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filter design for grid connected vsi

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3, MAY 2003

Source Inverter With an LCL Input Filter

Erika Twining, Student Member, IEEE, and Donald Grahame Holmes, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Many grid connected power electronic systems, such in higher-power applications [1], [2]. However, systems in-

as STATCOMs, UPFCs, and distributed generation system inter- corporating LCL filters require more complex current control

faces, use a voltage source inverter (VSI) connected to the supply strategies to maintain system stability, and are more susceptible

network through a filter. This filter, typically a series inductance,

acts to reduce the switching harmonics entering the distribution to interference caused by grid voltage harmonics because

network. An alternative filter is a LCL network, which can achieve of resonance hazards and the lower harmonic impedance

reduced levels of harmonic distortion at lower switching frequen- presented to the grid.

cies and with less inductance, and therefore has potential bene- Reference [3] has shown how an inner “lag-lead” compensa-

fits for higher power applications. However, systems incorporating tion loop on the capacitor voltage of the LCL filter of a three-

LCL filters require more complex control strategies and are not

commonly presented in literature. phase grid-connected VSI actively damps the filter resonance

This paper proposes a robust strategy for regulating the grid and improves the stability of the control system. Similar re-

current entering a distribution network from a three-phase VSI sults have been achieved for single and three-phase grid-con-

system connected via a LCL filter. The strategy integrates an outer nected VSI systems using an inner capacitor current feedback

loop grid current regulator with inner capacitor current regulation loop [4], and in a number of single-phase uninterruptible power

to stabilize the system. A synchronous frame PI current regula-

tion strategy is used for the outer grid current control loop. Linear supply (UPS) applications [5]. However, these systems control

analysis, simulation, and experimental results are used to verify the filter capacitor output voltage rather than the grid current

the stability of the control algorithm across a range of operating and are therefore not directly applicable for grid power flow

conditions. Finally, expressions for “harmonic impedance” of the control. Multi-variable control strategies have been proposed to

system are derived to study the effects of supply voltage distortion regulate the grid current for VSIs connected through LCL filters

on the harmonic performance of the system.

[1], but these strategies are complex and sensitive to variations

Index Terms—Current regulation, grid connection, harmonic in system parameters. More recently, an analytical study of grid

distortion, LCL filter, linear analysis, voltage source inverter .

connected active rectifiers with LCL input filters incorporating

PI-based controls has been presented [2]. However, this work

I. INTRODUCTION still only considers the regulation of the ac current out of the in-

verter, rather than the current into the grid after the filter.

P OWER electronic converters are now used in many

grid-connected applications including STATCOMs,

UPFCs, and active interfaces for distributed generation systems

This paper proposes a robust strategy for regulating the grid

current of a converter connected to an electrical network through

a LCL filter. The essence of the scheme is to use a synchronous

(e.g., PV, wind etc.). These converters are commonly based on a

frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the grid current, together

voltage source inverter (VSI) connected to the supply network,

with a simple inner capacitor current regulating loop to stabilise

operated to achieve objectives such as power flow regulation

the system.

or power factor optimization by regulating the current into the

To determine the transient performance of the system, a

grid using schemes such as synchronous frame controllers, Pre-

P Resonant controller is considered first. Unlike the SRFPI

dictive Current deadbeat control, or hysteresis-based strategies.

controller, the P Resonant controller can be easily reduced to

Typically, simple series inductors are used as the filter interface

a single-phase equivalent system so that conventional stability

between the VSI and the grid network. However, these filters

analysis techniques may be applied. Stable operation of this

require high switching frequencies to acceptably attenuate

controller at fundamental frequency is confirmed using a

switching harmonics, particularly in weak-grid applications

linearised model of the inverter/grid system. Then, using the

where the supply is sensitive to these harmonics.

knowledge that the P Resonant controller has similar per-

In contrast, the alternative LCL form of low-pass filter

formance characteristics to the SRFPI controller [6], stability

offers the potential for improved harmonic performance at

analysis for this controller is shown to be sufficient to predict

lower switching frequencies, which is a significant advantage

the stability of a SRFPI controller.

Next, reduced quality current regulation caused by grid

Manuscript received June 14, 2002; revised November 1, 2002. This work supply voltage harmonics is investigated by determining

was supported by the Australian Research Council. This paper was presented

at PESC’02, Cairns, Australia, June 23–27, 2002. Recommended by Associate the harmonic impedance of the proposed control strategy,

Editor J. H. R. Enslin. and methods of tuning the current regulator to mitigate this

The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Systems distortion are considered.

