C to heat up the dishware, i.e. to store thermal energy into them. The
dishwasher cools down from the outside, hence the tub wall is colder than the dishes.
Therefore, the water on the dishes is evaporated from the dishware and condensed on
the tub wall.
The physical system under consideration can be described as a mixed convection
ow in presence of phase change phenomena. This kind of systems have crucial role
in several natural and technological processes, in particular in those involving drying
and wetting of solid surfaces. Although such ows are quite common in engineering
applications, their understanding is far from being complete. The complex physics
involved can be divided in three subproblems: the exchange of heat between wetted
solid bodies and the thin liquid lm or drops laying on their surface; the heat and mass
transfer between liquid phase and the surrounding gas through change of phase; the
gaseous ow which is greatly inuenced by the buoyancy forces due to density variations
arising from the diusion of temperature and vapor concentration.
To the best of authors knowledge, in literature such a problem has not been com
pletely faced yet. In particular a model suitable for engineering purposes, i.e. on large
scales and complex geometries, of liquid lm during drying process has never been
proposed yet. This PhD project has been meant to start the research on such topic.
The numerical implementation has been carried out in the OpenFoam environment, an
opensource C + + CFD tool.
The mathematical model for gaseous ow with the evaporation and condensation
at wetted surfaces has been implemented. It consists of the incompressible formulation
of the NavierStokes equations, plus the transport equations for temperature and vapor
concentration, . Both are treated as active scalars. The density variations are taken
into account by means of the Boussinesq approximation. A thin lm approximation is
assumed, meaning that all liquid lms, liquid patches and drops on the wetted surfaces
are considered as a continuous lm. Moreover the thin liquid lm is treated as a
boundary condition for the gaseous ow. It prescribes a Dirichlet condition for the
temperature and for the vapor concentration that at the liquid interface is considered
in saturation. The evaporation/condensation process is evaluated by the evaporation
velocity, V e, at the liquidgas interface by the relation (2.44) as explained in 2.4,
providing the boundary condition for the velocity eld, and the water mass transfer
rate.
This numerical model has been validated against literature results of [19] and then
vii
viii
exploited rstly in the study of the archetypal case of the ow over a wetted cylinder
conned between two parallel walls [28]. In this work the eects of walls conditions,
wetted or dried and adiabatic, on mean evaporative uxes around the cylinder have
been enlighten along with the dependence on the gap between the body and the wall.
In Figure 5.4a an instantaneous vapor concentration contour plot is shown for the case
with wetted walls and cylinder placed at one forth of the channel width. It shows the
complex pattern ow that typically arises in this problems.
Successively a rst application of this model on a real conguration has been per
formed on a 2D dishwasher. In Figure 5.9b is shown an instant contour plot of the
vapor concentration, that also reveals the complex ow pattern among the dishware.
An interesting analysis has also been carried out taking retrieving the actual drying.
An initial uniform lm thickness has been prescribed on the tableware, and the evolu
tion in time has been followed up to the complete drying. In intermediate situations
the surface portion already dried cannot release more vapor into the ow, lowering the
buoyancy near the body and slowing down the ow velocity in the plume.
A further step towards the realscale 3D dishwasher has been done on a simplied
geometry in order to check the model capabilities and the mesh requirements in a 3D
case. The results shows again that the buoyancy force starts the convective cells and
the evolution of the liquid thickness takes place.
Finally the case of a realscale 3D dishwasher, with the proper geometry has been
also tackled. The simulation ran for few physical seconds and the characteristic plumes
develop as can be seen in Figure 5.16, then a numerical instability appears leading to
unphysical pressure values. This is thought to be due to turbulence missing dissipa
tion. The standard Smagorinsky LES model with the Reynolds analogy for the eddy
diusivity of the two scalars has been applied. It stabilized the solution, but the re
sults appear to be to much diused due to an overestimation of the subgrid viscosity.
In general the ow in the realscale dishwasher appears to be turbulent. In order to
properly take into account the eects of turbulence in homeappliance applications the
LES approach is preferable, being DNS computation not aordable and the ow tran
sient in nature. The geometries involved are very complex and the ows are strongly
anisotropic. Among the possible LES models known in literature the most appealing
for such a task is the Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model proposed in [22]. The
implementation of Lagrangian dynamic model is in progress.
The drying process is known to be strongly aected by the thermal coupling of the
liquid phase either with the solid substrate and the air [9]. In order to incorporates such
an important features the DirichletNeumann domain decomposition technique has
been chosen. It appears to be eective and straightforward to implement. It enforces
the continuity of temperature and the balance of the heat uxes across each interface.
In order to properly take into account the heat transfer mechanism through the liquid
layer a suitable temperature lm model has been proposed. As expected the ruling
term in the heat transfer process among the three media is the latent heat ux of
evaporation. Each of these parts have been already implemented and some test case
have been performed in order to validate the code.
Contents
Sommario v
Summary vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Project aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Problem approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Formulation 5
2.1 Mass transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Gaseous phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.1 Sponge region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.2 LES turbulence model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Thinlm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.1 Interaction with the substrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3.2 Evaporating drops physic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.3 Modeling hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.4 Packing ratio argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 E/C b.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.1 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.2 Vapor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.3 Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.4 Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5 Thermal coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5.2 DDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5.3 Film model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.6 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.7 Model summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3 Numerical Implementation 31
3.1 FVM discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.1.1 Spatial discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.1.2 Time discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.1.3 Boundary condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.2 PISO algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3 Current model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
ix
x CONTENTS
3.3.1 Current model algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.3.2 E/C implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.3.3 Film implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.4 LES models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.4.1 Smagorinsky model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.4.2 Plane averaged dynamic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4 Validation and Testing 53
4.1 PISO algorithm testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.1.1 Current model stability test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.1.2 AccuracyCo number test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.2 Validation test case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.3 LES turbulence models test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.4 Drop test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4.1 Drop as a thin lm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.5 DDM validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.5.1 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.5.2 Test cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5.3 Constant heat source in Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.5.4 Soliduid case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.5.5 Multidimensional cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.5.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5 Cases studied 79
5.1 Wetted cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.1.2 Nonwetted walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.1.3 Wetted walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.1.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.2 2D DW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.2.2 Case setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.2.3 Case discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.2.4 Drying process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3 Plate in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3.1 experimental comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.4 3D DW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6 Conclusions 97
A Dynamic lm model 101
A.1 Film Thickness Evolution Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
A.1.1 Basic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
A.1.2 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
A.1.3 Longwave Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
A.1.4 Film Thickness Evolution Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
A.1.5 Incorporating evaporation and condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
CONTENTS xi
Bibliography 107
xii CONTENTS
List of Figures
1.1 The complex geometry of a dishwasher tub. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1 Wetting sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2 Young contact angle and interfacial tensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 The surface curvature and fringe eld eects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Decomposition of domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5 Models for the temperature prediction in the thin lm. . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.6 Film temperature distribution 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.7 Film temperature distribution 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1 A Control Volume and its parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 overrelaxed correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3 Boundary condition discretization scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 The PISO algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.5 The current algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.6 Ghost liquid cell balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.7 Finite lm thickness model sketch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.1 PISO test case geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.2 AccuracyCo test case scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.3 Comparison of velocity prole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.4 Mixture density and mass ux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.5 Mean velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.6 Rms data comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.7 Drop test mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.8 Evaporation velocity vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.9 Evaporation velocity for 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.10 Thinlm drop approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.11 Reference geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.12 Analytical solution with sinusoidal source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.13 Temperature evolution in (0.25, 0.25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.14 Time evolution at interface with a cosinusoidal heat source. . . . . . . . 68
4.15 heat source only in Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.16 Distribution of temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.17 Constant heat source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.18 Larger time step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.19 Conductivity ratio r = 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
xiii
xiv LIST OF FIGURES
4.20 Cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.21 Soliduid case with heat source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.22 Multidimensional case scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.23 Multidimensional error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.24 Temperature error along the whole domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.1 Flow around a cylinder between two parallel walls . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.2 Accumulation of vapor concentration within the channel . . . . . . . . . 82
5.3 Accumulation of vapor concentration within the channel . . . . . . . . . 82
5.4 Vapor mass fraction distribution in the channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5 Instantaneous evaporation velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.6 Time averaged evaporation velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.7 Spectra of Cd and Cl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.8 The geometry layout of the 2D dishwasher case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.9 Vapor concentration contour plot, for both tubs walls conditions. . . . . 89
5.10 Evaporation velocity around the cup, for both tubs walls conditions. . . 90
5.11 Intermediate phase of the dishes drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.12 Intermediate phase of the plate drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.13 Mean evaporation mass ux during the drying process of the plate. . . . 92
5.14 Experimental data of the whole washing cycle from Bonn university. . . 93
5.15 The drying cycle experimental data from Bonn university. . . . . . . . . 94
5.16 3D Dishwasher case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.17 Smagorinsky 3D Dishwasher case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
List of Tables
2.1 table table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2 EC boundary condition summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1 Stability test parameters and results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.2 Results of the accuracyCo test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.3 Drop evaporation rate comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
xv
xvi LIST OF TABLES
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Aim of the project
Nowadays the customers are more and more demanding regarding the performance of
their appliances: referring to dishwashers, the consumer expects dry dishes once the
cycle is nished but is used putting dishes of several materials inside the tub. Many
times it happens that dishes (the ones made by plastic, for example) are not fully
dried. The eect is clear and was described using a zerodimensional model, and,
therefore, also the limitations of the present drying system are evident. Understanding
and modeling of the drying process by means of a 3D CFD model in a dishwasher are
needed to improve and optimize the present and future drying systems of dish washers.
Figure 1.1: The complex geometry of a dishwasher tub.
The overall aim of the project is therefore to understand better the physics regarding
the dishwashers drying performances, with special focus on the modeling of conden
sation and evaporation inside the tub. A dishwasher includes a chamber containing
the disheware, the tub. The latter is lled by approximated 46 liters of tap water per
cycle. Depending on the level of dirtiness of the dishware, 24 water cycles are used
for a full washing program. By the rotating spray arms the water is distributed in the
tub and wets the dishes. A pump circulates the water. With a drain pump the water
is drained out of the tub. Typically, the water for the nal rinse cycle is heated up to
1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
70
C to warm up the dishes storing thermal energy. The tub walls are colder than the
dishes since the dishwasher cools down from the outside. Therefore the water droplets
on the dishes are evaporated and condensed on the tub wall. In order to improve the
drying process in advanced drying systems, the air is circulated through an air duct and
passes inside a condenser unit. Other solutions are to vent the tub just by opening the
door or to heat up the air and blow it into the tub. The study develops the modeling
of evaporation and condensation eects in a dishwasher by means of Computational
Fluid Dynamic (CFD). It has to give the possibility to explore new drying solutions for
dishwasher congurations for the improvement of the drying performances.
1.2 The approach to the problem
Mixed convection ows in presence of condensation and evaporation phenomena have
crucial role in several natural and technological processes, in particular in those in
volving drying and wetting of solid surfaces. Although such ows are quite common
in engineering applications, their knowledge is far from being complete. The complex
physics involved can be briey sketched as follows: wetted solid bodies exchange heat
with the liquid laying on their surfaces; the liquid phase exchanges mass and heat with
the surrounding gas through the change of phase; the consequent diusion of tem
perature and vapor concentration result in density variations that greatly impact the
gaseous ow introducing buoyancy forces. In such a problem the way the surface is
wetted has crucial importance. The liquid can be spread onto the solid as a continuous
lm but most likely as a distribution of liquid patches or sessile droplets or even in a
combination of both. Such behavior depends on the complex dynamics arising from the
interactions among many factors, the most important being the surface tension of the
liquid, the interfacial tensions at the contact line and gravity, not to mention the eects
of evaporation and condensation. A detailed description of the topic can be found in
[26] and in [5] in which all the subject briey discussed here have been extensively
reviewed. The complete modeling of the dynamic of the liquid phase is beyond the
present computational capabilities and not practical for many technical and industrial
applications as pointed out by many authors, for examples by [3]. In particular the
presence of a liquid phase on large surfaces still needs a conceptual interpretation. In
this study the liquid is modeled in the limit of the thin liquid lm approximation. Such
approximation is invoked in a large part of the literature regarding this topic but, to
the authors knowledge, its systematic denition is still lacking. Nevertheless heuris
tics arguments can be provided, as done in the present thesis in 2.3, to justies the
approximation even in dierent frames. The thin liquid lm have been used to model
the interface between porous media and the external ow, as in [20] in which the wall
surface is characterized just by the porosity parameter , and its impact on the ow is
investigated: the higher the porosity the higher heat transfer. The same mathematical
model has been adopted to model the liquid/air interface to compute the mass exchange
between a falling lm on a vertical wall and the air ow in [10], or the vapor mass ux
released from an horizontal pool of water in [40].
In the present study the main focus rstly has been on the liquidgas interaction,
to better understand how evaporation and condensation over solid wetted surfaces take
place in wall bounded ows. The relevant literature has been reviewed. This kind of
2
1.2. PROBLEM APPROACH
problem has been faced mostly through numerical modeling, see for example [13], [15],
since uncertainties in experimental approaches may come from the diculties to control
the parameters ruling the process. Almost all the investigated cases have been focused
on the study of laminar ows moving within straight channels with dierent conditions
at wetted walls, considering only steadystate solutions. Moreover in the larger part
of literature the mathematical models adopted parabolic equations neglecting axial
diusion of the transported quantities, see for example [16] where the case of inclined
channels is studied. When complex ow has to be predicted with ow reversal and
with vortical structures, full elliptic formulation must be considered as pointed out
by [19]. The mass transfer process is modeled by means of the Stefan ow
1
, imposed
as a boundary condition at the wetted surfaces. Only in [19] the evaporation eect is
implemented considering the Stefan ow as a source term placed in the rst cells next
to the wetted wall.
The physical properties of the humid air are assumed to be constant in almost
all the literature. The exact value is evaluated by the onethird rule, see [15], [13]
or [20], or given as experimental data. The density is computed under the Boussinesq
approximation as
=
0
[1
T
T
]
where
0
is the reference density,
T
and
a
+
a
(n
a
+n
b
) (2.2)
5
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
where n
a
=
a
u
a
, u
a
is the velocity of species a, D
a,b
is the diusivity. There are two
contributions: the diusion ux due to the concentration gradient j
a
= D
a,b
a
,
usually referred as the Flicks rst law of diusion; and u
a
=
a
(n
a
+ n
b
), called the
bulk motion contribution. This, also referred as the diusionadvection term, occurs
when one species diuses through a stationary second species causing the overall phase
to have a net motion due to the movement of the rst component.
The continuity equation must hold for any species, from a mass balance on a dif
ferential control volume
n
a
+
a
t
r
a
= 0 (2.3)
where r
a
is the rate of chemical production of a. Assuming that D
a,b
and are constant,
without production term, the mass ux expression along with the continuity one yield
to the transport equation for
a
a
t
+u
a
= D
a,b
a
(2.4)
Evaporation velocity Thanks to the mass transfer theory a diusivelike model
for evaporation and condensation process is found. It can be applied at the interface
between a pure substance liquid lm and a binary mixture gas prescribing a mass
ux through the interface. In a steadystate problem, neglecting diusion along the
interface, we have the following boundary conditions
_
dn
a
dn
_
i
= 0 (2.5)
_
dn
b
dn
_
i
= 0
The species b is insoluble into the liquid phase of species a, as the case of air and
water, so that n
b
= 0 at interface and hence in remaining of the domain. For this
reason sometimes b is referred as stagnant gas. Conversely for a it is found, with some
algebra, that:
n
a
i
=
D
a,b
1
a
i
_
d
a
dn
_
i
(2.6)
where the physical quantities are considered at the interface: at a given temperature
T
i
and at given relative pressure p
a
i
of the soluble gas, its mass fraction
a
i
is assumed
to be in saturated condition and can be computed. Such interface model is called
semiimpermeable.
2.2 Gaseous phase model
In the present study the gaseous ow is considered incompressible and aected by the
transport of two active scalars: the temperature T and the water vapor mass fraction
, i.e. the percentage of water vapor in the moist air (kg
v
/kg
m
). The thermal and
solutal gradients yield buoyancy forces by density variations. The usually adopted as
sumptions are retained developing the model. The thermophysical properties of the
gas are considered constant. They are the kinematic viscosity (m
2
/s), the thermal
6
2.2. GASEOUS PHASE
expansion coecient
T
(K
1
), solutal expansion coecient
(m
2
/s). Density
variations are retained as buoyancy term in the momentum equation along the gravity
direction under the Boussinesq approximation. Viscous dissipation and compressibility
eect are neglected in the energy transport equation and the Dofour and Soret eects
1
are considered negligible. Therefore the governing equations for this physical system
are the following set of coupled P.D.Es
Continuity Equation
u = 0 (2.7)
Momentum Equation
u
t
+u u =
1
p
x
+
2
u
v
t
+u v =
1
p
y
+
2
v (2.8)
w
t
+u w =
1
p
z
+
2
w +g(
T
T +
)
Energy Equation
T
t
+u T = D
T
2
T (2.9)
Concentration Equation
t
+u = D
2
(2.10)
2.2.1 Sponge region
In some complex ows, as for example stratied ones, the outow condition must be
nonreective in order to preserve the accuracy of the solution preventing the distur
bances in form of internal waves to propagate upward. We use a sponge region localized
just before the outlet section. This is found to be eective in this task as explained
in [1] and moreover it has a stabilizing eect on the numerical simulation damping the
recirculation across the outlet section. In the case herein investigated, a zero gradient
condition for velocity and the scalars is imposed at the outlet together with the sponge
region acting along the 10% of the channel length, in which uid viscosity, thermal and
concentration diusivity are articially increased according to an exponential law like
A(x) A e
x
(2.11)
with A any of the parameters. Moreover within the sponge region the buoyancy force
is neglected, i.e. the concentration and temperature are treated as passive scalars.
