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English verb system contrastive approach 2

Written exam
There are 2 pairs of oppositions in English:
Aspect 1: progressive-nonprogressive (structure!hole: impfpf"
Aspect 2: perfect-nonperfect
Progressive-Nonprogressive opposition in English: Tense or Aspect?
Aspect 1 there are several theories to explain this progressive-nonprogressive opposition:
a. Incompletion progressive# $ut this is a problematic theory% because you nee& an ob'ect% ()A*
(+, - )&":
He was reading/he read. He was reading that book.
b. Dration progressive:
They were running/ran. She is running. (real present"
c. !verlapping (temporal frame" se.uence% in some cases:
When I saw them, they were running away./ran away.
$ut% in or&er to explain one notion% !e nee& several theories% several oppositions#
"ir# et al. say that there are $ oppositions:
a# Temporariness general characteristic (sb/s s0ill% ability"% momentary:
He is playing the piano. (real present"
He plays the piano. (s0ill% ability"
ii. %imite& &ration ' habital:
He started typing his own letters these days. (a&verbial of time" (limite& &uration"
He types his own letters# (habitual"
iii. Emotionall(-colore& tone ' ob)ective *netral+ tone:
Helen is always arriving late. (spora&ic repetition1 contunually1 &isapproval% negative%
He is always reading The Times# (ignoring"
- 2tative verbs: He is always believing what she says#
He is always hearing noises.
He is always knowing the answer.
*She is ontinually hating !ill.
- inanimate sub'ects: The train is always arriving late.
"y ar is always breaking down at the wrong time#
iv. Completion: He was reading a book that evening.
He read a book that evening.
- 3omentary verbs 4 prog# usually imply:
a. ,epetition: He was nodding.
He was knok knok knoking on Heaven#s door.
b. Preparation -or the realisation: The plane was landing.
The train was arriving.
- 5onstruction: .e
0 .eing
0 N1A&)
*He is being tall./He is tall.
*The trees are being green./The trees are green.
She is being kind./She is kind. (implication: temporary behaviour"
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Non-progressive verbs
+on-progressive verbs: stative verbs are not usually foun& in progressive# There are 6 groups of non-
progressive verbs:
(1" 2erbs o- perception (see, hear, smell, $eel, taste"
(2" 2erbs o- cognition ' emotions (think, believe, love, hate"
(6" ,elational verbs (resemble, own"
Explanation to !hy stative verbs are not foun& in the progressive: &uration7 This explanation is not
acceptable% because &uration is an integral part of the meaning of stative verbs# $ut% &ynamic verbs swim,
run also have &uration% an& !e use them in progressive# A better explanation is through 2en&ler3s t(pes:
states have no &evelopment% no progress1 if there is no progress% it is not compatible !ith progressive#
*1+ 2E,.S !4 PE,CEPTI!N: !hen they &enote an involuntary situation% they are non-progressive
(not on purpose% not controlling the situation":
This mediine tastes bitter.
%o you hear the noise outside&
This material $eels like wool.
- 8oluntary situation !ith a slightly &ifferent meaning: then they A9E in the progressive:
5ear:The 'udge is hearing the witnesses# (interrogating"
See: The diretor is seeing the andidates. (intervie!ing"
They are seeing the sights o$ (ondon.
He is seeing his girl$riend o$$.
4eel: This $ork $eels heavy# (simply perception"
She $elt that she was making a mistake# (cognition"
The dotor was $eeling the boy)s arm# (touching"
Smell: The dog was smelling the $ish# (sniffing% activity"
Taste: The ook is tasting the dish# (voluntary"
- Palmer: ,)*:2E3: S"*((, +**(, T,ST* have &ifferent% relate& meanings# Three 0in&s of
relate& meaning:
a. Involntar(6 nonprogressive6 2t6 7having a sensation8 9 sub'ect is not &oing it on purpose:
I smell the $lowers. I taste salt in the soup. I $eel sth smooth.
b. involntar(6 nonprogressive6 copla 0 Cs6 7having the :alit( to pro&ce a sensation8% the
ob'ect of the 1
type becomes the sub'ect of the 2
The $lowers smell lovely. The soup tastes nie.The loth $eels smooth.
c. Progressive6 volntar(6 2t: 7act in or&er to achieve a sensation8 9 voluntariness relate& to
the sub'ects: I)m smelling the $lowers. The ook is tasting the soup. I)m $eeling the loth.