Engineering, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Victoria 3800, Australia

(e-mail: erika.twining@eng.monash.edu.au). Finally, the experimental results obtained using a DSP control

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2003.810838 platform are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed

0885-8993/03$17.00 © 2003 IEEE

TWINING AND HOLMES: GRID CURRENT REGULATION 889

control algorithm and to study the system’s harmonic perfor- back control of the grid current is unstable [4]. However, control

mance at a practical level. of this current should be possible in the same way as voltage

regulation for a UPS is achieved [5], by making an outer grid

II. SYSTEM MODELLING current feedback controller drive an inner capacitor current reg-

ulating loop.

Fig. 1 shows the converter system considered in this inves- Fig. 2 shows an ASM single-phase equivalent representation

tigation, comprising a standard three-phase VSI driven from a

of the controller/inverter system, where represents the grid

constant voltage DC bus and connected to the grid through a

current reference signal. From this figure, it can be seen how the

LCL filter. Note that the assumption of a constant dc voltage “outer” grid current feedback loop provides a reference value,

is reasonable if the dc capacitance is large or if dc bus voltage

, to the “inner” capacitor current feedback loop and the output

ripple compensation is included within the PWM control algo-

of the inner loop then determines the VSI output voltage, .

rithm. For this investigation, it is further assumed that the system

Representing the system with this single-phase model allows it

is balanced, and that the VSI switching frequency is sufficiently to be analyzed using conventional stability analysis techniques.

high that it will have negligible effect on the inverter control

The inner loop has a simple proportional gain transfer func-

loop dynamics.

tion, since it only stabilises the control system and its steady-

Under these assumptions, the converter system can be rep-

state errors do not affect the accuracy of the outer control loop.

resented using a linearized “average switching model (ASM),” The outer loop is shown in Fig. 2 as a generic transfer func-

where the inverter switches are replaced by a function repre-

tion . This transfer function could be the single phase

senting their averaged value over each carrier interval. Provided

equivalent of a SRFPI controller, but this has the complication

the controller does not saturate the VSI output, this linearised

of being difficult to model because of dependencies between

inverter model has been shown to achieve very accurate results the three phases. For simplicity, it would be preferable to use a

in this type of application [7]. Furthermore, the ASM approach

current regulation scheme that is independent between phases,

allows classical stability analysis techniques to be used to in-

such as a P Resonant controller, which is equally applicable

vestigate the system fundamental, transient and harmonic re-

to single or three phase systems. This also has the benefit that

sponses, and it is easily implemented in a simulation package since these two controllers are known to have almost identical

such as Matlab Simulink with greatly reduced simulation times

stationary frame performance characteristics [6], single-phase

compared to full switched models.

stability analysis of a P Resonant scheme can then directly be

applied to determine the transient performance of a SRFPI con-

III. CONTROL STRATEGY troller. This is the approach used here.

The primary aim of the control scheme is to modulate the

inverter to regulate the magnitude and phase angle of the grid A. SRFPI Controller Model

supply current, so that the real and reactive power entering the SRFPI controllers are commonly used in three-phase systems

network can be controlled. It is known already that direct feed- and operate by transforming the three-phase ac currents into

890 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2003

Fig. 2. Single-phase representation of proposed control strategy (notation defined in Fig. 1).

steady-state error that is normally associated with the applica-

tion of PI control to ac quantities can be eliminated [6]. The

strategy also has the particular advantage of independent con-

trol of the real and reactive current components, which translates

directly to real and reactive power flow control. This is advanta-

geous for this application, where the grid supply currents can be

directly regulated in the synchronous frame and transferred back

into the stationary frame to provide references for the simple

inner loop (single-phase) capacitor current controllers as shown

in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Synchronous reference frame PI control strategy (notation defined in

The transfer function of a SRFPI controller in the rotating Fig. 1).

frame is given by

control theory

(1)

(3)

Using the transformation techniques described in [6], the

equivalent stationary - - frame representation of the SRFPI

controller can be developed as (2). It is this form that is used IV. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE MODEL

to compare the transient performances of the SRFPI and the The open-loop and closed-loop transfer functions of a single

P Resonant controllers in Section IV. The main concern phase ASM of the system with a P resonant controller are given

with (2), shown at the bottom of the page, is the significant by (4) and (5), respectively, as shown at the bottom of the next

off-diagonal terms, which represent cross coupling between page, where: , ,

phases and make an ASM single-phase representation difficult. , .

