnel will be pruned as per requirement.

Energy Conservation Measures: Energy conservation plan will be adopted for efficient use of
energy during construction and operation of the project. An improvement in lighting efficiency
would be adopted in the building by using most efficient lamp, high frequency electronic ballasts,
high-efficiency spectacular reflectors or high-efficiency luminaries, automatic control systems,
localized switching, following maintenance schedule, promoting employees awareness and
providing training to staff on methods of energy conservation.

Construction Material Management: Success of any project depends upon time management,
Environment & Safety Management, financial management and technical competency. To get the
project completed in time, most important point is selection of right contractor for executing the
work, pragmatic time schedule and efficient management of construction materials and
equipments. Forecasting of quantities and cost of various items on monthly basis must be done
at least three to six months in advance which should be regularly reviewed. To ensure the quality
of work, construction materials should be tested in Government labs or Government approved
labs. The responsibility of the contractor would be clearly mentioned in the contract agreement.

Rain Water Harvesting: The objectives of rain water harvesting is to overcome the inadequacy of
waters to meet our demands, to arrest decline in ground water levels, to enhance availability of
ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development. At
the proposed project site the ground water table level is about 8-10 meter below ground level.
Hence it is proposed to have a Roof Top Rain Water harvesting through Recharge Pit to improve
the decline of ground water level.

Management plan for Blue Bull (Nilgai): The proposed project area spread over 25 acres of land
within Zonal Development Plan M in Rohini. During the field study and discussion with local
people, it was concluded that there is no issue of Nilgai within 10 km radius of project area.
Hence, no management plan for the same is anticipated. Although a provision of ` 2.5 lakhs is
kept to take care of Nilgai if observed or traced in future.


1
Bhagidari, Department of Environment & Forest, Govt. of NCT, Delhi

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 RITES LTD.

Borrow area Management: No extra borrow land will be required for the project site
development. The cut and fill activities will fulfill the purpose while preparing the site. Hence no
extra borrow area will be required.

Removal of Obstacles: Any obstacles falling in the way of approach funnel are required to be
removed for the safe operation of Helicopter. The Trees on the North-West side will be removed
and properly compensated by re-afforestation work, however the Teak Wood plantation will be
pruned as per requirement. The High Tension Power Line (Wires) forming obstruction to the
funnel will be removed by the concerned department.

CONSTRUCTION STAGE

Air Pollution & Dust Control measures: In order to reduce the emissions due to material
transport and construction activities following points needs to be taken care of :
Provisions for sprinkling of water.
Idling of delivery trucks to be prevented.
Vehicles carrying construction material to be covered.
Use of low emission construction vehicles and machinery
All stationary machines / DG sets to be inspected frequently

Noise Control Measures: The noise sources during construction phase are the construction
machinery, vehicular movement, loading/unloading of construction material etc which needs to
be taken care of by adopting suitable mitigation measures.

Use of equipment emitting noise of not greater than 65 dB (A)
Provision of special acoustic enclosures for individual noise generating construction
equipment like DG sets.
Supply of earplugs to construction workers working very close to noise generation
source.

Temporary Workers Camp: All temporary accommodation shall be constructed and maintained
in such a fashion that good sanitation condition should made available to the workers at site
providing safe drinking water & other facilities like LPG, Health facilities etc.

Water Supply and Sanitation: About 50 people will be working at site during peak period of
construction for which sanitation facilities have been provided by way of septic tank followed by
soak pit. The estimated cost of the same has been worked out as ` 5.00 Lakhs.

Oil Spill control/Management: Oil and grease removal trap will be provided in the storm water
collection system. Oil and grease will be separated out in a container for sell/disposal. To control
the oil spill during construction and operation of the project, good housekeeping and routine
checkup of construction machineries and equipments are required. To prevent the spillage on
ground, temporary cement/metal platform will be provided below the construction machineries
and at maintenance site to capture the spill.

Solid Waste Management: Solid Waste / Refuse include many different substances such as
garbage, rubbish, sweepings and food waste. The 31.5 kg solid waste generated from labor camp
shall have adequate collection, conveyance and disposal facilities and will be disposed at the
municipal landfill. About ` 1.0 lakhs will be required for the efficient management for solid waste
facilities. Segregation facilities would be adopted prior to their disposal.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
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Reuse/Recycling of Construction Waste: Construction materials often contain bulky, heavy
materials, such as concrete, wood, metals, glass, and salvaged building components. Reducing
and recycling construction materials conserves landfill space, reduces the environmental impact
of producing new materials, creates jobs, and can reduce overall building project expenses
through reduced purchase/disposal costs. Recyclable materials are segregated at site itself and
channeled properly to the recycle units.

First aid Health System: Basic health care facilities as first aid /medical facilities will be provided
to the workers at site.

Training and Extension: These programmes should be extended for the workers for their active
participation in the project implementation and to get awareness for safety, disaster prevention,
action required in case of emergency, fire protection, environmental risk analysis etc. The cost
involved for such a programme is estimated as ` 3.20 Lakhs.

