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LMS algorithm

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31 visualizzazioni6 pagineLMS algorithm

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Nithin V. George

, Ganapati Panda

School of Electrical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013, India

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 22 October 2011

Received in revised form 9 February 2012

Accepted 14 February 2012

Available online 24 March 2012

Keywords:

Active noise control

Robust algorithm

Filtered-s least mean square algorithm

Functional link articial neural network

Impulsive noise

a b s t r a c t

The performance of a nonlinear active noise control (ANC) system based on the recently developed l-

tered-s least mean square (FsLMS) algorithm deteriorates when strong disturbances in the ANC system

are acquired by the microphones. To surmount this shortcoming, a novel robust FsLMS (RFsLMS) algo-

rithm is proposed for a functional link articial neural network (FLANN) based ANC system. The new

ANC system is least sensitive to such disturbances and does not call for any prior information on the noise

characteristics. The results obtained from simulation study establish the effectiveness of this new ANC

scheme.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The fundamental principle of active noise control (ANC) is the

destructive superposition of two waves. Because of potential

industrial applications and advances in digital signal processing,

ANC has emerged as one of the key research areas in recent years.

The ltered-x LMS (FxLMS) algorithm [1] is the most widely used

adaptive algorithm for a feed-forward ANC system. In an FxLMS

algorithm based ANC system, the primary path from the noise

source to the cancellation point is represented by the transfer func-

tion P(z), the transfer function of the secondary path (path from the

controller output to the cancellation point) is denoted by S(z). The

adaptive weights, W(z) of the controller are updated using the ref-

erence signal x(n) ltered through the secondary path model

Sz

and by the error signal e(n), sensed by the error microphone placed

at the cancellation point.

The FxLMS algorithm based ANC system provides satisfactory

performance if the primary and secondary paths as well as the con-

troller are linear in nature. However, in practice, the primary and

secondary paths are very often nonlinear. In addition, the primary

noise also exhibits nonlinear distortion. In such situations, the lin-

ear ANC system fails to effectively mitigate the noise to the desired

level. In order to improve the performance under such situations,

various nonlinear ANC systems have been proposed in the litera-

ture [2,3]. A Volterra FxLMS (VFxLMS) algorithm has been used

for an ANC system based on an adaptive Volterra lter [4]. Das

and Panda have developed a ltered-s LMS (FsLMS) algorithm for

nonlinear ANC systems, which uses a functional link articial neu-

ral network (FLANN) as the controller [5].

The presence of strong disturbances such as impulsive noise in

the ANC system affects the noise cancellation performance of the

system. An impulsive noise may be modelled as a symmetric a sta-

ble (SaS) distribution f(x) having a characteristic function of the

form

ut e

cjtj

a

1

where 0 < a < 2 is the characteristic exponent and c is a scale

parameter called as the dispersion factor [6]. When a tends to 2,

the distribution tends to be Gaussian. A smaller value of a indicates

a distribution with stronger impulsive noise. As second order mo-

ments do not exist for SaS processes, adaptive algorithms based

on fractional order have been developed for improving the perfor-

mance. A ltered-x least mean p power algorithm (FxLMP) has been

derived in literature for robust ANC systems which uses a fractional

order moment [7]. However, the FxLMP algorithm requires prior

knowledge of the characteristic exponent a, which is not available

in real time ANC systems. An online scheme for estimation of the

characteristic exponent has been proposed in [8]. A couple of

schemes have been recently developed to improve the performance

of FxLMP algorithm [9].

A robust weight constrained FxLMS (CFxLMS) algorithm is pro-

posed in [10], which updates the connecting weights W(n) of the

ANC system as

Wn 1 Wn len^sn xn 2

with Wn 1

Wn 1 if kWn 1k 6 b

b:Wn1

kWn1k

if kWn 1k > b

_

3

0003-682X/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2012.02.005

E-mail address: nithinvgeorge@gmail.com (N.V. George).

Applied Acoustics 73 (2012) 836841

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Applied Acoustics

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ apacoust

where b is the constraining factor, l is the learning parameter, ^sn

is the impulse response of

Sz, is the linear convolution operator

and k.k denotes Euclidean norm. The robust performance of this

algorithm is directly dependent on suitable choice of the constrain-

ing factor, which has to be experimentally determined. Another ro-

bust FxLMS algorithm suggested in [11] is given by

Wn 1 Wn l~en^sn ~xn 4

where ~en and ~xn are the transformed error term and reference

signal respectively. The enhanced robustness of this algorithm to-

wards disturbances depends on proper selection of thresholds.