Analysis of this system has determined that its stability is pri-

B. P Resonant Controller Model marily determined by the outer loop proportional gain , as

In contrast, the P Resonant controller transfer function, illustrated in Fig. 4 which shows how the position of the closed

given by (3), is already in the stationary frame and is indepen- loop poles of the P Resonant system vary with for three dif-

dent between phases. This transfer function has infinite gain ferent values of (see Section VI for component values). In all

at fundamental frequency and therefore also eliminates steady three cases the system is stable for between zero and approx-

state error [6], while the phase independence means that its imately one (per unit). Based on these results, an initial value of

(2)

TWINING AND HOLMES: GRID CURRENT REGULATION 891

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 4. Variation of P+resonant VSI system closed loop poles with control parameter K . (a) K = 20, K = 50, 0 < K < 10. (b) K = 50, K = 50,

0 < K < 10. (c) K = 100, K = 50, 0 < K < 10.

was chosen for the simulation and experimental work ciently damped response at the resonant frequency of the LCL

presented here. This value was later increased to achieve an im- filter whilst maintaining an acceptable phase margin.

proved harmonic response as described in Section V. The integral gain, , of the controller acts to eliminate

The primary function of the inner loop gain, , is to damp steady state error at the fundamental frequency. Due to the

the resonant peak introduced by the LCL input filter as shown complexity of the plant transfer function, simulation and exper-

in Fig. 5. However, as also contributes to the overall loop imental techniques were used to tune this value. The integral

gain, increasing its value can compromise the system stability. gain required to achieve a good steady-state and transient

Therefore a value of was chosen to achieve a suffi- response was found in this way to be .

(4)

(5)

892 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2003

K =

( 0:5, K = 50). Fig. 6. Open-loop frequency response of proposed control strategies.

From (2), it can be seen that the diagonal terms of the SRFPI i.e., the relationship between a harmonic voltage disturbance

controller are the same as the (single-phase) transfer function into the system, and the resultant injected grid current harmonic

of the P Resonant controller (3) apart from a scaling factor. component. This impedance provides a simple measure of the

It is these diagonal terms that lead to the same steady-state re- harmonic sensitivity of a current regulation scheme, and is a

sponse of zero steady-state error at the fundamental frequency. useful tool to assist with the design of AC filters to achieve ac-

However, it would be expected that the cross coupling terms ceptable levels of harmonic distortion.

of the SRFPI controller might cause some differences between With some manipulation, the harmonic impedance for each

the transient performances of the two controllers, and hence this phase of the P Resonant system described in Section III-B can

issue needs to be considered further, as follows: be shown to be (6). Similarly, from (2), the harmonic impedance

Fig. 6 shows the open-loop frequency response for both the matrix for the SRFPI controller can be derived as (7). With fur-

P resonant and SRFPI controllers, where it can be seen that ther algebra, the diagonal terms of (7) can be shown to be equiv-

the cross-coupling terms of the SRFPI system have only a small alent to that of the P Resonant converter (6). Finally, the results

influence on the performance of the controller around the funda- from the previous section suggest that the cross-coupling terms

mental frequency. Outside of this region, the frequency response will have negligible influence on the performance of the SRFPI

of the two controllers is practically identical. This suggests that controller at harmonic frequencies. Hence it is reasonable to

the transient analysis of the single-phase P Resonant controller conclude that analysis of the P Resonant system is sufficient

can be directly applied to the SRFPI controller, and hence that to predict the harmonic performance of the SRFPI system also.

the stability of the SRFPI control algorithm is also primarily de- See (6) and (7) shown at the bottom of the next page, where ,

termined by outer loop proportional gain . , and are defined in Section IV. refers to the

th element of the transfer function matrix given in (5).