Soil Erosion Control: The soil erosion at construction site can be minimized by preventing work in
monsoon season, ramming of soil immediately after excavation, no accumulation of earth debris
at site and efficient management of storm water collection system.

OPERATION STAGE

Air Pollution Control: Control measures to reduce the pollutant emissions from vehicular traffic,
DG sets and helicopter operation are smooth flow of traffic within the premises, prohibition for
Idling of vehicles, good quality fuel and periodic maintenance of DG sets and helicopter.

Noise Control Measures: The permissible 65dB (A) DNL noise level is achieved at a distance of
425m from centre of Heliport. Noise can be prevented by using steep final approach and takeoff
as safely as possible, with a high rate of climb during takeoff. Flight traffic control and restricting
night flying operations should prevent the significant noise pollution. Also the helicopters should
follow the exact measured approach and takeoff profile whenever possible. No night time
operation of Helicopter is existing.

D.G. Sets shall be placed in recommended acoustic enclosure or with silencers. Necessary
precautionary measures such as provision of signboards (no horn boards) at the sensitive
locations will be provided to control the noise from vehicles.

Waste Water Treatment: The wastewater generation from all the activities during operation
phase shall be 10.03 KLD which will be discharged in to the municipal sewerage system.

Solid waste disposal: The solid waste generated during operation of heliport will be 35.6 kg per
day which will be collected in bins from office, parking area and road side. The waste shall be
picked up by local service provider for disposal at designated safe landfill sites.

Horticulture /Natural Grass Turfing: Planting trees are easy and efficient way to beautify our
surrounding and it not only enrich the environment but also enrich our lives. Flower plants will be
planted along the approach road and in open area within project site. Selection of the plant
species will be based on their adaptability to the existing geographical conditions and the
vegetation composition of the region. Flowering plants of native species should be recommended
for plantation. Lists of the species recommended as Shrubs include capparis sepiaria, C.deciduas,
Zizyphus aenoplia, croton sparaiflorus. Herbaceous flora is Calotropis procera, Withania
somnifera, Achyranthes aspera, Tridax, Alysicarpus vaginalis, peistrophe bicalyculata.

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Turfing with grasses: Grass lines are used to provide a strong surface cover for the beautification
work but it also needs a wellprepared surface. The native grass species will be preferred. The
main grasses seeds are Cenchrus ciliaris, Aristida, Eragrostis poaeioides, Saccharum spontaneum.

0.6 RISK ANALYSIS

The purpose of this risk assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of the Helipad and Helicopter
security. This risk assessment provides a structured qualitative assessment of the operational
environment. It addresses sensitivity, threats, vulnerabilities, risks and safeguards. The
assessment recommends cost-effective safeguards to mitigate threats and associated exploitable
vulnerabilities.

Risk assessment involves:

To monitor and audit management policies, procedures and performance to secure
safety in work place
Requirement of safety legislation and guidance
Preparation of safety policies
To identify potential problems
To investigate accidents
To prevent undesired accidents
To prepare reports

Risk Assessment methodology: The estimates of the likelihood of risk may relate to an event, to
its consequences or both. Risk estimation may include quantified estimates of probability or non
qualified probabilistic estimates and these may reveal intuited or exploited from experience. The
main reason to specify risk is that they can be managed. From the prospective of environment
risk assessment, decisions have to be taken about what to protect prior to an assessment being
carried out. Decisions have to be taken about to what level protection will be executed so that
appropriate threshold levels can be defined. The significant point is that risk is a function of two
parameters; the likelihood of an occurrence of undesired event and its consequences.

Risk = f (Frequency x consequences)

Hazard identification: Hazard identification and risk assessment is a continual process. It is
performed to identify whatever could cause injury, damage, ill-health, financial loss and loss of
reputation to the organization. Hazard identification is an analysis to determine whether a risk
agent under plausible conditions would cause harm to population or the environment.

As per the project details two hazard area has been identified as below-
1. Hazard at Heliport
2. Hazard at Helicopter facility ( Operation of helicopter)

Hazard at Helicopter: For helicopters the hazards are particularly acute since they are flying at
relatively low altitude, with quite less time to react for a sudden occurring event. For any
locomotive, unsafe operation could result in loss of control, structural damage, or fatality. The
causes of helicopter accidents can be grouped into three major causal areas: Operational error,
mechanical malfunction, and electrical malfunction. Within these broad categories, there are
multiple underlying causes. The following is a list of some of the potential hazards for helicopters:

1. Operational Error: Human error can occur in flight planning, actual conduct of the flight, in
training or in maintenance.

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2. Mechanical Malfunction: A component of the aircraft failing to function as intended. This can
happen anywhere along the components life.

3. Electrical Malfunction: The electrical source stops working or one of its components has a
malfunction.
4. Unexpected and dramatic change in the surrounding weather conditions
5. Lightening.
6. Pilot Incapacitation e.g. heart attack, mental breakdown etc
7. Error in Air Traffic Control
8. Bird strike

Each of these elements of the three major causal areas contains its own subset of individual
factors as to exactly why and how it occurs. Sometimes these factors result in minor or no
helicopter damage or injury, but all too frequently they cause great damage and personal injury,
even death. One thing is true as to all causes: they are preventable.

