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Chapter 3: Heredity and Variation
Chapter 3: Heredity and Variation
3.1 Cell Division
3.1 Cell Division

1.

In the nucleus of the cell, there are

 

that carry genetic materials.

2.

controls various

are thread-like structure which carry genetic information that of the cell.

3.

Chromosomes

are

very small

and

can

only

be

seen

when

the

cell

undergoes

4.

A chromosome is made up of

 

5.

Each chromosome is carries thousands of

 

6.

A

is a small segment of the

 

molecule in a chromosome which contains

genetic information that controls a

 

received from parents.

7.

is the passing down of traits from parents to offspring.

 

8.

All multicellular organisms begin their lives as a single cell and then divides over and

over again to produce

cells.

 

9.

There are two types of cell division. They are called

 

and

10.

There are a few types of cells that do not carry out cell division. They are nerve cells or

Mitosis
Mitosis

and

cells.

11. Mitosis is a type of cell division in which a cell divides into

12. Occurs in

a. Humans and animals

b. Plant cells

and

cells

cells.

The process of mitosis

The process of mitosis 10. Chromosomes in the nucleus , , and become more 11. The
The process of mitosis 10. Chromosomes in the nucleus , , and become more 11. The
The process of mitosis 10. Chromosomes in the nucleus , , and become more 11. The
The process of mitosis 10. Chromosomes in the nucleus , , and become more 11. The
The process of mitosis 10. Chromosomes in the nucleus , , and become more 11. The

10.

Chromosomes in the nucleus

,

,

and become more

11.

The chromosomes replicate themselves to form two

7.

The centrioles move to two separate ends of the cell.

8.

emerge.

9.

Nuclear membrane start to

 

6.

Chromosomes align themselves in the of the cell

3. Then the chromatid to the opposite ends of the cell

and

4. The cell starts to

 

5. Two nuclear membranes are formed

 

the chromosomes at the

of the cells.

1. Two daughter cells are

2. Each cell has the

number of

chromosomes as the parent cell.

Characteristics of Mitosis

1. Mitosis is the process by which a mature cell divides into

2. Each new cell possesses the

3. cells divide by mitosis except

4. Mitosis is carried out at the ends of plant

new cells.

number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

and

Importance of Mitosis

1. Mitosis produces new cells for:

a.

b.

old or damaged cells

2. For example, after fertilization, a newly formed zygote, which is a organism will go through mitosis to become a

organism.

3. Also, skin cells on the surface of our body are constantly with new identical cells.

and need to be

4. Besides that, it also enables certain organisms to

lost parts of their

body. For example, a

that loses its tail is able to grow a new tail.

5. Mitosis enables organism to reproduce themselves (not sexually):

a. Using

reproduction. For example, amoeba uses and yeast uses

b. Using

 

reproduction. For example, tapioca plant reproduces

 

from its grows using its

,

lotus grows through its

,

bryophyllum

6. Mitosis ensures that the new cells produces have the chromosomes as the parent cells.

number of

a.

This ensures that the daughter cells have the same parent cells.

as the

Meiosis 1. Cell division also occurs during the formation of cells or 2. In human
Meiosis
1. Cell
division
also
occurs
during
the
formation
of
cells
or
2. In human beings, the gametes are the
produced by the male
reproductive organs (
) and the
produced by the
female reproductive organs (
).
3. In plants, the gametes are in the
contained in the male
reproductive organs (
) and the
contained in the
female reproductive organs (
).
4. Other cells which are not reproductive cells are called
cells.
5. Meiosis is the process of cell division for the formation of
6. When meiosis occurs, the end result is four cells which have
the number
of chromosomes of the parent cells.
7. Meiosis occurs in
stages: Meiosis
and Meiosis
Diploid number of chromosomes is
Homologous chromosomes are
chromosomes.
chromosomes having
or
chromosomes
pairs
Haploid number of chromosomes is
chromosomes having
only
chromosomes
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis Meiosis Similarities
Mitosis
Meiosis
Similarities

both involve the

both involve the replication of

both ensure the

both ensure the passing down of

of nucleus and cytoplasm

of organisms

material from

to

Differences
Differences

where it occurs

number of times the nucleus divides

number of daughter cells produces

genetic contents of daughter cells

number of chromosomes

crossing-over

variation

importance

3.2 Inheritance
3.2 Inheritance
1. Genes are hereditary units which carry traits of an organism. that determines the different
1.
Genes are hereditary units which carry
traits of an organism.
that determines the different
2.
Hence, the
of a person are determined by his genes.
3.
Our chromosomes exist in
called
chromosomes.
4.
The gene for a certain characteristic may be
or
5.
A
gene is powerful and can mask the effect of a less powerful gene.
6.
The
gene is weak and cannot show its effect if paired with a
gene.
7.
Example:
8.
Example:

a. Brown eyes are

b. The dominant gene for brown eyes is represented by

c. The recessive gene for blue eyes is represented by

d. A person with

e. He is

f. A person with

g. He is also

h. A person with

over blue eyes.