1
the diusion due to concentration (Dofour) and thermal (Soret) gradients in the energy and the
vapor mass fraction equations respectively
7
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
2.2.2 LES turbulence model
In the homeappliances, as well as any other technical application, the ows are quite
often turbulent. Specic models have to be included in order to properly reproduce
the ow characteristics. The large eddy simulation, LES, approach is preferable, being
DNS computation not aordable, because of the computational cost required by full
scale simulation. The LES technique aims to directly solve the largescale structures of
the ow and to model the eect of the smallscale eddies. Here on only a brief overview
of LES is given, whereas a more detailed description can be found in [35, 29]. The
scale separation is formally done by applying an appropriate lowpass lter to the ow
variables. For a monodimensional case
f = f +f
sgs
(2.12)
where f is the variable to be evaluated, the resolved part is obtained as
f =
_
f(x
)G(x, x
)dx
(2.13)
where G is the convolution kernel of the lter. The cuto length determines the
separation of scales: roughly speaking eddies of size larger than are large eddies while
those smaller than are small eddies and f
s
gs is the subgridscale contribution ltered
out by the convolution 2.13. There are dierent ltering operators, in the present work
it has been adopted the socalled tophat lter dened, in the physical space, as
G(x, x
) =
_
1/ if x x
 /2
0 otherwise
(2.14)
where the lter width is assumed to be the cube root of the cell volume = V
1/3
c
.
Filtering the continuity and the NavierStokes equations leads to
u
i
x
i
= 0 (2.15)
u
i
t
+
u
i
u
j
x
j
=
1
p
x
i
+
2
u
i
x
j
x
j
ij
x
j
(2.16)
for the resolved quantities. The eects of the small structures are represented by the
subgrid scale stresses
ij
= u
i
u
j
u
i
u
j
(2.17)
which have to be modeled. In particular is possible to dene the eddy viscosity such
that
a
ij
= 2
t
S
ij
(2.18)
where
a
ij
=
ij
ij
kk
/3 is the anisotropic part of the stress, and S
ij
=
1
2
_
u
i
x
j
+
u
j
x
i
_
is the resolved stress tensor. The following two SGS models have been considered in
the present study:
Smagorinsky model in which the eddy viscosity is obtained from a scale analysis
assuming local equilibrium between turbulent kinetic energy production and the
viscous dissipation at the smallest scales
sgs
= (C
s
)
2
S
ij
 (2.19)
8
2.2. GASEOUS PHASE
where C
s
is a constant that as to be tuned on the specic case.
The main drawbacks of this model are: it predicts a nonphysical eddy viscos
ity close to the wall; it is not able to reproduce local relaminarization and re
transition to turbulence; the constant depends on the numerical scheme adopted
to integrate the governing equations. The rst drawback is overcome by the in
troduction of the VanDriest damping function. It improves the SGSviscosity
behavior near the walls. The coecient C
s
is explicitly damped near the wall by
C
s
= C
s
_
1 exp
_
y
+
/A
+
__
(2.20)
where y
+
=
yu
, is dened as u
=
_
w
, where
w
is the wall shear stress.
Dynamic models Germano at al. in [12] rstly proposed a dynamic procedure to
obtain the Smagorinsky constant that depends on the resolved scales energy con
tent. C
s
can adapt to ow condition locally and in time overcoming the main
issues of the basic Smagorinsky model. This approach takes advantage of ltering
twice the velocity eld. Firstly the grid lter G of width is applied, then the
obtained eld is ltered again by the test lter
G of width
, usually equal to
2. The SGSstress is found as
ij
= u
i
u
j
u
i
u
j
(2.21)
and then applying the test lter
T
ij
=
u
i
u
j
u
i
u
j
(2.22)
The socalled Germano identity holds
L
ij
= T
ij
ij
=
u
i
u
j
u
i
u
j
(2.23)
L
ij
are the resolved turbulent stresses that represent the intermediate scales ef
fects between the two lter widths. Notably it can be computed directly from
the resolved velocity eld. If the Smagorinsky model can be applied to determine
both
ij
and T
ij
then
ij
= 2C
2
s
2
SS
ij
(2.24)
T
ij
= 2C
2
s
2

S
S
ij
(2.25)
In particular Lilly proposed in [21], originally without averaging procedure de
notes by , the following C
s
formulation
C
2
s
=
L
ij
M
ij
M
ij
M
ij
(2.26)
where
M
ij
= 2
2
_
_
SS
ij
_
_
2

S
S
ij
_
_
(2.27)
9
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
Averaging has been introduced because the constant C
s
can be extracted out from
the ltering operation only if the function is smooth in space. From a practical
point of view this avoids numerical instabilities to rise in the ow eld.
It should be noted that the averaging has to be performed along directions of
turbulence homogeneity over which C
s
is assumed not to vary. The model is
said to be dynamic because the subgrid stresses can adapt to the particular ow
condition, in particular they are zero in laminar ow or close to the solid walls.
It has been tested in the OpenFoam context the standard Smagorinsky the dynamic
models. It has been found that OpenFoam dynamic model averages the constant in the
threedimensional space. This is not correct when the ow is not homogeneous in the
volume. Therefore for the plane channel ow test case discussed in 4.3, a modication
to the OpenFoam code has been required to permit the average over the planes of
homogeneity, i.e. parallel to the solid walls. The plane averaged dynamic model has to
be considered as a rst step towards the Lagrangian dynamic model.
If the turbulence has to be included in the mathematical model given at the begin
ning of this chapter, the equations 2.8, 2.9, 2.10 have to be restated as follows. The
turbulence contribution has to be considered through the eddy viscosity
sgs
and eddy
diusivities for the temperature, D
Tsgs
, and vapor concentration, D
sgs
. The two eddy
diusivities are evaluated by means of the Reynolds analogy
D
Tsgs
=
sgs
Pr
D
sgs
=
sgs
Sc
(2.28)
Continuity Equation
u = 0 (2.29)
Momentum Equation
u
t
+u u =
1
p
x
+ (( +
sgs
)u)
v
t
+u v =
1
p
y
+ (( +
sgs
)v) (2.30)
w
t
+u w =
1
p
z
+ (( +
sgs
)w) +g(
T
T +
)
Energy Equation
T
t
+u T =
_
(D
T
+D
Tsgs
)T
_
(2.31)
Concentration Equation
t
+u =
_
(D
+D
sgs
)
_
(2.32)
2.3 Thinlm assumption
The liquid wetting the solid surfaces is present as a thin liquid lm such that it can be
treated as a boundary condition. This assumption has already been applied successfully
in slightly dierent researchs frames, as discussed in 1.2. A liquid lm is properly
10
2.3. THINFILM
dene [41] as thin whenever the typical thickness h
m
of a free surface layer of liquid is
small compared to its length scale parallel to the substrate l
h
m
l
Liquid layers roughly range from drop to lm based on the increasing ratio between h
m
and l. The hypothesis underlying the present study assumes that a continuous liquid
lm can eectively model an otherwise extremely complex physics system, extending
the previous denition of thin lm to any kind of liquid layers which thickness are
much smaller then the characteristic length scale of the overall system. For example the
typical dimension of a dishwasher
2
is 1 m and while droplets have h
m
1mm. The
model should be applicable to a wide range of solid substrate materials, with dierent
surface properties, i.e. all the range of dishware, over which a droplet distribution
should be considered, eventually taking into account the dynamic process of each drop.
On a large scale the inclusion of all these features may be not so crucial and a lm with
a suitable thickness can, at least, predict the overall eect of evaporation.
2.3.1 Interaction with the substrate
The lm or drop evolution to a complete dryness is strongly dependent on several pa
rameters, and it is also aected by dierent forces and processes. These are mainly
gravity force, free surface stress, surface tension, evaporation and condensation pro
cesses, and in particular cases also the disjoining pressure. The conditions at the solid
substrate are also crucial in the dewetting and wetting processes. Interactions between
the surface and the uid are regulated by some microscale physical and morphologi
cal features parameters as surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity
3
, interfacial
tensions and contact angles. From an engineering perspective, i.e. on a macroscopic
point of view, the overall eect can be summarized by the surface wettability. The lat
ter is a parameter known to be crucial in dropwise condensation
4
, in capillary liquid
lm evaporation and for boiling heat transfer. In brief solidliquidgas interactions rule
the dynamic of the drops evaporative process. Even though the present model doesnt
incorporate any of these eects directly, it is important to be aware of them in order
to correctly take advantage of the thinlm assumption. In the following, the most
important eects and parameters are considered.
The curvatureradii eect. The YoungLaplace equation relates the curvature of
liquidvapor interface and surface tension to the pressure dierence, called capil
lary pressure. From it, its possible to obtain the geometry of the interface once
the pressure term is prescribed.
p =
_
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
_
where p is the pressure dierence between the two phases, is the interfacial
tension, R
1
and R
2
are the curvature radii at a point.
2
or better the distance between wetted surfaces
3
defects of the surface
4
actually, the heat transfer coecient for surface with low wettability is much larger than that of
lm condensation [18]
11
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
Figure 2.1: Sketches of the three qualitatively dierent wetting situations for a simple
liquid on a smooth solid substrate.
The eect of gravity. The eect of gravity can be expressed through the denition
of a capillary length: when the system size, say the characteristic lm thickness or
the drop diameter, is small enough then the gravitational eect is negligible. Tiny
liquid drops are nearly spherical while larger drops present more deformations.
These eects is ruled by the Bond or Eotvos number
Eo = gL
2
/
where L is the characteristic length (equivalent diameter). Eo can be interpreted
as the ratio of a interphase dierential hydrostatic pressure gL and capillary
pressure /L. The eect of gravity on the interface should be negligible if Eo 1,
or, dened a =
_
2
g
_
the capillary length, L a
Contact angle and partial wettability eect. A liquid brought in contact with a
solid ideal surface can spread until it becomes a spherical drop, a sessile drop that
lies on a limited area leaving dry the rest, or a lm, as depicted in gures 2.1 (a),
(b) and (c) respectively. The rst is the nonwetting condition for which holds
= , the second is the partial wetting for which is 0 < < and the third one
is the complete wetting condition with = 0. The contact angle between liquid
phase and solid surface is the parameter that gives the degree of wetting. At
equilibrium its assumed that is relate to interfacial tensions between solidgas,
liquidgas and solidliquid by
lg
cos() =
gs
sl
called the Youngs equation, graphically represented in Figure 2.2, that gives the
additional condition at the contact line.
Usually a real surface is not either perfectly smooth and defectfree hence an
eective contact angle may be used to replace the theoretical one. In particular
the Wenzel equation and its modication, see [18], takes into account eect of
roughness: the is increased because of the increased liquidsolid contact area
cos(
W
) = r cos(
Y
)
where r is the ratio between the actual to apparent surface area,
Y
is the Young
contact angle and
W
the one prescribed by Wenzel.
12
2.3. THINFILM
Figure 2.2: Young contact angle and interfacial tensions.
Moreover there are two more issues regarding
Contact line singularity.
The contact line, i.e. the region where the solid, liquid and vapor phase
touch, is a singular point in the macroscopic sense, since the noslip condition
at the surface simply denies any movement. To model a moving front this
condition must be relaxed. It can be done eectively by means of a numerical
precursor lm, as suggested for example in [36].
Contactangle hysteresis.
In general the contact angle is found to be a function of the velocity of the
contact line. In particular the contact angle remembers its moving history,
giving rise to hysteresis eect.
Disjoining pressure. The model of transition to a complete dryness should allow the
change of conguration from the one with three supercial tensions to one just
with
sg
. Below a certain lm thickness an additional force appears between the
two interfaces separating the liquid (from gas and solid), due to intermolecular
interactions. This can be expressed adding a pressure term , called the disjoining
pressure, that for a polar liquid is
(h) =
b
h
3
e
h
This relation, with the right choice of constant b, ensures that the total surface
energy for a thin lm correctly interpolates between the thick lm and the dry
substrate.
2.3.2 Evaporating drops physic
Despite its apparent simplicity, the everyday life experience of a drop evaporation is
still an active research eld, see for example [9]. Often it will be also necessary to
consider the dynamic behavior of the liquid interface, as, for example, in the study of a
sliding drop as in [42, 36] or as in [25] to exploit evaporating drops with moving contact
lines. In Appendix A a brief review about the modeling of the dynamic liquid lm is
reported, and the diculties associated with this approach are addressed.
Nevertheless some basic facts about one single drop physic help dealing with the
even more challenging task of the large drop number system characterization. Accord
ing to [23], two main regimes have been recognized during a sessile droplet evaporation.
13
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
A constant base regime in which, as liquid evaporates, the contact line remains pinned
to the surface and hence the height of the drop and the contact angle reduce con
sequently; and a constant angle regime in which the drop base recedes as the total
volume diminishes. The latter is applied for ideal surfaces mostly. If there are any
defects on the surface the drop remains pinned till the Young force can overcome the
additional adhesive force provided by roughness and suddenly the regime switches to
the constant angle mode. The switching can be enforced by liquidair surface tension
gradient caused, for example, by variations of temperature or concentration of surfac
tant additives, see [38]. Water drops laying on real surfaces, i.e. with defects, have
been found to be pinned for the largest part of the evaporation process, and to analyze
just this stage seems quite reasonable [4, 8, 9].
All the experimental and numerical work reported here has been done on a particular
drop class: these are surface tensiondominated drops, i.e. the maximum height h
0
is
lower than the capillarity length l
c
, that for water is l
c
= 2, 72 mm; the evaporation in
the pinned regime covers the 90% of the overall process, [23]. For this kind of drops
the spherical cap approximation holds so that the surface curve and the corresponding
evaporation rate are given by
h(r, t) =
_
R
sin
_
2
r
2
R
tan
(2.33)
dV
dt
=
2
l
_
R
0
Jr
_
1 +
h
r
_
2
dr (2.34)
being J the evaporative mass ux.
Theoretical results
In recent years some analytical results have been developed under some assumptions:
no convective motion takes place inside the drop
5
, in the gaseous region only diusion
is admitted, concentration above the drop has an assessment time t
= R
2
/D
of the
order of ms, which is much less than the droplet lifetime t
D
, typically of hundreds of
seconds. Among those the more stringent is the omission of the convective motion due
to buoyancy in the air region, which is responsible of an underestimation up to 30% of
the overall evaporation rate as conrmed by [34]. The evaporating liquid volume rate
is given as a function of the contact angle, where R is the radius of the circular drop
base and HR is the relative saturation far from the droplet
= pi/2 :
dV
dt
=
2RD
(1 HR)
i
l
(2.35)
0 < < pi/2 :
dV
dt
= (0.27
2
+ 1.3)
RD
(1 HR)
i
l
(2.36)
0 :
dV
dt
=
4RD
(1 HR)
i
l
(2.37)
where the rst and the third relations are found on analytical basis, the intermediate
value relation is found via numerical computation by [14].
5
In [23] it has been considered but was found to have a negligible eect for the most common
situations and can be safely discarded [9].
14
2.3. THINFILM
(a) subcaption (b) subcaption
Figure 2.3: The surface curvature and fringe eld eects.
2.3.3 Modeling hints
From a modeling perspective the physic of the drops gives some useful hints to be
acknowledged in any lm/drop formulation. There are two main aspects to be aware
of, namely the surface curvature eect and fringe eld eect, sketched in Figure 2.3.
Curvature eect Surface curvature is responsible for increasing the total interface
area exposed to evaporation respect to a attened layer. Considering just a simple
linear variation, as in Figure 2.3a, the area undergoing phase change is multiplied by a
factor
dA
i
dA
, and consequently the liquid depletion
h =
dA
i
dA
l
tV e (2.38)
Fringe eect Fringe eld eect appears whenever there is a steep or discontinuous
change in boundary conditions. In the specic cases for the vapor concentration there
is a switch across the contact line: from a Dirichlet type prescribing
i
for the liquid
interface to a zero gradient condition representing the dry wall. Hence near the contact
line the isoconcentration lines accumulate yielding to steeper concentration gradient,
and eventually to larger evaporation velocity, see Figure 2.3b.
In this study the additional surface curvature term is present explicitly, i.e. the
surface is properly reproduced, in evaporating drops simulation reported in 4.4 and as
a parametrized term as explained in 4.4.1, in the attempt of adopting the thin lm
approximation for the drop problem. In all the other cases the term is disregarded. On
the other hand the fringe eect is implicitly embedded in the model, as suggested by
the results of the drying plate in 5.3.
2.3.4 Packing ratio argument
In light of the physics above discussed the continuous thin lm is thous found rep
resentative also for drops system. Dened the packing ratio p
k
as the mean dried
distance between two drops, l
d
, and the mean diameter of the drops, D, it appears
15
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
reasonable that below a certain p
k
value vapor concentration lls up the holes among
the liquid patches reducing the fringe eect and eventually leading to an homogeneous
evaporation rate above drops, as provided by a continuous liquid lm.