The online threshold estimation technique proposed in [12] may

be extended to this algorithm to improve the performance.

An active impulsive noise control algorithm, which is based on a

logarithmic transformation (FxlogLMS) has been recently proposed

[13]. The weights of this controller are updated using FxlogLMS

algorithm as

Wn 1 Wn lsignen

logjenj

jenj

^sn xn 5

with je(n)j = 1 for je(n)j < 1. Even though considerable research nd-

ings have been reported on the development of robust linear ANC

systems, there has been very little work on the development of ro-

bust nonlinear ANC systems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to formu-

late a robust learning algorithm for nonlinear ANC, which not only

takes care of the effects of nonlinearities but also remain stable in

the presence of disturbances such as impulsive noise.

2. Design of a robust nonlinear active noise controller

The controller proposed in this paper consists of a FLANN

(Fig. 1), the weights of which are updated using a novel robust

algorithm. The input to a FLANN is non-linearly expanded using

a suitable basis function. The basis function can be trigonometric,

Chebyshev or Legendre. The use of a Chebyshev or Legendre basis

function requires input normalization, which is not practically

possible when the ANC scheme deals with impulsive noises. This

paper uses a trigonometric expansion as it is simple to implement

and does not require amplitude normalization. This trigonometric

expansion not only increases the dimensionality, but also maps the

linear inputs to nonlinear ones. Each of the expanded inputs are

then linearly weighted and summed to produce the output.

Compared to other articial neural structure such as multilayer

articial neural network or radial basis function network, the

proposed structure involves low computational complexity.

Let x(n) be the output of the reference microphone and the

corresponding input signal vector is U(n) = [x(n),x(n 1), . . . ,

x(n M + 1)]

T

. The M-element input signal vector is trigonometri-

cally expanded to Nterms as

Xn xn; sinpxn; cospxn; . . . ; sinbpxn; cosbpxn; . . . ; xn

M1; sinpxnM1; cospxnM

1; . . . ; sinbpxnM1; cosbpxnM1

T

6

where b is the order of the FLANN lter and N = M(2b + 1). If

A

f

n a

f

1

na

f

2

n . . . a

f

N

n

T

represent the adaptive weight vector,

the output of the controller is given by

yn A

T

f

nXn: 7

The residual noise measured by the error microphone is given by

en dn sn yn 8

where d(n) is the primary noise signal at the cancellation point and

s(n) is the impulse response of the secondary path transfer function

S(z). Using (7), the residual noise may be rewritten as

en dn sn A

T

f

nXn: 9

The conventional FsLMS algorithm has been developed with the

objective of minimizing the cost function E(e

2

(n)), where E(.) is

the expectation operator. The FsLMS algorithm [5] is given by

A

f

n 1 A

f

n len

X

0

n 10

where

X

0

n ^sn Xn. From (10), it is clear that for higher val-

ues of e(n), as in the case of impulsive noise, the FsLMS algorithm

may diverge. To alleviate this problem, a robust cost function [14]

dened as

n E log 1

e

2

n

2r

2

_ _ _ _

11

is used in the development of a robust FsLMS (RFsLMS) algorithm

for tuning the parameters of an ANC system. In (11), r

2

is computed

as an estimated variance of e(n) using a sliding window approach

with a window length N

w

[8]. The weight vector A

f

(n) of an RFsLMS

algorithm based ANC scheme is updated using a gradient descent

approach [1] which minimizes the cost function in (11). The update

equation for the weight vector is given by

A

f

n 1 A

f

n

l

2

^

rn 12

where

^

rn denotes the instantaneous estimate of the gradient of

the cost function n with respect to the weight vector A

f

(n). This esti-

mate is derived as

$n

@ log 1

e

2

n

2r

2

_ _ _ _

@A

f

n

2

en

e

2

n 2r

2

_ _

X

0

n: 13

with X

0

(n) denoting a ltered version of X(n). Substituting (13) in

(12), RFsLMS algorithm is obtained as

A

f

n 1 A

f

n l

en

e

2

n 2r

2

_ _

X

0

n 14

where

X

0

n is obtained by ltering X(n) through a model of the sec-

ondary path. The proposed RFsLMS algorithm(14) uses of a function

of the error for weight updation instead of direct use of error signal

employed in FsLMS algorithm (10). Fig. 2 shows the transformation

function employed in RFsLMS algorithm with r

2

= 1. It can be ob-

served that for larger values of je(n)j, the weight updation is small

and thus the algorithm is stable. The performance is also improved

by the presence of the variance term in the denominator, which

tends to a small value for non-impulsive samples. Further, the im-

pact of high amplitude impulses appearing in the reference signal Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the proposed FLANN based adaptive controller.