- ;o!ever% 2EE% ;EA9 have &ifferent lexemes use& for these 6 relate& meanings:
I see my sister. She looks well. I)m looking at my sister.
I hear musi. It sounds nie. I)m listening to musi.
*;+ 2E,.S !4 C!<NITI!N AND E=!TI!N - in progressive !hen they have an emotionally
coloure& tone% or in specific contexts or meanings:
o &i--er: He is always di$$ering $rom his olleagues#
o -in&: She is ontinually $inding $aults with me.
o -orget: ,re you $orgetting your manners&
o hope: They are always hoping to win the $irst pri-e.
o imagine: He is always imagining dangers that do not
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
o min&: %o you mind i$ I smoke& / She is minding the baby# (not emotionally coloure&%
&ynamic verb"
o thin#/ I think he is the right person $or the 'ob. We are thinking o$ going to Italy#
*>+ ,E%ATI!NA% 2E,.S only exceptionally in progressive% !ith a slightly &ifferent% specific
hol&: This bottle holds 0 liters o$ milk. (stative" I)m holding a piee o$ paper# (&ynamic"
resemble: She is resembling her $ather more and more. (gra&ual process"
Progressive aspect an& %e/ical-<rammatical Interaction
2ome semantic features of verbs interact !ith the progressive aspect: &uration% telicity% an& stativity#
a# <uration :
4&ur% 4prog
-&ur% 4prog (but% meaning of repetition or preparation"
b# 2tativity :
4stat% 4prog= (not possible"
- stat% - prog
c# Telicity :
20 NP: He painted a piture# (goal" He was painting a piture# (goal is
neutrali>e&% but still there"
Phrasal verbs: The house burnt down# (telic"
The house was burning down, but the $iremen arrived in time# (starte&
to &evelop% but &i&n?t reach the goal it !as again neutrali>e&"
2erbs ?ith pre-i/es: He rewrote a novel#(4telic" He was rewriting (goal
Coplas 0 Cs: The leaves turned yellow/are turning#
Decompose& pre&icate: She was making a remark#
+$# St(le: They began rying. (nonprog% -ing"
They are beginning to ry. (prog% inf"
*They are beginning rying. stylistically inacceptable% you shoul& avoi& using
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Per-ect-Nonper-ect opposition in English: Aspect or Tense?
@s ,resent ,erfect a location in time (!hen"7 +ot really#
They bought a new book. They have bought a new book.
3eaning is A, T) +)W% not exactly !hen it happene&# @t is more aspect than tense# Arguments: tense
shoul& imply location in time1 it?s not a present tense% because present shoul& be having sth to &o !ith
present actions% it shoul& be &enoting real present:
He has bought that book now# (finally% eventually"
@t?s not a past tense% because it cannot be use& !ith specific time a&verbials
Present Per-ect vs. Past Nonprogressive: (Buir0 et al#" several oppositions use& to sho! ho! they &iffer:
1" He lived in 1aris $or 23 years# (no! exclu&e&"
He has lived (no! inclu&e&"
2" His $ather has been a butler his whole li$e# (still alive"
His $ather was a butler### (may not be alive"
6" +or years 4epal has produed world)s greatest soldiers.
Sparta produed/*has produed... (&oes not exist anymore% that iss !hy !e cannot use it in the
present perfect" (extralinguistic 0no!le&ge necessary "
C" %id you hear him play&
Have you heard him play&
Present Per-ect vs. Past simple:
He has ut/ut his $inger.
He has in'ured his ankle and it is still bad/but it is better now. (contra&ictory"
3eaning is A, T) +)W1 vague temporal componenttemporal segment# ;as an aspectual component#
9epresents continuation% result% conse.uences% not temporal location#
Past ' 4tre Per-ect:
5learer temporal component1 it is up to then past or future1 aspectual component:
!y 23 o)lok he had been working $or 5 hours.
In 0336 he had known them $or 6 years.
He was ill beause he had eaten so muh. (conse.uence% result"
!y 7 o)lok I)ll have repaired the ar.
!y ,ugust, we)ll have been at the seaside $or a $ortnight.
