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1

THE VARIOUS VELOCITIES FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS (IS:


1892 Appendix B-1, clause 3.2)
MATERIALS

VELOCITY (m/s)

Sand and top soil

180 to 365

Sandy clay

365 to 580

Gravel

490 to 790

Glacial till

550 to 2135

Rock talus

400 to 760

Water in loose materials

1400 to 1830

Shale

790 to 3350

Sandstone

915 to 2740

Granite

3050 to 6100

Limestone

1830 to 6100

(Reference: Hunt)

MEAN RESISTIVITY FOR VARIOUS MATERIALS (IS: 1892 Appendix B-2,


clause 3.2)
MATERIAL

MEAN RESISTIVITY (OHM.M)

Lime stone (marble)

1012

Quartz

1010
106 to 107

Rock salt
Granite

5000 to 106

Sandstone

35 to 4000

Moraines

8 to 4000

Lime stones

120 to 400

Clays

1 to 120

(Reference: Hunt)

RELATION BETWEEN SPT N VALUE AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY


(IS: 8009 PART II, CLAUSE 9.4.1)

N vs ES FOR SAND (SHULTZ AND MUHUS 1988)


N

kPa

3.33

10000

26

Es
5640

Es
1000

Es/N

1300

3.25

13000

27

1600

3.20

16000

1830

3.05

2060

Es/N

kPa

2.17

56400

5780

2.14

57800

28

5920

2.11

59200

18300

29

6060

2.09

60600

2.94

20600

30

6200

2.07

62000

2290

2.86

22900

31

6320

2.04

63200

2520

2.80

25200

32

6440

2.01

64400

10

2750

2.75

27500

33

6560

1.99

65600

11

2960

2.69

29600

34

6680

1.96

66800

12

3170

2.64

31700

35

6800

1.94

68000

13

3380

2.60

33800

36

6900

1.92

69000

14

3590

2.56

35900

37

7000

1.89

70000

15

3800

2.53

38000

38

7100

1.87

71000

16

3990

2.49

39900

39

7200

1.85

72000

17

4180

2.46

41800

40

7300

1.83

73000

18

4370

2.43

43700

41

7400

1.80

74000

19

4560

2.40

45600

42

7500

1.79

75000

20

4750

2.38

47500

43

7600

1.77

76000

21

4900

2.33

49000

44

7700

1.75

77000

22

5050

2.30

50500

45

7800

1.73

78000

23

5200

2.26

52000

46

7840

1.70

78400

24

5350

2.23

53500

47

7880

1.68

78800

25

5500

2.20

55000

48

7920

1.65

79200

49

7960

1.62

79600

50

8000

1.60

80000

SPT N vs ES VALUES FOR CLAY MORI, 1965


N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
20
25
30

Es
(t/m2)
120
250
400
540
700
900
1200
1400
1600
1900
2100
2400
2700
3000
4200
5000
6000

kPa
1200
2500
4000
5400
7000
9000
12000
14000
16000
19000
21000
24000
27000
30000
42000
50000
60000

5
NATURE OF ANALYSIS IN COHESIONLESS SOILS BASED ON ANGLE OF INTERNAL
FRICTION (IS: 6403)

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

SPT N

Condition

Nature of analysis

10
Local shear
LOOSE
13
16
Interpolation
19
between
Local and
MEDIUM
General shear
22
27
30
34
37
DENSE
42
47
General Shear
51
57
VERY DENSE
64
71
BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS (IS: 6403)

0
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Nc
5.14
5.38
5.90
6.19
6.49
6.81
7.16
7.53
7.92
8.34
8.80
9.28
9.81
10.37
10.98
11.63
12.34
13.10
13.93
14.83
15.81
16.88
18.05
19.32
20.72
22.25

Nq
1.00
1.09
1.31
1.43
1.57
1.72
1.88
2.06
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.94
4.34
4.77
5.26
5.80
6.40
7.07
7.82
8.66
9.60
10.66
11.85

N
0.00
0.07
0.24
0.34
0.45
0.57
0.71
0.86
1.03
1.22
1.44
1.69
1.97
2.29
2.65
3.06
3.53
4.07
4.68
5.39
6.20
7.13
8.20
9.44
10.88
12.54

6
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

23.94
25.80
27.86
30.14
32.67
35.49
38.64
42.16
46.12
50.59
55.63
61.35
67.87
75.31
83.86
93.71
105.11
118.37
133.87
152.10
173.64
199.26
299.92
266.88

13.20
14.72
16.44
18.40
20.63
23.18
26.09
29.44
33.30
37.75
42.92
48.93
55.96
64.20
73.90
85.37
99.01
115.31
134.87
158.50
187.21
222.30
265.50
319.06

14.47
16.72
19.34
22.40
25.99
30.21
35.19
41.06
48.03
56.31
66.19
78.02
92.25
109.41
130.21
155.54
186.53
224.63
271.75
330.34
403.65
496.00
613.14
762.86

SPT correlations (J.E. Bowles)

Consistency of Saturated Cohesive Soils (J.E. Bowles)


SPT N Value(N70)

qu (kPa)

Consistency

0-2

<25

Very soft

3-5

25-50

Soft

6-9

50-100

Medium

10-16

100-200

Stiff

17-30

200-400

Very stiff

>30

>400

Hard

Nature of clay

NC / Young Clay

Increasing OCR /
Aged / Cemented

Consistency of Saturated Cohesive Soils (B.M. Das)


Standard Penetration

Consistency

Number (N60)

Unconfined Compressive
Strength (kPa)

0-2

Very soft

0-25

2-5

Soft

25-50

5-10

Medium stiff

50-100

10-20

Stiff

100-200

20-30

Very stiff

200-400

>30

Hard

>400

Correlation between Standard Penetration test N value and Static Point Resistance
q0 value (IS: 2911(Part 1 / Sec 2))
Soil Type

qc/N

Clays

2.0

Silts, sandy silts and slightly cohesive silt sand mixtures

2.0

Clean fine to medium sands and slightly silty sands

3-4

Course sands and sands with little gravel

5-6

Sandy gravels and gravel

8-10

Correlation between Standard Penetration test N value and Static Point Resistance
q0 value (J.E. Bowles)
Soil type

qc/N

Silts, sandy silts and slightly cohesive silt sand mixtures

0.1-0.2

Clean fine to medium sands and slightly silty sands

0.3-0.4

Course sands and sands with little gravel

0.5-0.7

Sandy gravels and gravel

0.8-1.0

PERMISSIBLE LIMITS FOR SOLIDS (IS 456: 2000, CLAUSE 5.4)


S.No

Chemical compounds

Tested as per

Permissible limits

Organic

IS 3025 (Part 18)

200 mg/l

Inorganic

IS 3025 (Part 18)

3000 mg/l

Sulphates (as SO3)

IS 3025 (Part 24)

400 mg/l

Chlorides (as Cl)

IS 3025 (Part 32)

2000 mg/l For concrete not


containing embedded and 500
mg/l for reinforced concrete
work

Suspended matter

IS 3025 (Part 17)

2000 mg/l

REQUIREMENTS OF CONCRETE EXPOSED TO SULPHATE ATTACK


(IS 456:2000)

10

SOIL GROUP CLASSIFICATION (Unified Classification system)


Values of compression modulus Ec and ultimate pressure PL from Menard
Pressuremeter (Hunt)

11

IS:4464, strength and relative term for rocks


Strength(N/mm2)

Term

Upto 1.25

Very weak

1.25 to 5

Weak

5 to 12.5

Moderately weak

12.5 to 50

Moderately strong

50 to 100

Strong

100 to 200

Very strong

>200

Extremely strong