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Isip v.

People
Facts: Petitioners were charged with estafa and violation of BP22 in Cavite City.
However, the defence alleges that the crimes were committed not in Cavite but in
Manila, therefore the !C had no "urisdiction.
#ssue: $H%!H% & '&! !H% !#() C&*! H(+ ,*#-+#C!#&' &.% !H%
&FF%'-% #MP*!%+ !&P%!#!#&'% ('+ F& $H#CH H% $(- C&'.#C!%+/ 0%-
Held: 0%-
123

!he conce4t of venue of actions in criminal cases, unli5e in civil cases, is
"urisdictional. !he 4lace where the crime was committed determines not only the venue
of the action but is an essential element of "urisdiction. #t is a fundamental rule that for
"urisdiction to be ac6uired by courts in criminal cases, the offense should have been
committed or any one of its essential ingredients should have ta5en 4lace within the
territorial "urisdiction of the court.
123

Petitioner failed to establish by sufficient and com4etent evidence that the transaction
ha44ened in Manila. !hey argue that although they had an ancestral house in Cavite,
mere convenience suggests that the transaction was entered into in Manila. !he fact that
Cavite City is a bit far from Manila does not necessarily mean that the
transaction cannot or did not ha44en there. +istance will not 4revent any 4erson from
going to a distant 4lace where he can 4rocure goods that he can sell so that he can earn
a living
FIRST DIVISION

MANUEL S. ISIP,
Petitioner,




- versus -




PEOPLE OF THEPHILIPPINES,
Respondent.
G.R. No. 170298

Present:

YNARES-SANTIAGO,
!"irperson,
A#STRIA-$ARTINE%,
&IO-NA%ARIO, "nd
NA&#RA, JJ.

Pro'()*"ted:

+(ne 2,, 2007
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


. E I S I O N


&IO-NA%ARIO, J.:

/e0ore (s is " Petition 0or Re1ie2 on Certiorari (nder R()e 34 o0 t!e
R()es o0 o(rt, 2!i5! see6s to set "side t!e .e5ision
718
o0 t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s
d"ted 2, O5to9er 2003 in A-G.R. R No. 21274 entit)ed, :People of the
Philippines v. Manuel S. Isip and Marietta M. Isip; to t!e e-tent t!"t it "00ir'ed
2it! 'odi0i5"tions petitioner $"n(e) S. Isip<s 5on1i5tion 0or Est"0" in ri'in")
"se No. 1=,-83 o0 t!e Re*ion") Tri") o(rt >RT?, /r"n5! @AII, "1ite itB,
"nd its A'ended .e5ision
728
d"ted 2, O5to9er 2004 denBin* !is P"rti") $otion
0or Re5onsider"tion.

T!e "nte5edents "re t!e 0o))o2in*:

Petitioner 2"s 5!"r*ed 2it! Est"0" in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 9e0ore
/r"n5! @AII o0 t!e RT o0 "1ite itB, (nder t!e 0o))o2in* in0or'"tion:

T!"t on or "9o(t $"r5! 7, 1983, in t!e itB o0 "1ite, Rep(9)i5 o0 t!e
P!i)ippines "nd 2it!in t!e C(risdi5tion o0 t!is &onor"9)e o(rt, t!e "9o1e-
n"'ed "55(sed, re5ei1ed 0ro' Deon"rdo A. +ose one >1? se1en 5"r"t di"'ond
>'en<s rin*?, 1")(ed "t P200,000.00, 0or t!e p(rpose o0 se))in* t!e s"'e on
5o''ission 9"sis "nd to de)i1er t!e pro5eeds o0 t!e s")e t!ereo0 or ret(rn t!e
Ce2e)rB i0 not so)d, on or 9e0ore $"r5! 14, 1983, 9(t t!e !erein "55(sed on5e
in possession o0 t!e "9o1e-des5ri9ed "rti5)es, 2it! intent to de0r"(d "nd 2it!
*r"1e "9(se o0 5on0iden5e, did, t!en "nd t!ere, 2i))0())B, (n)"20())B "nd
0e)onio(s)B 'is"ppropri"te, 'is"pp)B "nd 5on1ert t!e s"'e to !is o2n
person") (se "nd 9ene0it "nd not2it!st"ndin* repe"ted de'"nds '"de 9B
Deon"rdo A. +ose 0or t!e ret(rn o0 t!e Ce2e)rB or t!e de)i1erB o0 t!e pro5eeds
o0 t!e s")e t!ereo0, 0"i)ed to do so, to t!e d"'"*e "nd preC(di5e o0 t!e
"0ores"id Deon"rdo A. +ose in t!e "9o1est"ted "'o(nt o0 P200,000.00,
P!i)ippine (rren5B.
7=8


Petitioner<s 2i0e, $"riett" $. Isip, 2"s indi5ted 9e0ore t!e s"'e 5o(rt 0or
se1en 5o(nts o0 Aio)"tion o0 /"t"s P"'9"ns" /)*. 22, ot!er2ise 6no2n "s t!e
/o(n5in* !e56s D"2. T!e 5"ses 2ere do56eted "s ri'in") "ses No. 13,-
83, 137-83, 138-83, 139-83, 144-83, 14,-83 "nd 147-83. T!e "55(s"torB
portion o0 t!e in0or'"tion in ri'in") "se No. 13,-83 re"ds:

T!"t on or "9o(t $"r5! 27, 1983, in t!e itB o0 "1ite, Rep(9)i5 o0 t!e
P!i)ippines "nd 2it!in t!e C(risdi5tion o0 t!is &onor"9)e o(rt, t!e "9o1e-
n"'ed "55(sed, 6no2in* 0())B 2e)) t!"t !er "55o(nt 2it! t!e 9"n6 is
ins(00i5ient, did, t!en "nd t!ere, 2i))0())B, (n)"20())B, 0e)onio(s)B "nd
6no2in*)B iss(e P"5i0i5 /"n6in* orpor"tion !e56 No. 418,72 in t!e
"'o(nt o0 P4,2,000.00, in p"B'ent 0or "ssorted pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB, re5ei1ed
0ro' Deon"rdo A. +ose, 2!i5! 5!e56 (pon present"tion 2it! t!e dr"2ee 9"n6
0or p"B'ent 2"s dis!onored 0or ins(00i5ien5B o0 0(nds "nd not2it!st"ndin*
repe"ted de'"nds '"de 9B Deon"rdo A. +ose 0or t!e rede'ption o0 t!e s"id
5!e56, "55(sed re0(sed "nd sti)) re0(ses to do so, to t!e d"'"*e "nd preC(di5e
o0 t!e "0ores"id Deon"rdo A. +ose in t!e "9o1e-st"ted "'o(nt o0P4,2,000.00,
P!i)ippine (rren5B.
738


T!e si- ot!er In0or'"tions "re si'i)"r)B 2orded e-5ept 0or t!e d"te 2!en
t!e o00ense 2"s 5o''itted, t!e n('9er "nd "'o(nt o0 t!e 5!e56. T!e pertinent
d"t" in t!e ot!er in0or'"tions "re "s 0o))o2s:

ri'. "se No.

137-83
138-83
139-83
144-83
14,-83
147-83
."te o0 o''ission

17 $"r5! 1983
=0 $"r5! 1983
12 $"r5! 1983
24 $"r5! 1983
29 $"r5! 1983
1 Apri) 1983
No. o0 !e56

418,33
418,34
0=008,
748
418,73
418,3,
418,,9
A'o(nt o0 !e56

P40,000.00
P40,000.00
P140,000.00
P94,000.00
P90,000.00
P24,000.00


T!e spo(ses Isip 2ere )i6e2ise 5!"r*ed 9e0ore t!e s"'e 5o(rt 2it! 0i1e
>4? 5o(nts o0 Est"0". T!e 5"ses 2ere do56eted "s ri'in") "ses No. 24,-83,
247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-83. T!e Est"0" 5!"r*ed in ri'. "se No.
24,-83 2"s "))e*ed)B 5o''itted "s 0o))o2s:

T!"t on or "9o(t $"r5! 20, 1983, in t!e itB o0 "1ite, Rep(9)i5 o0 t!e
P!i)ippines "nd 2it!in t!e C(risdi5tion o0 t!is &onor"9)e o(rt, t!e "9o1e-
n"'ed "55(sed, 5onspirin*, 5on0eder"tin* to*et!er "nd '(t("))B !e)pin* one
"not!er, re5ei1ed 0ro' one Deon"rdo A. +ose t!e 0o))o2in* pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB,
to 2it: one >1? set do'e s!"pe rin* "nd e"rrin*s 1")(ed "t P120,000.00, 2it!
t!e o9)i*"tion o0 se))in* t!e s"'e on 5o''ission 9"sis "nd de)i1er t!e
pro5eeds o0 t!e s")e t!ereo0 or ret(rn t!e' i0 not so)d, on or 9e0ore $"r5! 21,
1983, 9(t t!e !erein "55(sed, on5e in possession o0 t!e s"id Ce2e)rB 9B 'e"ns
o0 0")se pretenses, 2it! intent to de0r"(d "nd 2it! *r"1e "9(se o0 5on0iden5e,
did, t!en "nd t!ere, 2i))0())B, (n)"20())B "nd 0e)onio(s)B 'is"ppropri"te,
'is"pp)B "nd 5on1ert t!e' to t!eir o2n person") (se "nd 9ene0it "nd p"id t!e
s"'e 2it! !e56 Nos. 418,3, "nd 418,,9, d"ted $"r5! 29, 1983 "nd Apri) 1,
1983, respe5ti1e)B, in t!e "'o(nt o0 P90,000 "nd P24,000, respe5ti1e)B, 2!i5!
(pon present"tion 2it! t!e 9"n6 2"s dis!onored 0or ins(00i5ien5B o0 0(nds "nd
not2it!st"ndin* repe"ted de'"nds '"de 9B Deon"rdo A. +ose 0or t!e
rede'ption o0 t!e s"id 5!e56, 0"i)ed to do so, to !is d"'"*e "nd preC(di5e in
t!e "9o1est"ted "'o(nt o0 P120,000.00, P!i)ippine (rren5B.
7,8