N.V. George, G. Panda / Applied Acoustics 73 (2012) 836841 837

has been signicantly reduced by trigonometric expansion, which

limits the strength of the expanded reference signal samples to

[1, 1]. However, the terms x(n), x(n 1), . . . ,x(n M + 1) which

appear directly in the expanded signal vector X(n) could affect the

performance of the proposed scheme for very strong disturbances.

But such a situation can also be avoided if an adaptive thresholding

scheme as suggested in [12] is applied. The complete layout of the

new ANC scheme incorporating the weight update mechanism in

(14) is presented in Fig. 3.

2.1. Stability of RFsLMS algorithm

The range of the learning parameter l, which ensures stability

and monotonic convergence of RFsLMS algorithm is derived in this

section. Let A

f0

be the optimal weight vector of the robust adaptive

controller and (n) be the mismatch between A

f0

and A

f

(n), given

by

n A

f 0

A

f

n 15

After subtracting both sides of (14) from A

f0

, the following equation

is obtained.

n 1 n l

en

e

2

n 2r

2

_ _

X

0

n 16

Assuming D(n) as the expectation of the squared Euclidean norm i.e.

D(n) = E{k(n)k

2

}, (16) can be written as

Dn 1 Dn l

2

E

en

e

2

n 2r

2

_ _

2

k

X

0

nk

2

_ _

2lE

en

e

2

n 2r

2

_ _

T

n

X

0

n

_ _

17

For assured stability and convergence, D(n + 1) should be less than

D(n). Thus the bounds for l are obtained as

0 < l < 2

E

e

2

n

e

2

n2r

2

_ _ _ _

E

en

e

2

n2r

2

_ _

2

k

X

0

nk

2

_ _ 18

with the assumption that

T

n

X

0

n en.

10 5 0 5 10

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

e(n)

e

(

n

)

/

[

e

2

(

n

)

+

2

]

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the transformation in the proposed RFsLMS algorithm

[for r

2

= 1].

Fig. 3. The proposed FLANN based robust nonlinear ANC system trained using RFsLMS algorithm.

838 N.V. George, G. Panda / Applied Acoustics 73 (2012) 836841

3. Simulation study

The newly developed RFsLMS algorithm based ANC scheme is

evaluated for robust performance in this section. To achieve

fairness in comparison, the FxlogLMS algorithm has been

re-formulated for a FLANN based nonlinear ANC system. The new

FslogLMS algorithm is given by

A

f

n 1 A

f

n l signen

logjenj

jenj

X

0

n 19

with je(n)j = 1 for je(n)j < 1. The implementation of the term

logjenj

jenj

is

computationally expensive. For all values of je(n)j < 1, the FslogLMS

algorithm loses adaptiveness as logje(n)j becomes zero. In the sim-

ulation study, the effectiveness is assessed in terms of averaged

noise reduction (ANR), which is dened as

ANRn 20log

A

e

n

A

d

n

_ _

20

where A

e

(n) = kA

e

(n 1) + (1 k)je(n)j and A

d

(n) = kA

d

(n 1) +

(1 k)jd(n)j with A

e

(0) = 0, A

d

(0) = 0 and k very close to 1. The refer-

ence noise signal x(n) is generated as a symmetric alpha stable (SaS)

distribution using the MATLAB function stabrnd developed by

McCulloch based on [15].

3.1. Experiment 1: Minimum phase secondary path

In this experiment, the primary noise observed at the error

microphone is given by

dn un 2 d

1

u

2

n 2 d

2

u

3

n 1 21

where d

i

for i = 1,2 is a measure of the strength of the primary path

nonlinearity and u(n) = x(n)q(n), with q(n) as the impulse response

of the transfer function Q(z) = z

3

0.3z

4

+ 0.2z

5

. The secondary

path is considered to be of minimum phase with transfer function

S(z) = z

2

+ 0.5z

3

. Four different scenarios have been considered in

this section with (a) Case 1: a = 1.7 (b) Case 2: a = 1.8 (c) Case 3:

a = 1.9 (d) Case 4: a = 2.0. The rst case corresponds to a highly

impulsive noise, where as the fourth one denotes a distribution

which is Gaussian. From the plots of x(n) and d(n) shown in Fig. 4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

x 10

4

200

100

0

100

200

300

Samples

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

S

a

m

p

l

e

V

a

l

u

e

)