@t is systematically expresse& in a language% in all temporal segments: past% present an& future# There are
temporal an& aspectual component (but it is more treate& as aspect"1 not saying anything about the situation
itself lin0s the situation to a specific point in time (no!% futureD"#
<efinition of per-ect aspect: it represents a lin0 bet!een a situation an& a pointperio& of time#
Theories abot Present Per-ect an& T(pes o- Present Per-ect
6 most fre.uent theories about present perfect:
1. Crrent relevance *C,+: a lin0 A, T) +)W% !e use present perfect because situation is still
relevantvali& because it is:
A. ,ecent ('ust happene&": They have 'ust arrived.
.. Contination :They have lived here sine 2896.
C. Conse:ence1reslt: They have arrived.
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
,roblem7 +o ob'ective external measure of relevance# What is in use is relevant% so it is &ifficult for
the learners# Also% there are other uses of present perfect besi&es this#
;. In&e-inite past: refers to past section% but !e?re not sure exactly !hen1 this past segment is
narro!e& &o!n by using 'ustrecently#
*He has le$t yesterday.He has 'ust le$t.
>. E/ten&e& no? *EN+ refers to present segment% aroun& no!% refers to conse.uences#
T(pes o- Present Per-ect:
A lin0 bet!een a situation an& no!# )n the basis of this lin0 !e have four types of pp:
a# Present Per-ect o- reslt results or conse.uences are still present in the present segment
!ill has arrived# (emphasi>es that he is still present here1 notion of conse.uence is
rather relativesub'ective"
b# E/periential at least once in sb?s lifetime% negative experience: never in sb?s lifetime#
:ou can narro! it &o!n: She has been/gone to !ra-il sine the war#
c# Persistent sitation continuation up to no!:
She has shopped here $or a long time. I)ve known her sine hildhood#
&# &. ,ecent past couple of minutes ago: She has 'ust gone to bed.
Present Per-ect Progressive (Aspect 1 4 Aspect 2":
Process6 possible &ration6 not complete&: She has been writing a letter to her sister. Who has
been eating my dinner&
=omentar( verbs: repetition She has been starting her ar# an& continuation 4 repetition: I)ve
been knok knok knoking on Heaven#s %oor $or 23 minutes#
E--ects still present6 e/planation: :ou)ve been $ighting again. I)ve been painting the $lat#
Temporar( habit6 p to no?: He)s been soring plenty o$ goals this season.
Passive7 This organi-ation has been being run by volunteers.
Some stative verbs: They have been wanting to tell you. We have been wishing to speak to you#
He has painted the bathroom. (complete&"
He has been painting# (in&icates the 0in& of activity"
Speci-ies the nmber: How many pages o$ that book have you read&*been reading
,estrictions on the se o- Present Per-ect: there has to be a lin0 !ith no!1 activepassive &iffer:
**instein has visited 1rineton.
1rineton has been visited by *instein. (,rinceton still exists"
*"aro 1olo has limbed that mountain. (but if you a&& ;and many others have< there is a lin0 to
no! an& it is acceptable"
Shakespeare has written impressive dramas. (there is a lin0 to no!"
*Shakespeare has met every playwright in (ondon.
Present per-ect an& a&verbials:
a# @ithot an( a&verbial: Her ar has been stolen# (recent"1 She has been to =slo# (experiential"
b# E/periential pp (ever, never, many times, sine, so $ar, up to now": They have never been to India.
c# ,ecent past ('ust, reently": Have you been there reently&
&# Persistent (sine, $or some time"
e# Same a&verbials ?ith pp an& past simple: specific past time a&verbials are not use& !ith present
perfect1 always, o$ten% this week are use&#
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
:ou have always been kind to them.He always traveled with him.
%id he ever go t see his parents&Have you ever tried that&
He o$ten met her parents. He has o$ten told that story.
Per-ect aspect an& le/ical-grammatical interaction
2tativity% &uration an& telicity no bloc0ing#
Types of present perfect an& ten&encies relate& to these types:
4st persistent situations
4&ur experiential situations
-&ur result% recent past (momentary verbs"
4telic result
Past Per-ect
2 past situations% one prece&ing one follo!ing1 before ,A2T% up to then (in the past"# @t has both temporal
an& aspectal component# 9e.uires a specific time a&verbial:
Aspectal component:
This letter had arrived on ,pril 23
The house had been empty $or 23 years.
The goalkeeper had in'ured his leg and ould not play.