E-5ept 0or t!e des5ription "nd 1")(e o0 t!e pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB in1o)1ed,
d"te o0 re5eipt "nd "*reed d"te o0 ret(rn, "nd t!e n('9er, d"te "nd "'o(nt o0
t!e 5!e56s iss(ed in p"B'ent t!ereo0, t!e 0o(r ot!er in0or'"tions "re si'i)"r)B
2orded. T!e spe5i0i5s t!ereo0 "re "s 0o))o2s:

ri'. "se No.


247-83
2,0-83
2,1-83
=78-83
A")(e o0
+e2e)rB

P140,000
P94,000
P4,2,000
P200,000
."te o0
Re5eipt

0=-07-83
0=-20-83
0=-20-83
02-0=-83
A*reed ."te
o0 Ret(rn

0=-=0-83
0=-27-83
0=-27-83
-
!e56 No.E."te


0=008,E0=-12-83
418,37E0=-24-83
418,72E0=-27-83
418,33E0=-17-83
418,34E0=-=0-83
A'o(nt


P140,000
P94,000
P4,2,000
P40,000
P40,000


F!en "rr"i*ned on t!e 5!"r*es, petitioner "nd $"riett" Isip p)e"ded not
*(i)tB. T!ere 9ein* on)B one 5o'p)"in"nt in ")) t!e 5"ses, Coint tri") o0 t!e 5"ses
0o))o2ed.

T!e 1ersions o0 t!e prose5(tion "nd t!e de0ense, "s t"6en 9B t!e o(rt o0
Appe")s in t!e p"rties< respe5ti1e 9rie0s, "re t!e 0o))o2in*:

i? Prose5(tion Aersion. G

So'eti'e in 1982, "ppe))"nt spo(ses $"n(e) "nd $"riett" Isip 2ere
introd(5ed to 5o'p)"in"nt AttB. Deon"rdo +ose. T!e introd(5tion 2"s '"de
9B 5o'p)"in"nt<s 0"t!er, Ne'esio, 9(siness "sso5i"te o0 t!e Isips. Ne'esio
"nd t!e Isips 2ere t!en en*"*ed in t!e 9(B "nd se)) o0 p)ed*ed "nd
(nredee'ed Ce2e)rB p"2ned 9B *"'9)in* !"9it(Hs >pp. 8-1,, tsn, +(ne 8,
199=?.

Needin* " 9i**er 5"pit") to 0in"n5e t!e *ro2in* oper"tion, t!e Isips
5on1in5ed 5o'p)"in"nt to 9e t!eir 5"pit")ist, " proposition to 2!i5!
5o'p)"in"nt "55eded to >p. 13, i9id?.

T!(s, t!e oper"tion 2ent s'oot!)B G t!"t 2"s 9e0ore Ie9r("rB, 1983
>pp. 13-18, tsn, i9id?.

On Ie9r("rB =, 1983, "t 5o'p)"in"nt<s residen5e in "rid"d, "1ite
itB, "ppe))"nt spo(ses re5ei1ed 0ro' 5o'p)"in"nt " , 5"r"t 'en<s rin* 1")(ed
"t P200,000.00 2it! t!e 5ondition t!"t t!eB "re *oin* to se)) s"id Ce2e)rB - - -
on 5o''ission 9"sis 0or P200,000.00 "nd i0 t!eB "re not "9)e to se)) t!e s"'e,
t!eB !"1e to ret(rn t!e rin* i0 so)d on or 9e0ore $"r5! =, 1983 >p. 8, tsn,
O5to9er 14, 199=?.

On $"r5! =, 1983, t!e Isips did not ret(rn t!e rin* or t!e pro5eeds
t!ereo0. Inste"d, $"riett" Isip iss(ed t2o >2? person") 5!e56s d"ted $"r5! 17
"nd =0, 1983, respe5ti1e)B, 0or P40,000.00 e"5! "s p"rti") p"B'ent 0or t!e
Ce2e)rB. T!e re5eipt o0 t!e Ce2e)rB 2"s "56no2)ed*ed 9B $"riett" Isip 2it!
$"n(e) "5tin* "s " 2itness >pp. 9-11, tsn, i9id?.

T!is p"rti5()"r 'en<s rin* is t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. =78-83
0or Est"0" 2!i)e !e56 Nos. 418,33 "nd 418,34 >P"5i0i5 /"n6in* orp.?
d"ted $"r5! 17 "nd =0, respe5ti1e)B, "re t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se Nos.
137-83 "nd 138-83.

In t!e 'ornin* o0 $"r5! 7, 1983, t!e Isip 5o(p)e 2ent "*"in to
5o'p)"in"nt<s residen5e in "rid"d, "1ite itB 2!ere 5o'p)"in"nt de)i1ered
one >1? !o6er Pe"r) 2it! =4 pie5es o0 so(t! se" pe"r)s 2it! di"'ond
2ort! P140,000.00. T!e 5ondition 2"s t!"t t!e pro5eeds 9e t(rned o1er to
5o'p)"in"nt on or 9e0ore $"r5! =0, 1983 >pp. 27-29, tsn, i9id?. $"r5! =0,
1983 5"'e, 9(t inste"d o0 t(rnin* o1er t!e pro5eeds or ret(rn t!e !o6er
Pe"r), $rs. Isip iss(ed " 5!e56 d"ted $"r5! 12, 1983 0or P140,000.00 >R/
5!e56 No. 0=008,? "s p"B'ent >p. =3, i9id?.

T!is is t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. 243-83 0or Est"0" "*"inst t!e
spo(ses "nd ri'in") "se No. 139-83 0or 1io)"tion o0 /P 22 "*"inst $"riett"
Isip.

In t!e "0ternoon o0 t!e s"'e d"B, $r. $"n(e) Isip 2ent to
5o'p)"in"nt<s residen5e in "1ite itB "nd *ot 0ro' t!e )"tter " 'en<s rin* >7
5"r"ts? 2ort! P200,000.00. $r. Isip si*ned " re5eipt 2it! t!e 5ondition t!"t !e
ret(rn t!e rin* or de)i1er t!e pro5eeds, i0 so)d, on or 9e0ore $"r5! 14,
1983. $"r5! 14, 1983 5"'e, 9(t $r. Isip so(*!t "n e-tension 2!i5! 0e)) d(e
on Apri) 7, 1983. Apri) 7, 19835"'e "nd 2ent 9B, 9(t $r. Isip de0"()ted >pp.
31-3,, tsn, i9id?. T!e "9o1e is t!e s(9Ce5t '"tter o0 ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83
0or Est"0" "*"inst $"n(e) Isip.

On $"r5! 20, 1983, t!e Isips 2ent "*"in to "1ite itB "nd *ot 0ro'
5o'p)"in"nt one >1? .o'e s!"ped rin* 2it! '"t5!in* e"rrin* 2it! di"'onds
1")(ed "t P120,000.00. As 2it! t!eir pre1io(s "*ree'ent, t!e ite' 2"s to 9e
ret(rned or t!e pro5eeds o0 t!e s")e 9e de)i1ered on $"r5! 21, 1983 >pp. 38-
42, tsn, i9id?. T!e 0o))o2in* 'ornin*, !o2e1er, $rs. Isip iss(ed t2o >2?
person") 5!e56s >!e56 Nos. 418,3, "nd 418,,9 d"ted $"r5! 29, 1983
0or P90,000.00 "nd P24,000.00, respe5ti1e)B? in p"B'ent 0or t!e .o'e s!"ped
rin* >p. 4=, tsn, i9id?.

T!is is t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. 24,083 0or Est"0" "*"inst t!e
spo(ses Isip "nd ri'in") "se Nos. 14,-83 "nd "nd >si5? 147-83 0or
Aio)"tion o0 /P 22 "*"inst $"riett" Isip.