(a)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

x 10

4

6

4

2

0

2

x 10

5

Samples

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

S

a

m

p

l

e

V

a

l

u

e

)

(b)

Fig. 4. (a) Reference signal x(n) for a = 1.7 (b) Primary noise observed at the error

microphone for a = 1.7.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(a)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(b)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(c)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(d)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

Fig. 5. Averaged noise reduction (ANR) in an ANC system with a minimum phase secondary path for SaS primary noise (a) Case 1: a = 1.7 (b) Case 2: a = 1.8 (c) Case 3: a = 1.9

(d) Case 4: a = 2.0.

N.V. George, G. Panda / Applied Acoustics 73 (2012) 836841 839

for a = 1.7, it can be observed that the presence of a nonlinear pri-

mary path can increase the noise magnitude many fold and makes

noise control challenging. The primary noise amplitude for a = 1.7

is much higher compared to that observed in the linear ANC scenar-

ios studied in [13] for a = 1.3. The various simulation parameters

employed in the study are M = 10, N

w

= 10 b = 3, d

1

= 0.08,

d

2

= 0.04, k = 0.999 and l = 2 10

3

. The learning rate have been se-

lected by trial and error.

TheANRcurves for all thefour cases aredepictedinFig. 5. It canbe

observedthat FsLMSalgorithmdivergesfor cases1, 2and3wherethe

reference signal is highly impulsive. Both RFsLMS and FslogLMS

algorithms are found to be stable for all the four cases. It can be also

seen that for case 4, when the noise distribution is Gaussian, the

ANR performance of RFsLMS algorithm is in close match with that

of conventional FsLMS algorithmwhereas the noise reduction capa-

bility of FslogLMS algorithmhas been observed to be deteriorating.

3.2. Experiment 2: Non-minimum phase secondary path

The experiment conducted in the previous sub-section has been

repeated in this part of the study for a non-minimum phase

secondary path. The transfer function of the secondary path is gi-

ven by

Sz z

2

1:5z

3

z

4

22

The primary noise, the transfer function of the primary path as well

as the simulation parameters are same as that of the previous

experiment. The ANR curves shown in Fig. 6 reafrms the improved

performance of RFsLMS algorithm over the conventional FsLMS and

FslogLMS algorithms. RFsLMS algorithm has been observed to per-

form equally well for Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian noise

processes.

The difference between (14) and (19) is in the computation of

the terms

en

e

2

n2r

2

and

logjenj

jenj

. A comparison has been made between

the computation time for both the terms using a 32 bit Windows 7

PC with an Intel Core 2 Duo T8100 2.10 GHz processor and 4 GB

RAM. The signal e(n) has been considered to be having an SaS distri-

bution with a = 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 and 2.0. From the computational times

shown in Table 1, it can be observed that for all the cases consid-

ered, the time required for evaluating

en

e

2

n2r

2

(with online estima-

tion of r

2

) is almost half of the time required for computing

logjenj

jenj

.

4. Conclusion

A robust nonlinear active noise control system has been devel-

oped in this paper. A new learning algorithm has been proposed for

the FLANN based nonlinear adaptive controller. The necessary

stability conditions have been derived. The proposed algorithm

has been shown to perform with similar levels of efciency for

Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian noise processes.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(a)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(b)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(c)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x 10

4

15

10

5

0

5

Iterations

A

N

R

(

d

B

)

(d)

FsLMS

FslogLMS

RFsLMS

Fig. 6. Averaged noise reduction (ANR) in an ANC system with a non-minimum phase secondary path for SaS primary noise (a) Case 1: a = 1.7 (b) Case 2: a = 1.8 (c) Case 3:

a = 1.9 (d) Case 4: a = 2.0.

Table 1

Comparison of computational time per sample for

evaluating (a)

logjenj

jenj

, and (b)

en

e

2

n2r

2

.

a Time (ns) (a) Time (ns) (b)

1.7 113.22 63.54

1.8 108.15 62.05

1.9 110.23 63.72

2.0 109.58 62.46

840 N.V. George, G. Panda / Applied Acoustics 73 (2012) 836841

Acknowledgments

One of the authors, Nithin V. George, acknowledge the generous

funding received from Ministry of Human Resource Development,

Government of India for carrying out this work.

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