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Suppose we have a system consisting of the liquid and vapor phases of a substance in equilibrium at

a preasure p and a temperature t. In fig. 7-2a the total specific volume of the system is v1. The
number of moles in the liquid phase is n1 and the number of moles in the vapor phase is n1m. The
state of the system corresponds to point b1 . the total specific volume of the system is v2 and the
numbers of moles in the liquid and vapor phases are respectively n2 and nm2. The state of the
system corresponds to point b2 in fig 7-2

The state of the liquid and vapor portions of the system shown in Figs, 7-2a and 7-2b are
represented in Fig 7-2c by points a and c respectively, and the states differ only in the relative
numbers of moles of liquid and vapor. If g and g are the specifict Gibs functions of the liquid and
vapor phases, the Gibbs functions of two states are, respectively
Rumus
Since the total number of moles of the systems is constant
And since both states are stable it follow from these equations that
G=g
That is, the specific Gibbs function has the same value in both phases. The same result holds for any
two phases in equilibrium. At the triple point, the specific Gibbs functions of all three phases are
equal.

Grafik
Let us now returns to a consideration of the stable and metastable states illustrated in fig 7-1 and 7-
3 which is lettered to coreresponds to fig 7-1 shows graphs of the specific Gibbs functions of vapor
and liquid in the processes a-b-c and e-f-g of fig.7-1 since
Rumus
Where s is the specific entropy of the vapor phase, the curve abs has a negative slope, of
magnitude equal to the specific entropy s . similarly, the curve def also has a negative slope, equal
to the specific entropy sof liquid. The difference between the entropies s and s equals the latent
heat of transformation l23 divided by the temperature T
Rumus
Since l23 is positive , s> s and the magnitude of the slope of the curve abs is greater than that of
the curve def. The curves intersect at point b, e where g=g .
Points c and f represent two possible states of the system at the same temperature and pressure,
but the Gibbs function in state c is greater than that in state f. We have shown that in a spontaneous
proccess between two states at the same temperature and pressure, the Gibbs function must
decrease. Hence a spontaneous transition from state c to state f is possible, while on from state f to
state c is not. State f is therefore the state of stable equilibrium , while the equilibrium at state c is
metastable.
Similarly, state d and a are at the same temperature and pressure, but the Gibbs function at d is
greater than that at a . state a is stable and state d is metastable.
At points b and e , where the gibbs functions are equal, the equilibrium is neutral. At this
temperature and preessure the substance can exist indefinitely, in either phase, or in both.