At noonti'e on t!e s"'e d"B, t!e Isip 5o(p)e 2ent 9"56 to t!e
residen5e o0 5o'p)"in"nt "nd *ot 0ro' !i' one >1? 5o))"r !e"rt s!"ped
ne56)"5e "nd one >1? 9"*(ette ne56)"5e 2ort! P94,000.00 >p. ,0, tsn, i9id?. As
"*reed (pon, $"riett" Isip si*ned " re5eipt 2it! t!e 5ondition t!"t t!e Ce2e)rB
or t!e pro5eeds t!ereo0 9e de)i1ered to 5o'p)"in"nt on $"r5! 27, 1983. T!e
Isips de0"()ted "nd inste"d, $rs. Isip iss(ed " 5!e56 >!e56 No. 418,37?
d"ted $"r5! 27, 1983 in t!e "'o(nt o0 P90,000.00 >pp. =-4, tsn, O5to9er 22,
199=?.

T!e s(9Ce5t pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB "re t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No.
2,0-83 0or Est"0" "*"inst t!e Isip 5o(p)e "nd ri'in") "se No. 144-83 0or
Aio)"tion o0 /P 22 "*"inst $"riett" Isip.

A*"in, in t!e e"r)B e1enin* o0 $"r5! 20, 1983, t!e Isips 2ent to
5o'p)"in"nt in0or'in* !i' t!"t /")i69"B"n do5tors "re !"1in* " 5on1ention in
Ai*"n, I)o5os S(r s"Bin* t!"t, t!"t 2"s t!e 'ost opport(ne ti'e to se))
Ce2e)ries. Assorted pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB 2ere de)i1ered to $rs. Isip "s re0)e5ted
in " re5eipt d()B si*ned 9B !er >E-!i9it JO<? "56no2)ed*in* t!e 1")(e t!ereo0
to t!e t(ne o0 P4,2,000.00.

E-!i9it JO< 5ont"ined t!e pro'ise t!"t t!e Ce2e)rB or pro5eeds t!ereo0
2i)) 9e de)i1ered on $"r5! 27, 1983. Inspite o0 t!e pro'ise 5ont"ined in
E-!i9it JO<, $rs. Isip iss(ed " postd"ted 5!e56 >!e56 No. 418,7? d"ted
$"r5! 27, 1983 in t!e "'o(nt o0 P4,2,000.00 "s p"B'ent 0or t!e "ssorted
pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB >pp. 8-12, tsn, O5to9er 22, 199=?.

T!is is t!e s(9Ce5t '"tter o0 ri'in") "se No. 2,1-83 0or Est"0"
"*"inst t!e 5o(p)e "nd ri'in") "se No. 13,-83 "*"inst $"riett" Isip 0or
Aio)"tion o0 /P 22.

A)) o0 t!e 5!e56s 5o1ered 9B t!e "9o1e tr"ns"5tions 2ere deposited
on Apri) ,, 1983 >p. 13, tsn, i9id?, 9(t ")) o0 t!e' 9o(n5ed 0or 9ein* dr"2n
"*"inst ins(00i5ient 0(nds. .e'"nd )etters sent to t!e 5o(p)e pro1ed 0(ti)e >pp.
14-20, i9id?.

ii? .e0ense Aersion.

.(rin* ")) t!e ti'es '"teri") to t!ese 5"ses, 5o'p)"in"nt Deon"rdo
+ose, 2!o !"d !is residen5e "t Roo' 311, 3
t!
I)oor, P)"K" To2ers
ondo'ini(' on >si5? ==74 G(errero Street, Er'it", $"ni)", 9(t 5)"i's !e
!"d !is "n5estr") !o'e "t 40, P. /(r*os Street, "rid"d, "1ite, 2"s "n
e'p)oBee o0 t!e /(re"( o0 (sto's, !"1in* 9een so sin5e 19,3 >Tr., ,E8E9=,
7?. #pon t!e ot!er !"nd, "ppe))"nts $"n(e) S. Isip >$"n(e) !ere"0ter? "nd
$"riett" $. Isip >$"riett" !ere"0ter? "re spo(ses, residents "t =,=4 $.
Are))"no Street, /"5ood, St". $es", $"ni)" >Tr., 8E29E9=, 3? "nd en*"*ed in
1"rio(s 9(siness (ndert"6in*s in P"'p"n*", N(e1" E5iC", /"*(io itB,
O)on*"po itB "nd /"t""n >Tr., Ide', 9L Tr., 10E2E94, 1=? G "ppe))"nt $"n(e),
in t!e 9ro6er"*e "nd tr(56in* 9(sinessL 2!i)e "ppe))"nt $"riett", in t!"t o0
se))in* Ce2e)rB "nd 0in"n5in*, "s 2e)) "s in P@ *oods, re") est"te "nd 5"rs,
2!i5! s!e st"rted 2!en s!e 2"s sti)) sin*)e >Tr., Ide', 9-10L Tr., 10E2E94,
12?. In 1982, "t t!e 5"sino in O)on*"po itB, "ppe))"nt $"riett" st"rted
o9t"inin* Ce2e)rB 0ro' )osin* or 0in"n5i"))B-str"pped p)"Bers 2!i5! s!e
rep)ed*ed "s se5(ritB 0or 0in"n5in* s!e o9t"ined 0ro' one Ne'esio +ose,
0"t!er o0 5o'p)"in"nt Deon"rdo +ose >Tr., Ide', 11-12L Tr., Ide', 13?. A0ter
"9o(t " Be"r, 2!en Ne'esio +ose r"n s!ort o0 5"pit"), !e re0erred "ppe))"nts to
!is son, 5o'p)"in"nt Deon"rdo +ose, 2it! "ddress "t t!e P)"K" To2ers
ondo'ini(' "0ores"id 0or needed 0in"n5in* >Tr., Ide', 1=-13L Tr., Ide', 17-
19?. /e*innin* e"r)B 198=, "t 5o'p)"in"nt<s residen5e "t P)"K" To2er
ondo'ini(' in $"ni)", "ppe))"nt $"riett", "55o'p"nied 9B !er !(s9"nd
2!o p"rti5ip"ted on)B "s " 2itness, st"rted !"1in* tr"ns"5tions 2it!
5o'p)"in"nt 2!o, on di00erent d"tes in Ie9r("rB, $"r5! "nd Apri), 1983,
e-tended 1"rio(s "'o(nts to !er 0or 2!i5! "ppe))"nt $"riett" p)ed*ed Ce2e)rB
2!i5!, in t(rn, 2ere "*reed 9et2een !er "nd 5o'p)"in"nt to 9e so)d on
5o''ission "nd to t(rn o1er t!e pro5eeds t!ereo0 or ret(rn t!e Ce2e)rB to
5o'p)"in"nt >Tr., Ide', 1,-18?. In t!e 5o(rse o0 t!e tr"ns"5tions, "ppe))"nt
$"riett" !"d iss(ed se1er") 5!e56s to 5o'p)"in"nt "s *("r"ntee 0or t!e
p"B'ent o0 t!e s(9Ce5t Ce2e)rB 2!i5! !"1e eit!er 9een p"id or redee'ed, !"d
ret(rned t!e (nso)d Ce2e)rB to 5o'p)"in"nt "nd !"d 5on1eBed, 9B 2"B o0
p"B'ent 0or ot!er Ce2e)rB, so'e person") properties, )i6e 9r"ss "nd "nti5s, "nd
re") properties in /")"n*", /"t""n "nd $"9")"5"t, P"'p"n*", to 5o'p)"in"nt
2!o 5"(sed t!e s"'e to 9e re*istered in t!e n"'es o0 !is son, !risti"n +ose,
"nd !is 2i0e, %en"id" +ose >E-!i9its 1, 2, 2-A, =, 3, 4, ,, ,-A, 7, 7-A?, 2it! t!e
res()t t!"t ")) t!e o9)i*"tions o0 "ppe))"nts to 5o'p)"in"nt !"1e ")re"dB 9een
p"id 0or or o00set >Tr., Ide', 2=L Tr., Ide', 23, =3-=,, =7-=9L Tr., =E3E9,, 7-
8?. A)so, ")) t!e 5!e56s t!"t "ppe))"nt $"riett"iss(ed 2!i5! 2ere initi"))B
dis!onored !"1e ")re"dB 9een >si5? >Tr., 10E2E94, 24-=0L Tr., =E3E9,, 8-9?. In
0"5t, 5o'p)"in"nt 5"(sed t!e dis'iss") o0 so'e 5"ses !e 0i)ed "*"inst
"ppe))"nts. o'p)"in"nt !o2e1er 0"i)ed to ret(rn so'e o0 t!e redee'ed
"ndEor p"id 5!e56s iss(ed to !i' 9B "ppe))"nt $"riett" on t!e prete-t t!"t !e
did not 9rin* t!e' >Tr., =E3E9,, 20?. In"s'(5! "s "ppe))"nt $"riett" in5(rred
so'e de0"()t in p"B'ent "nd 5o'p)"in"nt s(spe5ted t!"t s!e 2o()d not 9e "9)e
to redee' t!e 5!e56s or p"B 0or t!e p)ed*ed Ce2e)rB, 5o'p)"in"nt de'"nded
t!"t "ppe))"nts si*n 5ert"in do5('ents to "1oid "nB 'is(nderst"ndin*, 2it!
t!re"t o0 prose5(tion 9e0ore t!e "1ite 5o(rts i0 t!eB do not 5o'p)B >Tr., Ide',
19-20L Tr., =E3E9,, 4-,?. So, in order to '"int"in *ood re)"tions 2it!
5o'p)"in"nt, "ppe))"nt$"riett" si*ned t!e do5('ent "56no2)ed*in*
o9)i*"tions to !i' in one sittin*, 2!i5! "ppe))"nt $"n(e) 2itnessed >Tr.,
Ide', 21-22?. D"ter, "ppe))"nts )e"rned t!"t, ")t!o(*! ")) t!e tr"ns"5tions 2ere
entered into in $"ni)", 5o'p)"in"nt 0i)ed t!e 5"ses !erein 9e0ore t!e "1ite
Re*ion") Tri") o(rt >Tr., Ide', 2=-23?.
778