2.4 Evaporation/Condensation boundary condition
The evaporation/condensation process takes place over the interface between liquid and
gaseous region. It is assumed to be a diusionlimited process, i.e. the interface is in
thermodynamic equilibrium, in contrast to the reactionlimited regime. Nearly whole
researchs literature relies on the former even though some debate is still ongoing [25].
Moreover in the thinlm approximation the actual thickness of the lm h is not
discretized but its value is retained as a local, say cellwise, property in order to track
the evolution of the liquid depletion from a wetted to a completely dried
6
condition.
Eventually evaporation/condensation process is modeled through a set of boundary
conditions for the elds involved, plus the lm thickness. Whenever any point of the
domain boundary completely dries out, i.e. reaches zero thickness, also a switch in the
prescribed b.c. must occurs consequently, assuming that rewetting phenomena are not
permitted. Actually, since the phase change occurs at the interface, they will be better
referred as evaporation/condensation interface boundary conditions, EC b.c. in short.
Each condition is discussed in the following along with the switching to the dry surface
condition.
2.4.1 Temperature at interface
EC b.c. prescribes for the temperature at the interface a Dirichlet condition
T
i
= T
i
(x, t) (2.39)
In general T
i
can be non uniform and unsteady, matching the requirements of the
specic lm condition, as for example in thermally coupled problems as described in 2.5.
If h goes to zero then the condition should switch to match the temperature of the solid
substrate.
2.4.2 Vapor concentration at interface
The diusionlimited regime leads to assume the gaseous region at the interface to be
in saturation condition. The focus in this study is mainly on liquid water evaporation
or condensation in airvapor gas treated as an ideal gas mixture, so that the following
standard relations applies. The vapor concentration is dened as =
mv
mv+ma
. At the
interface it is evaluated by
i
=
M
v
M
a
i
p
s
(T
i
)
p (1
Mv
Ma
)
i
p
s
(T
i
)
(2.40)
where M
a
= 28.97 g/mol, M
v
= 18.02 g/mol are the molar mass of air and water vapor
respectively. The relative humidity =
m
v
m
s
is given by
=
p
v
p
s
(T
i
)
[kg
v
/kg
s
] (2.41)
6
at least from a macroscopic point of view.
16
2.5. THERMAL COUPLING
being p
v
and p
s
vapor partial pressures at actual and at saturation condition respec
tively. At the interface is assumed
i
= 1. To compute the saturation pressure an
approximated formula is adopted [2]
p
s
(T
i
) = 611.85 exp
_
17.502 (T
i
273.15)
240.9 + (T
i
273.15)
_
[Pa] (2.42)
where pressure is set to be P
atm
= 101325 Pa. This is strictly valid for a waterair
interface, but it can be replaced by any other relation for the specic mixture under
consideration. On the dried region a Neumann condition applies
_
d
dn
_
i
= 0 (2.43)
allowing no more uxes.
2.4.3 Evaporation velocity
From the mass ux relation 2.6 it is readily understood that the vapor leaves the
interface with a velocity specied by
V
e
=
D
1
i
_
d
dn
_
i
(2.44)
that is the condition for the momentum equation. It is linked to eld through the
normal to interface gradient,
_
d
dn
_
i
, and also by its value at the interface
i
. This
condition allows an inow or outow happen through wetted surfaces. As consequence
of 2.43, on dried patch evaporation velocity is identically zero.
2.4.4 Film thickness
The phase change is ruled by V
e
. In particular the intensity of the process is propor
tional to the modulus, V
e
, while its sign denes if condensation or evaporation is taking
place at a specic time on a specic interface point. A simple lm mass balance at each
point gives the variation rate of the lm thickness h
dh
dt
dS
i
=
a
l
V
e
dS
i
(2.45)
It must be notice that the liquid water depletion rate is related to the ratio between
air and liquid water densities. Typically values of this ratio are of the order 10
3
.
2.5 Full thermal coupling
2.5.1 Motivation
The inuence of the thermal properties of the solid substrate on evaporation processes
is now widely recognized [9]. The thermal coupling among the three media involved is
responsible either of supplying enough energy to sustain evaporation or to stop and start
the condensation whenever the liquid cools down. The former case is representative of
17
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
liquid patch laying on a hotter body, and the surrounding air is far from saturation.
The solid can conduct enough heat to maintain the water in favorable condition for
evaporation despite the large latent heat ux leaving the liquid. If the solid cannot
provide enough heat and the concentration at interface is below the one in the gas,
condensation occurs. For the same reasons also adiabatic substrates are found to damp
evaporation, eventually promoting equilibrium congurations.
The same arguments apply with respect to the drying process of the dishware. The
heat excess of the solid bodies is released to water lms and drops. If the evaporation
lasts long enough eventually all the dishware completely dry. It is common experience
that this is not always the case. Often some drops remains pinned inside a glass or
some portion of plastic bowls are still wetted after the dishwasher drying cycle. The
main reason behind is twofold: the rst is probably related to the wetting properties
of the dishware surface, the second lies in thermal properties of the specic object. In
this study and in particular in the present section the problem of modeling the thermal
coupling is considered in order to take into account the dierent materials the tableware
are made of.
From a modeling point of view the thermal coupling is called Conjugate Heat Trans
fer (CHT) problem between the gaseous ow and the solid with the interposition of the
thin liquid lm. Two more issues need to be addressed to fulll the CHT task, namely
the choice of a Domain Decomposition method and a suitable energy equation for the
thin lm. In the following each subject is tackled.
2.5.2 Domain Decomposition Method
In the numerical approximation of the solution of P.D.Es it is often required to de
compose the domain in more subdomains, mainly for three dierent reasons [39]: as
data structure decomposition used in parallel computing, as a preconditioning method
for large problems or a technique to couple dierent kind of P.D.Es across interfaces
of disjointed subdomains, i.e. the subdivision of the physical domain in subregions
that are modeled with dierent equations or even with dierent numerical methods.
The latter procedure is also referred as heterogeneous domain decomposition [30]. In
literature Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) refers to all mentioned subjects, but
now just the last one is considered.
Assume that an entire domain is split in two subdomains
1
and
2
. The domain
decomposition technique allows to nd the solution over starting from solutions over
the smaller regions, provided suitable boundary conditions. The DDM methods can be
divided in two main groups based don how the splitting is performed: with overlapping
or without overlapping of subdomains as schematically represented in Figure 2.4. To
the former belongs the popular Schwarz method which impose a Dirichlet condition
on both the boundaries
1
and
2
dividing the two regions as shown in Figure 2.4b.
Among the latter there are the DirichletNeumann (DN) and the NeumannNeumann
methods (NN). In general nonoverlapping methods require a simpler implementation
and lower computational and communication costs. In particular DN is found to be
eective in many applications, as for examples in [27, 7]. For this reasons in this work
the DN technique has been preferred and then implemented.
18
2.5. THERMAL COUPLING
(a) Nonoverlapping method (b) Overlapping method
Figure 2.4: Decomposition of domain.
Equivalence theorem
A nonoverlapping decomposition requires that
1
2
= and
1
2
= as
depicted in 2.4a, moreover n
i
is the outward normal of the each sub domain
i
such that
n
1
= n
2
. The following theorem gives a mathematical basis to the nonoverlapping
DDM [31].
Given L as elliptic operator, u is the solution to following dierential problem over
the domain with Lipschitz boundary
_
Lu = f in
u = 0 on
(2.46)
such that u

i
= u
i
, with i = 1, 2, where u
i
is the solution to
_
Lu
i
= f in
i
u = 0 on
i
/
(2.47)
provided the coupling condition to be applied at the interface
_
_
_
u
1

= u
2

_
u
1
n
1
_
=
_
u
2
n
2
_
(2.48)
These are labeled also as transmission conditions. In particular this result allows to
solve the P.D.E. via an iterative procedure based on these interface conditions.
Generalization of DDM
The DDM is a suitable technique also for any time evolving arbitrary problem with L
linear or nonlinear arbitrary dierential operator
_
_
u
t
+Lu
(k)
= f in (0, T)
B.C. on (0, T)
I.C. in at t = 0
(2.49)
In the DDM for time dependent P.D.Es implicit temporal discretization schemes
should be preferred. The estimation of the values required at the interface often involves
19
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
an explicit calculation followed by an implicit scheme to obtain information in the
interior of each subdomain independently. Such an algorithm is often referred as
an explicit/implicit domain decomposition algorithm. Because of the explicit nature
of computation of the interface values, the explicit/implicit algorithm is often just
conditionally stable, but requires less severe conditions than for a fully explicit scheme.
DirichletNeumann Method
The DirichletNeumann method is an iterative algorithm for the Domain Decomposi
tion. For sake of simplicity the problem given in (2.46) is considered again in order to
explain how the DNM can be applied. Given u
(0)
2
, where the upscript is the number
of iteration, it is possible to solve the following two problems for k 1
_
_
Lu
(k)
1
= f in
1
u
(k)
1
= u
(k1)
2
on
u
(k)
1
= 0on
1
/
(2.50)
_
_
Lu
(k)
2
= f in
2
u
(k)
2
n
2
=
u
(k)
1
n
1
on
u
(k)
2
= 0 on
2
/
(2.51)
One can recognizes that the set in 2.50 is a Dirichlet problem with the value at the
interface provided by the previous iteration, and the set in 2.51 is a Neumann problem
with the derivative value at its boundary is computed by the solution of 2.50 in the
current iteration. The equivalence theorem assures that if the sequences {u
(k)
1
}, {u
(k)
2
}
converge then both converge to the solution of (2.46). Even if the DNM is consistent,
the convergence is not guaranteed. To overcome such a drawback in some cases is
useful to introduce a relaxation procedure in the calculation of one of the transmission
boundary value. For example for the Dirichlet condition in 2.50 can be relaxed as
u
(k)
1
= u
(k1)
2
+ (1 )u
(k1)
1
on
that lowers the error at each iteration given the relaxation parameter . The existence
of a for which the convergence is also guaranteed is proven just in the one and two
dimensional case.
2.5.3 Finite thickness lm model
The energy equation has to be solved in the solid, liquid lm and gaseous region: they
have dierent thermal properties and dierent heat transport mechanisms. In the solid
the process is assumed to be diusive
T
s
t
= D
T
s
2
T
s
(2.52)
where T
s
is the temperature in the solid body to avoid ambiguity, and consequently D
T
s
is its diusion coecient. In the air ow the advectiondiusion equation (2.9) holds.
For the liquid phase some model options are available. The thinlm assumption 2.3
20
2.5. THERMAL COUPLING
is retained and further extended assuming that also the solid bodies are much thicker
than h
m
. The velocity inside the liquid lm u is then negligible and the convection
term can be discarded. Moreover considering large wetted patches, h
m
/l 1, the
temperature variations along the surface tangential direction are considered negligible
compared to the wall normal gradient, i.e.
T
l
n
T
l
t
1,2
(2.53)
being T
l
the temperature in the liquid, so that its distribution inside the lm reduce
to an evolution equation
T
l
t
= D
T
l
2
T
l
n
2
(2.54)
The solution of the monodimensional problem (2.54) at a specic point x along the
wetted surface is
T
l
= T
l
(y) with 0 y h(x) (2.55)
being y the normal to wall axis in local frame of reference. This will be referred as the
nite thickness lm, FTF, model for the energy equation in the liquid.
FTF boundary conditions
The liquid layer is interposed between the solid and air. The temperature is required
to be continuous through the solid/liquid boundary, namely the wall, and through the
liquid/gas interface. Across both the heat uxes must be balanced too. For this purpose
coupling boundary conditions should be enforced. In this frame it appears natural to
tackle the problem with the DD approach: each media is solved by its own given its
proper mathematical model, so that the transmission conditions as 2.48 take care of
the temperature coupling. The following holds at the solid/liquid wall
k
s
_
T
s
n
_
w
= k
l
_
T
l
n
_
w
(2.56)
T
s
= T
l
(2.57)
Phase change process is associated to the latent heat, L, release. This is gener
ally large, for example L 2.26 10
6
[J/kg] for water evaporation. Thous the evapora
tion/condensation latent heat ux LJ is found to be the ruling term of the heat balance
at the liquid/gaseous boundary
LJ =
i
L
D
1
i
_
n
_
i
[J/m
2
s] (2.58)
then at the interface the following applies
k
l
_
T
l
n
_
i
= k
g
_
T
g
n
_
i
JL (2.59)
T
l
= T
g
In conclusion this can be addressed as a heterogeneous DD problem in which the solu
tion can be provided by the DN method described in (2.5.2) provided the solution (2.55).
21
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
water PP glass ceramic metal
D [m
2
/s] 1.4 10
7
10
7
3 10
7
1.1 10
6
10
5
h [mm] 0.5 2 2 2 2
t
d
[s] 2 40 13 3.6 0.4
Table 2.1: table table
Diusion time scale
Tableware can have very dierent geometries but usually display high aspect ratios,
and a characteristic length scale for their thickness ranging from millimeters to roughly
one centimeter. But they thermal properties can vary of orders of magnitudes, see
for example the data in Table 2.1. A scale analysis helps in the choice of the proper
solution (2.55). The fundamental parameter is found to be the temperature diusion
time scale, t
d
, dened as
t
d
= l
2
c
p
k
= l
2
/D
T
(2.60)
It can be interpreted as the characteristic settlement time in response to a temperature
change.
Assuming a typical thickness of 0.5 mm for the water layer the corresponding set
tlement time is t
w
d
= 2 s. This time has to be compared with the diusion times of
the typical materials the dishware are made of. For example, to cover most of the
possibilities, polypropylene, PP, glass, ceramics and metal typical thermal properties
have been considered. The t
d
are reported in Table 2.1 for a typical thickness of 2 mm.
The ratio between t
w
d
and the generic solid t
s
d
is spread on two order of magnitude
0.05 <
t
w
d
t
s
d
< 5
In light of these considerations is possible to further simplify the FTF model. For
example a liquid model can be based on a constant heat ux assumption, prescribing
a linear variation of the temperature as
T
l
(y) = T
s
w
y
k
l
_
k
g
_
T
g
n
_
i
+JL
_
(2.61)
that is equivalent to assume an instant diusion model for which D
T
l
. This model
can be a good approximation for cases in which t
l
d
t
s
d
holds, and the temperature
in the liquid settles much faster than in the solid. Another choice is to consider a
temperature prole constant at the same value of the underlaying wall
T
l
(y) = T
w
and parametrize the heat uxes. A better approach is to apply an energy balance on
the innitesimal liquid water control volume V
l
, assuming heat ux only through the
interfaces
E
l
t
=
E
in
t
E
out
t
(2.62)
22
2.5. THERMAL COUPLING
t
_
V
l
l
c
p
T
l
dV =
_
k
s
_
T
s
y
_
w
dS
s
+k
g
_
T
g
y
_
i
dS
i
+JLdS
i
_
(2.63)
and compute the mean temperature of the liquid volume. As matter of fact this proce
dure disregards the continuity of T and relaxes the coupling by assuming that the heat
uxes are those imposed from outside the liquid layer.
All the methods mentioned lack of generality, and can lead to substantial errors as
discussed in 2.5.3. The proper approach is then to apply an analytical solution and
solve it numerically. All the issues of the simplied models are altogether solved. The
temperature at wall and at interface are retrieved with their gradients permitting the
coupling among the media. The dierent behaviors are sketched in Figure 2.5 for a
particular situation. The solid body is assumed to release heat quite fast, for example
due to the condition on the hidden boundary on the left of the Figure 2.5 , while on
the liquid interface a constant heat ux is applied. As response the lm temperature
is expected to decrease. If the drop happens on a time period comparable to that of
the diusion time scale of the thin liquid lm or even smaller, the temperature prole
should adjust in the transitory as in the Figure 2.5c in which the liquid is giving back
heat to the solid. This eect cannot be reproduced properly by the other simplied
models, in particular the linear one would predict the opposite ux sign, Figure 2.5a.
Time dependent 1D energy equation
The monodimensional energy equation (2.54) can be solved analytically by means of
the standard separation of variables method in terms of Fourier series, provided both the
initial and the boundary conditions. In particular prescribing Dirichlet and Neumann
boundary condition on the two boundaries permits the straightforward application of
the model within the DirichletNeumann coupling strategy. Moreover such boundary
conditions appear quite natural by considering that on the liquidair interface the heat
transfer is ruled mostly by the latent heat ux given by evaporation/condensation. The
solution to the general problem (2.64)
_
_
T
t
=
2
T
x
2
T(0, t) = a
T(l, t)
t
= b
T(x, 0) = f(x)
(2.64)
is given by
T(x) = T
ss
(x) +T
ic
(x, t)
as the sum of the solution of the particular steadystate solution
T
ss
(x) = b x +a
and of an evolution equation satisfying initial conditions
T
ic
(x, t) =
0
B
n
sin
_
(2n + 1)
2l
x
_
exp
_
(2n + 1)
2l
2
t
_
23
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
(a) Instant diusion model constant heat ux
(b) Energy balance model
(c) Analytical solution
Figure 2.5: Models for the temperature prediction in the thin lm.