Hazard at Heliport facility:
Equipment Hazards
Noise/Communication
Debris on Helipad
Ergonomics
Fueling Hazards
System Failure

Equipment Hazards: Staff exposure to equipment hazards associated with helicopters such as the
tail rotor and the main rotor system (helicopter blades). These blades can injure or kill an
unaware or uneducated staff member. Hats, loose clothing, gloves etc., can be sucked into the
engine air intake fans and cause the helicopter to malfunction and potentially crash.

Possible Solutions
Limit access in this area to staff trained in helicopter equipment hazards.
Establish safe work practices such as:

Do not elevate height of staff member to the extent that staff member could be
hit by the helicopter blades.
Properly secure all items such as loose clothing, hats, gloves, scarfs, while in the
helicopter area.
Avoid the tail rotor area and helicopter blade area.

Noise/Communication: Exposure of staff to potential hearing loss, hearing impairment, elevated
blood pressure levels and other health hazards from exposure to the loud sounds of the
helicopter in operation. Elevated noise levels pose an additional threat to workers if they are
unable to communicate or warn each other of potential dangers or occurring situations.

Possible Solutions
A safety and health program that recognizes and addresses the hazards created by noise
exposure.

OSHA's 1910.95 Occupational Noise Exposure Standard requires feasible implementation of
administrative and Heliport controls whenever employee noise exposures exceed 90 dBA (8-
hour time-weighted average (TWA).

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Some example of Heliport controls to help prevent noise exposure include:
Provide appropriate equipment to protect the hearing of staff.
Use aviation helmets that include special hearing protection and communication
systems to enable staff to communicate through the helmets

Debris on Helipad: High winds generated by the helicopter blades can throw loose items or trash
etc., at employees and cause them injury


Possible Solutions
Housekeeping. Good housekeeping shall be maintained in all helicopter loading and
unloading areas.
Keep helipad area free from garbage, litter, or other debris.
All items such as loose clothing, hats, gloves, scarves, must be properly secured before
entering the helipad area.
Use appropriate eye and face protection

Ergonomics: Possible musculoskeletal disorders from lifting or repetitive strain injuries, which can
develop over time and can lead to long-term disability.
Possible Solutions
Use ergonomic equipment to minimize employee lifting and/or twisting. Workplaces may either
take the reactive or proactive approach when applying ergonomics practices.
Reactive ergonomics is when something needs to be fixed, and corrective action is taken.
Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be improved and fixing the
issues before they become a large problem.
Problems may be fixed through equipment design, task design, or environmental design.
Equipment design changes the actual, physical devices used by people.
Task design changes what people do with the equipment.
Environmental design changes the environment in which people work, but not the
physical equipment they use.

Fueling Hazards: Employee exposure to fueling hazards such as fire or explosions that can occur
from sparks or matches in the helipad area.
Possible Solutions
No smoking allowed in helipad area.
Proper bonding and earthing attached to helicopter while fueling to prevent sparks

System Failure: When safety-critical computer software fails, or software contains coding or
design flaws, and these defects contribute to or cause a major incidence, there might be no
physical trace of a software-related deficiency.
Possible Solutions
Regular monitoring of software and systems
Antivirus checking and updates
Skilled staff

RISK ESTIMATION/ANALYSIS

A risk estimate is the estimation of the likelihood or statistical probability of harm that may occur.
Risk analysis is conducted in two ways 1. Qualitative and 2. Quantitative risk analysis. These
two type of risk analysis can be conducted simultaneously or in a chosen order, and even within a
defined period gap.


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Qualitative Risk Analysis: The objective of conducting a qualitative risk analysis is to acquire
safety against recognized risks and to increase the alertness of management, team members, and
all personnel who are vulnerable to them. The risk ranking and severity of consequences is
evaluated in slight harm, moderate harm and extreme harm.

Quantitative Risk Analysis: Quantitative risk analysis is more focused on the implementation of
safety measures that have been established, in order to protect against every defined risk. By
using a quantitative approach, an organization is able to create a very precise analytical
interpretation that can clearly represent which risk-resolving measures have been most well-
suited to various project needs.

Risk can be evaluated and rank according to the severity and frequency of occurrence.
Probability of occurrence and frequency can be calculated after ranking the level of risk at various
levels of operation. The percentage of risk is calculated on the basis of accidents occurred in the
past all over the world which is reported in Maximum identified Heliport accident causes. The risk
rating is between low risk (1-6), Moderate risk (8-12) and High risk (15-25). Quantitative risk for
the project is high for visibility (25), engine design (20) and lack of communication (20).

MITIGATION MEASURES

Mitigation measures are typically developed as part of the impact/risk assessment sessions, often
as a result of brainstorming. Mitigation measures could be applied to reduce health and safety
impacts of a project depending on site- and project-specific conditions. The risk mitigation plan
(also sometimes referred to as a risk response plan) communicates how specific risks will be dealt
with and the action steps that are required to carry them out. The risk mitigation plan is a list of
specific actions being taken to deal with specific risks. It often lists the names of the individuals
responsible for carrying out those actions, as well.