Past simple: I had my lunh when my wi$e ame/had ome bak $rom shopping# (!e nee& context"
Past per-ect: This book had been lying there $or years# (continuation up to then"
When I arrived, he had 'ust le$t. (recent% Fbefore pastG"
Temporal relations of the t!o past situations:
a" The first past situation is still contining !hen the secon& past situation begins: She had lived in
that $lat $or years and did not want to move.
b" Stoppe& some time be-ore: He had served in the army $or 03 years, and then he retired and
c" Stoppe& imme&iatel( be-ore: He had been waiting $or his sister and was angry when she
,le -or se o- Past Per-ect: !e nee& t?o past sitations an& a chronological inversion: Floo0ing bac0G
past is the starting point% an& then you loo0 bac0 further into the past# @f the situations are mentione& in
their chronological or&er% there is no nee& to use past perfect#
He met her in 2888 when she was a student. He met her again when she was a lawyer. (past
simple" She heard voies and reali-ed that there were three persons in the ne.t room.
- 5hronological inversion:
She graduated at 0>. Her parents had divored 0 years be$ore.
She saw empty glasses and reali-ed that three persons had been in the room#
Past Per-ect in Temporal clases:
a# @hen6 as soon as !e nee& context1 if an earlier situation is short an& imme&iately prece&ing%
you &on?t have to use past perfect: When she opened the window, the bird $lew out.
When he had losed the window, they opened the age. (emphasis on completion"
b# .e-ore in main an& in subor&inate clauses:
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
?They had leaned the house@ be$ore the guests arrived.
2ubor&inate clauses specific:
The teaher took my paper be$ore I had $inished the test# (too0-finish-no!"#
!e$ore we had walked/walked 23 miles, he omplained o$ his sore $eet. (complain1I
c# A-ter: ,$ter the will was/had been read, there were angry e.lamations.
Past Per-ect progressive
A# Contination p to then (in the past":
It was A and he was tired beause he had been working sine dawn# (persistent situation up to then"
$# ,epetition use& !ith momentary verbs: He had been trying to all her#
5# Incompletion progressive suggests no specification of completion: He had been repairing his
ar# vs# He had repaired the ar. (in&icates that it !as complete&"
Past Per-ect an& its Serbian e:ivalents *%. Spalatin+
*# 2palatin: The *nglish 1ast 1er$et and its SerboBCroatian eDuivalents E2862F.
i" Ases of past perfect nonprogressive as secon&ary past in main an& subor&inate clauses% an& as
primary past:
secon&ar( (before past":
o main clauses
o subor&inate clauses
primar( past (before +)W"
ii" Author?s hypothesis (centre of interest"
iii" 25 e.uivalents
Primar( an& secon&ar( past : not a point in the past% but segments (several past situations": before no! is
a segment of primary past# We have several past sitations in the segment of primary past% an& you &on?t
have to use past perfect even if you have several past situations:
He was punished beause he broke the window.
Centre o- interest (the author?s hypothesis": if you &on?t use past perfect for the past situation% you
emphasi>e temporally last member (note that this is only a hypothesis"# @f you use past perfect% you
emphasiAe an earlier sitation% give it prominence% an& this allo!s us to shi-t interest#
When he heard that he turned pale# (past simple% emphasi>e&"
When she reahed her house, she $ound that burglars had broken into and had taken the silver.
(un&erline& clearly belongs to secon&ary past section% that?s !hy !e use past perfect"
Ases of ,ast ,erfect in:
1.=ain clases1simple clases:
I hardly knew !ill. He had always been a loner.
- 2erbo-5roatian e.uivalent is plper-ect *pls#vamper-e#at+ even though it is rare an& obsolete1 a
better e.uivalent is per-ect *per-e#at+#
4othing so thrilling had happened there $or years.
- @n 2erbian% you can use a&verbials such as veG, rani'e 4 perfe0at:
HeG godinama se tamo ni'e desilo neIto tako u-budl'ivo.
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
He had been a butler in very good $amilies. J 4ekada 'e bioK
;.Sbor&inate clases:
- Temporal:
He got up $rom the table where he had been reading. L Mstao 'e od stola gde 'e Nitao# (>bog
semanti0e glagola ustati vi&i se 0o'a 'e ra&n'a bila pre% pa 'e moguKe upotrebiti perfe0at u
When I arrived, he le$t/had le$t. Oada sam stigla, on 'e veG EbioF otiIao. (both possible1
otiIao ambiguous"
When I arrived, he was leaving# (simultaneous" =n 'e odla-io.