24
2.5. THERMAL COUPLING
where the Fourier coecients are computed as
_
_
B
n
=
2
l
_
l
0
g(x) sin
_
(2n + 1)
2l
x
_
dx
g(x) = f(x) bx a
(2.65)
The gradient value at x = l, is the imposed one so from the solution it reduces to b
T
x
(l, t) = b +
0
B
n
exp
_
(2n + 1)
2l
2
t
_
cos
_
(2n + 1)
2
_
(2.66)
= b (2.67)
while the gradient at x = 0 is computed as
T
x
(0, t) = b +
0
B
n
exp
_
(2n + 1)
2l
2
t
_
(2n + 1)
2l
cos (0) (2.68)
= b +
0
B
n
exp
_
(2n + 1)
2l
2
t
_
(2n + 1)
2l
(2.69)
This analytical formulation can be eectively approximated by a nite series of N
summations, to be chosen based on the harmonic content of the solution. Usually T(x)
is quite smooth so that N can be relatively small.
A simple test on the FTF model
To test the performances of the FTF models the following case is described hereon.
The evolution of temperature across a 1 mm thick liquid lm is computed provided a
Dirichlet condition on the wall side, T
w
(t), on the left, and a Neumann condition on the
interface, HF
i
, on the right, meant as evaporative heat ux. Moreover the former is
prescribed to decrease linearly in time from 30
C to 29
being U
c
and L the characteristic velocity and length respectively. In the case of the
channel in 5.1 these are the inlet velocity and channel width. For bounded ows,
as in the dishwasher, in which the ow is sustained primary by buoyancy forces the
characteristic velocity can be estimated by the following relation
U
c
=
_
(
T
T +
)gL
where L is the height of the tub. The solutal Gr
=
g
L
3
2
Gr
T
=
g
T
TL
3
2
These numbers quantify the relative strength between viscous force and buoyancy force
due to humidity or temperature variations respectively. The Richardson number is then
dened as
Ri = Gr/Re
2
which quanties the relevance of buoyancy eect over the inertial one.
The characteristic molecular Prandtl and Schmidt numbers representing the impor
tance of the momentum diusivity compared to diusivities of the temperature or of
the species respectively. For the physical system composed by air and water they are
approximately Pr 0.7 and Sc 0.6. The Nusselt number is dened as the ratio
between the contribution of the convection to the heat transfer over the conduction.
At the liquid interface the heat ux is the sum of the sensible heat (q
s
) and latent heat
(q
l
) components, therefore the total Nusselt number may be written as
Nu
t
= Nu
s
+Nu
l
providing a relative measure of the heat transfer mechanisms. The mass transfer process
between the wetted surface and the humid air is evaluated by the Sherwood number,
Sh
Sh =
V
e
L
D
This compares the overall contribution, namely the Stefan ux, to the diusion one.
28
2.7. MODEL SUMMARY
Equation Condition
Temperature assigned value T
i
Concentration
i
=
Mv
Ma
p
s
(T
i
)
p(1
Mv
Ma
) p
s
(T
i
)
)
Momentum V
e
=
D
1
i
_
d
dn
_
i
Film Thickness
dH
dt
=
a
w
V
e
Table 2.2: EC boundary condition summary
2.7 Model summary
In conclusion to this chapter the mathematical model is here summarized. The equa
tions that are solved in Chapter 5 are given along with the boundary conditions for the
wetted surfaces in the table 2.2.
Continuity Equation
u = 0
Momentum Equation
u
t
+u u =
1
p
x
+
2
u
v
t
+u v =
1
p
y
+
2
v
w
t
+u w =
1
p
z
+
2
w +g(
T
T +
)
Energy Equation
T
t
+u T = D
T
2
T
Concentration Equation
t
+u = D
29
CHAPTER 2. FORMULATION
30
Chapter 3
Numerical Implementation
Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation, OpenFoam in short, is essentially a
collection of C++ libraries that are used to create executable les, applications, which
are called solvers and utilities:
solvers programs designed to solve a specic problem in computational continuum
mechanics
utilities programs that perform simple pre and postprocessing tasks, mainly involv
ing data manipulation and algebraic calculations
Is worth to point out that the software project is written in C++ taking full advantage
of the capabilities of the Object Oriented Programming, OOP. From a practical point
of view every release of OpenFoam provides a set of precompiled libraries that are
dynamically linked during runtime. This allows the user to take advantage of its high
modular character, building more suitable application to his particular case. Among
other remarkable features, OpenFoam permits an easy and friendly high level code that
allows writing the P.D.Es in an intuitive way, miming the mathematical convention.
For example the discretization of the NavierStokes equation is performed simply by
fvVectorMatrix UEqn(
fvm::ddt(U)
+ fvm::div(phi, U)
==
 fvc::grad(p)
+ fvm::laplacian(nu, U)
);
3.1 FVM discretization in OpenFoam
Among many numerical schemes available for solving P.D.Es equations, OpenFoam
chooses the Finite Volume Method. More precisely OpenFoam subdivides its nite
volume method into two main branches (namespaces):
fvm nite volume method for implicit equations. It produces an fvMatrix object
from an operator. This object can simply be solved using the solve method. A
number of dierent discretization schemes are available for each operation. These
31
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
are loaded at run time using runTimeSelection, based on the schemes dened in
fvSchemes dictionary.
fvc nite volume calculus for explicit calculations. Given a eld, a fvc performs a
calculation and returns another eld.
OpenFoam uses a collocated arrangement, i.e. all the quantities are stored at a single
point within a control volume, this point is at the control volume centroid. OpenFoam
can handle arbitrary polyhedral meshes without restriction to the number of points per
face, nor to the number of faces enclosing a control volume. The faces of the rst cell
layer inside the computational domain conform to the boundaries. The clear advantage
of a collocated grid is to minimize the number of coecients to calculate and in dealing
with complex domains, [32].
In order to get rid of the oscillations due to the pressurevelocity decoupling, which
is the main drawback of this arrangement, a RhieChow like interpolation procedure
is adopted in the incompressible ow solvers: the Poisson pressure equation is solved
in terms of uxes at the cell faces, and then the velocity is obtained again at the cell
center.
The discretization procedure based on the Finite Volume Method, FVM, adopted
in OpenFoam is discussed in the following. As reference the general transport equation
for a scalar , with a source term S
is considered
d
dt
..
Temporal derivative
+ (U)
. .
Convection term
= ()
. .
Diffusion term
+ S
()
. .
Source term
(3.1)
where is the diusivity coecient.
3.1.1 Spatial discretization
The solution domain is split in a set of cells dened by a computational mesh over
which the P.D.Es system must be discretized and then solved. In the FVM procedure
the cell are referred as Control Volumes, CV, of volume V
c
, with center, named P,
located in x
p
such that
_
Vc
(x x
p
)dV = 0
in which all the dependent variables are stored. As depicted in Figure 3.1, each CV is
bounded by a number of at faces, denoted by the label f; S is the face area vector
dened to be normal to the face itself and with magnitude equal to the face area. S
points outward into the neighboring cell with center N; d denotes the vector between
the two centers. The mesh is said to be orthogonal if d is orthogonal to the face, i.e.
if d is parallel to S. Since 3.1 is a second order partial dierential equation, to ensure
a good overall accuracy of the solution the numerical scheme must be at least of the
second order too. OpenFoam achieves a secondorder accurate method allowing the
dependent variables to vary linearly within the CV around the point P and time t:
(x) = (x
P
) + (x x
P
) ()
x
P
(t + t) = (t) + t
_
t
_
t
32
3.1. FVM DISCRETIZATION
Figure 3.1: A Control Volume and its parameters.
In deriving all the discretized operators the generalized Gausss Theorem will be
extensively recalled by taking advantage of the following identities
_
Vc
adV =
_
Vc
dS a
_
Vc
dV =
_
Vc
dS (3.2)
_
Vc
adV =
_
Vc
dSa
where V
c
is the surface enclosing the volume of CV, and dS the innitesimal surface
with its normal pointing outward of V
c
; a and are arbitrary vector and scalar elds
respectively.
Central Dierencing Scheme In the discretized formulation, in order to take ad
vantage of computing surface integrals, the values at the cell face centers are required.
For this task OpenFoam implements a large number of the most used interpolation
schemes for CFD. In this study the Central Dierencing Scheme, CDS, is adopted
exclusively, if not dierently specied. The values at the face centers are computed by
f
= f
x
P
+ (1 f
x
)
N
with f
x
the ratio
f
x
=
fN
PN
CDS is known to be second order accurate even on unstructured mesh [11].
33
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Gradient Operator In OpenFoam the gradient operator can be applied at the prim
itive variable at the cell center. The Gauss theorem simply yields to
_
Vc
dV =
_
V dS
f
S
f
(3.3)
Often is also required to obtain the surface normal gradient,
f
, at the cell faces. If
n is the face normal
f
= n
f
N
P
d
2
d (3.4)
This approximation keeps secondorder accuracy if the mesh is orthogonal, i.e. S is
parallel to d. Otherwise a nonorthogonal correction should be introduced.
Convection term The convection term (U) appearing in (3.1) is integrated
over the Control Volume replacing the volume integral with the surface one invoking
the Gauss theorem as follow
_
Vc
(U)dV =
_
Vc
dS (U)
f
S (U)
f
f
(3.5)
=
f
F
f
f
where F
f
= S (U)
f
is the mass ux through the face cell. All the quantities at the
faces are evaluated by interpolation.
Diusion term The diusion term () of (3.1) is treated in a similar manner
_
Vc
() dV =
_
Vc
dS ()
f
S ()
f
(3.6)
=
f
()
f
S ()
f
the integral over V
c
of the divergence operator becomes a summation over the faces of
the cell of the surface normal gradient, as dened above in (3.4). If S is not parallel to
d the nonorthogonal correction is required to properly treat S ()
f
and retain the
second order accuracy of the discretization scheme. The corrected gradient term reads
S ()
f
=
f
. .
orthogonal contribution
+ k ()
f
. .
nonorthogonal correction
(3.7)
with , chosen to be parallel to d, and k. The two vector are determined by the
particular correction adopted, satisfying the condition
+k = S
34
3.1. FVM DISCRETIZATION
Figure 3.2: The decomposition of the S in the overrelaxed correction approach.
as schematically represented in Figure 3.2. OpenFoam choses the overrelaxed ap
proach, as described in [17, 6], moreover in [17] it is proved that the overrelaxed is
the most robust, convergent and computationally ecient among the tested procedures.
The orthogonal term is given by (3.4) multiplied by
=
d
d S
S
2
This is meant to increase the importance of the values at the CV center,
P
and
N
,
as the nonorthogonality increases. The correction term is evaluated by interpolating
cell centered gradient (3.3)
()
f
= f
x
()
P
+ (1 f
x
) ()
N
Although this methods is also second order accurate, its computed over a larger com
putational molecule, thous has larger truncation error than (3.4). The correction is
computed explicitly for computational reasons as a consequence can lead to unbounded
diusive terms and instability in particular on highly nonorthogonal meshes. To con
clude, the correction should be performed to keep the overall accuracy but a good
quality mesh is required, otherwise stability issues may necessitate to drop the non
orthogonal treatment lowering the order of the scheme.
3.1.2 Time discretization
In the following the numerical method for dealing with the temporal derivative and the
integration in time of (3.1) will be examined. Among the many implemented schemes
within the software, the focus will be on the second order backward dierencing
scheme, BD in short, since it has been almost exclusively used in the present study.
The time integral of (3.1) reads
_
t+t
t
d
dt
+ (U) dt =
_
t+t
t
() +S
() dt (3.8)
and the spatial discretization form gives
_
t+t
t
_
_
_
d
dt
_
P
V
c
+
f
F
f
f
_
_
dt =
35
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Figure 3.3: Boundary condition discretization scheme.
_
t+t
t
_
_
f
()
f
S ()
f
+ (S
u
+S
p
P
) V
c
_
_
dt (3.9)
in which is assumed to vary linearly in time. BD takes advantage of three time levels,
denoted by the index n, n 1 and n 2, from the current to two previous time steps.
The Taylor expansions of
n2
and
n1
can be combined together, [6], to nd the
second order approximation of the temporal derivative at the present time step
_
d
dt
_
n
=
3
2
n
2
n1
+
1
2
n2
t
(3.10)
In this scheme the temporal variation of face uxes are neglected, so that the full
discretized equation (3.1) is
_
3
2
n
2
n1
+
1
2
n2
t
_
P
V
c
+
f
F
f
n
f
f
()
f
S ()
n
f
= (S
u
+S
p
n
P
) V
c
(3.11)
The linear system must be solved for
n
P
.
3.1.3 Boundary condition
The discretization procedure requires the values at the faces of each cell, namely
f
or
f
. When this computation involves faces laying on the boundary surface a numerical
treatment of each boundary face for all the variables is needed. In Figure 3.3 the vector
d connects the cell center to the boundary face center, b, and d
n
is its component
parallel to S. The condition applied is assumed to be valid on the whole face. The
nonorthogonality, for both corrected and noncorrected schemes, is always addressed
36
3.2. PISO ALGORITHM
by taking into account d
n
as discussed in [17, 6, 32]. The basic boundary conditions
implemention is described in most of the OpenFoam available documentation, see for
example [6].
3.2 PISO algorithm
OpenFoam standard solvers for the incompressible NavierStokes equations adopt mainly
two algorithms, the SIMPLE, for steadystate problems, and PISO for transient ones.
Both lag the nonlinearity in the convective term and require iterative procedures to
enforce the continuity condition.
The PISO (Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators) algorithm originally pre
sented by Issa in 1986, is a pressurevelocity calculation procedure. Its implementation
in OpenFoam is described and schematically represented in the diagram in Figure 3.4:
1. initial condition for pressure, and velocity must be provided.
2. set up the coecient matrix, UEqn, for the momentum equation without the
pressure contribution. All terms are treated implicitly except for the volumetric
source S
fvVectorMatrix UEqn
(
fvm::ddt(U)
+ fvm::div(phi, U)
 fvm::laplacian(nu, U)  S
);
In a tensorial notation this can be written as
Cu S
The nonlinearity of convection is linearized by freezing the convective ux phi
at the previous time step as
f
S (u
n1
)
f
u
n
f
3. momentum predictor solves velocity using the last known value of pressure,
i.e. the gradient is treated explicitly.
solve(UEqn == fvc::grad(p));
In general the FVM method will bring to a coecient matrix for the actual time
n, C, in which the convective term has been linearized with the value at n 1, if
r collects all the explicit terms then
Cu = r p
n1
The predictor step will solve this equation for u, a nondivergence free velocity
eld.
37
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
4. the PISO loop takes care of the momentumpressure coupling leading possi
bly also to a proper momentum solution. The number of iterations is prescribed
and the momentum balance is not a priori guaranteed. The OpenFoam refer
ences [17], [6] and [32] assures that in most of the cases 2 or 3 PISO loops are
enough. Although in complex geometries or in presence of buoyancy forces addi
tional loops are required as proved by the present work in Section 4.1.1. Moreover
it has been proven that the number of loops aects just the stability of the solu
tion but not its accuracy. The UEqn matrix can be split in the diagonal terms,
A, and the odiagonal terms, H
C = A+H
+H
= r p
replacing H = r H
, this yields to
u
= A
1
HA
1
p
2
(A
1
p
) = A
1
H
In the code this steps can be recognized: discarding the predictor result, from the
last time step solution of velocity, the diagonal coecients are extracted and the
reciprocal values are stored and used to compute the velocity lacking the pressure
inuence:
volScalarField rUA = 1.0/UEqn.A();
U = rUA*UEqn.H();
and then reconstructing the ux at the cell faces using this U
phi = (fvc::interpolate(U) & mesh.Sf())
+ fvc::ddtPhiCorr(rUA, U, phi);}
we solve the pressure equation
fvm::laplacian(rUA, p) == fvc::div(phi)
The pressure is solved iteratively until the prescribed tolerance is reached, as
suring a divergencefree velocity. At this stage the nonorthogonal correction is
performed for a prexed iteration number on the pressure gradient as described
in 3.1.1
5. in the explicit velocity correction step the velocity eld is then corrected in
an explicit manner as a consequence of the new pressure distribution
U = rUA*fvc::grad(p);
38
3.2. PISO ALGORITHM
Figure 3.4: The PISO algorithm.
meaning that at the last corrected velocity without pressure inuence is taken
out by the pressure contribution that satises the continuity
u
= u
A
1
p
6. points 4 to 5, are computed for a xed number of iterations, each time updating
the values of H by the most recent u available
To summarize the PISO loop consists of an implicit momentum predictor followed by
a series of pressure solutions and explicit velocity corrections, as shown in Figure 3.4.
RhieChow interpolation This method gives an oscillationfree velocity in line with
RhieChow interpolation, even though the grid isnt staggered. This can be understood
analyzing the diusion term in the Laplacian equation for p
_
V
(p) dV =
_
A
p dA
f
S
f
(p)
f
this discretization uses the value of the gradient of p on the cell face, once it is calculated
using neighboring center cell values, as described in (3.4). Then in the correction of u
the explicit gradient term of p is calculated from the cell face values of p
_
V
p dV =
_
S
dS p
f
S
f
p
f
In the following the commented main code of the incompressible ow solver, called
IcoFoam:
39
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
// these header files contain source code for common tasks
// that are used in numerous applications.
# include "setRootCase.H"
# include "createTime.H"
# include "createMesh.H"
# include "createFields.H"
# include "initContinuityErrs.H"
// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //
Info<< "\nStarting time loop\n" << endl;
// use the runTime object to control time stepping
for (runTime++; !runTime.end(); runTime++)
{
Info<< "Time = " << runTime.timeName() << nl << endl;
# include "readPISOControls.H"
# include "CourantNo.H"
// set up the linear algebra for the momentum equation.