On No1e'9er 24, 199,, t!e tri") 5o(rt rendered its de5ision, t!e
dispositi1e portion t!ereo0 re"din*:

F&EREIORE, in 1ie2 o0 t!e 0ore*oin*, t!e o(rt 0inds t!e "55(sed
.r". $"riett" $. Isip *(i)tB 9eBond re"son"9)e do(9t o0 " >si5? 1io)"tion o0
/.P. 22 in ri'. "ses Nos. 13,-83, 137-83, 138-83, 139-83, 144-83, 14,-83
"nd 147-83 "nd s!e is !ere9B senten5ed to (nder*o i'prison'ent o0 One >1?
Be"r o0 prision 5orre5tion") >si5? in e"5! 5"seL "nd o0 Est"0" in t!e 0o))o2in*
ri'. "ses: No. 24,-83 2!ere s!e is senten5ed to (nder*o i'prison'ent o0,
0ro' T2e)1e >12? Be"rs o0 prision '"Bor, "s 'ini'(', to T2entB >20? Be"rs
o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s '"-i'(', "nd to inde'ni0B t!e 5o'p)"in"nt AttB.
Deon"rdo +ose t!e "'o(nt o0 P120,000.00 0or t!e 1")(e o0 t!e "rti5)es
'is"ppropri"tedL ri'. "se No. 247-83 2!ere s!e is senten5ed to (nder*o
i'prison'ent o0, 0ro' T2e)1e >12? Be"rs o0 prision '"Bor, "s 'ini'(', to
T2entB >20? Be"rs o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s '"-i'(', "nd to inde'ni0B t!e
5o'p)"in"nt AttB. Deon"rdo +ose t!e "'o(nt o0 P140,000.00L ri'. "se No.
2,0-83 2!ere s!e is senten5ed to (nder*o i'prison'ent o0, 0ro' Ei*!t >8?
Be"rs "nd One >1? d"B o0 prision '"Bor, "s 'ini'(', to Se1enteen >17? Be"rs
o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s '"-i'(', "nd to inde'ni0B t!e 5o'p)"in"nt AttB.
Deon"rdo +ose t!e "'o(nt o0 P94,000.00L ri'. "se No. 2,1-83 2!ere s!e is
senten5ed to (nder*o i'prison'ent o0, 0ro' T2e)1e >12? Be"rs "nd One >1?
d"B o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s 'ini'(', to T2entB >20? Be"rs o0 re5)(sion
te'por"), "s '"-i'(', "nd to inde'ni0B t!e 5o'p)"in"nt AttB. Deon"rdo +ose
t!e "'o(nt o0 P4,2,000.00L ri'. "se No. =78-83 2!ere s!e is senten5ed to
(nder*o i'prison'ent o0, 0ro' T2e)1e >12? Be"rs "nd One >1? d"B o0
re5)(sion te'por"), "s 'ini'(', to T2entB >20? Be"rs o0 re5)(sion te'por"),
"s '"-i'(', "nd to inde'ni0B t!e 5o'p)"in"nt AttB. Deon"rdo +ose t!e
"'o(nt o0 P200,000.00 "nd to p"B t!e 5osts.

Di6e2ise, "55(sed $"n(e) Isip is "5M(itted in ri'. "ses Nos. 24,-
83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-83. &o2e1er, in ri'. "se No. 1=,-83,
!e is !ere9B 0o(nd *(i)tB o0 Est"0" "nd !e is !ere9B senten5ed to (nder*o
i'prison'ent o0, 0ro' T2e)1e >12? Be"rs "nd One >1? d"B o0 re5)(sion
te'por"), "s 'ini'(', to T2entB >20? Be"rs o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s
'"-i'(', to inde'ni0B t!e 5o'p)"in"nt AttB. Deon"rdo +ose in t!e "'o(nt
o0 P200,000.00 1")(e o0 t!e Ce2e)rB 'is"ppropri"ted, "nd to p"B t!e 5osts.
788


In r()in* t!e 2"B it did, t!e RT 0o(nd t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tions in1o)1ed in
t!ese 5"ses 2ere s(00i5ient)B s!o2n to !"1e t"6en p)"5e "t 5o'p)"in"nt AttB.
Deon"rdo +ose<s "n5estr") !o(se in "1ite itB 2!en t!e )"tter 2"s on )e"1e o0
"9sen5e 0ro' t!e /(re"( o0 (sto's 2!ere !e 2"s 5onne5ted. It s"id t!e
de0ense 0"i)ed to s(9st"nti"))B pro1e its "))e*"tions t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tions o55(rred
in $"ni)", p"rti5()"r)B in t!e To2ers ondo'ini(', "nd t!"t 5o'p)"in"nt is "
resident o0 /i*"s"n, $"6"ti. It "dded t!"t t!e testi'onB o0 $"riett" Isip t!"t t!e
'oneB 2it! 2!i5! t!e 5o'p)"in"nt initi"))B "*reed to 0in"n5e t!eir tr"ns"5tions
2"s 2it!dr"2n 0ro' t!e S"ndi*"n Iin"n5e in "1ite itB 0(rt!er re0(ted t!e
de0ense<s 5)"i' t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tions !"ppened in $"ni)". T!e tri") 5o(rt
)i6e2ise 0o(nd t!e de0ense<s 5ontention, t!"t t!e o9)i*"tions 2ere ")re"dB p"id
"nd set-o00 2it! t!e t(rno1er to 5o'p)"in"nt o0 person") "nd re") properties, to
9e (nten"9)e 0or it is 5ontr"rB to !('"n n"t(re to de'"nd p"B'ent 2!en t!e
s"'e !"d ")re"dB 9een '"de "nd t!e "))e*ed set-o00s 2ere 0or ot!er 5"ses 2!i5!
2ere sett)ed "'i5"9)B "nd s(9seM(ent)B dis'issed (pon 'otion o0 t!e itB
Prose5(tor<s O00i5e "t t!e inst"n5e o0 t!e 5o'p)"in"nt.

T!e tri") 5o(rt 2"s 5on1in5ed t!"t "55(sed $"riett" Isip 'is"ppropri"ted
t!e pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB in1o)1ed in ri'in") "ses No. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83,
2,1-83 "nd =78-83 "nd 1io)"ted /"t"s P"'9"ns" /)*. 22 2!en s!e iss(ed t!e
5!e56s 'entioned in ri'in") "ses No. 13,-83, 137-83, 138-83, 139-83, 144-
83, 14,-83 "nd 147-83. As to petitioner, t!e tri") 5o(rt "5M(itted !i' in
ri'in") "ses No. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-83 0indin* !i' to
!"1e "5ted "s " 'ere 2itness 2!en !e si*ned t!e re5eipts in1o)1ed in s"id 5"ses,
9(t 0o(nd !i' )i"9)e in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 0or 'is"ppropri"tin* " 7-5"r"t
di"'ond 'en<s rin* 2!i5! !e se5(red 0ro' t!e 5o'p)"in"nt.

A**rie1ed, petitioner "nd spo(se "ppe")ed to t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s
"ssi*nin* t!e 0o))o2in* "s errors:

- I -

T&E TRIAD O#RT ERRE. IN TANING OGNI%ANE OI AN.
.EI.ING T&E ASES AGAINST APPEDDANTS AN. IN NOT
.IS$ISSING T&E SA$E #PON T&E GRO#N. T&AT NONE OI T&E
ESSENTIAD INGRE.IENTS OI T&E OIIENSES &ARGE. T&EREIN
FAS O$$ITTE. FIT& >SI? ITS TERRITORIAD +#RIS.ITION.

- II -

T&E TRIAD O#RT, ASS#$ING IT &A. +#RIS.ITION OAER T&E
ASES /EDOF, ERR. IN NOT &OD.ING T&AT NO RI$INAD
DIA/IDITY #N.ER /ATAS PA$/ANSA /DG. 22 FAS IN#RRE. /Y
APPEDDANT $ARIETTA $. ISIP IOR T&E ISS#ANE OI T&E
S#/+ET &ENS INAS$#& AS SAI. &ENS FERE ISS#E. AS
$ERE G#ARANTY IOR O/DIGATIONS IN#RRE..

