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CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22

Lecture April 22
1
Begin Chapter 14 - Equilibrium
Remember Mastering Chemistry Quiz
5/6(11) due Thursday, April 24
In-class Quizzes start again
Thursday
Looking ahead nal chapter:
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Chapter 14 -
Chemical Equilibria
2
A dynamic process with the forward and
backwards reactions both happening at the
same time - but in EQUILIBRIUM so no NET
change in reactants or products
H
2
O(l) H
2
O(g)
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Equilibrium Constant
3
The equilibrium constant K
c
or K
p
aA + bB cC + dD
K
c
= [C]
c
[D]
d
/[A]
a
[B]
b
K
p
= P
C
c
P
D
d
/ P
A
a
P
B
b
!This is the version used for solution equilibria
!
NO SOLIDS OR
LIQUIDS
[A] concentration P
A
pressure
K values are a function of temperature and
unitless
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Examples of Equilibria
4
H
2
O(l) H
2
O(g)
K
P
= P
H2O
Vapor pressure of water = 0.031 atm at 25
o
C
N
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2NO(g)
K
P
= (P
NO
)
2
/(P
N2
P
O2
)
AgCl(s) Ag
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
K
C
= [Ag
+
] [Cl
-
]
= 4.1 x 10
-31
at 25
o
C
= 1.77 x 10
-10
at 25
o
C
K << 1 mostly reactants
(increases with temperature) = 1.00 atm at 100
o
C
Remember no
condensed phases
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
More Examples
5
CaCO
3
(s) CaO(s) + CO
2
(g)
K
P
= P
CO2
K
C
= [CO
2
]
Note: CO
2
only 0.035% by volume in atmosphere
partial pressure = 3.5 x 10
-4
atm
Fe
2
O
3
(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(l) + 2CO
2
(g)
Kp = (P
CO2
)
2
/(P
CO
)
3
K
C
= [CO
2
]
2
/[CO]
3
Remember: Solids and liquids are not included!
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Rules for Combining or
Manipulating Keq
6
1) Reverse the reaction get K = 1/K
2) Add two reactions: with K
1
and

K
2
get
K = K
1
K
2
4) Multiply a reaction by a constant n
K = K
n
3) Subtract two reactions (1)-(2):
K = K
1
/K
2

CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Reaction Quotient Q
7
Same form as for K
eq
but using the [ ] or pressure
you have.
Q < K reaction will mover to the product
side (right) to achieve equilibrium
Q > K reaction will move to the reactants
side (left) to achieve equilibrium
Q = K reaction is at equilibrium
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Q Example
8
H
2
O(g) + CO(g) H
2
(g) + CO
2
(g)
K
P
= 1.5 at a given T
K
P
=
P
H2
P
CO2
/P
H2O
P
CO
If you have a gas mixture that is 0.60 atm
H
2
O(g), 0.80 atm CO(g), 1.0 atm H
2
(g) and 0.9
atm CO
2
, which direction will the reaction go to
achieve equilibrium?
Q = (1.0)(0.9)/(0.6)(0.8) = 1.875
Q > K
reaction will go to the LEFT or REACTANTS
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Another Q Example
9
If you mix two solutions of equal volume, one
with [Ag
+
] = 0.110 !M and another with [Cl
-
]
= 1.00 mM, will AgCl from a precipitate (ppt)
Q = [Ag
+
][Cl
-
] = {(0.110x10
-6
)/2}
{(1.00x10
-3
)/2} = 2.75 x 10
-11
K
C
= 1.8x10
-10
Q < K so NO ppt
AgCl(s) Ag
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Calculating K
eq
from
Reaction Data
10
You place H
2
(g) and I
2
(g) in a container at 445
o
C.
What is K
C
for the following nal [ ]
Consider the reaction H
2
(g) + I
2
(g) 2HI(g)
Data from Table 14.1
[H
2
] = 0.11 M
[I
2
] = 0.11 M
[HI] = 0.78 M
K
C
= [HI]
2
/[H
2
][I
2
]
K
C
= (0.78)
2
/(0.11)(0.11)
K
C
= 50.
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
The ICE Table
11
Example 14.6
Given: [CH
4
] = 0.115 M;
at equilibrium [C
2
H
2
] = 0.035 M
2 CH
4
(g) " C
2
H
2
(g) + 3 H
2
(g)
initial 0.115 0 0
change -0.070 +0.035 +0.105
nal 0.045 0.035 +0.105
K
C
= (0.035)(0.105)
3
/(0.045)
2
= 0.020
CHEM131 - Spring 14 - April 22
Another Problem with ICE Table
12
H
2
O(g) + CO(g) H
2
(g) + CO
2
(g)
Given the following:
1.50x10
-2
moles H
2
O and 1.50x10
-2

moles CO in a sealed 1 L vessel.
At equilibrium there is 8.3x10
-3
moles
of CO
2
.
What is the value of Kc?
ICE table for the reaction
Initial 1.50x10
-2
1.50x10
-2
0 0
Reaction -.83x10
-2
-.83x10
-2
+.83x10
-2
+.83x10
-2
Final 0.67x10
-2
0.67x10
-2
0.83x10
-2
0.83x10
-2
H
2
O(g) + CO(g) H
2
(g) + CO
2
(g)
K
C
=
[H
2
][CO
2
]/[H
2
O][CO]
= (.83x10
-2
)
2
/(.67x10
-2
)
2
K
C
= 1.5