V. GRID CURRENT CONTROL UNDER DISTORTED SUPPLY B. Mitigation of Harmonic Distortion

CONDITIONS

In order to minimize the harmonic current distortion

Previous experimental investigations have shown that even produced by the converter system under distorted supply

small levels of supply voltage distortion can result in signifi- conditions, the harmonic impedance should ideally be infinite

cant current distortion using current regulators that are tuned for all low order harmonics. In other words, the inverter should

for a fundamental response [7]. The work reported here has produce zero harmonic current for all values of harmonic

identified that this distortion comes about because the control supply distortion. In practice, Fig. 7 shows the harmonic

schemes described in the previous section have a limited band- impedance magnitude and phase verses frequency for two

width and are therefore unable to adequately compensate for values of . It can be seen from this figure that while the

grid supply voltage harmonics. It is noted in passing that most harmonic impedance goes through a minimum close to the

previous studies in this area have assumed a sinusoidal funda- LCL resonant frequency, , its absolute magnitude generally

mental supply, and appear not to have considered the effect of increases as increases. Hence the grid current distortion

grid network harmonic voltages. caused by grid supply harmonics will decrease for a higher

proportional gain . But the transient system response will

A. Calculating Harmonic Impedance also become more underdamped as this gain increases.

The sensitivity of each controller to grid harmonic distortion Fig. 8 shows the SRFPI controller transient response for

can be investigated by calculating its “harmonic impedance,” values of and with a 2% 5th harmonic

TWINING AND HOLMES: GRID CURRENT REGULATION 893

P resonant controller (a)

(ohms/degrees).

the current distortion has been reduced from 7.8% to 5.2% as

increases, the transient response is correspondingly more

oscillatory. These results show the tradeoff that can be made

between a regulator’s harmonic performance and its transient

response when operating into a distorted supply.

In [8] it was shown that converter devices can be used as “har-

monic current sinks” within a distribution system and thereby

reduce the levels of harmonic voltage distortion at the point of

common coupling. In contrast to the harmonic current mitigation

described above, this filtering application requires that the

harmonic impedance of the converter system be minimized.

However, careful design is required to avoid overloading the

inverter and causing harmonic voltage magnification at other (b)

points within the distribution system. The harmonic impedance Fig. 8. VSI transient response for 2% fifth and 1% seventh supply distortion.

derived above also provides a useful tool for further investigating K

( = 20 K = 50). (a) K = 0:5. (b) K = 1:0.

(6)

(7)

894 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2003

Fig. 9. Grid current waveform for K.

distortion levels within distribution systems. However, such

investigation is beyond the scope of this paper.

An experimental platform based on a DSP controller was used

to confirm the accuracy of the ASM analysis described above,

and to test the practical robustness and harmonic performance

of the control algorithms developed. The particular circuit pa-

rameters are mH, mH, F,

F (the supply variac inductance was used as in-

ductor of the LCL filter). The system is rated at 10 kVA and

has a 415 V supply voltage and a 700 V dc bus.

A SRFPI controller was implemented for the outer grid cur-

rent regulation, with an additional PI controller to maintain the

Fig. 11. Grid current waveform for 2 K.

dc link voltage at the specified value. This controller acts as

an outer control loop, providing the real current demand to the

SRFPI controller. (Note that in a complete system, the bulk of

the real and reactive current references would be generated by

higher-level control loops. However, the operation of these con-

trol loops is beyond the scope of this paper, so simple default

values were used.) The operation of the dc voltage control loop

was also decoupled from the current regulator by giving it a sig-

nificantly longer time constant.

To load the system, the dc link of the converter system was

simply connected to a resistor, and the inverter then acted as

an active rectifier. However, since a VSI is of course implicitly

bidirectional, the results are readily applicable to any type of

grid-connected application.

Fig. 9 shows the measured supply phase current for a step

change in the reactive current reference, . The real current Fig. 12. Grid current harmonic spectra for 2 K.

reference, , is supplied by the dc voltage controller. These

results confirm that the proposed control algorithm is stable at harmonic spectra of the phase current distortion, with fifth and

full supply voltage, achieves zero steady state error at funda- seventh harmonic distortion caused by the supply voltage har-

mental frequency and has a good transient response as antici- monics and a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 10.5%. Figs. 11

pated. However, it can be seen that the measured phase currents and 12 show the improvement that was achieved by doubling

have significant levels of harmonic distortion. For this test, the the proportional gain , to achieve a reduced harmonic cur-

supply voltage distortion was measured at approx. 2.3% with rent distortion of THD 6.7%. This increased is still well

the fifth and seventh harmonics dominating. Fig. 10 shows the within the stability margin, since there is no significant transient

TWINING AND HOLMES: GRID CURRENT REGULATION 895

oscillation visible in Fig. 9. It is further noted that the reference [7] E. Twining, “Modeling grid-connected voltage source inverter opera-

signal in both cases contains a small level of harmonic distor- tion,” in Proc. AUPEC’01, 2001, pp. 501–506.