- III -

T&E TRIAD O#RT, ASS#$ING ANY INIPIENT DIA/IDITY IOR
T&E RI$E OI ESTAIA &A. /EEN IN#RRE. /Y APPEDDANTS IN
T&E PRE$ISES, ERRE. IN NOT &OD.ING T&AT S#& INIPIENT
DIA/IDITY &A. /EEN E@TING#IS&E. /Y
PAY$ENTSERE.E$PTIONS $A.E AN.EOR NOAATION ENTERE.
INTO /ETFEEN O$PDAINANT AN. SAI. APPEDDANTS.

- IA -

T&E TRIAD O#RT ERRE. IN IIN.ING APPEDDANTS $AN#ED S.
ISIP AN. $ARIETTA $. ISIP G#IDTY /EYON. REASONA/DE
.O#/T OI T&E RI$ES OI ESTAIA AN. AIODATION OI /ATAS
PA$/ANSA /DG. 22 RESPETI#DDY I$P#TE. #PON T&E$ AN. IN
NOT AO#ITTING T&E$ #PON T&E GRO#N. T&AT T&EIR G#IDT
T&EREOI, OR OI ANY RI$E IOR T&AT $ATTER, &A. NOT /EEN
ESTA/DIS&E. /EYON. REASONA/DE .O#/T AN.EOR T&AT T&E
DIA/IDITY IN#RRE. /Y T&E$, II ANY, IS $EREDY IAID.
798


/e0ore t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s 5o()d !"1e de5ided t!e 5"se, $"riett" Isip
died t!ere9B e-tin*(is!in* !er 5ri'in") "nd 5i1i) )i"9i)itB, i0 "nB.

In " de5ision pro'()*"ted 2, O5to9er 2003, t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s
disposed o0 t!e 5"se "s 0o))o2s:

F&EREIORE, t!e "ppe")ed de5ision o0
t!e Re*ion") Tri") o(rt o0 "1ite itB >/r"n5! @AII? G

1. In ri'. "se No. 1=,-83 is AIIIR$E. 2it! t!e
$O.IIIATIONS t!"t t!e senten5e i'posed on "55(sed-"ppe))"nt $"n(e) S.
Isip s!")) 9e t2o >2? Be"rs o0 prision 5orre55ion"), "s 'ini'(', to t2entB >20?
Be"rs o0 re5)(sion te'por"), "s '"-i'(', "nd t!"t t!e s(' o0 P200,000.00 !e
2"s ordered to p"B to Deon"rdo A. +ose s!")) 9e"r interest "t t!e )e*") r"te
0ro' 0i)in* o0 t!e in0or'"tion (nti) 0())B p"idL

2. In ri'. "ses Nos. 13,-83, 137-83, 138-83, 139-83, 144-83,
14,-83 "nd 147-83 is REAERSE. "nd "55(sed-"ppe))"nt $"riett" $. Isip
AO#ITTE. o0 t!e 5ri'es 5!"r*edL "nd

=. In ri'. "ses Nos. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-
83 is REAERSE. "nd "55(sed-"ppe))"nts $"n(e) S. Isip "nd $"riett" $. Isip
AO#ITTE. o0 t!e 5ri'es 5!"r*ed, 9(t orderin* t!e' to p"B to Deon"rdo A.
+ose, Coint)B "nd se1er"))B, t!e s('s
o0 P120,000.00, P140,000.00, P94,000.00, P4,2,000.00 "nd P200,000.00
representin* t!e "'o(nts in1o)1ed in s"id 5"ses, p)(s interest t!ereon "t t!e
)e*") r"te 0ro' 0i)in* o0 t!e in0or'"tion (nti) 0())B p"id.
7108


T!e o(rt o0 Appe")s (p!e)d t!e )o2er 5o(rt<s 0indin* t!"t t!e 1en(e 2"s
proper)B )"id "nd t!"t t!e 5!e56s 2ere de)i1ered 9B t!e t2o "55(sed "ndEor t!"t
t!e tr"ns"5tions tr"nspired "t 5o'p)"in"nt<s "n5estr") !o'e in "1ite itB, "nd
t!"t, 5onseM(ent)B, t!e o00enses 5!"r*ed too6 p)"5e 2it!in its territori")
C(risdi5tion. Fit! respe5t to t!e se1en 5o(nts o0 1io)"tion o0 /"t"s P"'9"ns"
/)*. 22, t!e "ppe))"te 5o(rt "5M(itted $"riett" Isip o0 t!e 5!"r*es on t!e *ro(nd
t!"t sin5e t!e 5!e56s in1o)1ed 2ere iss(ed prior to 8 A(*(st 1983, t!e dis!onor
t!ereo0 did not *i1e rise to " 5ri'in") )i"9i)itB p(rs("nt to $inistrB ir5()"r No.
3 o0 t!e $inistrB o0 +(sti5e.

As to t!e Est"0" 5"ses >ri'in") "ses No. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-
83 "nd =78-83?, t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s r()ed t!"t sin5e t!e 5!e56s iss(ed 9B
$"riett" Isip "s p"B'ent 0or t!e pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB 2ere dis!onored, t!ere 2"s
no p"B'ent to spe"6 o0. It ")so 0o(nd t!e de0ense<s 5)"i' o0 rede'ptionEdacion
en pago G t!"t re") "nd person") properties 2ere 5on1eBed to 5o'p)"in"nt 2!o
e-e5(ted "00id"1its o0 desist"n5e "nd 5"(sed t!e dis'iss") o0 so'e o0 t!e 5"ses
G to 9e (n'eritorio(s. &o2e1er, t!e "ppe))"te 5o(rt r()ed t!"t t!o(*! no1"tion
does not e-tin*(is! 5ri'in") )i"9i)itB, it '"B pre1ent t!e rise o0 s(5! )i"9i)itB "s
)on* "t it o55(rs prior to t!e 0i)in* o0 t!e 5ri'in") in0or'"tion in 5o(rt. In t!ese
0i1e 5"ses, it r()ed t!"t t!ere 2"s no1"tion 9e5"(se 5o'p)"in"nt "55epted t!e
5!e56s iss(ed 9B $"riett" Isip "s p"B'ent 0or t!e pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB in1o)1ed in
s"id 5"ses. onseM(ent)B, t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s "5M(itted $"riett" "nd
petitioner,
7118
9(t !e)d t!e' )i"9)e to 5o'p)"in"nt 0or t!e 1")(e o0 t!e Ce2e)rB
in1o)1ed.

As re*"rds ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 0or est"0" "*"inst petitioner, t!e
"ppe))"te 5o(rt "00ir'ed t!e tri") 5o(rt<s r()in* o0 5on1i5tion. It 0o(nd
petitioner<s 5)"i's t!"t !e did not re5ei1e t!e Ce2e)rB
2ort! P200,000.00 'entioned in t!e in0or'"tionL t!"t t!e re5eipt !e iss(ed 0or
s"id Ce2e)rB 2"s "'on* t!ose do5('ents 2!i5! 2ere 0or5ed (pon !i' to si*n
(nder t!re"t o0 5ri'in") prose5(tionL "nd t!"t !e si*ned t!e s"'e to preser1e !is
0riends!ip 2it! 5o'p)"in"nt, to 9e not pers("si1e.

On 17 No1e'9er 2003, petitioner, 0or !i'se)0 "nd in represent"tion o0 !is
de5e"sed 2i0e, $"riett" Isip, 0i)ed " P"rti") $otion 0or Re5onsider"tion inso0"r
"s it "00ir'ed !is 5on1i5tion in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 "nd "dC(d*ed !i'
5i1i))B )i"9)e, Coint)B "nd se1er"))B, 2it! $"riett" Isip in ri'in") "ses No.
24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-83.
7128

On 2, O5to9er 2004, t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s, t"6in* into "55o(nt t!e de"t!
o0 $"riett" $. Isip prior to t!e pro'()*"tion o0 its de5ision, rendered "n
A'ended .e5ision 2it! t!e 0o))o2in* dispositi1e portion:

F&EREIORE, t!e de5ision d"ted O5to9er 2,, 2003 is A$EN.E. in
respe5t to p"r. = o0 t!e dispositi1e portion t!ereo0 2!i5! s!")) no2 re"d "s
0o))o2s:

:=. In ri'. "ses Nos. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-
83 "nd =78-83 is REAERSE., "55(sed-"ppe))"nts $"n(e) S.
Isip "nd $"riett" $. Isip AO#ITTE. o0 t!e 5ri'es 5!"r*ed
"nd t!e 5i1i) "spe5t o0 t!ose 5"ses .IS$ISSE..;
71=8


Petitioner is no2 9e0ore (s "ppe")in* !is 5on1i5tion in ri'in") "se No.
1=,-83. &e r"ises t!e 0o))o2in* iss(es:

Iirst G F&ET&ER OR NOT T&E TRIAD O#RT &A.
+#RIS.ITION OAER T&E OIIENSE I$P#TE. TO PETITIONER AN.
IOR F&I& &E FAS ONAITE.L

Se5ond G F&ET&ER T&E EAI.ENE S#IIIIENTDY S&OFS
T&AT PETITIONER REEIAE. T&E S#/+ET OI SAI. OIIENSE OR
T&AT &E REEIAE. IT IN AAITE ITYL "nd

T!ird, F&ET&ER T&E INIPIENT RI$INAD DIA/IDITY
ARISING IRO$ SAI. OIIENSE, IS >si5? ANY, FAS E@TING#IS&E.
/Y NOAATION.