// The flux of U, phi, is treated explicity
// using the last known value of U.
fvVectorMatrix UEqn
(
fvm::ddt(U)
+ fvm::div(phi, U)
 fvm::laplacian(nu, U)
);
// solve using the last known value of p on the RHS.+
// This gives us a velocity field that is
// not divergence free, but approximately satisfies momentum.
// See Eqn. 7.31 of Ferziger & Peric
solve(UEqn == fvc::grad(p));
//  PISO loop take nCorr corrector steps
for (int corr=0; corr<nCorr; corr++)
{
// from the last solution of velocity, extract the diag. term from
// the matrix and store the reciprocal
// note that the matrix coefficients are functions of U due to
40
3.2. PISO ALGORITHM
// the nonlinearity of convection.
volScalarField rUA = 1.0/UEqn.A();
// take a Jacobi pass and update U. See Hrv Jasaks thesis eqn. 3.137
// and Henrik Rusches thesis, eqn. 2.43
// UEqn.H is the righthand side of the UEqn minus the product of
// (the offdiagonal terms and U).
// Note that since the pressure gradient is not included in the UEqn.
// above, this gives us U without the pressure gradient.
// Also note that UEqn.H() is a function of U.
U = rUA*UEqn.H();
// calculate the fluxes by dotting the interpolated velocity
// (to cell faces) with face normals
// The ddtPhiCorr term accounts for the divergence of the face
// velocity field by taking out the
// difference between the interpolated velocity and the flux.
phi = (fvc::interpolate(U) & mesh.Sf())
+ fvc::ddtPhiCorr(rUA, U, phi);
// adjusts the inlet and outlet fluxes to obey continuity,
// which is necessary for creating a wellposed
// problem where a solution for pressure exists.
adjustPhi(phi, U, p);
// iteratively correct for nonorthogonality.
// The nonorthogonal part of the Laplacian is calculated from
// the most recent solution for pressure,
// using a deferredcorrection approach.
for (int nonOrth=0; nonOrth<=nNonOrthCorr; nonOrth++)
{
// set up the pressure equation
fvScalarMatrix pEqn
(
fvm::laplacian(rUA, p) == fvc::div(phi)
);
// in incompressible flow, only relative pressure matters.
// Unless there is a pressure BC present, one cells pressure
// can be set arbitrarily to produce a unique pressure solution
pEqn.setReference(pRefCell, pRefValue);
pEqn.solve();
// on the last nonorthogonality correction, correct the flux
// using the most uptodate pressure
if (nonOrth == nNonOrthCorr)
{
//The .flux method includes contributions from all implicit terms
// of the pEqn (the Laplacian)
phi = pEqn.flux();
41
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
}
} // end of nonorthogonality looping
# include "continuityErrs.H"
// add pressure gradient to interior velocity and BCs.
// Note that this pressure is not just a small
// correction to a previous pressure, but is the entire pressure field.
// Contrast this to the use of p
// in Ferziger & Peric, Eqn. 7.37.
U = rUA*fvc::grad(p);
U.correctBoundaryConditions();
} // end of the PISO loop
runTime.write();
Info<< "ExecutionTime = " << runTime.elapsedCpuTime() << " s"
<< " ClockTime = " << runTime.elapsedClockTime() << " s"
<< nl << endl;
} // end of the time step loop
Info<< "End\n" << endl;
return(0);
}
// ********************************************* //
3.3 Current model implementation
The mathematical model described in Chapter 2 has been implemented within the
OpenFoam environment, taking advantage of the PISO algorithm structure discussed
in 3.2. In particular the new code takes care of the two active scalars, temperature
and vapor concentration, and adds the buoyancy term in the momentum equation con
sistently to the equation set (2.7), (2.8), (2.9), (2.10). The boundary condition for
each variable has been developed to match the requirements of the evaporation and
condensation model given in 2.4. Moreover two features are made available based on
the specic case needs: the adjustable time stepping procedure is able to vary the
advancing time step adapting to the ow conditions, and a sponge region can be over
lapped to the computational domain near the outlet section in order to preserve from
numerical instability issues, as explained in 2.2.1 . Finally the thinlm model sketched
through 2.5 is coded. It acts as a property the boundary retrieving the temperature
prole for each boundary face with non zero lm thickness and the temperature gra
dients at the lmair and solidlm interfaces. Also the DirichletNeumann coupling
algorithm has been coded and tested. Both the FTF model and the DNM have still to
be included into the main solver.
42
3.3. CURRENT MODEL
Adjustable time step The adjustable time stepping procedure is meant to keep
maximum Courant number constant. This value is computed each time step considering
the ux through each cell face, S u, and the distance between the two neighborough
cell center, d
Co
M
=
S u
S d
t (3.12)
The reduction of timestep applies whenever the Co
M
exceed the prescribed value,
while when its below the threshold the increment is damped in order to avoid unstable
oscillations. The maximum increment allowed is of the 20% of the previous time step.
Sponge region In general the denition of the sponge region is case dependent.
From a coding point of view it can be set up allowing the diusion and the expansion
coecients to vary in the domain. In the present codes it is achieved by creating a
scalar eld for each parameter from some functions of the type given by (2.11). As
any other eld it requires also to be prescribed consequently onto the boundaries.
3.3.1 Current model algorithm
At the beginning of each time step loop the transport equation for temperature and
vapor concentration, named T and C in the code, are solved retaining the last velocity
eld available for the adventive term. The coecient matrices are built up and the
linear systems solved
solve
(
fvm::ddt(T)
+ fvm::div(phi, T)
 fvm::laplacian(DT, T)
);
solve
(
fvm::ddt(C)
+ fvm::div(phi, C)
 fvm::laplacian(DC, C)
);
while the velocity and pressure are treated as already described in 3.2 except that
explicit buoyancy source term is added. The local density variation is multiplied by
gravity acceleration vector g.
fvVectorMatrix UEqn
(
fvm::ddt(U)
+ fvm::div(phi, U)
 fvm::laplacian(nuDamp, U) + g*(betat*(TT0) + betac*(CC0))
);
The diusion and expansion coecients, named with custom fashion DT, DC, nu, betat,
betac, are prescribed as scalars in a separated le, or as elds in the rst time step
directory if a sponge region is needed. The algorithm is summarized by the diagram in
Figure 3.5.
43
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Figure 3.5: The current algorithm.
44
3.3. CURRENT MODEL
3.3.2 Evaporation/Condensation boundary condition implementation
In general the model of the evaporation and condensation at the lm interface, as
described in 2.4, requires Dirichlet boundary conditions for T, C, H and U in such a
way that each of them is a function of the other. Again these couplings are solved by
segregated approach. Each eld is evaluated retaining the most recent values available
of the other elds. This implementation is general, meaning that works for a spatial and
time varying interface values, so that it can be applied straightforwardly to the interface
model also in the conjugate heat transfer problem. In this case the temperature eld of
the lm is calculated instead of being prescribed. From here on each boundary variable
is considered in details
Temperature The temperature of the lm interface is the only variable to prescribe.
The Dirichlet condition can be assigned by xedValue boundary condition type
as for the eld T, for a generic boundary patch
{
type fixedValue;
value uniform 336.15;
}
Vapor concentration At the interface the saturation condition hypothesis holds for
the eld C. The vapor concentration value is enforced at the interface by setting
a generic boundary patch
{
type wettedWall;
}
The wettedWall patch type takes care of computing and updating the relation
given by (2.40)
void wettedWallFvPatchScalarField::updateCoeffs()
{
forAll(*this, i)
{
if (H_interface[i] == 0.0) ci[i] = cinternal[i]; // zeroGradient condition
else
{
ps = 611.85*Foam::exp((17.502*(T_interface[i]273.15))/(240.9+ (T_interface[i]273.15)));
ci[i] = coeff*ps/(Patm  0.378*ps);
}
}
scalarField::operator=(ci);
}
Moreover if the surface is completely dried, i.e. the lm thickness H
interface
= 0,
the check allows the switch to a locally zero gradient boundary condition.
Evaporation velocity The evaporation/condensation process is ruled by the evapo
ration velocity. It is computed and assigned as boundary condition for U consis
tently to (2.44), by setting the generic patch type
{
type evaporationVelocity;
}
Again there is a check, if H
interface
= 0, then the velocity is set to be zero.
45
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Figure 3.6: Ghost liquid cell balance.
void evaporationVelocityFvPatchVectorField::updateCoeffs()
{
scalarField nGradC(C_interface.snGrad());
forAll(*this, i)
{
if (H_interface[i] == 0.0) evaporationVelocity[i] = 0;
else
{
evaporationVelocity[i] = ( DC_interface[i]/1C_interface[i])*nGradC[i];
}
}
vectorField::operator=(evaporationVelocity * n);
}
Film thickness The lm thickness, H in the code, is modeled as a feature of each
boundary face representing the interface. Its patch type is set by
dish1
{
type filmThickness;
value uniform 1e4;
}
where the value is updated each time step cell by cell following the mass balance
given in (2.45)
h =
g
l
tV e (3.13)
clipping the value to zero, if the current iteration produces negative values.
void filmThicknessFvPatchScalarField::updateCoeffs()
{
scalarField dh = ratio* ( n & U_interface) *mesh.time().deltaT().value();
scalarField Hupdate = *this + dh;
forAll(Hupdate, i)
{
if (Hupdate[i] < 0.0) Hupdate[i] = 0.0;
}
scalarField::operator=(Hupdate);
}
Before moving to the new time step, the lm thickness variable must be explicitly
updated at all the boundaries, since it doesnt undergo the solve method
forAll(H.boundaryField(), j) H.boundaryField()[j].updateCoeffs();
46
3.3. CURRENT MODEL
It worth to note that this boundary condition can be retained also if a dynamic
model for the lm thickness is embedded in the present solver.
The consistency of the present lm computation in the FVM frame can be sup
ported by considering one ghost cell layer, as in Figure 3.6, placed beyond the com
putational domains, below the wetted surface. It stores the liquid amount. Each
ghost cell, GC, is therefore discretized consequently, not allowing ow among
adjacent GC. The balance of mass requires the GC volume to reduce or increase
correspondingly reducing or increasing the height of the cell, H. The only uxes
admitted are those through the interface face, if, namely diusion and advection
_
GC
l
H
t
dS =
_
if
g
_
D
n
V
e
_
dS (3.14)
=
_
if
V
e
dS (3.15)
V
e
S
i
(3.16)
A remark about the drying process: the current modeling can predict the evolution
of the lm thickness to complete drying in eective way but in roughly manner. The
last step leading to H
interface
= 0 permits an evaporative ux higher than what is
at disposal at the surface. Considering once again the length scale of the ows under
consideration, this kind of error is found to be altogether negligible, compared to the
underresolution near the contact lines if present. It has been observed that the current
drying process is aected by the local condition of the ow as expected, but present also
a mesh size dependence. It happens that a boundary face has a higher evaporation rate
than the surrounding just due to numerical errors. In the end it will dry sooner and
at that point the model will switches to the nonwetted boundary condition yielding to
the fringe eect described in 2.3.3. This may be unphysical but such an issues can be
overcome only by a proper dynamic model for the lm that will allow lm rupture and
drop formation or by considering a droplet distribution instead of a lm. Embed any
of these two approach seems exceedingly beyond the present computational capability.
3.3.3 Finite thickness lm implementation
The temperature distribution inside the nite thickness lm is implemented following
the description given in 2.5. The liquid lm is still treated as a boundary condition but
a temperature prole corresponds to each cell face along its thickness, that will act as
a buer layer between the air and the solid body temperature. The structure of the
solver has to be modied slightly in order to include this new feature, along with the
DirichletNeumann algorithm to couple either the lm and air or solid, lm and air.
A new data structure has been dene within OpenFoam frame, a Ndimensioned
array eld, named NVectorField, meant to extend the already implemented vectors and
matrices. The number of elements can be prescribed by the user, based on the actual
needs.
The NVectorField represents the temperature inside the lm. The boundary type
lmT implements the model discussed in 2.5.
The idea is to discretized the temperature prole as follows: each boundary face has
its own lm thickness H
interface
= H
b
that is uniformly divided in N points, placed at
47
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Figure 3.7: Finite lm thickness model sketch.
h
i
=
H
b
N
i for i = 1, . . . N. The initial distribution is stored as T(h
i
) for i = 0, . . . N 1
in the NVectorField. The model is schematically represented in Figure 3.7
The lmT boundary condition reads the temperature of the interface, T
interface
and
of the corresponding surface below the lm, computes the heat ux summing the latent
heat and the conduction contribution
scalarField HF_interface( ( ka_.value() * T_interface.snGrad() + // conduction contribution
rhoa_.value() * L_.value() * ( n & U_interface) // latent heat contribution
) //
/ kl_.value()
);
then the analytical solution derived in 2.5 is computed and stored for each cell face.
Eventually the error is evaluated as the dierence between the given T
interface
and the
computed T(h
N
) for the lmair coupling
TErr = mag( film[c][(nx_1)]  T_interface[c] ) ;
In the conjugate heat transfer solver this error dictates if the solution accuracy is
reached, i.e. the continuity of the temperature between liquid and gas
1
. Again the
lm temperature boundary condition requires an explicit call to update the eld.
int heatFluxErrCorrCnt = 1;
for(int heatFluxErrCorrNr=0; heatFluxErrCorrNr < heatFluxErrCorrCnt; heatFluxErrCorrNr++)
{
bool checkAll = true;
for (int nonOrth=0; nonOrth<=nNonOrthCorr; nonOrth++)
{
solve ( fvm::ddt(Tint) + fvm::div(phi, Tint)  fvm::laplacian(DT, Tint) );
}
forAll(film.boundaryField(), j)
{
if(film.boundaryField()[j].type()=="filmT")
{
film.boundaryField()[j].updateCoeffs();
if(!refCast<const filmTFvPatchNVectorField>(film.boundaryField()[j]).myCheck())
checkAll = false;
}
}
if (!checkAll) heatFluxErrCorrCnt++; // add loop untill convergence
}
1
the heat ux balance is assumed to be exactly matched applying the analytical solution
48
3.4. LES MODELS
To prescribe the full thermal coupling among solid, lm and gas, lmT returns also the
temperature at the solid wall T
w
and the corresponding heat ux, HF
wall
, simply by
HF
wall
= k
l
T(h
2
) T(h
1
)
h
2
h
1
(3.17)
Setting the solution parameters The analytical solution as given in 2.5.3 needs
some physical constants to be prescribed by the user in the in physicalConstant dictio
nary:
L the latent heat of evaporation for the liquid
kl the heat conductivity of the liquid, k
l
ka the heat conductivity of the gas, k
a
rhoa the reference density of the gas,
a
rhol the reference density of the liquid,
l
alpha the temperature diusivity coecient of the liquid,
molarRatio the molar ratio between gaseous mixture and the liquid species
Patm the reference atmospheric pressure
along with two numerical solution parameters to be xed in the HeatSolverParameters
dictionary:
nx the number of discretization points for lm thickness
nf number of odd Fourier coecients, prescribing up to which harmonic the
numerical solution will be computed
both to be chosen based on the evolution of the temperature in the lm: if large
variations and rapid oscillations are expected to happen then nx and nf should be
increased to capture the smallest feature, otherwise they can be relaxed in order to
speed up the computation. The right choice of the parameter relay both on the physical
consideration exploited in 2.5.3 and some experience with the solver.
3.4 LES Turbulence model implementation
The implementation of LES models in OpenFoam is based on a common interface
procedure that takes care of computing the anisotropic part of the total stress, the
resolved one, that for incompressible uids is simply 2S, plus the SGS contribution
2
sgs
S. Setting
eff
= +
sgs
as the eective viscosity the two stress tensor can be
summed up
2
eff
S =
eff
_
u +u
T
_
(3.18)
The divergence of the total stress tensor is then split in two terms
eff
_
u +u
T
_
= (
eff
u) +
_
eff
u
T
_
(3.19)
In laminar ows the second term is identically zero because of continuity. This total
stress tensor is discretized by
49
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
tmp<fvVectorMatrix> GenEddyVisc::divDevBeff(volVectorField& U) const
{
return
(
 fvm::laplacian(nuEff(), U)  fvc::div(nuEff()*dev(fvc::grad(U)().T()))
);
}
where the viscous term is treated implicitly, while the second term is fully explicit.
It must be noted that only the anisotropic part of
eff
u
T
is used, enforcing the
continuity equation
dev
_
u
T
_
= u
T
1
3
u
T
I (3.20)
u
T
I = u = 0 (3.21)
Such an interface that discretizes directly the laminar stress and the SGS contribution
requires the knowledge of the latest available velocity eld and of the
sgs
. The latter is
provided by the specic SGS model implementation. In the following, the Smagorinsky
model available in OpenFoam is introduced and then the implementation of the plane
averaged dynamic model is discussed.
3.4.1 Smagorinsky model
OpenFoam implementation of the standard Smagorinsky model is unusual. Lack of
references makes hard to distinguish the classical formulation of
sgs
as given in 2.19.
Two constants are required, c
k
and c
e
, set by default to 0.094 and 1.048
2
. Then two
quantities are computed
k =
c
k
c
e
2
S
2
(3.22)
sgs
= c
k
k = c
k
_
c
k
c
e
2
S (3.23)
in which it is possible to recognize C
2
s
= c
k
_
c
k
ce
. The default value of the constant is
C
s
= 0.1677.