has brown eyes with

has blue eyes with

has

dominant genes for brown eyes.

dominant genes for blue eyes.

eyes because the dominant

gene is more powerful than the recessive

gene.

i. This person is

9. Dominant traits and recessive traits

Dominant traits

Recessive traits

Right handed

Short

Black hair

Straight hair

Brown eyes

Blue eyes

With ear lobes

Cannot roll tongue

Skin has pigment

Colour blind

Has dimples

Short eye lashes

10. Schematic diagram for inheritance

lobes Cannot roll tongue Skin has pigment Colour blind Has dimples Short eye lashes 10. Schematic
lobes Cannot roll tongue Skin has pigment Colour blind Has dimples Short eye lashes 10. Schematic
lobes Cannot roll tongue Skin has pigment Colour blind Has dimples Short eye lashes 10. Schematic
lobes Cannot roll tongue Skin has pigment Colour blind Has dimples Short eye lashes 10. Schematic
lobes Cannot roll tongue Skin has pigment Colour blind Has dimples Short eye lashes 10. Schematic

Phenotype

Genotype

Phenotype

Genotype

3.3 Sex Determination
3.3 Sex Determination

1.

There are two types of cells in the body:

cells and

cells.

2.

cells are ordinary body cells. These cells do not take part in the system of the body.

3.

cells are also called system of the body.

They contribute to the

4.

An

in the

gamete.

5.

A

is the

gamete.

6.

There are two types of chromosomes in every cell:

chromosomes and

chromosomes.

 

7.

Non-sex chromosomes are called

 

8.

Autosomes determine our

and

9.

Sex chromosomes determine our

10.

In women, the pair of

chromosomes is called

 

11.

In men, the pair of

chromosomes is called

Chromosomes in a woman

Chromosomes in a man
Chromosomes in a man

Chromosomes in a man

Chromosomes in a man

MAN

WOMAN

Autosomes

Sex

chromosomes

Total

12. During meiosis, each gamete receives

and

sex chromosome.

ordinary chromosomes (

13. Each ovum receives

14. Each sperm receives

chromosomes ( 13. Each ovum receives 14. Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15.
chromosomes ( 13. Each ovum receives 14. Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15.

chromosomes.

chromosomes or

receives 14. Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15. From the above diagram, we
receives 14. Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15. From the above diagram, we

chromosomes.

Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15. From the above diagram, we know that
Each sperm receives chromosomes. chromosomes or chromosomes. ) 15. From the above diagram, we know that

)

15. From the above diagram, we know that the sex of the zygote is decided during

The occurrence of twins
The occurrence of twins

1.

There are two types of twins:

and

twins.

2.

twins are twins that have the same

and the same

3.

They have the same characteristics because they have the same

and

4.

twins are twins that have different

and

5.

They have different characteristics because they have different

and

6.

Identical twins come from a zygote that

into two.

7.

Non-identical twins comes from the formation of

zygotes.

Somatic cell

Sperm

Somatic cell

ovum

Identical and non-identical twins
Identical and non-identical twins
Identical twins Non- identical twins Similarities  Two fetuses develop in the uterus at the
Identical twins
Non- identical twins
Similarities
 Two fetuses develop in the uterus at the
time
 Two babies are
at the same time
Differences
Differences

Number of gametes involved

Fertilization

Zygote

Number of placentas

Chromosomes and genes

Sex of twins

Characteristic features

3.4 Mutation
3.4 Mutation

1. A mutation is a

3.4 Mutation 1. A mutation is a in a gene or chromosome. 2. This results in

in a gene or chromosome.

2. This results in change in

of the organism.

3. Mutations can happen but it is

4. A mutant gene or chromosome can be

to future generations.

Types of mutation

1. Mutations that occur in genes are called

2. Mutations that occur in chromosomes are called

3. Gene mutation

a.

Gene mutation occurs when the genes are

spontaneously

b.

Mutant genes can cause changes in the controlled by the genes

and

c.

Examples are

and

d.

Sickle cell anaemia

e.
e.

i. Someone with sickle cell anaemia has red blood cells that carry oxygen

ii. This is because their bodies lack

iii. This disorder is due to the

responsible for producing

iv. The mutant genes cause the red blood cell to be

v. The patient has low

and brain

shaped

Albinism

i. Albinism is due to the genes responsible for skin

ii. The pigment

in the skin, hair and eyes isn’t able to be

produced

iii. Hence, the skin/ hair becomes

iv. It is caused by the recessive has is it is called an

genes. Hence the person who

f.

i.

ii.

iii.