Project Specific Mitigation Measures: Mitigation practices and principles that could apply to any
or all phases of a heliport project include:
Consider public safety during helicopter flights (e.g., avoid populated areas, schools,
areas being crop dusted).
Conduct daily safety assessment meetings to identify potential safety and measures to
mitigate them.
Hold crew safety meetings at the start of each workday to go over potential safety issues
and concerns.
Ensure that employees are trained, as necessary, first aid, rescue techniques, and safety
equipment inspection and use.
At the end of the workday to protect the equipment and the general public.

Role of officials/manager: Project heliports can be adequately planned well in advance of the
project start. Incident heliports on the other hand, are established and become operational in a
very short time frame. The rapidity of incident response does not, however, relieve the Heliport
Manager from performing basic planning actions.

Upon arrival, the Heliport Manager will gather intelligence by obtaining maps from the
dispatch office, talking to local inhabitants, flying a reconnaissance, etc.
Check with the local Resource Advisor to ensure that the sites for the heliports are
acceptable from an environmental standpoint. Factors to consider include but are not
limited to:
Impact of construction and aerial activity on threatened and endangered species
or on wilderness or similar values;
Hazardous materials (fuel) handling.

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The Heliport Manager should refer Heliport Site Selection criterion and Layout. It includes
one-time items for Heliport Manager to review when initially selecting sites. Even though
they should be initially considered, a review at timely intervals (for example, every 5-7
days) is also appropriate.
Perform an aerial reconnaissance to locate desired heliport. Individuals on this
reconnaissance should include the local Resource Advisor, Operations Section Chief (or
designee) or Project Aviation Manager, Air Operations Branch Director (or a designee
such as the Air Support Group Supervisor or Heliport Manager), and, if possible, the
Heliport Manager who will be responsible for constructing the spot. Consider the
following:
What will be the primary function of a heliport (crew shuttle, cargo transport, or
both)? If for cargo transport only, consider designating the spot for
longline/remote hook operations only in lieu of constructing a heliport.
Discuss construction standards relative to the type of helicopters which will be
utilizing the heliport. Provide specific instructions (if possible, in writing) for the
Heliport Manager assigned. Remember that construction standards shall not be
compromised.
Where possible, identify natural openings which could be utilized as a heliport
with little or no improvement.
Avoid high visitor use areas, especially
Avoid use of schoolyards, parking lots, local parks, etc. unless absolutely
necessary and then only if strict security by local authorities can be provided.
If a high environmental impact is anticipated, examine other potential sites some
distance away from the ideal location which would result in less impact and still
accomplish intended incident or project strategy and objectives.
Discuss mitigating measures to restore the heliport to as natural a condition as
possible

Navigational aids: Helicopter flight paths entering controlled airspace would be handled by
existing Airport Traffic Control Tower facilities at IGI Airport. Heliport lighting for night operations
at the Heliport would conform to ICAO requirements.

A lighted wind sock would be required at the Heliport to show the direct ion and magnitude of
the wind. Wind socks will be placed to provide a true indication of surface wind and be clear of
safety areas, TLOF and FATO areas, and heliport transitional surfaces. A heliport identification
beacon will be required to aid in locating the Heliport.

Obstructions in approach funnel: Approach Obstacle survey of the area has been carried out.
Initial examination of the data reveals that there are no obstructions towards south-east side of
the Heliport while in the North-west side (approach 11), the main obstruction is a High Tension
Electric power line passing through the approach funnel at a close distance. Thus at least three
HT towers of this power line should be removed and electric line to be buried underground or
alternatively the HT line should be diverted at least 3 km away to the west. It may therefore be
seen that at present Helicopter operations (VFR & IFR) from north-west side are not possible, till
these obstacles are removed.

For Night operations, extra land is needed for installation of 210M of length for IFR approach
lights. However, it may be possible to accommodate 90M X 18M of approach Lights for Night VFR
Operations (If permitted by DGCA). Till such time this is done and approach lights are installed,
night operations may not be possible.

Risk-reduction initiatives: With the best available accident data and analyses in hand, further
potential risk-reduction initiatives, including:

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Aviation safety management systems (ASMS) incorporating systematic hazard assessment and
a structured approach to risk management.
Quality assurance (QA) in maintenance.
Operating, maintenance and training standards in line with industry "best practice" to minimize
human error and improve the safety culture. These include, among other things, line-oriented
flight training (LOFT) exercises with a focus on crew resource management (CRM) during
simulator training, human factors training for air and maintenance staff and the requirement
for duplicate inspections after maintenance on safety-critical equipment.
Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) on contracted or owned aircraft and the
subsequent development of a minimum specification for HUMS/vibration health monitoring
(VHM) for the industry, targeted at monitoring the machine and human error in maintenance.
Cabin configuration guidelines and helicopter underwater escape training (HUET) standards to
improve survivability for passengers and crew in the event of a ditching.
Improved aircraft performance standards and standardized takeoff and landing profiles
Helicopter operations monitoring programs (HOMP), a version of flight data monitoring
targeted at monitoring the pilot and his conduct of the operation in accordance with Flight
Manual and Operations Manual requirements and enhancing training effectiveness through
confidential feedback loops.
Defensive aids such as automatic voice alert devices (AVAD) or enhanced ground proximity
warning systems (EGPWS) to prevent controlled flight into terrain or water and traffic alert and
collision avoidance systems (TACAS) to prevent mid-air collisions.
Industry "best practice" to manage helideck operations.