3.4.2 Plane averaged dynamic model
With reference to the mathematical description given in 2.2.2, the following parts are
added or modied in the code in order to obtain a dynamic model with plane averaging.
The deviatoric part of the resolved stress tensor is computed as
void classicDynSmagorinsky::correct(const tmp<volTensorField>& gradU)
{
LESModel::correct(gradU);
volSymmTensorField D = dev(symm(gradU));
updateSubGridScaleFields(D);
}
2
the values can be set in the proper input le
50
3.4. LES MODELS
and then passed to compute the constant C
l
= C
2
s
volScalarField classicDynSmagorinsky::Clilly(const volSymmTensorField& D)
{
volSymmTensorField Lij = dev(filter_(sqr(U()))  (sqr(filter_(U()))));
volSymmTensorField Mij =
filter_( sqrt(scalar(2.0)) * mag(D)*(D) ) 
sqr(filter_to_mesh_ratio_) * sqrt(scalar(2.0)) * mag(filter_(D)) * filter_(D);
volScalarField LijMij = Lij && Mij;
volScalarField MijMij = Mij && Mij;
ieFLfieldAverage(LijMij); // averaging...
ieFLfieldAverage(MijMij);
volScalarField rtrn = LijMij;
forAll(rtrn,iT)
{
if (MijMij[iT] != 0)
rtrn[iT] /= MijMij[iT];
if(rtrn[iT] < 0)
{
rtrn[iT]=0;
}
}
rtrn.dimensions() /= MijMij.dimensions();
return rtrn;
}
where the forcycle is used to clamp to zero the negative values at the numerator of 2.26.
ltertomeshratio is the ratio between the two lter width, and it is assumed to be 2.
The averaging is then performed by
void classicDynSmagorinsky::ieFLfieldAverage(volScalarField &toAverage)
{
const fvMesh& mesh= averagingIndex.mesh();
List<scalar> totalValues;
List<scalar> weightSizes;
totalValues.setSize(averagingIndex.dimensions()[dimensionSet::LENGTH]);
weightSizes.setSize(averagingIndex.dimensions()[dimensionSet::LENGTH]);
totalValues=scalar(0);
weightSizes=scalar(0);
// calculation
forAll(toAverage,nuI)
{
totalValues[averagingIndex[nuI]] += toAverage[nuI] * mesh.V()[nuI];
weightSizes[averagingIndex[nuI]] += mesh.V()[nuI];
}
reduce(totalValues,sumOp<List<scalar> >() ); // MPI part
51
CHAPTER 3. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION
reduce(weightSizes,sumOp<List<scalar> >() );
forAll(totalValues,sgsI)
{
totalValues[sgsI] = totalValues[sgsI] / weightSizes[sgsI];
if(totalValues[sgsI] < 0 )
totalValues[sgsI] = 0;
}
// setting new field
forAll(toAverage,nuI){
toAverage[nuI] = totalValues[averagingIndex[nuI]];
}
}
in which it has been necessary to identify each plane by an index over which the loops
can perform the plane averaging. Finally the
sgs
is computed
nuSgs_= Cl * (sqrt(scalar(2.0)) * mag(D)) / scalar(2.0);
Throughout the implementation, where possible, and constant values have been
canceled out.
52
Chapter 4
Validation and Testing
4.1 PISO algorithm testing
Some tests have been performed in order to better understand the PISO algorithm be
havior and reliability in particular for ows with evaporation and condensation process.
The main result is that the number of momentum corrector loops aects the stability
of the solution but just slightly its accuracy. The loop number that assures stability is
ow dependent. Experience about ows which are to be simulated is necessary. The
time advancement scheme adopted in the present work is implicit in order to take ad
vantage of larger time stepping. A second test is reported in the following to properly
set an upper limit to the maximum Courant number which allows not compromising
the accuracy of the solution.
4.1.1 Current model stability test
The PISO algorithms main assumption states that the nonlinear term of NavierStokes
equation can be linearized. For a time step n the convection term is replaced by
u
n1
u
n
, so that the matrix coecients are based on the previous time step solution.
Then the Poisson equation for pressure is iteratively solved, correcting and updating
the velocity at each loop for a prescribed number of cycles, as explained in much
more detail though out (3.2). OpenFoam developers suggest to never use less then 2
correction steps, and claim that 2 correctors should be enough for most of the cases.
Actually with just one loop the solution diverges in few time steps. Complex ows with
evaporation and condensation have been proven in this study to require more than 2
loops. The exact number depends on the problem under examination.
A test has been performed on a box of size comparable to a dishwasher tub with a
simplied cup inside, as shown in Figure 4.1. The goal was to retain all the important
physical features of interest but on a simpler conguration. The standard Smagorinsky
LES model has been applied with the Reynolds analogy taking care of the eddy diu
sivity of the two scalars as described in 2.2.2. Even if the results are to much diused, it
stabilized the solution and the test can be carried out enlighten just the characteristic
of the PISO algorithm.
The cup is a semisphere shell with an external diameter D = 0.2 m and a thickness
S = 0.005 m. The bottom cuts the shell at R
c
= 0.08944 from its center. The box edge
measures L = 0.5 m, while the outow pipe placed at top faces box has a diameter
53
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
Figure 4.1: PISO test case geometry.
D
o
= 0.1 m and a length L
o
= 0.2 m. Just natural convection is considered. E/C
boundary condition are enforced on the cup and on the box: the former has prescribed
values of temperature T
c
= 333 K and vapor concentration C
c
= 0.132, while on the
latter T
b
= 328 K and vapor concentration C
b
= 0.102. The initial velocity is zero
everywhere, while the two scalars are prescribed as T
0
= 333 K and C
0
= 0.105. At
the outlet section a zero gradient condition is applied for all elds except pressure that
is xed to be zero. Moreover the pipe is treated as sponge region. Evaporation takes
place from the wetted cup, condensation occurs on the boxs walls.
As the simulation evolves, the plumes of both scalars rise above the cup and a
convective motion starts, reaching eventually a steady state. The results of the PISO
stability test are summarized in Table 4.1 for three dierent meshes, numbered 1, 2
and 3 from the coarsest to the nest. All meshes are unstructured with tetrahedral
elements. The columns provide the following data: number of the cells, maximum and
average nonorthogonality of the mesh, maximum skewness of the cells, the number of
orthogonality correction, and PISO loops, the physical time reached by the solution,
and if the solution reached the prescribed time, i.e. proved to be stable.
As main achievement, the test has proved that the number of iteration impacts just
the stability of the solution but just slightly its accuracy, i.e. adding more iterations to
an already stable setting doesnt improve the overall accuracy
1
. As a side consideration,
it is to be mentioned how the orthogonality correction impacts on the solution. It can
be seen from the Table 4.1 that increasing only the number of orthogonality loops
improves the simulation but are not enough to guarantee its numerical stability.
1
an analysis on a DNS turbulent channel at Re = 180 with dierent numbers of loops conrmed
this behavior
54
4.1. PISO ALGORITHM TESTING
test n
x
= 1.007 and
y
= 1.02. Among the various cases analyzed in the reference, we
focused on the case of airwater vapor mixture with the following boundary conditions:
at inlet the velocity is U
0
= 0.13 m/s (Re = 300), vapor mass fraction
0
= 0 (dry air)
and temperature, T
0
= 327.50 K; at interface the vapor concentration is
i
= 0.1 and
temperature T
i
= 327.50 K. The constant physical properties, evaluated with the 1/3
rule, are the kinematic viscosity = 1.74 10
5
m
2
/s for dry air, thermal expansion
coecient
T
= 0.00305 K
1
, solutal expansion coecient
= 0.584, temperature
diusion coecient D
T
= 2.580 10
5
m
2
/s for dry air and mass diusion coecient
D
= 3.290 10
5
m
2
/s. For this conguration the buoyancy force is only due to the
solutal contribution since T = T
i
T
0
= 0. Hence Gr
T
= 0, while the solutal Grashof
number is Gr
= 1.212 10
5
, given =
i
0
. The corresponding solutal Richardson
number is also evaluated Ri
= 1.346.
The results have been checked as follow. Firstly we compare the velocity proles in
three dierent sections. A perfect matching with the references results is found as can
be seen in gure 4.3. The bulk density and the accumulated vaporized mass along the
channel length, dened respectively as
m
(x) =
_
H
0
(y) u(y) dy
_
H
0
u(y) dy
m,v
(x) = 2
_
L
0
i
(x) u
i
(x) dx
are shown in gure 4.4a and 4.4b. The agreement is satisfactory despite the osets
57
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
at the outlet that are of 0.2% and 3% for
m
and
m,v
respectively. This can be
attributed to the dierent interpretation of the evaporation eect: the Stefan ow
is added as source term placed in the cells next to the wetted wall instead of being
included in the boundary condition.
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
m
(
k
g
m

3
)
streamwise direction (m)
Bulk mixture density
Laaroussi 2009
OF
(a) Bulk mixture density
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
m
,
v
(
g
s

1
)
streamwise direction (m)
Vaporized mass flux rate
Laaroussi 2009
OF
(b) Vaporized mass ux
Figure 4.4: Comparison between results of the present simulation and reference one:
a) Bulk mixture density b) Vaporized mass ux
58
4.3. LES TURBULENCE MODELS TEST
0
5
10
15
20
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
U
/
u
*
y
+
KMM
Dyn OF
Smag OF
Figure 4.5: Comparisons of the mean velocities.
4.3 LES turbulence models test
The turbulent plane channel ow has been selected as a test case for the turbulence
LES models. The quantity are expressed in nondimensional form. The dimensions in
the streamwise, vertical and spanwise directions are: 2, 2 and , where = 1 is
the halfchannel width. The ow is driven by constant pressure gradient
p
x
= 1 The
Reynolds number based on wall shear velocity is set to be Re
= 1
where is thermal diusivity = k/c
p
m
2
/s.
Analytic solution
The monodimensional heat equation for a solid region reads
T
t
=
2
T
x
2
+F(x)
where F(X) is the heat source, expressed in K/s, arbitrary distributed. Applied Dirich
let boundary conditions
T(0) = T
0
T(l) = T
l
where l is the domain length and f(x) is the initial condition, the analytical solution is
T(x, t) = T
p
(x) +T
ic
(x, t) + (x)
given
(x) =
1
_ _
F(x)dx
2
(x) = (x) +c
1
x +c
2
65
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
T
(
C
)
x (m)
Evoluzione temperatura
Figure 4.12: Analytical solution with sinusoidal source. The distribution of temperature
given by the blue lines for dierent time steps; the initial condition in green; the steady
state solution in red.
c
2
= T
0
(0)
c
1
=
T
l
T
0
+(0) (l)
l
T
p
(x) = T
0
(T
l
T
0
)x
g(x) = f(x) T
p
(x) (x)
B
n
=
2
l
_
l
0
g(x) sin
_
n
l
x
_
dx
T
ic
(x, t) =
0
B
n
sin
_
n
l
x
_
e
n
l
2
t
For the particular case in which T
0
= 0, T
l
= 0, and l = 1, given F(x) = sin(2x),
one sinusoidal period, the temperature evolves as shown in Figure 4.12. This solution
is compared with the numerical solution over one domain. The perfect matching for
every time step validates the numerical method with the source term. In this way the
numerical solution over one domain can be used as reference solution.
66
4.5. DDM VALIDATION
4.5.2 Test cases
Sinusoidal heat source
The above mentioned problem is here solved over the two regions by means of the
coupling condition under examination. The time step is constant and equal to 0.01t
s
,
the steadystate temperature is reached after 0.2 t
s
. Both steadystate solutions con
verge to the analytical one, but a huge dierence can be seen during the transitory,
as showed by the plot in Figure 4.13, where the temperature evolution is remarked in
(0.25 m, 0.25 m) correspondingly to the peak value of the source. The analytical solu
tion, represented by the red line, match the solution provided by the DN method, in
blue. The solidWallMixedTemperatureCoupled cannot reproduce the correct behavior,
in green.
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
IEFluids
OF1.6
Analytic
Figure 4.13: Temperature evolution in (0.25, 0.25) for the sinusoidal source: in red the
analytical solution; in blue the DN solution; in green the solution with the standard
OpenFoam coupling.
Cosinusoidal heat source
The symmetry of the source distribution eases the coupling. To further test the per
formance of the methods a non symmetric source is considered
F(x) = cos(
2
x)
along with boundary conditions on 1Left xed at T
0
= 1 and on 2Left equal to T
l
=
0. The temperature evolution at interface, as can be seen in Figure 4.14, remarks
67
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
how the DN method matches the analytical prole while the OpenFoam condition
underestimates the temperature for all the transitory period.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
IEFluids
OF1.6
Analytic
Figure 4.14: Time evolution at interface with a cosinusoidal heat source.
Sinusoidal heat source in Left
If the sinusoidal heat source is considered again but only in the Left region
F(x) = sin(2x) 0 x 0.5
the solution provided by the implemented method match again the analytical prole
and the solidWallMixedTemperatureCoupled behaves poorly as depicted in Figure 4.15
for the temperature at the interface. To better notice the dierences between the two
solutions in Figure 4.16 the temperature distribution along both regions is plotted at
t = t
s
; a discontinuity at x = 0.5 m shows up in the curve obtained by the solid
WallMixedTemperatureCoupled technique.
4.5.3 Constant heat source in Left
So far only Dirichlet boundary conditions have been applied. In the following cases
with zero gradient or cyclic boundary conditions on top and bottom boundaries are
discussed. On 1Left are applied either zero gradient or symmetric B.C.. Due to the
latter conditions the problem has a time scale three time larger than the previous
cases, underlining the crucial role of a correct solution during the transitory period as
the Figure 4.17 shows. The results are qualitatively the same of the already discussed
68
4.5. DDM VALIDATION
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
IEFluids
OF1.6
Analytic
Figure 4.15: Time evolution at interface with a sinusoidal heat source only in Left
region.
cases. The DN technique performs well and solves accurately the CHT problem with
any tested boundary condition.
Inuence of the time step
Further test show the inuence of dierent time steps. In particular a time step of 0.1 t
s
is chosen and again a DN approach provides the correct solution while the OpenFoam
one degrades further as described by Figure 4.18.
Inuence of the physical parameters
In engineering applications dierent materials are modeled by dierent physical pa
rameters. The numerical methods under consideration are tested over the two regions
which have a thermal conductivity ratio of r = k
l
/k
r
= 1. For instance a good conduc
tor, the Right region, is in contact with an insulator, the Left region and the ratio is
xed to r = 100/1 = 100, with a time step of 0.01 t
s
.
The temperature evolution in Figure 4.19 shows that solidWallMixedTemperature
Coupleds solution are even worse when physical parameters dier between the two
regions. On the contrary DNM gives accurate result.
69
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
Figure 4.16: Distribution of temperature along both domains, expressed in
C. xaxis
x in m at t = t
s
.
4.5.4 Soliduid case
To include a test in which a uid ow is bounded by solid walls the following case has
been tested and compared with the literature results provided in [33]. In particular
the CHT transitory period is considered for a laminar ow in a pipe. The ow is fully
developed and in thermal equilibrium with the solid: at time t = 0 holds T
s
= T
l
= T
i
=
0, where the subscripts refer to solid, liquid regions and initial condition respectively. .
The external surface temperature of the pipe is increased to T
w
= 100
2
T
s
(4.2)
T
l
t
=
l
2
T
l
+
c
p
( u)
2
(4.3)
where the third term on the second equation is the viscous dissipation, that is treated
as a source term into the uid. The simulations result with the DD method matches
the references data as the plot shows in Figure 4.21. Also OpenFoams solution ts
quite well although an error occurs at the steadystate value of about 0.12%, larger
than the DD error, 10
4
%. Such behavior is not surprising since the source term is
quite small and the transitory period quite long.
4.5.5 Multidimensional cases
For multidimensional cases it can also be stated that the DD technique is more accurate
respect to the standard OpenFoam one. The results of the case described by the
Figure 4.22: a square of dimensions 0.04 m0.04 m decomposed in three domains: on
the left two regions of one quarter of the square each and on the right one domain of half
71
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 1 2 3 4 5
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
IEFluids
OF1.6
Analytic
Figure 4.18: Time evolution at interface with a constant heat source only in Left region:
time step 0.1t
s
72
4.5. DDM VALIDATION
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 5 10 15 20
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
IEFluids
OF1.6
Analytic
Figure 4.19: Time evolution at interface with a constant heat source only in Left region
with r = 100 and time step 0.01 t
s
73
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
Figure 4.20: Cross section of the solidliquid regions. In grey the solid part, the color
contour shows the temperature inside the liquid and the geometry discretization.
of the square. Each domain has the same physical parameters, namely c
p
= 434 J/kgK,
k = 100 W/Km, = 7854 kg/m
3
, and the same initial temperature T
0
= 300 K. The
top border of the topleft region has a xed temperature of T
in
= 350 K; the bottom
border of the right region has T
out
= 250 K Dirichlet boundary condition. All the other
borders are adiabatic. The temporal step is given, 0.01 s, the geometry is discretized
by an uniform grid of 40 40 cells. To test the performance of the methods errors,
expressed in K, have been checked respect to the analytical solution. The Figure 4.23
shows the error distribution all over the squared domain.
Dynamic test case
The last analysis considers a dynamic case over the same geometry in Figure 4.11.