[8] H. Akagi, H. Fujita, and K. Wada, “A shunt active filter based on voltage

tion (THD 2%). This is, in part, due to the ripple in the dc bus detection for harmonic termination of a radial power distribution line,”

voltage. It is expected that this distortion would be minimized by IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 35, pp. 638–645, 1999.

passing the signal through a low pass filter. This would fur-

ther reduce the levels of grid current distortion without affecting

the performance of the dc voltage controller significantly.

Erika Twining (S’02) received the B.Eng. and

M.Eng.Sc. degrees from the University of Mel-

VII. CONCLUSION bourne, Parkville, Australia, in 1995 and 2000,

respectively, and is currently pursuing the Ph.D.

This paper has presented a robust control algorithm to reg- degree in the Department of Electrical and Computer

ulate the grid current entering a distribution network from a Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton,

Australia.

three-phase VSI system via an LCL input filter. Linear analysis, She was a Graduate Electrical/Instrument Engi-

simulation and experimental results are used to verify the sta- neer at Orica Pty., Ltd., from 1996 to 1998. During

bility of the algorithm across a range of operating conditions. this time, she worked at a number of manufacturing

sites in Victoria and NSW, Australia, where she was

Expressions for “harmonic impedance” of the system are de- involved in the design and maintenance of power

rived to study the effects of supply distortion on the harmonic distribution and process control systems. Her major research interests include

performance of the system. It is shown that the controller can grid connected PWM converters, distributed generation, power quality, and

voltage compensation in weak distribution networks.

be tuned to achieve an improved overall response when oper-

ating into a distorted supply, at the expense of some reduction

in transient stability margins. Hence, an acceptable harmonic

performance can still be achieved with a lower value of input Donald Grahame Holmes (M’87) received the

inductance than would be required for a simple inductive filter, B.S. degree and M.S. degree in power systems

engineering from the University of Melbourne, Mel-

which offers potential for significant reductions in filter cost. bourne, Australia, in 1974 and 1979, respectively,

and the Ph.D. degree in PWM theory for power

electronic converters from Monash University,

REFERENCES Victoria, Australia, in 1998.

[1] M. Lindgren and J. Svensson, “Control of a voltage-source converter He worked for six years with the local power com-

connected to the grid through an LCL-filter-application to active pany developing SCADA systems for power trans-

filtering,” in Proc. Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC’98), Fukuoka, mission networks, before returning to the University

Japan, 1998. of Melbourne as a faculty member. In 1984, he moved

[2] M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, “Design and control of an LCL- to Monash University to work in the area of power electronics, and he is now an

filter based three-phase active rectifier,” in Proc. 2001 IEEE Ind. Ap- Associate Professor. He currently heads the Power Electronics Research Group,

plicat. Conf., 2001, pp. 297–307. Monash University, where he manages graduate students and research engineers

[3] V. Blasko and V. Kaura, “A novel control to actively damp resonance working together on a mixture of theoretical and practical R&D projects. The

in input lc filter of a three-phase voltage source converter,” IEEE Trans. present interests of the group include fundamental modulation theory, current

Ind. Applicat., vol. 33, pp. 542–550, 1997. regulators for drive systems and PWM rectifiers, active filter systems for quality

[4] N. Abdel-Rahim and J. E. Quaicoe, “Modeling and analysis of a feed- of supply improvement, resonant converters, current source inverters for drive

back control strategy for three-phase voltage-source utility interface sys- systems, and multilevel converters. He has a strong commitment and interest

tems,” in Proc. 29th IAS Annu. Meeting, 1994, pp. 895–902. in the control and operation of electrical power converters. He has made a sig-

[5] P. C. Loh, M. J. Newman, D. N. Zmood, and D. G. Holmes, “Improved nificant contribution to the understanding of PWM theory through his publi-

transient and steady state voltage regulation for single and three phase cations and has developed close ties with the international research commu-

uninterruptible power supplies,” in Proc. 32nd Ann. IEEE Power Elec- nity in the area. He has published over 100 papers at international conferences

tron. Spec. Conf. (PESC’01), 2001. and in professional journals, and regularly reviews papers for all major IEEE

[6] D. Zmood, D. Holmes, and G. Bode, “Frequency-domain analysis of TRANSACTIONS in his area.

three-phase linear current regulators,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. Dr. Holmes is an active member of the IPC and IDC Committees of the IEEE

37, pp. 601–610, 2001. Industrial Applications Society.

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