On t!e 0irst iss(e, petitioner '"int"ins t!"t t!e RT !"d no C(risdi5tion
o1er t!e est"0" 5!"r*e in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 "nd it is p(re spe5()"tion
"nd 5onCe5t(r"), i0 not ")to*et!er i'pro9"9)e or '"ni0est)B "9s(rd, to s(ppose
t!"t "nB o0 t!e essenti") e)e'ents o0 t!e Est"0" 5!"r*ed in ri'in") "se No.
1=,-83 too6 p)"5e in "1ite itB. Iirst, !e st"tes t!"t t!e residen5e o0 t!e
p"rties is i''"teri") "nd t!"t it is t!e situs o0 t!e tr"ns"5tion t!"t 5o(nts. &e
"r*(es t!"t it is non sequitur t!"t si'p)B 9e5"(se 5o'p)"in"nt !"d "n "))e*ed
"n5estr") !o(se in "rid"d, "1ite, 5o'p)"in"nt "5t("))B )i1ed t!ere "nd !"d t!e
tr"ns"5tions t!ere 2it! !i' 2!en !e "nd !is )"te 2i0e 2ere "5t(") residents
o0 $"ni)". $ere 5on1enien5e s(**ests t!"t t!eir tr"ns"5tion 2"s entered into
in $"ni)". &e "dds t!"t t!e so(r5e o0 t!e 0(nd (sed to 0in"n5e t!e tr"ns"5tions
is )i6e2ise in5onseM(enti") 9e5"(se it is 2!ere t!e s(9Ce5t ite' 2"s de)i1ered
"nd re5ei1ed 9B petitioner "ndEor 2!ere it 2"s to 9e "55o(nted 0or t!"t
deter'ines 1en(e 2!ere Est"0", i0 "nB, '"B 9e 5!"r*ed "nd tried. Se5ond, !e
0(rt!er "r*(es t!"t it does not 0o))o2 t!"t 9e5"(se 5o'p)"in"nt '"B !"1e 9een
on )e"1e 0ro' t!e /(re"( o0 (sto's, t!e tr"ns"5tions 2ere ne5ess"ri)B entered
into d(rin* t!"t )e"1e "nd in "1ite itB. &e "sserts t!"t t!ere is no 5o'petent
proo0 s!o2in* t!"t d(rin* !is )e"1e o0 "9sen5e, !e st"Bed in "1ite itBL "nd
t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tions in1o)1ed, in5)(din* t!e s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se 1=,-83
5o1erin* ro(*!)B t!e period 0ro' Ie9r("rB to Apri) 1983, 5oin5ided 2it! !is
"))e*ed )e"1e.

T!e 5on5ept o0 1en(e o0 "5tions in 5ri'in") 5"ses, (n)i6e in 5i1i) 5"ses, is
C(risdi5tion").
7138
T!e p)"5e 2!ere t!e 5ri'e 2"s 5o''itted deter'ines not on)B
t!e 1en(e o0 t!e "5tion 9(t is "n essenti") e)e'ent o0 C(risdi5tion.
7148
It is "
0(nd"'ent") r()e t!"t 0or C(risdi5tion to 9e "5M(ired 9B 5o(rts in
5ri'in") 5"ses, t!e o00ense s!o()d !"1e 9een 5o''itted or "nB one o0 its
essenti") in*redients s!o()d !"1e t"6en p)"5e 2it!in t!e territori") C(risdi5tion o0
t!e 5o(rt. Territori") C(risdi5tion in 5ri'in") 5"ses is t!e territorB 2!ere t!e
5o(rt !"s C(risdi5tion to t"6e 5o*niK"n5e or to trB t!e o00ense "))e*ed)B
5o''itted t!erein 9B t!e "55(sed. T!(s, it 5"nnot t"6e C(risdi5tion o1er "
person 5!"r*ed 2it! "n o00ense "))e*ed)B 5o''itted o(tside o0 t!"t
)i'ited territorB. I(rt!er'ore, t!e C(risdi5tion o0 " 5o(rt o1er t!e 5ri'in")
5"se is deter'ined 9B t!e "))e*"tions in t!e 5o'p)"int or in0or'"tion. And on5e
it is so s!o2n, t!e 5o(rt '"B 1")id)B t"6e 5o*niK"n5e o0 t!e 5"se. &o2e1er, i0
t!e e1iden5e "dd(5ed d(rin* t!e tri") s!o2s t!"t t!e o00ense 2"s 5o''itted
so'e2!ere e)se, t!e 5o(rt s!o()d dis'iss t!e "5tion 0or 2"nt o0 C(risdi5tion.
71,8

In t!e 5"se "t 9"r, 2e, )i6e t!e RT "nd t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s, "re
5on1in5ed t!"t t!e 1en(e 2"s proper)B )"id in t!e RT o0 "1ite itB. T!e
5o'p)"in"nt !"d s(00i5ient)B s!o2n t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tion 5o1ered 9B ri'in")
"se No. 1=,-83 too6 p)"5e in !is "n5estr") !o'e in "1ite itB 2!en !e 2"s
on "ppro1ed )e"1e o0 "9sen5e
7178
0ro' t!e /(re"( o0 (sto's. Sin5e it !"s 9een
s!o2n t!"t 1en(e 2"s proper)B )"id, it is no2 petitioner<s t"s6 to pro1e
ot!er2ise, 0or it is !is 5)"i' t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tion in1o)1ed 2"s entered into
in$"ni)". T!e "*e-o)d 9(t 0"'i)i"r r()e t!"t !e 2!o "))e*es '(st pro1e !is
"))e*"tions "pp)ies.
7188


In t!e inst"nt 5"se, petitioner 0"i)ed to est"9)is! 9B s(00i5ient "nd
5o'petent e1iden5e t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tion !"ppened in $"ni)". Petitioner "r*(es
t!"t sin5e !e "nd !is )"te 2i0e "5t("))B resided in $"ni)", 5on1enien5e ")one
(nerrin*)B s(**ests t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tion 2"s entered into in $"ni)". Fe "re not
pers("ded. T!e 0"5t t!"t "1ite itB is " 9it 0"r 0ro'$"ni)" does not
ne5ess"ri)B 'e"n t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tion 5"nnot or did not !"ppen t!ere. .ist"n5e
2i)) not pre1ent "nB person 0ro' *oin* to " dist"nt p)"5e 2!ere !e 5"n pro5(re
*oods t!"t !e 5"n se)) so t!"t !e 5"n e"rn " )i1in*. T!is is tr(e in t!e 5"se "t
9"r. It is not i'pro9"9)e or i'possi9)e 0or petitioner "nd !is 2i0e to !"1e *one,
not on5e, 9(t t2i5e in one d"B, to "1ite itB i0 t!"t is t!e n('9er o0 ti'es t!eB
re5ei1ed pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB 0ro' 5o'p)"in"nt. $oreo1er, t!e 0"5t t!"t t!e 5!e56s
iss(ed 9B petitioner<s )"te 2i0e in ")) t!e tr"ns"5tions 2it! 5o'p)"in"nt 2ere
dr"2n "*"inst "55o(nts 2it! 9"n6s in $"ni)" or $"6"ti )i6e2ise 5"nnot )e"d to
t!e 5on5)(sion t!"t t!e tr"ns"5tions 2ere not entered into in"1ite itB.

It is "-io'"ti5 t!"t 2!en it 5o'es to 5redi9i)itB, t!e tri") 5o(rt<s
"ssess'ent deser1es *re"t 2ei*!t, "nd is e1en 5on5)(si1e "nd 9indin*, i0 not
t"inted 2it! "r9itr"riness or o1ersi*!t o0 so'e 0"5t or 5ir5('st"n5e o0 2ei*!t
"nd in0)(en5e. T!e re"son is o91io(s. &"1in* t!e 0()) opport(nitB to o9ser1e
dire5t)B t!e 2itnesses< deport'ent "nd '"nner o0 testi0Bin*, t!e tri") 5o(rt is in
" 9etter position t!"n t!e "ppe))"te 5o(rt to e1")("te proper)B testi'oni")
e1iden5e.
7198
It is to 9e pointed o(t t!"t t!e 0indin*s o0 0"5t o0 t!e tri") 5o(rt
!"1e 9een "00ir'ed 9B t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s. It is sett)ed t!"t 2!en t!e tri")
5o(rt<s 0indin*s !"1e 9een "00ir'ed 9B t!e "ppe))"te 5o(rt, s"id 0indin*s "re
*ener"))B 5on5)(si1e "nd 9indin* (pon t!is o(rt.
7208
In t!e 5"se "t 9"r, 2e 0ind
no 5o'pe))in* re"son to re1erse t!e 0indin*s o0 t!e tri") 5o(rt, "s "00ir'ed 9B
t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s, "nd to "pp)B t!e e-5eption. Fe so !o)d t!"t t!ere is
s(00i5ient e1iden5e to s!o2 t!"t t!e p"rti5()"r tr"ns"5tion too6 p)"5e
in "1ite itB.