Oscillating temperature values have been applied at the boundaries 1Left and 1Right,
a sinusoidal and cosinusoidal laws respectively
T
l
= 325 + 25 cos(t2/681) (4.4)
T
r
= 325 + 25 sin(t2/681) (4.5)
The physical parameter are for each domain c
p
= 434 J/kgK, = 7854 kg/m
3
, k =
100 W/Km, the initial temperature is T
i
= 325 K. The steadystate error is evaluated
74
4.5. DDM VALIDATION
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
T
(
C
)
t (s)
Transitorio interfaccia
OF1.6
IEFluids
Analytic
Figure 4.21: Evolution of temperature. Soliduid case with heat source in the uid
region.
respect to the analytical solution and it is shown in Figure 4.24: both methods errors
peak at the interface although the DN coupling technique performs better.
4.5.6 Conclusions
In all the cases the error of the DN method has been checked, and at the interface
is always found to be less than 10
5
, the tolerance set for the simulations. On the
contrary the solidWallMixedTemperatureCoupled method is found to be quite ineec
tive to transmit the heat across the interface, slowing the heat transfer process. This
standard OpenFoam coupling condition applies a non physical buer that inhibits the
heat conduction at the interface. This trend is worsened by larger time step and by
high conductivity ratio between the domains.
75
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
Figure 4.22: Multidimensional case scheme.
76
4.5. DDM VALIDATION
Figure 4.23: Errors, expressed in K, of the temperature distribution over the three
domains. The DD method error is plotted in red crosses, in green crosses the solid
WallMixedTemperatureCoupled.
77
CHAPTER 4. VALIDATION AND TESTING
Figure 4.24: Temperature error along the whole domain. In blue the DN method, the
solidWallMixedTemperatureCoupled in green.
78
Chapter 5
Cases studied
In the following chapter the cases studied by means of the evaporation/condensation
model are presented and discussed in details. The boundary conditions adopted for the
solid wall in all the following cases are here restated for sake of clarity.
The adiabatic and impermeable condition prescribes the following boundary con
dition for temperature and vapor concentration respectively
n
= 0 (5.1)
T
n
= 0 (5.2)
(5.3)
being n the normal to the solid walls. For velocity the nonslip condition holds.
Evaporation condensation condition or wetted wall condition, assigned an inter
face temperature T
i
, prescribes the condition on vapor concentration and velocity
as
i
=
M
v
M
a
p
s
(T
i
)
p (1
Mv
Ma
) p
s
(T
i
)
) (5.4)
V
e
=
D
1
i
_
d
dn
_
i
(5.5)
see 2.4 for more details. If the drying process is activated the evolution of the
lm thickness is evaluated by
dH
dt
=
a
w
V
e
5.1 Evaporation/condensation around a wetted cylinder
conned between two parallel walls
5.1.1 Introduction
The archetypal problem of the ow around a wetted cylinder conned between two
parallel walls is here presented. The liquid phase is considered in the limit of the thin
79
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
lm approximation and its eects are treated as boundary conditions. The walls can
be either impermeable and adiabatic or wetted. The eects of two dierent positions of
the cylinder are investigated: the cylinder is placed at the centerline or at one quarter
of the channel width. The main characteristics of each case are then discussed and the
dierences among them are enlightened.
Figure 5.1: Flow around a cylinder between two parallel walls. The study considers two
cases in which evaporation takes place from the cylinder surface in two conguration:
a) the channel walls are impermeable and adiabatic, b) in presence of condensation on
the liquid lm wetting the walls
In the case of impermeable and adiabatic walls the evaporation process appears
substantially steady and the uxes around the surface are quite homogeneous with a
defect in the rear of the body. The vapor ows in the upper part of the domain and two
regions of dierent concentration level are clearly visible. In the case of wetted walls
condition the buoyancy eect is increased together with the velocity inside the channel,
the heat and mass transfer process from the solid body is enhanced. The evaporation is
nonhomogeneous and unsteady. On average the whole surface of the cylinder permits
higher Stefan ow rates. The eects of distance from the wall is also investigated. Two
dierent position of the cylinder are considered, for the body placed at half or at one
quarter of the channel width. The distance from the wall inuences the Stefan ow, in
particular the case with wetted walls, determining preferential directions of the vapor
ow around the cylinder.
As depicted in Figure 5.1 the ow develops in a straight channel of length L and
width H, with aspect ratio = L/H = 5. A cylinder of diameter D = 0.2H is placed
inside the channel at a distance equal to L/10 from the inow section. In order to
enlighten the dierent interaction mechanism between the walls and the blu body two
dierent distances of the cylinder from the bottom wall are investigated, respectively
d = H/2 and d = H/4. At the inlet uniform temperature T
0
= 327.5 K and vapor
concentration
0
= 0.05 are prescribed along with a parabolic velocity prole with a
mean velocity U
m
such that the Reynolds number is Re = U
m
H/ = 500. The liquid
80
5.1. WETTED CYLINDER
lm interface on the wetted cylinder has temperature T
c
= 327.5 K and concentration
c
= 0.1 such to allow liquid evaporation. The channel walls can be either adiabatic
and impermeable or wetted with xed temperature T
w
= 307.5 K and concentration
w
= 0.034 allowing vapor condensation.
In some complex ows, as for example stratied ones, the outow condition must be
nonreective in order preserve the accuracy of the solution preventing the disturbances
in form of internal waves to propagate upward. We use a sponge region localized just
before the outlet section. This is found to be eective in this task as explained in [1] and
moreover has a stabilizing eect on the numerical simulation damping the recirculation
across the outlet section.
In the investigated case a zero gradient condition for velocity and the scalars is im
posed at the outlet along with the sponge region located as depicted in Figure 5.1 acting
along the 10% of the channel length, in which uid viscosity, thermal and concentration
diusivity are articially increased according to an exponential law like
A = A e
12(x4.5)
with A being any of the parameters. Moreover within the sponge the buoyancy force
is neglected, i.e. the concentration and temperature are treated as passive scalars.
A zero velocity eld is imposed as initial condition along with homogeneous eld for
mass fraction
init
= 0.05 and temperature T
init
. We remark that T
0
= T
c
= T
init
,
so that with nonwetted walls the temperature eld will not aect the ow. The
physical parameter are set to = 1.74 10
5
, D
T
= 2.58 10
5
, D
= 3.29 10
5
,
T
= 3.05 10
3
and
= 6.08 10
1
.
For all the cases we compute drag and lift coecients as
Cd =
2F
x
U
2
m
HD
Cl =
2F
y
U
2
m
HD
where F
x
and F
y
are the mean forces acting on the cylinder in the streamwise and
crosswise directions respectively. Also their spectra are computed to evaluate the peri
odic feature of the ow.
5.1.2 Nonwetted walls
First we consider the case with adiabatic and impermeable walls. The Grashof and
Richardson numbers are computed based on the dierence between the values of T
and at the cylinder interface and at the inlet: Gr
= 1.714 10
4
, Gr
T
= 0, Ri
=
6.856 10
2
and Ri
T
= 0. The dierent cylinder positions yield to small dierences in
the Stefan ow in the overall evaporation process. In particular the total amount of the
vapor mass evaporated from the cylinder owing in the channel is almost indistinguish
able from case to case as showed in Figure 5.2. The mass ow is quite homogeneous
around the surface with a defect in the rear of the body as it is showed in Figures 5.5a
and 5.5b, the position of the defect is oscillating with a characteristic period. When
the accumulated vapor mass fraction reaches equilibrium, a frequency analysis is per
formed on Cd and Cl. From the spectra shown in Figures 5.7a and 5.7b we nd a main
frequency for the lift coecient f
l
= 0.03027 Hz for both position of the cylinder. The
buoyancy eects increases the frequency of the oscillations compared to the analogous
81
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
0.025
0.026
0.027
0.028
0.029
0.03
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Time (s)
Total vapor mass fraction, non wetted walls
d = H/2
d = H/4
Figure 5.2: Accumulation of vapor concentration within the channel
case without stratication. The drag coecient presents spectral components at higher
frequencies, roughly twice f
l
. They are f
d
1
= 0.07129 Hz and f
d
2
= 0.05273 Hz for
the case with d = H/2 and d = H/4 respectively. For the case d = H/4 an additional
main frequency of oscillation appears at f
d
2
= 0.0332. Note that this value is very
close to f
l
. The vapor concentration accumulates in the upper part due the favorable
buoyancy plume induced by the solutal gradients of the domain and two regions of
dierent concentration level are clearly visible in 5.4a. The velocity eld develops in
unsteady vortices without a clear dominant size in the downstream region.
0.021
0.022
0.023
0.024
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Time (s)
Total vapor mass fraction, wetted walls
d = H/2
d = H/4
Figure 5.3: Accumulation of vapor concentration within the channel
5.1.3 Wetted walls
The system with wetted and colder walls presents remarkably dierences from the pre
vious situation. Condensation, that occurs at the interface, greatly impacts the ow
and the heat and mass transfer process. The buoyancy force and hence the charac
teristic velocity is increased. Unlike the adiabatic wall case, in the wetted wall case
condensation extracts vapor from the gaseous phase. Consequently the amount of va
por mass present initially in the channel decreases in time as illustrated in gure 5.3.
An equilibrium state is reached roughly after 400s when the vapor that ows in the
channel from the inlet and evaporates from the cylinder is balanced by the vapor that
82
5.1. WETTED CYLINDER
(a) Non wetted walls, ranges from 0.05 to 0.01. The two dierent concen
tration regions are clearly visible.
(b) Wetted walls, ranges from 0.033 to 0.01.
Figure 5.4: Vapor mass fraction distribution in the channel, an instantaneous picture.
The value of is given by the contour plot.
ows out at the outlet and condensates on the walls. As in the previous case the dif
ferent positions of the cylinder slightly aects this dynamics. Downstream the body
the velocity eld develops in well dened vortical structures of the size of the channel
width. Near the cylinder the ow is greatly unsteady and poorly organized making the
vapor well mixed, as can be seen in gure 5.4b. The analysis of the Cd and Cl shows
scattered spectra as can be seen in Figures 5.7c and 5.7d reecting the complexity of
the ow. Nevertheless the main frequencies of the lift coecients are still close to the
non wetted case ones: f
l
1
= 0.03085 Hz and f
l
2
= 0.03043 Hz for the case with d = H/2
and d = H/4 respectively. The drag coecient exhibits one clear peak for d = H/2
at roughly twice the f
l
1
, f
d
= 0.06538 Hz. For d = H/4 we recognize two peaks, one
at higher frequency at f
d
= 0.08483 Hz and the second that is aligned to f
l
2
, similarly
to the adiabatic walls case. On average the whole surface of the cylinder permits Ste
fan ow rates higher than in the previous case. In this condition evaporation process
is non homogeneous and unsteady around the body. It shows preferential directions
for the mass ow depending on the cylinders position in the channel as depicted in
Figure 5.5d for two plots of the instantaneous velocity vector pointing out the cylinder
surface. This behavior is conrmed by the time averaged evaporation velocity scatter
plot shown in Figure 5.6. Figure on top shows the cases with adiabaticimpermeable
wall, on the bottom the wetted wall cases. In particular at d = H/2 the vapor ows
mostly from the front surface, but when the body is displaced at d = H/4 the vapor
ows in the upper and from the bottom of the body. This preferential direction rotates
in time with some periodicity but in order to quantify this eect an average in time
83
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
(a) Nonwetted walls, cylinder
at d = H/2
(b) Nonwetted walls, cylinder
at d = H/4
(c) Wetted walls, cylinder at d = H/2(d) Wetted walls, cylinder at d = H/4
Figure 5.5: Instantaneous evaporation velocity vector plots for the dierent cases.
will be provide in a following work.
5.1.4 Conclusions
The archetypal case of the evaporation from a wetted cylinder conned between wetted
or impermeable and adiabatic walls has been faced. Two body positions are considered:
the cylinder placed at 1/2 or at 1/4 of the channel width. The main features of each ow
are discussed. The wetted walls greatly impact the heat and mass transfer by increasing
the concentration gradient and the buoyancy force. Moreover the body location aects
the distribution of the Stefan ow around the surface. This preliminary study shows
the feasibility of the proposed method to deal with complex geometries in unsteady
cases and encourages further developments in order to include into the model more
physical eects important in drying process, in particular the coupling of the energy
equation with the solid substrate and the liquid thin lm dynamics.
5.2 Twodimensional dishwasher
5.2.1 Introduction
A rst application of this model on a real conguration has been performed on a 2D
dishwasher model, obtained as a cross section os the actual machine. Figure 5.9b shows
an instant contour plot of the vapor concentration, that also reveals the complex ow
84
5.2. 2D DW
(a) nonwetted wall, d = H/2 and d = H/4 from left to right
(b) wetted wall, d = H/2 and d = H/4 from left to right
Figure 5.6: Time averaged evaporation velocity vector scatter plots for the dierent
cases.
85
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
C
d
,
C
l
frequency (Hz)
Spectra of normalized Cd and Cl
Cd
Cl
(a) Non wetted walls: cylinder at d = H/2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
C
d
,
C
l
frequency (Hz)
Cd
Cl
(b) Non wetted walls: cylinder at d = H/4
0
0.1
0.2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
C
d
,
C
l
frequency (Hz)
Cd
Cl
(c) Wetted walls: cylinder at d = H/2
0
0.1
0.2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
C
d
,
C
l
frequency (Hz)
Cd
Cl
(d) Wetted walls: cylinder at d = H/4
Figure 5.7: Spectra of the Cd and Cl for both wall conditions and both cylinder
positions.
86
5.2. 2D DW
Figure 5.8: The geometry layout of the 2D dishwasher case.
pattern among the dishware. The vapor plumes leaving from the dierent objects have
dierent vapor concentration values, i.e. dierent color intensity, because each object
has a dierent temperature and hence a dierent vapor saturation condition. Even
from this rst attempt some interesting features can be recognized: cup and glass
in the upper part of the tub are lled up by vapor and hence cannot dry inside by
just evaporation, the inow in the bottom left side of the tub has a nearly negligible
contribution to the ow that is ruled by buoyancy force. The latter determines a rising
ow in the core of the volume caused by the hot and humid air leaving regions near
the dishware, and a downward ow near the colder and less humid air close the walls,
over which condensation occurs. The general picture gives a convective motion rising
from the center of the tub closing near the tubs surface.
5.2.2 Case setup
The rough dimension of the tub is 0.7 0.5 m, its geometry is a simplied Diva2
Electrolux conguration. Within the tub dishware are placed in a realistic fashion as
can be seen in Figure 5.8: two dishes on the bottom left region, further on the right
six forks or spoons, some packed quite close one to each other; on the upper part there
are one glass and one cup. The dishwasher is not yet fully charged in order to speed
up the testing of the numerical model in such complex conguration. The domain has
been discretized by about fty thousand triangular cells. The linear dimension of the
cells ranges from 2 mm at the boundaries up to 5 mm in the volume core. The mesh
has an overall good quality, it appears quite homogeneous, and it has low values of the
nonorthogonality and the skewness parameters.
There are two inlet sections of 1610 mm each, on the bottom of the left tubs wall
87
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
pointing one upward and the other downward, providing an air ow rate of 1.1 L/s, at
25
C and 75% of relative humidity, the same of the initial condition in the volume.
The outlet section of 13.510 mm is placed on the roof of the tub. The two bound
aries have been idealized in order to eectively model a far more complex ventilation
system, the Diva1 dynamic drying. The dishware are considered wetted surface, so that
the E/C boundary condition is applied on each body. The dierent temperature are
applied for dierent dishware, to roughly consider the dierent temperature diusion
of the dierent materials. For the following simulations the temperature of the dishes
have been xed at 63
C, the forks at 43
C. Both
the latter are placed upside down to prevent them to be lled up during the washing
phase.
This particular choice of dishware temperatures is based on the following idea. At
the beggining of the real drying cycle all the dishware are heated up to roughly 70
C,
then each object, dish, fork, glass or cup will cool down at its own rate, based on its
thermal properties and the air ow condition around it, eventually to a nal tempera
ture around 40
M
w
= m
w
A
t
= 15.6 gmin
and the corresponding value is depicted by the magenta point in Figure 5.15.
Although the two systems are quite dierent, the purpose of the comparison was
to check at least the order of magnitude given by the simulations and to verify the
eectiveness of the modeling approach, both crucial issues for the industrial partner.
5.4 Threedimensional dishwasher
Finally the case of the realscale 3D dishwasher has been faced. The complex geometry,
depicted in Figure 1.1, requires a preparatory stage in order to smooth the very small
geometrical details of the original design and avoid extremely small cells volumes and
to permit reasonable simulation time steps. The rough dimension of the tub is 0.7
0.5 0.5 m. On the roof of the tub a circular pipe 20 cm long is connected to the main
volume. It is treated as a sponge region in order to prevent numerical instabilities. The
outlet section has a diameter of 44 mm. In this case there is no inlet section, ow is
sustained by natural convection driven by temperature an humidity conditions at the
tubs walls and at the dishware which are three cups on the upper part of the volume,
seven dishes of three dierent dimension and shape in the lower region, sorted as in
Figure 1.1.
The mesh is composed by about 8 10
5
tetrahedral cells. The linear dimension of the
cells at the surfaces varies to follow the geometry of the cups and dishes from 1 mm to
8 mm on tubs walls. The cells volume ranges from 1 mm
3
to 1 cm
3
from near boundaries
93
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
Figure 5.15: The drying cycle experimental data from Bonn university.
regions to bulk volume ones. The mesh quality check shows that the resulting mesh
has some aws, few cells are quite nonorthogonal and skewed. To preserve the overall
second order accuracy of the numerical schemes the nonorthogonality correction must
be switched on.