Bird Strike Solution: A bird strike (sometimes bird strike, avian ingestion (only if in an engine),
bird hit, or BASH - Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard) is a collision between an airborne animal (usually a
bird or bat).These occur when the bird hits the windscreen or flies into the engines. Bird strikes
happen most often during takeoff or landing, or during low altitude flight. However bird strikes
have also been reported at high altitudes, some as high as 6,000 m (19,685 ft) to 9,000 m
(29,528 ft) above the ground. The point of impact is usually any forward-facing edge of the
vehicle such as a wing leading edge, nose cone, jet engine cowling or engine inlet.

Airport operators have a responsibility to ensure that all appropriate actions are taken to
mitigate the potential for bird and wildlife strikes at their facilities," There is no single solution
which will work for all situations. Vegetation which produces seeds, grasses which are favored by
birds, manmade food should be removed from the heliport area. Trees and tall structures which
serve as roosts at night for flocking birds or perches should be removed or modified to
discourage bird use. A successful approach has been the utilization of dogs, Pilots should not
takeoff or land in the presence of wildlife, avoid migratory routes. Pilots should seek to climb
above 3,000 feet as rapidly as possible as most bird strikes occur below 3,000 feet.

Lightening hit to helicopter: The best safety feature is the pilot who checks the weather before
he flies and makes smart decisions about where to fly. If the plane is forced to fly through a
storm, the static wicks on the wing's trailing edges should help keep the helicopter safe.
Aluminum has been the principle material used in aircraft. Light weight composite structures
include engine nacelles, flaps, wing tips, and even rotary blades on helicopters and wind turbines
would help in protecting it from lightening.

Fuel starvation/ exhaustions: Fuel starvation is slightly different from fuel exhaustion, in that fuel
is in the tank but there is a supply problem which either fully or partially prevents the fuel from
reaching the engine. Causes may include a blocked fuel filter, problems with fuel tank selection if
multiple tanks are installed, or more commonly water-contaminated fuel. Fuel has a lower
specific gravity than water which means that any water in the fuel will collect in the bottom of a

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fuel tank. As fuel is typically drawn from the lowest part of the tank, water is delivered to the
engine instead and the engine starves.

Mitigation
Fuel must be checked for its quality and quantity every day or before take off for contaminations
such as water or solid or dirt.

Risk reduction measures:
Use a layered defence model in Microsoft Excel as a predictive tool to calculate the
incremental risk reduction for a given measure.
Apply the risk reduction in question to the expected exposure; i.e., number of
helicopters, flying hours per year, and number of passengers per flight.
Use the incremental cost to calculate the implied cost of avoiding a fatality (ICAF) and the
individual risk of fatality per annum (IRPA).
Compare these outcomes to your companys risk management guidelines; e.g., ICAF of
$50 million, IRPA of 1 in 10,000.

Airline safety improvements

1. Damage tolerant design; system redundancy
2. High fidelity flight simulators
3. Engine and vibration monitoring systems
4. Quality & Safety Management Systems to reduce human errors
5. Flight data monitoring programs (FDM)
6. Disciplined take-off and landing profiles (e.g. stabilized approach)
7. EGPWS/TAWS; TACAS/ACAS

Helicopter mitigation available

1. Late FAR 29 designs with glass cockpits
2. High fidelity flight simulators with LOFT & CRM
3. HUMS/VHM/EVMS
4. Quality & Safety Management Systems to reduce human errors
5. Helicopter Operations Monitoring Program
6. Performance Class1/2e & helideck operating profiles EGPWS/TAWS; TACAS/ACAS

Safety area: The safety area provides an area within which the helicopter can operate clear of
obstacles, the primary function being to protect the rotor system from striking an object. A safety
area surrounding Final Approach and Take-off (FATO) area intended to be used in visual
meteorological conditions (VMC) shall extend outwards from the periphery of the FATO, for a
distance of at least 3.00 m or 0.25 times the overall length or width (whichever is greater) , of the
largest helicopter intended to be used at the heliport . A safety area surrounding a FATO
intended to be used by helicopter operations in instrument meteorological conditions ( IMC) shall
extend laterally to a distance of a at least 45 m on each side of the centre line and longitudinally
to a distance of at least 60 m beyond the ends of the FATO. No fixed objects shall be permitted in
the safety area. No mobile object shall be permitted during helicopter operations. The surface of
the safety area abutting the FATO shall be continuous with the FATO and the whole of the safety
shall be treated to prevent loose stones and any other flying debris caused by rotor downwash.

Preventive solution/safety measures:

1. Operational safety, the opposite of which is here defined as pilot and/or ground staff error.
Human error can occur in flight planning, the conduct of the flight, the role played by air traffic

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control, or the contribution of cockpit displays or the lack thereof exacerbating the potential
for human error.