Colour blindness

A person who is colour blind usually cannot differentiate between

Both these colours appear as

to them

and

This is due to the lack of

in the retina. The cones are responsible for seeing

iv.

v.

Colour blindness is due to a recessive gene on the X- chromosome

Hence this defect is said to be

vi.

g.

i.

ii.

Since the X- chromosome is involved,

to be vi. g. i. ii. Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia
to be vi. g. i. ii. Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia
to be vi. g. i. ii. Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia
to be vi. g. i. ii. Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia

are usually carriers

Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia Haemophilia is a blood disease in
Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia Haemophilia is a blood disease in
Since the X- chromosome is involved, are usually carriers Haemophilia Haemophilia is a blood disease in

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is a blood disease in which the blood cannot

Hence if there is a cut or a wound, it cannot

iii.

iv.

This is because the blood lacks a

which is necessary to make it clot

It is also linked to the X-chromosomes, so it is

v.

Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her

Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome
Haemophilia is usually passed on by a female carrier to her 4. Chromosome mutation a. Chromosome

4. Chromosome mutation

a. Chromosome mutation is caused by changes in the

b. The changes may alter the chromosomes.

of the chromosomes or the

of

c. Mutant chromosomes can cause changes in the person.

and

of a

d.

For example,

and

e.

Mutant chromosomes can be passed from caused by the mutations cannot.

 

to

However,

f.

Down’s syndrome:

 

i.

Down’s syndrome is due to

of the chromosomes.

 

ii.

This causes the number of chromosomes in the body to be

iii.

Normally a gamete has

chromosomes.

iv.

Mutation can cause a gamete to have

chromosomes (

chromosome extra ).

v.

It can also cause a gamete to have

chromosomes (

chromosome short).

vi.

When a sperm has forms a zygote with

chromosomes and fuses with an ovum with chromosomes.

chromosomes, it

vii.

The extra chromosome is attached to the

chromosome.

viii.

The risk of having a child with Down’s syndrome lies with

 

ix.

The risk of a woman having a child with Down’s syndrome increases with

x.

The risk is years old.

for a woman aged 20 years old and

 

for a woman aged 40

xi.

Usually a child with Down’s syndrome has a

life.

xii.

The characteristic features of a child with Down’s syndrome are:

 

1. a

heart

4. hands with

fingers

2. a

developed brain

5. tongue which

out

3. growth

 

6. mouth and

lips

xiii.

Nowadays Down’s syndrome can be detected at the

stage.

out 3. growth   6. mouth and lips xiii. Nowadays Down’s syndrome can be detected at

g.

Klinefelter’s syndrome

 

i.

Keinefelter’s syndrome is cause by an extra

chromosome in a

 

ii.

A normal man has

X chromosome and

Y chromosome.

iii.

A man with Klinefelter’s syndrome has

X chromosomes and

Y chromosomes.

iv.

This causes the male to have an

secondary sex characteristics.

 

v.

As a result, the man has

testes and

penis.

h.

Turner’s syndrome

 

i.

Turner’s syndrome us due to one

chromosome less in the body cells of the woman.

ii.

This defect hinders the development of secondary

chromosomes in the woman.

iii.

As a result, the woman has

breasts and does not

 

iv.

The risk of getting a child with Turner’s syndrome

as the mother grows older.

breasts and does not   iv. The risk of getting a child with Turner’s syndrome as
Variation
Variation

1.

Variation is the natural

 

between individuals of the same

2.

Humans are different in terms of their physical characteristics. Examples would include

 

,

,

,

and so on.

3.

Physiologically, we are different in terms of the constituents of our

 

4.

Examples would include

 

,

,

and

5.

There are two types of variation:

 

and

6.

Continuous variation

 

a. Continuous variation is a variation which difference.

 

show a

b. For example, the

 

and

of students in a class

c. Other examples are :

 

of skin,

 

of hair,

d. Continuous variation is affected by

 

factors such as

,

 

,

,

and

 

e. Continuous variation may

 

7.

Discontinuous variation

 

a. Discontinuous variation is variation which shows

 

difference.

b. One example is

We have

,

,

,

and

c. A person has

d. Other examples are:

i. Ear

ii. Tongue

out of four. There cannot be

values.

iii. Thumb

:

,

,

,

iv. Sex:

and

v. of eyes

 

vi. handed or

handed

e. Discontinuous variation is affected by

factors

f. Discontinuous variation may