- Se:ence o- tenses:
He said that he had lived in "adrid $or 9 years# (ambiguous because it can be either present
perfect or simple past shifte&" ,revo&: you can use either present or perfect to &isambiguate
(Pivi/Piveo 'e"#
- Some other clases:
He stayed at home beause it was raining# padala kiIa
He stayed at home beause it had rained# pala kiIa (again% impfpf &istinction in 2erbian"
>. Primar( past: not typical section% use& for exceptions1 in the con&itionals an& sub'unctive:
I wish he had e.plained it properly. (past"
I$ he had bought the tikets, we would haveK
:ou talk as i$ you had been there.
,rimary past is use& to emphasiAe nonrealisation o- past sitations:
I had e.peted to overtake him, but he was nowhere to be seen.
@f there is no emphasis% you can use simple past#
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
=lti-?or& verbs in English
This is a significant topic% often &iscusse& in the !or0boo0s # :ou nee& to learn phrasal verbs in or&er to
soun& natural#
Terminology: multi-!or& verbs (viMeNlani glagoli" is a cover term% general% tells only that !e have more
than one element an& that !e are tal0ing about verbs# E#g# to doubleBross O to double hek are not
phrasal verbs this sho!s that the term is too general an& that it implies things that are not phrasal verbs#
Ase& terms:
T?o-?or& verbs &oesn?t say !hich elements% too general (7to take part"
2erb-a&verb combination coul& be any combination% li0e run Duikly% but this is too general#
Phrasal verbs some grammarians use it only for the i&iomatic combinations li0e bring up# $ut%
e#g# eat up !oul& ot be inclu&e& accor&ing to some authors#
Separable an& inseparable combinations: brought them up% =looked them at
Discontine& verbs: to take part &oesn?t say !hich elements
Compon& verbs compoun&s are single lexemes !ith 2 bases% too general term% you cannot
inclu&e all the compoun&s (to househunt"#
Types of phrasal verbs:
o Phrasal verb: combination of verb4a&verbial particle Ebring upF
o Prepositional verbs: verb4prepositional particle Elook atF
o Phrasal-prepositional verb: verb4a&verb particle4prepositional particle: put up !ith
5haracteristics of phrasal verbs:
a" Not completel( -reel( -orme&# @f you !ant to get the opposite meaning you cannot
simply use the opposite particle: look a$ter% *look be$ore#
b" 5ighl( pro&ctive constrctions# Por t!o reasons: style (often informal"% variation an&
familiarity of elements: fre.uent &omesticnot borro!e& verbs an& fre.uent% usually
monosyllabic particles !hich ma0es them easy to form an& combine#
Criteria -or &elimitation:
D?ight .olinger being a phrasal verb is a matter of &egree# There are many bor&erline cases# Especially
&ifficult to ma0e a &istinction bet!een a multi-!or& verbs an& 84,,# That is !hy !e nee& criteria an&
@# The combination shoul& have semantic coherence it shoul& be a semantic unit% have its o!n
meaning# E#g# look a$ter has a meaning as a unit1 look be$ore sb every unit 0eeps its meaning#
@@# ,eplaceabilit( b( one-?or& verb (not al!ays possible": ount out Q exclu&e#
@@@# Passivisation: if 8t% !e shoul& be able to passivise it: They turned down the proposal. (The
proposal was turned down#"
@8# PP 9 a&verbials: The postman turned ?down the road@# vs# The manager ?turned down@ ?the
8# "estions: !hen% !here% !hat% !hom: Where did the postmanK& (for a&verbials" What/to whom
didK& (for )&"
=eaning an& i&iomaticit( : The combinations have a specific meaning they have a special level of
i&iomaticity# There are three levels of i&iomaticity:
a" 4ll( transparent both parts retain their basic meaning (stand up, run away"
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
b" Semi-i&iomatic verb retains its basic meaning% meaning of the particle is exten&e&% it is an
intensifier% &enotes completion (drink up, wipe downF
c" 4ll( i&iomatic both have completely abstract meaning (turn down, give up"
5)3,A9E: The ommittee went into the room/into the problem.