A substantial proportion of helicopter flights are made at night, so the element of human fatigue
must be considered, as well as the reduced visual clues necessary for safe flying at night. For
example, antenna guy wires may be less visible at night, placing a premium on obstacle
avoidance.
Not confined to night time operations, but a definite factor is weather, and the sudden shift from
visual meteorological to instrument meteorological conditions, which can catch even the most
experienced helicopter pilot unprepared.

Rarely mentioned in official accident reports is the presence of a lone pilot in the cockpit.
Although helicopters for the most part are designed for two-pilot operation, the economics of
the industry pushes many operators to fly their helicopters with one pilot. This situation can lead
to added fatigue, task saturation, and poor decision making.

Contributing to the issues of a single pilot, the lack of timely or appropriate support from
dispatchers, air traffic control and other ground support staff (e.g., emergency medical staff
coordinating pick up of a patient) as well as the lack of warning systems in the helicopter, such as
Terrain Avoidance Warning Systems (TAWS) or Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) to warn against
the presence of other aircraft in the vicinity can also lead to an accident.

Suffice to say, operational errors account for most helicopter accidents, usually human failure is
chiefly abetted by a number of factors alluded to here. Pilots do not embark on a flight expecting
it will culminate in an accident, so the full panoply of operational and technological factors must
be evaluated.

2. Maintenance safety: Ostensibly assures that the helicopter is in airworthy condition for a
flight. Maintenance safety is not only directed at the mechanical functioning of the helicopters
blades, rotor hub, engine and transmission; it is also directed to the electrical and avionics
components of flight critical software, communication and navigation equipment.

Certain components must be periodically lubricated, as failure in flight can be catastrophic. For
example, the transmission requires periodic lubrication and inspection because its failure in flight
cannot be ameliorated through superior piloting. Failure of the transmission usually means loss
of the helicopter.

Therefore, helicopters depend on proper maintenance, proper installation of parts, up to date
manuals, good quality control, and thorough supervision by qualified maintenance inspectors.
When one or more of these elements are lacking, a maintenance related incident or accident is
sure to follow and occur too.

3. Design safety, which is to say the adequacy of the manufacturers design to assure against
catastrophic failure in flight. Inadequate design, improper testing, or faulty manufacture can all
contribute to a lurking latent failure. For example, locating the pilots primary flight display (PFD)
in a corner of the instrument panel, rather than directly in the pilots primary field of view, can
lead to loss of spatial awareness in flight. Or the close placement of hydraulic and oil fillers can
lead to confusion between the two, with a likely committal of maintenance error.

4. Regulatory safety, or the crucial role played by the Indian Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to
assure that the operators procedures and practices are in accord with regulation, and that air
traffic control staff are qualified and attentive in the exercise of their duties. The CA issues the
operating certificate to a helicopter company, thereby attesting to its fitness to conduct business.

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If FAA inspectors and auditors are not performing their job in a thorough and timely manner,
then oversight is lacking and errors are poor procedures can contribute to an accident. The FAA is
the ultimate guarantor of a minimum level of safety; when the FAA is derelict, regulations are
breached and it is only a matter of time before disaster ensues.

The airline industry has made significant improvements in its safety record over the last 30 yrs
through the introduction of:
Damage tolerant design; system redundancy; improved
reliability/crashworthiness
Modern flight simulators
Engine and vibration monitoring systems to identify incipient failures
Safety Management Systems and Quality Assurance to reduce human errors
Flight data monitoring programs (FOQA)
Disciplined take-off and landing profiles (e.g. stabilised approach)
EGPWS/TAWS; TCAS
All of these are available today for helicopter operations and are being implemented in
some parts of the helicopter industry.
However some helicopter industry segments have adopted few of these measures.
We need to apply all these risk reduction measures to all helicopter operations.
Essential Pre-requisites for Safe Operations
Safety culture supported by Quality and Safety Management systems
Equipment fit
Appropriate to the operation
HUMS/EGPWS/TCAS and cabin egress modifications
Pilot procedures
Helicopter Flight Data Monitoring (HFDM, also known as HOMP or FOQA)
Flight simulator training in LOFT scenarios emphasising CRM
Helideck performance profiles
Helideck management
Helicopter Landing Officer and Helideck Assistant training
Helideck procedures
System failure management
HUMS/VHM/EVMS
Engine monitoring
Flight Simulator training
Human error in maintenance
Human factors training
Duplicate inspections/RIIs
HUMS/VHM/EVMS
All these items are addressed in OGPs Aircraft Management Guide, and will mitigate risk,
but they are unlikely to achieve the long term safety goal.

0.7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN

A Disaster Management Plan (DMP) is an integral part of a Heliport operation for effective and
safe management of technical and non-technical emergencies. This is important for effective
management of an emergency situation to minimize losses to people, property and both at and
around the Heliport.

Onsite and offsite Emergency plan: A major emergency can be defined as an accident/ incident
that have potential to cause serious injuries or loss of life. It may cause extensive damage of

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property and may adversely affect the environment. The following factors may cause major
emergency.

