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Do Now: How have geographic features

affected societies?
Geography has to do with the relationships
between people, places, and environments.

Geography can affect people and people can
modify, or change, their environments.
During the Neolithic Revolution, man learned
to domesticate plants and animals. This meant
that people could stop being nomads, since they
had a permanent food source, thus leading to the
formation of civilizations.

Man settled down and formed the first
civilizations in river valleys why?
Tigris and Euphrates were unpredictable
Mesopotamians thought their gods were angry
Sacrifices to gods
Gift of the Nile: flooded predictably
Egyptians thought their gods were nice
Sahara provided protection from invaders
Mountains isolated different Greek
communities, leading to the formation of very
different city-states with different cultures
Example: Athens vs Sparta

The mountains also made it necessary to trade
with other societies for food, since it is hard to
grow large amounts of food on mountains
Greeces location on the Mediterranean and other
seas helped facilitate trade
Himalayan Mountains and the Gobi Desert
helped protect and isolate the Chinese
Protection from invaders
Isolation Ethnocentrism (Middle Kingdom)
Most people live in the Eastern 1/3 of the country

Archipelago: chain of islands
Topography: mountainous
Adapt: Terrace Farming
Korea has acted as a
cultural bridge between
China and Japan

China Korea Japan

Buddhism, writing system,
social order
Sahara Desert:
Dominates North Africa
Little land for farming

Savanna (grassy plains)
Desertification (overuse)

Sub-Saharan Africa:
Rich in natural resources
Geography helped make
them RICH!

Controlled salt & gold
trade across the Sahara

Also never forgetMANSA
MUSA went to MECCA and
ruled MALI as a MUSLIM

Western Hemisphere land that is South of the USA

Andes Mountains have impacted societies
Incas adapted to them using terrace farming
Prevented Simon Bolivar from creating a united empire after
freeing the colonies

The Aztecs also modified their environment
Tenochtitlan built on swampland
Built chinampas in order to farm

Belief systems can be religions or philosophies

Polytheism: belief in many gods
Example: River Valley Civilizations, Greece, Rome

Monotheism: belief in one god
Example: Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Muslim)
Believe in the spirits of nature
Animism is from Africa
Shintoism is from Japan
Believe in strict rules and harsh punishments
Used by Shi Huangdi during the Qin Dynasty

Believe in Five Relationships and Filial Piety
Focus on education leads to Civil Service System
Used during the Han, Tang, and Song dynasties

Believe in yin/yang and the way of nature
Brought to India during Aryan invasions

If you do your dharma, you get your karma and
will be reincarnated into a higher caste until
you reach moksha

The G-G-G-Gupta dynasty (which
was a g-g-g-golden age) was based
on Hinduism
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama
Became the 1

Four Noble Truths
Life is full of suffering
Suffering is caused by desires
If you end your desires, you will end
your suffering and reach nirvana
To do this, follow the Eightfold Path

Asoka converted to Buddhism in the
Maurya Dynasty and began building
wells and hospitals
Judaism Christianity Islam
Founded by Abraham

Moses is also
Believe Jesus =
Messiah (savior)

Many branches
(Catholic, Protestant,
Orthodox, etc)
Founded by

Followers are called

Call Jews & Christians
People of the Book
Holy Land Jerusalem Jerusalem Jerusalem
Mecca & Medina are
also important
Place of
Synagogue Church Mosque
Code of
10 Commandments
(Do Not Kill, Do Not Steal, etc)
Five Pillars
(Pray 5x/day; Visit
Mecca, etc)

Holy Book Torah Bible Quran/Koran
Which belief system was the basis for the civil
service exams given during the Han, Tang, and
Song dynasties?

(1) legalism (3) Buddhism
(2) Daoism (4) Confucianism
One way in which the ancient Sumerians,
Egyptians, and Mayas are similar is that these
civilizations developed
(1) irrigation systems
(2) iron weapons
(3) wheeled vehicles
(4) block printing systems
Which description best fits the kingdoms of
Ghana and Songhai?
(1) vassal states of Egypt
(2) trading states of West Africa
(3) micro-states of Southeast Asia
(4) tributary states of China
Which situation was a direct challenge to the
political and religious authority of the Catholic
(1) passage of the Act of Supremacy under Henry
(2) death sentence given to Joan of Arc
(3) Reconquista of Spain conducted by Ferdinand
and Isabella
(4) establishment of the Jesuit order under Ignatius
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity share a belief in

1. the central authority of the Pope

2. a prohibition of the consumption of port

3. reincarnation and the Four Noble Truths

4. monotheism and ethical conduct
Taoism and Shintoism are similar in that both
religions stress

1. adhering to the five Confucian relationships

2. following the Eightfold Path

3. developing harmony between humans and

4. believing in one God
A major effect of geography on Japan is that the

1. export of oil has helped Japan maintain a favorable
balance of trade

2. fertile plains have enabled Japan to keep food prices

3. mountains have prevented invasions obey foreign

4. scarcity of natural resources has forced Japan to
obtain raw materials from other nations