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CHILD LABOUR AND ITS PREVENTION

P. Santhi, M.Sc.(N), Lecturer, Vinaa!a Mi""i#n$" C#%%e&e #' Nur"in&, (arai!a%.


INTRODUCTION)
A sizeable number of growing children of poor socioeconomic class especially in
rural areas are known to be inducted as child labour. It is the hidden problem in most of the
underdeveloped and developing countries.
DE*INITION:
Any work done by the child that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the
child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or
social development. UN ILO
hild labor is done by any working child who is under the age specified by law. In
India if the age of the working child is below !" years, it is considered as child labour.
#roadly any child who is employed in activities to feed self and family is being sub$ected to
%child labor&.
CLASSI*ICATION O* MA+OR SECTORS ,HERE CHILDREN ,OR(
'i( A&rarian Sect#r - In rural area children are engaged in agricultural and allied
occupations as a part of family labour or as individual workers. )hey may work as
paid or unpaid workers in different forms.
'ii( Manu'acturin& Sect#r . hildren are engaged in various manufacturing process of
different *ome+based industries such as #rassware, ,ock, -atch and .ire works,
/iamond cutting, 0em polishing, 0lassware, arpet making, 1late etc.
'iii( Ser/ice Sect#r - hild employed in the service areas like organizations, offices, etc.
T0PES O* CHILD LABOUR
Mi&rant Chi%1 La2#ur + hild migrate from the rural area to the urban or from
smaller to larger towns cities either with their families or alone.
B#n1e1 Chi%1 La2#ur . hildren are pledged by their parents, guardians to
employers in lieu of debts or payment. )he rates of interest on loans are so high
that the amount to be repaid accumulates every year, making repayment almost
impossible.
Ur2an Chi%1 La2#r . )he phenomenon of ur2an chi%1 %a2#ur includes street
children. )hese children belong to three broad categories:
i. Chi%1ren #n the Street . 2orking children who have families but spend
most of their time in streets.
ii. Chi%1ren #'' the Street" . )hey do not have a place to live and hence
spend their nights at the railway platforms, bus stands etc. )hey live
independently and usually spend all that they earn in the same day.
iii. A2an1#ne13Or4hane1 Chi%1ren . 2orking children without families or
whose families have abandoned them.
iv. In/i"i2%e Chi%1 La2#ur . hildren work in the unorganized or3and
informal sector. )hey do not come under the purview of law.

CAUSES *OR CHILD LABOUR
4overty
4arental illiteracy and ignorance
)radition of making children to learn the family skills
Absence of universal compulsory 4rimary education
1ocial apathy and tolerance of child labour
Ineffective enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to child labour
5on+availability of and non+accessibility to schools
Irrelevant and non+attractive school curriculum
6mployers prefer children as they constitute cheap labour and they are not
able to organize themselves against e7ploitation
8ther factors economic and political instability, discrimination3casteism,
migration, criminal e7ploitation, lack of work oppourtunities for adults, large
family size, and inade9uate social protection.
CONSE5UENCES O* CHILD LABOUR
1tunted growth of future
generation
Inability to harness human
resources
Inability to contribute and
benefit from development
itizens with accumulated
frustration
Adult unemployment
/epreciation in wages
4erpetuation of poverty
4erpetuation of economic
ine9uality
Increased abuse of children
Increased illiteracy : Ignorant
populace
itizens with inferiority comple7
-alnourished and sick citizens
4olitical instability
6arly morbidity of citizens
-ental deformity of citizens
Increased bottlenecks in the
development process
2asted human resources
2asted human talents and skills
1cientists, artists and persons of
eminence lost due to child labour
HEALTH HA6ARDS DUE TO CHILD LABOUR:
+ chemical hazards to those working in industry, leather and soap shops
+ fire hazards due to lack or blocked e7it door
+ electrocution hazards due to overloaded electrical supplies, e7posed wire and bare
fuse bo7es
+ burns3scalds in food restaurants, fast food industry and bakeries
+ -ower related in$uries like amputation of fingers : toes, eye in$uries by flying rocks
propelled by mower blades and hazards due to pesticides and herbicides.
+ -otor vehicle accidents in newspaper, milk, pizza delivery workers
+ Airborne and dermal e7posure to gasoline, benzene in gas stations
+ ,acerations, amputations : crush in$uries from farm machinery.
+ #lunt trauma from animals
+ -otor vehicle accidents with tractors
+ 1uffocation on grain elevators
+ 67posure to pesticides dermatitis, eczema and respiratory problems in agricultural
work
+ 6arly hearing loss due to e7posure to loud noise from farm machines and vehicles.
PREVENTION O* CHILD LABOUR)
Internati#na% Le/e%)
!. )he International ,abour 8rganization&s International 4rogramme on the 6limination
of hild ,abour 'I46( was created in !;;<
<. =nited 5ations 0eneral Assembly&s resolution on -ay <>>< was 'A 2orld .it for
hildren' which emphasized their member countries to follow principles that prevents
child labour such as put the child first, primary and compulsory education, etc.
Nati#na% %e/e%)
a.In India, the 4arliament passed ?The Chi%1 La2#ur (Pr#hi2iti#n an1 Re&u%ati#n)
Act, 789:& to declare child labour as illegal and make it a punishable act by any
citizen of India. #ased on this act whoever employs any child or permits any child to
work in contravention to this act shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term
which shall not be less than, three months but which may e7tend to one year or with
fine which shall not be less than ten thousand rupees but which may e7tend to twenty
thousand rupees or with both.
b. 1arva 1hiksha Abhiyan was introduced in <>>> attempts to ensure that small
children in the age group of @+A years get directly linked to the formal education
system through the rehabilitation centres.
c.Increased efforts were taken to provide vocational training to the older children
during !>
th
five year plan which includes:
o )he monthly stipend of Bs. !>>3+ per month per child for formal system of
schooling.
o )he amount of Bs. @3+ per child per day for provision of nutrition to the
children in the special schools.
o An institutionalized mechanism for regular and periodical effective health
care of the children by a doctor
o Nati#na% initiati/e '#r chi%1 4r#tecti#n ca;4ai&n was initiated by -inistry
of 1ocial Custice and empowerment to protect the child&s rights.
o A nati#na% t#%% 'ree nu;2er !>;A for <" hours is the first service responds to
the urgent and emergency needs of children such as medical assistance,
shelter, protection from abuse and e7ploitation, assistance in child missing
cases, repatriation, sponsorship, etc.
o Da care center" provides day care services for the children of casual,
migrant, agricultural and construction laborers and implemented through
508s.
o The Nati#na% Creche *un1 children of parents whose monthly income
does not e7ceed Bs. !A>> are eligible for enrolment under this scheme. )hey
provide day care facilities, supplementary nutrition, immunization, medical
and health care and recreation through general creches and Anganwadi+um+
reche centers.
NURSES ROLE:
-aking awareness to the parents about the conse9uences of child labour
6ducating the public about the prevention of child labour
-otivating the child to go to school
-aking the child welfare programme to reach the child and the family.
6ducating the managers, administrators and proprietors of the company the
impact of child labour and their conse9uences in development of country.
4romoting the child to get grants in aid
4roviding rehabilitation of the working children
CONCLUSION:
hild labour is rooted in poverty, unemployment and lack of education. A great deal
of effort is needed to eliminate these basic causes. If the parents, community and the law
making and e7ecuting bodies work together it is easy to abolish the child labour completely
in any country.