(i) Helicopter crash at Site
(ii) Human error.
(iii) Vehicle crash.
(iv) Sabotage.
(v) Earthquake.
(vi) Natural Calamities.

On-site Emergency
If an accident/ incident takes place in a heliport, its effects are confined to the heliport premises,
involving only the persons working in the heliport and the property inside the heliport it is called
as On-site Emergency.
Off-site Emergency
If the accident is such that it affects inside the heliport are uncontrollable and it may spread
outside the heliport premises, it is called as Off-site Emergency.

Objectives:- The main objectives of an emergency plan are-

a. to control and contain the incident/ accident and if possible, eliminate it and
b. to minimize the effects of the incident on person, property and environment.

Each heliport should prepare an emergency plan incorporating details of action to be taken in
case of any major accident/ disaster occurring inside the heliport. The plan should cover all types
of major accident/ occurrences and identify the risk involved in the plant. Mock drills on the plan
should be carried out periodically to make the plan foolproof and persons are made fully
prepared to fight against any incident in the plant. The plan will vary according to the type of
industry and emergency.
Main elements of On-site Emergency plans:-

Leadership and Administration.
Role and Responsibilities of Key Personnel.
Emergency action.
Light and Power.
Source of energy control.
Protective and rescue equipment.
Communication.
Medical care.
Mutual Aid.
Public relation.
Protection of vital records.
Training.
Periodical revision of plan.

Emergency Action Plan:- The Action Plan should consist
Designated Emergency Control Centre/Room.
Key Personnel.

Emergency Control Centre:- This is the main center from where the operations to handle the
emergency are directed and co-ordinated. Maximum facilities to be made available in the
emergency control are

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I. Internal and external communication.
II. Computer and other essential records.
III. Daily attendance of workmen employed in heliport.
IV. Storage of hazardous material records and manufacturing records.
V. Pollution records.
VI. Walky-talky.

VII. Plan of the plant showing-

a. Storage area of hazardous materials.
b. Storage of safety equipments.
c. Fire fighting system and additional source of water.
d. Site entrance, roadway and emergency exist.
e. Assembly points.
f. Truck parking area.
g. Surrounding location.
h. Emergency Alarm

VIII Note Book, Pad and Pencil.
IX List of Key Personnel with addresses, telephone number etc.

The Key Personnel for onsite emergency:-
1. Works main controller.
2. Works incident controller.
a. Communication Officer.
b. Security and Fire Officer.
c. Telephone Operators.
d. Medical Officer.
e. Personnel/Administrative Officer.
f. Essential work team leaders.

Off-site Emergency Plan:
The main objectives of the plan are
i. To save lives and injuries.
ii. To prevent or reduce property losses and
iii. To provide for quick resumption of normal situation or operation.

Central Control Committee: Under the Central Control Committee the following committees
shall be constituted under the control of the District Collector.

i. Incident and Environment Control Committee.
ii. Fire Control Committee.
iii. Traffic control, Law and order, Evacuation and Rehabilititation Committee.
iv. Medical help, Ambulance and Hospital Committee.
v. Welfare, Restoration and Resumption Committee.
vi. Utility and Engineering Services Committee.
vii. Press, Publicity and Public Relations Committee.

The Off-site Emergency Plan shall be prepared by the District Collector in consultation with the
factory management and Govt. agencies. The plan contains up to date details of outside
emergency services and resources such as Fire Services, Hospitals, and Police etc. with telephone
number. The district authorities are to be included in the plan area.

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a. Police Department.
b. Revenue Department.
c. Fire Brigade.
d. Medical Department.
e. Municipality.
f. Railway Department.
g. Telephone Department.
h. Factory Department.
i. Electricity Department.
j. Pollution Control Department.
k. Explosive Department.
l. Press and Media.

Mock exercises on Off-site plan will be carried out at least once in a year to train the employees,
up to date the plan, observe and rectify deficiencies. To carry out mock exercises and rehearsal of
the off site plan to ensure its efficiency, test and response, interaction and co-ordination of
operators various service organizations evaluate the effectiveness and adequacy of the
equipments and to gain experience and confidence to implement the plan. The finalized disaster
plan shall be given to all concerned for implementation and rehearsal for preparedness.

Emergency managing committee: A Heliport Emergency Managing Committee will be
constituted to ensure coordinated action. The director of Heliport will be the chairman of this
Committee. The committee will have members from various Heliport departments including the
following.

i. Heliport Administration
ii. Air Traffic Control
iii. Heliport Rescue and Fire Fighting
iv. Heliport Security Services (CISF, BCAS)
v. Safety Department
vi. Heliport Medical Services
vii. Maintenance Department
viii. Environment Management Cell
ix. Representative from Airlines
x. Transportation Department
xi. Department of Information and Publicity
xii. Representative from local NGOs and Social Group

Member from Airport Authority of India and district administration will be part of the committee.
The emergency managing committee will design the procedure the emergency action plan,
evacuation plan and procedures for implementation based on local needs and facilities available.

Heliport Emergency Operation/Co-ordination Centre: During a major Heliport disaster the
various emergency operations and coordination centers will be established immediately to
mitigate the disaster.

