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(IV) MORAL ACCOUNTABILITY

Actions are imputed on the doer as its principal cause and, therefore, deserving of
either reward or punishment.
The subject of a human act is any person who is capable of acting intelligently and
freely. Business organizations, institutions, or unions which are constituted by law as
juridical person are also subject of human acts. Like the individual person, these
organizations can sue and be sued for their actions.
I. SANCTIONS AND PENALTIES
The penal laws of the country provide for a system of punishment for wrongdoings,
ranging form fines to imprisonment.
nless also prohibited by the laws of the land, no punishments are imposed on
immoral acts.
!owever, immoral acts carry with them the burden of guilt, remorse and shame
The medical science traces many illnesses to immoralities and spiritual
disorientation. "vil acts and habits cause suffering and unhappiness, not only to
victims, but to the perpetrator and his relatives.
II. MODIFIERS OF HUMAN ACT
A. IGNORANCE
B. PASSIONS
C. FEAR
D. VIOLENCE
E. HABITS
Moral Axiom # The greater the knowledge and the freedom, the greater the
voluntariness and, therefore, the accountability$ %&anizo' ()*
A. I!"ora"#$ % the absence of the knowledge which a person ought to possess.
a. Vi"#i&l$ ' ignorance which can easily be corrected through
ordinary diligence.
i.$.( not knowing the time, the name of classmate
A))$#*$+ % vincible ignorance which is intentionally kept in an effort
to escape responsibility.
i.$.( an employee who does not heed the instruction of
supervisor
b. I",i"#i&l$ % ignorance which is not easily remedied,
because the person is either not aware of his state of
ignorance, or, being aware of it, does not have the means
to rectify such ignorance.
i.$.( waiter who serves contaminated food
Pri"#i-l$.
+. ,nvincible ignorance renders an act involuntary. A person is not
morally liable if he not aware of his state of ignorance
-. .incible ignorance does not destroy, but lessens the voluntariness
and the corresponding accountability over an act.
(. Affected ignorance, though it decreases voluntariness, increases the
accountability of an act.
B. Pa..io". % or concupiscence, are psychic responses. They are either tendencies
towards desirable objects, or tendencies away from undesirable
objects.
Po.i*i,$ $mo*io". % love, desire, delight, hope and bravery
N$!a*i,$ $mo*io". % hatred, horror, sadness, despair, fear and anger
a. A"*$#$+$"* Pa..io" % natural reaction to an object or stimulus without
being aroused intentionally. ,t precedes any act. i.e.,
when we feel happy in the company of friend.
b. Co".$/0$"* Pa..io" % the result of an act which causes it to be aroused.
i.e., reading pornography, for instance, arouses
se/ual desires.
Pri"#i-l$.
+. Antecedent passions do not always destroy voluntariness but they
diminish accountability over an act.
-. 0onse1uent passions do not lessen voluntariness, and may even
increase accountability.
C. F$ar % the disturbance of the mind of a person who is confronted by a danger to
himself or loved ones.
a. A#*i"! 1i*2 )$ar % i.e., 2ew e/periences3 such as
embarking on a long trip, being left alone in the dark, or
speaking in front of a crowd.
b. A#*i"! o0* o) )$ar % i.e., when a person causes a person to
act, like to jump from the top floor of a burning
building
Pri"#i-l$.
+. Acts done with fear are voluntary and are accountable
-. Acts done out of fear, however great, is simply voluntary, although it is
also conditionally voluntary.
D. Viol$"#$ % any physical force e/erted on a person by a free agent for the purpose
of compelling said person to act against his will. i.e., torture, isolation,
starvation, and mutilation
Pri"#i-l$.
+. "/ternal or commanded acts, performed by a person subjected to violence
to which reasonable resistance has been offered, are involuntary and not
accountable.
-. "licited acts or those done by the will alone, are not subject to violence
and are therefore voluntary.
E. Ha&i*. % customary manner of practice
Pri"#i-l$ Actions done by force of habit are voluntary in cause, unless a
reasonable effort is made to counteract the inclination.
REFINEMENT OF EMOTION
"motions must be subjected to reason because unbridled passions could lead a
person to his perdition.
,t is evident that education, through proper discipline and cultivation of emotional life
is in many ways significant.
4oral perfection comes from within. 5ilipino speaks of a good person as possessing
#ma&0*i"! 3aloo&a"$.