A temperature of 60
C and 59
C.
The simulation runs for few physical seconds and the characteristic plumes develop
as can be seen in Figure 5.16. Figure 5.16a shows the vapor concentration contours
in two vertical planes and in Figure 5.16b the corresponding velocity eld. From the
latter is possible to recognize the usual convective motion.
Successively two kind of numerical instabilities appear both leading to unphysical
pressure values. The rst kind of instability appears in the bulk volume above the
dishware, i.e. where the maximum velocity magnitude is reached. This is thought to
be due to turbulence missing dissipation. The application of the Smagorinsky LES
model stabilized the solution, but the results appear to be too much diused due
to an over estimation of the subgrid viscosity, see for example the istantaneus vapour
concentration and velocity elds in Figure 5.17. The second kind of instability shows up
later during the simulation, even with the Smagorinsky model. The pressure peaks close
to the dishware surfaces because the momentum is not well conserved. This problem
has been solved by tuning the number of momentum correction loops as discussed
in 4.1.1.
In order to properly take into account the eects of turbulence in homeappliance
applications the LES approach is preferable, being DNS computation not aordable
and the ow transient in nature. Since the geometries involved are very complex and
the ows strongly anisotropic, among the possible LES models known in literature the
most appealing is the Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model proposed in [22]. Such
model is not provided within the current OpenFoam release.
94
5.4. 3D DW
(a) Vapor contours in two vertical planes.
(b) Velocity vectors in two vertical planes.
Figure 5.16: Vapor concentration and velocity vectors in the 3D Dishwasher case.
95
CHAPTER 5. CASES STUDIED
(a) Vapor contours in two vertical planes.
(b) Velocity vectors in two vertical planes.
Figure 5.17: Vapor concentration and velocity vectors in the 3D Dishwasher case with
Smagorinsky LES modelling.
96
Chapter 6
Conclusions and future work
The main goal of the PhD project has been to understand the physical issues related to
dishwashers drying performances, and to propose and implement a mathematical model
suitable for such a task. The main focus has been on the modeling of condensation
and evaporation process that aects the wetted surfaces, i.e. dishware, inside the
tub, during the the drying phase. Before this phase the nal rinse cycle heatup the
dishware. Then the thermal energy stored permits evaporation to take place. As the
process continues the solid bodies cool down, diminishing the evaporation rates. On
the tubs walls condensation occurs.
The physical system has been considered as a mixed convection ow in presence
of phase change phenomena. In general this kind of systems with drying and wetting
of solid surfaces are of great importance in many natural and technological processes.
Nevertheless their knowledge is far from being complete. The complex physics involved
has been divided in three subproblems: the exchange of heat between wetted solid
bodies and the thin liquid lm or drops laying on their surface; the heat and mass
transfer between liquid phase and the surrounding gas through change of phase; the
gaseous ow which is greatly inuenced by the buoyancy forces due to density variations
arising from the diusion of temperature and vapor concentration.
In literature such a problem has not been completely faced yet. This study proposed
a model for the drying process of liquid lms suitable for engineering purposes, i.e. on
large scales and complex geometries. The numerical implementation has been carried
out in the OpenFoam environment, an opensource C++ CFD tool. The mathematical
model consists of the incompressible formulation of the NavierStokes equations, plus
the transport equations for temperature and vapor concentration. Both are treated as
active scalars. The density variations are taken into account by means of the Boussi
nesq approximation. The thin liquid lm is treated as a boundary condition for the
gaseous ow. It prescribes a Dirichlet condition for the temperature and for the vapor
concentration that, at the liquid interface, is considered in saturation. The evapora
tion/condensation process is evaluated by the evaporation velocity at the liquidgas
interface by the relation (2.44) as explained in 2.4, providing the boundary condition
for the velocity eld, and the water mass transfer rate.
The thin lm approximation is assumed, meaning that all liquid lms, liquid patches
and drops on the wetted surfaces are considered as a continuous lm. In home appli
ances as the dishwasher, some surfaces, as example tub walls, have been found to be
large enough respect to the typical length scale of the droplets distributed over them.
97
CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS
In such cases separation of scale can be properly invoked.
In order to provide a theoretical foundation to the thin lm approach a future
investigation is needed. In particular the author proposes to include all the sensible
parameters of the droplet distribution, namely the contact angle, drop diameter and
the distance among droplets in a simplied model by means of a boundary homoge
nization technique. This aims to parametrize the wetted surface taking into account
the geometrical features of the droplets
1
.
The numerical model has been validated against literature results of [19], then a
study of the archetypal case of the ow over a wetted cylinder conned between two
parallel walls [28] has been carried out.
Successively a real conguration has been considered: the case of the 2D dishwasher.
The analysis revealed how the vapor plumes leaving from the dierent bodies give rise
to the complex ow pattern inside the volume. Some interesting features have been
recognized such the lling up of the cup and glass in the upper part of the tub by vapor
preventing the evaporation process; or that the inow at the bottom left side of the
tub has a nearly negligible contribution to the ow. The buoyancy force rules the uid
motion. The ow in the core of the volume is caused by the hot and humid air plumes
above the dishware, while close to the walls over which condensation occurs, the colder
and less humid air sinks to the bottom. The general picture gives a convective motion
rising from the center of the tub and closing near the tubs surface. An initial uniform
lm thickness has been prescribed on the dishware, and the evolution in time has been
followed up to the complete drying. In intermediate situations the surface area that is
already dried cannot release more vapor into the ow, lowering the buoyancy near the
body and slowing down the ow velocity in the plume. The drying is found to begin
from lower edges of the solid bodies.
A simplied 3D geometry has been consider as a successive step towards the case
of full scale 3D dishwasher. The results have shown again that the buoyancy force
starts the convective cells and the evolution of the liquid thickness takes place. The
drying process begins from the lower edge of the plate, where the vapor concentration
gradients at the surface are higher. As the rst dried patch appears on the surface it
is possible to recognize the increased evaporation rate near the contact line.
Finally the case of a real scale 3D dishwasher, with the proper geometry has been
tackled. The fundamental issue of the meshing required some work in smoothing very
small geometrical details of the original design in order to avoid extremely small cells
volumes. The simulation can run for few physical seconds before the turbulence miss
ing dissipation leads to a numerical instability. In order to properly take into account
the eects of turbulence in home appliance applications and because of the transient
nature of the ow, the LES approach has been preferred. As a rst choice, the stan
dard Smagorinsky LES model with the Reynolds analogy for the eddy diusivity of
the two scalars has been applied. The results appear to be to much diused due to
an overestimation of the subgrid viscosity. The geometries involved are very complex
and the ows strongly anisotropic. Therefore the most appealing model for such ap
plication would be the Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model proposed in [22]. Its
implementation is currently under development since OpenFoam doesnt provide this
model in the present release. Moreover the OpenFoam dynamic models are found to
1
private communication with prof. V. Armenio
98
average the constant in the whole threedimensional space, which is clearly not correct.
As a rst step towards the Lagrangian approach the dynamic model with plane aver
aging has been implemented. It has been tested on the turbulent channel ow at Re
and the results compared with the data of Kim, Moin and Moser [24], showing a good
agreement.
A second branch of the modelling required the thermal coupling among the media
of the liquid phase either with the solid substrate and the air. The coupling method
currently provided in OpenFoam is found to be not accurate enough or even faulty
for some specic case. Hence in the present work the DirichletNeumann domain
decomposition technique has been implemented. It enforces the continuity of temper
ature and the balance of the heat uxes across each interface. The performed tests
proved the eectiveness of the DN method also in presence of an arbitrary heat source
or sink. In order to properly take into account the heat transfer mechanism through
the liquid layer a suitable temperature lm model has been proposed. As expected the
ruling term in the heat transfer process among the three media is the latent heat ux
of evaporation. The DNM and the lm model have been independently implemented
and tested in order to validate each part of the code. The inclusion of both parts in a
nal version of the model is in progress.
In conclusion, during the PhD project the problem of the drying process has been
exploited from an engineering point of view. A mathematical model for the ow in the
gaseous region has been proposed and implemented. The evaporation and condensation
eects are considered as boundary condition at the wetted surfaces. The current model
has been applied to test cases and to real application cases proving its eectiveness in
predicting evaporation rates. Moreover it has been further developed to incorporate
the important eects of the thermal coupling of the liquid layer with the solid bodies
and the air ow.
99
CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS
100
Appendix A
Dynamic thin lm model
There are many physical phenomena and technological application involving liquid
lms; these can be unbounded free jet, as water dropping from the tap, a ow bounded
between two walls, as in lubrication applications, and liquid on solid substrates. The
latter is the main topic of this review. It has to be remarked that the adjective thin
referring to lm thickness is relative to typical lengthscales parallel to the substrate.
The interesting processes associated to thin lm are the initial lms rupture, the
growth of individual holes, the evolution of the resulting hole pattern or drops forma
tion, and their associated evolution of the individual dewetting/wettingfront. To face
this problems one has to keep in mind that the free interfaces are, in part, free bound
aries whose conguration must be determined as part of the solution. The numerical
solution of this problem modeled with full NavierStokes eq. with moving boundaries
is beyond the present computational capabilities for most of the practical application
cases. However it is possible to derive a reduced model, the so called Longscale
evolution equation [26]. The motivation supporting this model is based on the exper
imental evidence that most rupture and instability processes in thin lms do occurs
on longscales, i.e. the variations along the lm are much more gradual than those
normal to it, and slow in time. As in shallowwater theory or in lubrication theory,
one can separate the variables and simplify the analysis, and nally write a single par
tial dierential equation for the evolution of the lm thickness prole, while the rest
of the unknowns, as temperature and velocity, are determined by algebraic functions.
The main drawbacks of this approach are related to the strong nonlinearity and the
higherorder spatial derivatives present in the governing equation.
A.1 Film Thickness Evolution Equation
A.1.1 Basic Equation
Starting from the full set of the NavierStokes equation for a two dimensional case
Continuity equation
x
u +
z
w = 0
Momentum equation
(
t
u +u
x
u +w
z
u) =
x
p +
2
u
x
101
APPENDIX A. DYNAMIC FILM MODEL
(
t
w +u
x
w +w
z
w) =
z
p +
2
w
z
t
T +u
x
T +w
z
T =
2
T
A.1.2 Boundary conditions
at solid substrate:
noslip and nopenetration conditions
u
s
= 0 w
s
= 0
slip condition at the contact line and nopenetration condition
u
s
=
z
u w
s
= 0
the slip is proportional to the shear stress through , the slip coecient, that
must be chosen numerically small in order to let slip just near the contact
line.
at free surface, z = h(t, x), interface follows the ow eld and undergoes to
external stress
kinematic condition
w =
t
h +u
x
h
force equilibrium
T n = kn +
s
t +f
where the forces on the surface is represented by the liquid stress tensor T
as the sum of the Young pressure p
L
= k, with k the interface curva
ture, acting in the normal to surface direction, and by solutal or thermal
Marangoni eect acting in tangential direction
1
, plus other forces such grav
ity and external shear stress represented by f. The two scalar condition along
the tangential and normal directions are:
t : (
z
u +
x
w)(1 (
x
h)
2
) + 2(
z
w
x
u)
x
h = +
s
(1 (
x
h)
2
)
n : p +
2[
x
u(
x
h)
2
z
w +
x
h(
z
u +
x
w)]
1 + (
x
h)
2
=
2
x
h
(1 + (
x
h)
2
)
3/2
(A.1)
1
as in case of dishwashing liquid and sparkling aid residuals in water
102
A.1. FILM THICKNESS EVOLUTION EQUATION
A.1.3 Longwave Scaling
To nd a suitable evolution equation a scale analysis is performed here on: as already
said, in thin lms the characteristic thickness is normally much smaller than the char
acteristic length parallel to the wetted surface, i.e. l L. If =
l
L
1 holds, it
follows that
Z =
z
l
X =
l
x
From continuity it follows that, given the characteristic velocity U
0
:
U = u/U
0
W = w/U
0
where U
0
=
l
if is assumed 1/Re 1, where Re =
U
0
l
) =
h
0
U
0
(, ) (, P) =
h
0
U
0
(, p)
and the slip coecient
= /h
0
.
After some algebra the scaled system is
Re(
T
U +U
X
U +W
Z
U) =
X
P +
2
2
X
U +
2
Z
U
X
3
Re(
T
U +U
X
W +W
Z
W) =
Z
P +
2
(
2
2
X
W +
2
Z
W)
Z
X
U +
Z
W = 0
with the boundary condition at Z = 0
W = 0 U =
Z
U
setting H = h/h
0
, Re =
U
0
h
0
and Ca =
U
0
, at Z = H
t : (
Z
U +
2
X
W)(1
2
(
X
H)
2
) 4
2
X
U
X
H =
(1 +
2
(
X
H)
2
) +
X
(1 + (
X
H)
2
)
1/2
n :
2
2
1 +
2
(
X
H)
2
[
X
U(
2
(
X
H)
2
1)
X
H(
Z
U +
2
X
W)] =
P + +
C
1
a
3
2
X
H
(1 + (
X
H)
2
)
3/2
where =
U
0
. Its essential that surfacetension eect is retained at leading order
in a correct model. Hence, with
Ca =
3
Ca, one possible approximation is found by
letting
Re =
Ca = O(1) as 0
103
APPENDIX A. DYNAMIC FILM MODEL
Finally the equations at leading order are
2
Z
U =
X
P +
X
Z
P =
Z
T
H +
X
_
H
0
UdZ = 0
with the boundary conditions at Z = 0
U =
Z
U
and at Z = H
t :
Z
=
+
X
(A.2)
n : 0 = P + +
Ca
1
2
X
H (A.3)
Solving for U
U = (
+
X
)(Z +
) +
x
(P + )
_
Z
2
2
HZ
H
_
that substituted into the mass conservation condition leads to the evolution equation
for the interface.
A.1.4 Film Thickness Evolution Equation
The resulting equations of the lm thickness evolution are written in nondimensional
form for the two dimensional cases:
T
H +
_
(
+)
_
H
2
2
+
H
__
__
H
3
3
+
H
2
_
2
X
H
Ca
__
= 0 (A.4)
Written in dimensional variables:
t
h +
_
(
+)
_
h
2
2
+h
__
__
h
3
3
+h
2
_
2
h
_
_
= 0
(A.5)
From a mathematical point of view the model is a fourth order nonlinear P.D.E,
where the highest order terms are given by the presence of the surface tension and
the gravity force, with also the highest nonlinearity given by h
3
; moreover gravity
and surface tension are responsible of the coupling of the pressure term to H or h.
In the literature, authors mainly focus on the stability issues for dierent physical
congurations, see among the others: lm and drop placed above or below a at plate,
or on a inclined surface and so on, with or without the addition of other eects as heat
transfer, variable viscosity and heterogeneity of the substrate.
Sometimes is possible to further simplify the model neglecting some of the eects.
The most important cases are, here in one dimension for sake of simplicity:
104
A.1. FILM THICKNESS EVOLUTION EQUATION
constant shear stress and surface tension only
In this case =
i
= = 0 so the equation A.5 simplies to
t
h +h
x
h +
3
x
(h
3
3
x
h) = 0
It is proven that no instability occurs under the long wave regime.
constant surface tension and gravity only
In this case = = = 0 and the gravity term is given by gh. The resulting
equation is
t
h +
1
3
x
(h
3
3
x
h)
1
3
g
x
(h
3
3
x
h) = 0
in non dimensional form
T
H +
1
3
Ca
1
X
(H
3
3
X
H)
1
3
G
X
(H
3
3
X
H) = 0
where G =
gh
2
0
U
0
is the gravity number. In this case two congurations are possible:
a lm placed above a solid surface, and a lm below the surface.For the former
G > 0 and no instability occurs, for the latter G < 0 all wave numbers below a
critical one are linearly unstable
k
2
< k
c
= Bo
that happens to be given by the Bond number, that measure the relative impor
tance of gravity to capillary eects. The higher the surface tension (or lower the
density dierence between uids) the shorter the instability region.
A.1.5 Incorporating evaporation and condensation
If the interface is at a temperature below or above the saturation one at given vapor
pressure, condensation or evaporation occurs. To take into account this eects into
the model one has to add some terms to the boundary conditions. A mass balance at
interface gives
j =
g
(u
g
u
i
) n =
f
(u
f
u
i
) n
Since
g
f
, say
g
l
10
3
, the normal velocity of the vapor is much greater than
that the uid at interface, meaning that phase change creates large acceleration of the
gas and smaller back reaction, called the vapor thrust, that actually may be important
for very high heat uxes; comparing the dynamic pressures
g
u
2
g,e
=
j
2
g
f
u
2
f,e
=
j
2
f
Similar approximation can be done for energy equation noting that even viscosity and
thermal conductivity of the liquid are much larger that those of the gas. So one should
add at the righthand side to the normal stress conditions expressed in (A.3)
j
2
g
105
APPENDIX A. DYNAMIC FILM MODEL
further an energy balance is needed
k
z
= i
fg
j
meaning that all the heat conducted through the lm to the interface is converted to
latent heat. One remark: if the lm is heated or cooled by the solid surface, say its at
xed temperature, the interface temperature and j will be a function of h.
To conclude, its important to note that such models have already been used for
engineering application, as reported in [37], to identify the main structures of a initially
uniform lm under evaporation, that are mainly drops and lm patches with holes, with
good agreement with experimental results.
106
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