The Heliport emergency operation centre will contain:
Emergency alert and communication system.
Adequate number of external telephones. The latest telephone directories with a
separate list of important numbers e.g telephones nos. of nearest fire station and police
station or hospitals

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Adequate number of internal telephones and a P.A. system.
Radio equipment, hot-lines and walkie-talkie.
Plans of the Heliport to show various areas of Heliport
Sources of sirens and safety equipments including fire, explosion, spill and gas controls.
Stock of other fire extinguishing materials.

The Heliport emergency operations and coordination centres at the Heliport comprise Crisis
Management Centre (CMC), Heliport Emergency Response and Interaction Centre (HERIC),
Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC), Mobile Command Post (MCP), Triage Area (TA), Survivors
Reception Centre (SRC), Friends and Relatives Reception Centre (FRRC) and Gathering Area (RA).
Each of them has its own functions and roles to perform during the crisis as described below:

Education and Training: Regular training would be provided to all staff that has a role in planning
and operational response to an emergency. The training objectives are:

To familiarize the contents and manner of implementation of the plan and its
procedures;
To train staff in the performance of the specific duties assigned to them in the plan and in
the applicable implementation procedures;
To keep staff informed of any changes in the plan and the implementing procedures;
To maintain a high degree of preparedness at all levels of the
Emergency Response Organization;
Train new staff who may have moved within the facility organization;
Test the validity, effectiveness, timing and content of the plan; and
Update and modify the plan on the basis of experience acquired through exercises and
drills.

Mock drills: Mock drills are important component of emergency preparedness. Mock drills and
integrated exercises have the following objectives.

To test, efficiency, timing, and content of the plan and implementing procedures;
To make certain that the emergency organization staff are familiar with their duties and
responsibilities by demonstration;
Provide hands-on experience with the procedures to be adopted during emergency; and
Maintain emergency preparedness.

The frequency of the drills conducted will be once in a year. Scenarios may be developed in such
a manner as to accomplish more than one event objective. Drills and exercises will be conducted
as realistically as is reasonably practicable. Mock drills and exercises would include:

Dates, times and places;
Participating organizations;
Events to be simulated;
Approximate schedule of events;
Arrangements for qualified observers; and
An appropriate critique of drills/exercises with participants.

Evaluation of drills and exercises will invite comments from the participants and observers.
Discrepancies noted by the drill observers shall be pointed out. The team responsible for
conducting the drill or exercise would prepare a written evaluation which will include
assessments and recommendations on:


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY OF HELIPORT AT ROHINI, DELHI URBAN ENGINEERING
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Areas that require immediate correction;
Areas where additional training is needed;
Suggested modifications to the plan or procedures; and
Deficiencies in equipment, training, and facilities.
Records of drills, exercises, evaluations, and corrective actions would be duly maintained.

0.8 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN

Water quality: Water quality from the bore wells and municipal supply shall be monitored before
starting the construction, during the construction phase, and for at least three years after the
completion of the project. Monitoring shall be carried out at least three times a year to cover
seasonal variations. Water quality shall be analyzed by applying the standard techniques
prescribed by BIS. The parameters for monitoring would be:

pH, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Chlorides, Sulphate, Nitrate, Total
Hardness and Calcium hardness, Alkalinity and Biochemical Oxygen Demand

During construction and operation phases, two water samples (1 tube well and 1 municipal
supply) shall be collected in the project area.

Air and noise quality: To assess the effectiveness of air and noise pollution control, ambient air
quality and noise levels shall be monitored during the construction and operation phases. The
Parameters to be monitored are PM10, PM2.5, SO
2
, HC, Pb and NOx at least two locations, one
each near the terminal building and nearby sensitive place. Exact locations shall be decided by
the Environmental Engineer/Officer. The frequency of monitoring will be Twice in a week, 1 week
in a season and 3 times in a year during construction and 3 years in operation phase.

Ambient Noise Quality will be monitored At least three locations, one each at terminal building
and at nearby sensitive place. Exact locations shall be decided by the Environmental
Engineer/Officer. The frequency of monitoring will be Twice in a week, 1 week in a season and 3
times in a year during construction and 3 years in operation phase.

Soils: Soils near to the construction area shall be monitored to ascertain presence of soil polluting
chemicals due to construction activities. The parameters to be monitored are Moisture Content,
Organic Matter, Texture, Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium, Electric Conductivity. The location of
monitoring will be one sample at worker camps and near Helipad during Operation phase.

Establishment of environmental cell: The project authority shall establish an Environmental cell
in the initial stage of the project. The division shall have one Environmental Engineer/Officer and
one Support staff. The task of the environmental Engineer/Officer shall be to supervise and co-
ordinate environmental concerns, monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures. The
officer will monitor the field in coordination with the Project Director. Cost of such a division has
been estimated as ` 12.14 lakh.

0.9 ENVIRONMENTAL COST

The environmental costs towards implementation of environmental management plan and
mitigation measures during pre-construction, construction and operation of the proposed project
is estimated of ` 32.43 lakh.