On t!e se5ond iss(e, petitioner 5ontends t!"t t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s<
!o)din* t!"t t!e rin* s(9Ce5t o0 ri'. "se No. 1=,-83 2"s de)i1ered to "nd
re5ei1ed 9B petitioner is serio(s)B 0)"2ed. &e "r*(es t!"t "ss('in* !e si*ned
t!e re5eipt e1iden5in* de)i1erB o0 t!e rin*, not d(e to t!e t!re"t o0 prose5(tion
9(t 'ere)B to preser1e !is 0riends!ip 2it! 5o'p)"in"nt, t!e 0"5t re'"ins t!"t
t!ere is no s!o2in* t!"t t!e rin* 2"s "5t("))B de)i1ered to !i'. Petitioner
insists t!ere is no 5o'petent e1iden5e t!"t t!e rin* s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No.
1=,-83 2"s e1er "5t("))B re5ei1ed 9B, or de)i1ered to, !i'.

Fe 0ind !is 5ontentions (nten"9)e. T!e 0indin* o0 t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s
t!"t petitioner re5ei1ed t!e rin* s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 is
s(pported 9B t!e e1iden5e on re5ord. T!e "56no2)ed*'ent re5eipt
7218
e-e5(ted
9B petitioner is 1erB 5)e"r e1iden5e t!"t !e re5ei1ed t!e rin* in
M(estion. Petitioner<s 5)"i' t!"t !e did not re5ei1e "nB rin* "nd 'ere)B
e-e5(ted s"id re5eipt in order to preser1e !is 0riends!ip 2it! t!e 5o'p)"in"nt
deser1es s5"nt 5onsider"tion.

Petitioner, "n "st(te 9(siness'"n "s !e is, 6no2s t!e si*ni0i5"n5e, i'port
"nd o9)i*"tion o0 2!"t !e e-e5(ted "nd si*ned. T!e 0o))o2in* disp(t"9)e
pres('ptions 2ei*! !e"1i)B "*"inst petitioner, n"'e)B: >"? T!"t " person
intends t!e ordin"rB 5onseM(en5es o0 !is 1o)(nt"rB "5tL >9? T!"t " person t"6es
ordin"rB 5"re o0 !is 5on5ernsL >5? T!"t pri1"te tr"ns"5tions !"1e 9een 0"ir "nd
re*()"rL "nd >d? T!"t t!e ordin"rB 5o(rse o0 9(siness !"s 9een
0o))o2ed
7228
T!(s, it is pres('ed t!"t one does not si*n " do5('ent 2it!o(t
0irst in0or'in* !i'se)0 o0 its 5ontents "nd 5onseM(en5es. Fe 6no2 t!"t
petitioner (nderstood 0())B 2e)) t!e r"'i0i5"tion o0 t!e "56no2)ed*'ent re5eipt
!e e-e5(ted. It de1o)1es (pon !i' t!en to o1er5o'e t!ese pres('ptions. Fe,
!o2e1er, 0ind t!"t !e 0"i)ed to do so. Aside 0ro' !is se)0-ser1in* "))e*"tion t!"t
!e si*ned t!e re5eipt to preser1e !is 0riends!ip 2it! 5o'p)"in"nt, t!ere is no
5o'petent e1iden5e t!"t 2o()d re9(t s"id pres('ptions. It is 5)e"r 0ro' t!e
e1iden5e t!"t petitioner si*ned t!e "56no2)ed*'ent re5eipt 2!en !e re5ei1ed
t!e rin* 0ro' 5o'p)"in"nt in "1ite itB.

Petitioner<s "r*('ent t!"t !e did not re5ei1e t!e s(9Ce5t rin*
72=8
is 0(rt!er
9e)ied 9B t!e testi'onB o0 !is 2i0e 2!en t!e )"tter testi0ied t!"t s"id rin* 2"s
9orro2ed 9B !i' on7 $"r5! 1983.
7238
In ")), t!e de)i1erB o0 t!e rin* "nd t!e
tr"ns"5tion re*"rdin* t!e s"'e o55(rred in "1ite itB.

Anent t!e t!ird iss(e, petitioner "r*(es t!"t, "ss('in* gratia
argumenti t!"t "nB 5ri'in") )i"9i)itB 2"s in5(rred 9B petitioner respe5tin* t!e
rin* s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83, t!e s"'e 2"s in5ipient, "t 9est, "nd
2"s e00e5ti1e)B e-tin*(is!ed 9B no1"tion. T!e person") "nd re") properties
de)i1eredE5on1eBed to 5o'p)"in"nt 2ere 'ore t!"n s(00i5ient to 5o1er or o00set
2!"te1er 9")"n5e re'"ined o0 t!e o9)i*"tions in5(rred "s s!o2n 9B t!e 0"5t t!"t
5o'p)"in"nt e-e5(ted A00id"1its o0 .esist"n5e "nd 5"(sed t!e dis'iss") o0
so'e o0 t!e 5"ses 0i)ed. &e '"int"ins t!"t t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s did not "pp)B
t!e r()e o0 no1"tion "s re*"rds t!e rin* s(9Ce5t o0 ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83
9e5"(se it reCe5ted !is deni") o0 re5eipt o0 s"id rin* "nd !is 5)"i' t!"t !e si*ned
t!e re5eipt s(pposed)B 5o1erin* t!e s"'e (nder t!re"t o0 prose5(tion "nd
'ere)B to preser1e t!eir *ood re)"tions. &e 5)"i's t!e o(rt s!o()d not !"1e
denied t!e "pp)i5"tion o0 t!e r()e o0 no1"tion on s"id 5"se 9e5"(se t!e reCe5ted
initi") 5)"i' >t!"t !e did not re5ei1e t!e rin* "nd t!"t !e si*ned t!e re5eipt to
preser1e t!eir *ood re)"tions? 2"s 9(t "n ")tern"ti1e de0ense "nd its reCe5tion is
not " re"son to denB t!e "pp)i5"tion o0 t!e no1"tion r()e in s"id 5"se.

Fe "*ree 2it! t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s t!"t no1"tion
7248
5"nnot 9e "pp)ied in
ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83. T!e 5)"i' o0 petitioner t!"t t!e person") "nd re")
properties 5on1eBed to 5o'p)"in"nt "ndEor to !is 0"'i)B 2ere 'ore t!"n
s(00i5ient to 5o1er or o00set 2!"te1er 9")"n5e re'"ined o0 t!e o9)i*"tions
in5(rred !"s no 9"sis. I0 it 2ere tr(e t!"t t!e properties de)i1ered to
5o'p)"in"nt 2ere s(00i5ient, t!e )"tter 2o()d !"1e 5"(sed t!e dis'iss") o0 ")),
not so'e "s in t!is inst"n5e, t!e 5"ses "*"inst petitioner "nd !is )"te 2i0e. T!is,
5o'p)"in"nt did not do 0or t!e si'p)e re"son t!"t t!e properties 5on1eBed to
!i' 2ere not eno(*! to 5o1er ")) t!e o9)i*"tions in5(rred 9B petitioner "nd !is
de5e"sed 2i0e. o'p)"in"nt testi0ied t!"t t!e properties !e re5ei1ed 2ere in
sett)e'ent o0 5"ses ot!er t!"n t!e 5"ses 9ein* tried !erein.
72,8
In p"rti5()"r, !e
s"id t!"t petitioner "nd !is spo(se sett)ed ei*!t 5"ses 2!i5! 2ere s(9seM(ent)B
dis'issed 2!en t!eB de)i1ered properties "s p"B'ent.
7278
It 0o))o2s t!en t!"t t!e
o9)i*"tions in5(rred 9B petitioner "nd !is spo(se 2ere not Bet sett)ed 2!en t!e
5ri'in") 5"ses !erein tried 2ere 0i)ed.

&is 5ontention, t!"t t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s did not "pp)B t!e r()e o0
no1"tion in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83 9e5"(se it reCe5ted or did not 9e)ie1e !is
>")tern"ti1e? de0ense o0 deni"), is (nten"9)e. T!e '"in re"son 2!B t!e o(rt o0
Appe")s did not "pp)B no1"tion in s"id 5"se 2"s t!"t not ")) t!e e)e'ents o0
no1"tion "re present. Ior no1"tion to t"6e p)"5e, 0o(r essenti") reM(isites !"1e
to 9e 'et, n"'e)B, >1? " pre1io(s 1")id o9)i*"tionL >2? "n "*ree'ent o0 "))
p"rties 5on5erned to " ne2 5ontr"5tL >=? t!e e-tin*(is!'ent o0 t!e o)d
o9)i*"tionL "nd >3? t!e 9irt! o0 " 1")id ne2 o9)i*"tion. In ri'in") "se No.
1=,-83, on)B t!e 0irst e)e'ent is e-t"nt. F!"t distin*(is!es t!is 5"se 0ro'
ri'in") "ses No. 24,-83, 247-83, 2,0-83, 2,1-83 "nd =78-83, 2!ere t!e
o(rt o0 Appe")s "pp)ied t!e r()e o0 no1"tion, 2"s t!"t t!ere 2ere 5!e56s iss(ed
"s p"B'ent, t!o(*! s(9seM(ent)B dis!onored, 0or t!e pie5es o0 Ce2e)rB
in1o)1ed. In ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83, it is 1erB 5)e"r t!"t neit!er petitioner
nor !is 2i0e iss(ed "nB 5!e56 "s p"B'ent 0or t!e s(9Ce5t rin* t!"t 5o()d !"1e
e-tin*(is!ed !is o)d o9)i*"tion "nd 9ro(*!t to )i0e " ne2 o9)i*"tion.

Iro' t!e "))e*"tions o0 t!e in0or'"tion in ri'in") "se No. 1=,-83, it is
5)e"r t!"t petitioner 2"s 5!"r*ed 2it! Est"0" (nder Arti5)e =14, p"r"*r"p! 1>9?,
o0 t!e Re1ised Pen") ode. T!e e)e'ents o0 est"0" 2it! "9(se o0 5on0iden5e
"re: >1? t!e o00ender re5ei1es t!e 'oneB, *oods or ot!er person") propertB in
tr(st, or on 5o''ission, or 0or "d'inistr"tion, or (nder "nB ot!er o9)i*"tion
in1o)1in* t!e d(tB to de)i1er, or to ret(rn, t!e s"'eL >2? t!e o00ender
'is"ppropri"tes or 5on1erts s(5! 'oneB or propertB or denies re5ei1in* s(5!
'oneB or propertBL >=? t!e 'is"ppropri"tion or 5on1ersion or deni") is to t!e
preC(di5e o0 "not!erL "nd >3? t!e o00ended p"rtB de'"nds t!"t t!e o00ender
ret(rn t!e 'oneB or propertB.
7288
A)) t!ese "re present in t!is 5"se. Petitioner
re5ei1ed 0ro' 5o'p)"in"nt " se1en-5"r"t di"'ond >'en<s rin*?, 1")(ed
"t P200,000.00, 0or t!e p(rpose o0 se))in* t!e s"'e on 5o''ission 9"sis "nd to
de)i1er t!e pro5eeds o0 t!e s")e t!ereo0 or ret(rn t!e Ce2e)rB i0 not
so)d. Petitioner 'is"ppropri"ted or 5on1erted s"id rin* 0or !is o2n 9ene0it "nd
e1en denied re5ei1in* t!e s"'e. .espite repe"ted de'"nds 0ro' 5o'p)"in"nt,
petitioner 0"i)ed to ret(rn t!e rin* or t!e pro5eeds o0 t!e s")e t!ereo0 5"(sin*
d"'"*e "nd preC(di5e to 5o'p)"in"nt in t!e "'o(nt o0 P200,000.00.

As to t!e pen")tB i'posed 9B t!e o(rt o0 Appe")s on petitioner, 2e 0ind
t!e s"'e to 9e in order.

WHEREFORE, t!e de5ision "nd "'ended de5ision o0 t!e o(rt o0
Appe")s in A-G.R. No. 21274 d"ted 2, O5to9er 2003 d"ted 2, O5to9er 2004,
respe5ti1e)B, "reAFFIRMED.

SO ORDERED.


MINITA V. CHICO-NAZARIO
Asso5i"te +(sti5e



FE ON#R:


CONSUELO YNARES-SANTIAGO
Asso5i"te +(sti5e
!"irperson



MA. ALICIA AUSTRIA-
MARTINEZ ANTONIO EDUARDO B.
NACHURA
Asso5i"te +(sti5e Asso5i"te +(sti5e



ATTESTATION

I "ttest t!"t t!e 5on5)(sions in t!e "9o1e .e5ision 2ere re"5!ed in
5ons()t"tion 9e0ore t!e 5"se 2"s "ssi*ned to t!e 2riter o0 t!e opinion o0 t!e
o(rt<s .i1ision.



CONSUELO YNARES-SANTIAGO
Asso5i"te +(sti5e
!"irperson, T!ird .i1ision



CERTIFICATION

P(rs("nt to Se5tion 1=, Arti5)e AIII o0 t!e onstit(tion, "nd t!e .i1ision
!"irperson<s Attest"tion, it is !ere9B 5erti0ied t!"t t!e 5on5)(sions in t!e "9o1e
.e5ision 2ere re"5!ed in 5ons()t"tion 9e0ore t!e 5"se 2"s "ssi*ned to t!e 2riter
o0 t!e opinion o0 t!e o(rt<s .i1ision.




REYNATO S.
PUNO
!ie0 +(sti5e

718
Penned 9B Asso5i"te +(sti5e Ed*"rdo P. r(K 2it! Asso5i"te +(sti5es God"rdo A. +"5into "nd +ose .
$endoK", 5on5(rrin*. A rollo, pp. 173-193.
728
Id. "t 28,-289.
7=8
Re5ords, Ao). 11, p. 1.
738
Id., Ao). =, p. 1.
748
A)) 5!e56s 2ere dr"2n "*"inst P"5i0i5 /"n6in* orpor"tion, e-5ept 0or !e56 No. 0=008, 2!i5!
2"s dr"2n "*"inst RiK") o''er5i") /"n6in* orpor"tion.
7,8
Re5ords, Ao). 7, p. 1.
778
A rollo, pp. 234-241.
788
Id. "t 40-41.
798
Id. "t 7=-74.
7108
Id. "t 2,1.
7118
Petitioner 2"s ")re"dB "5M(itted 9B t!e RT in s"id 0i1e 5"ses.
7128
A rollo, pp. 2,3-27,.
71=8
Id. "t 288-289.
7138
People v. Amadore, G.R. Nos. 130,,9-74 P 130,91, 20 Apri) 2001, =47 SRA =1,, =23.
7148
Macasaet v. People, G.R. No. 14,737, 2= Ie9r("rB 2004, 342 SRA 244, 271.
71,8
Uy v. Court of Appeals, =32 P!i). =29, ==7 >1997?.
7178
E-!s. S P S-1L Re5ords, Ao). 2, pp. 138-139.
7188
Samson v. a!ay, G.R. Nos. 1,0043-44, 21 +()B 2003, 3=3 SRA ,12.
7198
People v. Audine, G.R. No. 1,8,39, , .e5e'9er 200,.
7208
People v. "eltran, Jr., G.R. No. 1,8041, 27 Septe'9er 200,, 40= SRA 714, 7=0.
7218
E-!. IL Re5ords, Ao). 2, p. 1=3.
7228
Se5tion =>5?, >d?, >p? "nd >M?, R()e 1=1, R()es o0 o(rt.
72=8
TSN, , Septe'9er 1994, p. 1=.
7238
TSN, 2 O5to9er 1994, pp. 2, P ==.
7248
No1"tion !"s 9een de0ined "s t!e e-tin*(is!'ent o0 "n o9)i*"tion 9B t!e s(9stit(tion or
5!"n*e o0 t!e o9)i*"tion 9B " s(9seM(ent one 2!i5! ter'in"tes t!e 0irst, eit!er 9B 5!"n*in* t!e o9Ce5t
or prin5ip") 5onditions, or 9B s(9stit(tin* t!e person o0 t!e de9tor, or s(9ro*"tin* " t!ird person in t!e
ri*!ts o0 t!e 5reditor.
No1"tion, in its 9ro"d 5on5ept, '"B eit!er 9e e-tin5ti1e or 'odi0i5"torB. It is e-tin5ti1e
2!en "n o)d o9)i*"tion is ter'in"ted 9B t!e 5re"tion o0 " ne2 o9)i*"tion t!"t t"6es t!e p)"5e o0 t!e
0or'erL it is 'ere)B 'odi0i5"torB 2!en t!e o)d o9)i*"tion s(9sists to t!e e-tent it re'"ins 5o'p"ti9)e
2it! t!e "'end"torB "*ree'ent. An e-tin5ti1e no1"tion res()ts eit!er 9B 5!"n*in* t!e o9Ce5t or
prin5ip") 5onditions >o9Ce5ti1e or re")?, or 9B s(9stit(tin* t!e person o0 t!e de9tor or s(9ro*"tin* " t!ird
person in t!e ri*!ts o0 t!e 5reditor >s(9Ce5ti1e or person")?. No1"tion !"s t2o 0(n5tions: one to
e-tin*(is! "n e-istin* o9)i*"tion, t!e ot!er to s(9stit(te " ne2 one in its p)"5e. Ior no1"tion to t"6e
p)"5e, 0o(r essenti") reM(isites !"1e to 9e 'et, n"'e)B, >1? " pre1io(s 1")id o9)i*"tionL >2? "n "*ree'ent
o0 ")) p"rties 5on5erned to " ne2 5ontr"5tL >=? t!e e-tin*(is!'ent o0 t!e o)d o9)i*"tionL "nd >3? t!e 9irt!
o0 " 1")id ne2 o9)i*"tion. >California "us #ines, Inc. v. State Investment $ouse, Inc., 3,= P!i). ,89,
702 7200=8.?
72,8
TSN, 2, A(*(st 1993, pp. 3=-3,.
7278
TSN, 1, $"B 199,, pp. 3-4.
7288
Pere% v. People, G.R. No. 14033=, 20 +"n("rB 200,, 379 SRA 209, 218-219.