Nons an& a&)ectives -orme& -rom mlti-?or& verbs
Three basic !ays:
a# change the stress: run away J runaway - in the secon& !or& its on the first part% !ritten as 1
!or&% or it can be !ritten !ith a hyphen: make up J makeBup#
b# particle se& as a pre-i/: break out J outbreak
c# &erivational a--i/es *-ing+: growing up, dressing up
&# a&)ectives past participle (-en" 4 hyphen (a brokenBdown ar% a builtBin element, an o$$Bputting
=lti-?or& verbs an& collocations in English
<ifferent meanings (up to 1E"% &epen&ing on the collocation (+, !hich follo!s":
PBT !N a ap/'aket/glasses, per$ume/makeup, a C%/%H%, a show/e.hibition/play, a lamp,
o$$ee/steak, a new lok, weight, speed, put the money on sb, emphasis, a tattoo, airs, the dog
(behave in a gran&% unpleasant !ay"#
D! BP a house (repair"% $ae, hair (ma0e ti&y"% a book/dress (put together"#
PICC BP a book/bag, the newspaper/phone, somebody, a habit, signals, in$ormation, speed, the
word, the piees, the Duestioning, top assignments#
Translation sometimes a prefix:
- burn up i>goreti
- wear out istroMiti
Transitivity: sometimes it is change& after the a&&ition of the particle:
- give% vt give in% vi
- look% vi look up% vt
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Phrasal-prepositional verbs
<efinition: v 4 a&verbial particle 4 prepositional particle
ath up with, ome/go down with, ut down on, walk out on
5haracteristics of phrasal-prepositional verbs:
a. =eaning - all the 6 elements represent a unit6 not a phrasal verb 4 a particle:
I an)t put up with her. (tolerate" :ou an put up with "rs !rown# (stay"
The thie$ got away with her purse. / He an get away with anything.
b. .oth particles 0 ?h-?or&:
*The woman with whom I annot put.
*This is something up with whih I annot put.
c. Passivisation:
:ou an)t put up with her.She an)t be put up with.
He walked up with his $riends.*His $riends were walked up with.
&. "estions: )& (!hat!ho"
Tom will keep on with his work. L What will he keep on with&
She will $ill in $or the C*=. L Whom will she $ill in $or&
e. A&verbial insertion: The polieman aught up Duikly with the riminals. * Caught up with
Duikly riminals.
-. !& an& prepositional ob)ect: He an put his suesses down to hard work#
g. I&iomaticit(:
arry on with not highly i&iomatic
get along with highly i&iomatic (get not the basic meaning"
stay away $rom not i&iomatic
go down with i&iomatic
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Phrasal verbs
<efinition : 8
4 a&verb particle
He alled the on$erene o$$. vs# The plain had taken o$$.
The same combination can sometimes be use& both transitively an& intransitively:
Turn the ar around and bak it up.vs# :ou)ll have to turn around and bak.
A. P5!N!%!<ICA%: stress the a&verbial particle is usually stresse& especially if it?s in the final
He alled up the man. The man was alled up.
This is not the man I was looking Qup. I was Qlooking at# (preposition% not a&verbial particle"
@f you !ant to emphasi>e something else you might stress the 8: Shall we sell it or Qthrow it away&
.. SDNTACTIC characteristics:
1# Position o- the particle:
if 2t an& the )& is a relatively short +,% both are possible: Oen looked up the words.
or Oen looked the words up#
@f the ob'ect is rather long the other version is not possible: Tom sent away the boy
who brought the message#
@f the ob'ect is a pronon% particle has to follo! it: *"ary looked up them/them up#
a+ @f the pronon is stresse&: (ive out Qthem i$ you don)t have the moneyD
b+ Coor&inate& pronons: !ring along him and her#
c+ Stresse& re-le/ive pronons: ,m I supposed to hek o$$ Qmysel$ on this list&
&+ !ther: Take up daning. Carry on eating. Start out thinking#
@f 2i !or& or&er: Come Qyou in 1otterR (a&&ressee% inserte& for emphasis"
non-interrogative inversion (stylistic effect": =ut go the andles.
*The ar piked the speed up. (abstract noun mora &a bu&e ispre&"
The ar piked the hithhikers up# (&epen&s on the type of noun"
She ried her eyes out/*out her eyes. She laughed her head o$$/*o$$ her head#
(fixe& !or& or&er"
;. A&verbial insertion :
Helen Duikly piked up her leg. (typical"
Helen piked up her leg Duikly. (typical"
* Helen piked Duikly up her leg. (cannot insert it bet!een 8 an& particle"
>. Particle in relative clase : particle 0 relative pronon:
* The man up whom they alled/whom they alled up.
C. SE=ANTIC characteristics: at the bor&er bet!een syntax (the particle can change position" an&
morphology(they are lexical units"# <# $olinger &iscusses i&iomaticity an& &ivi&es them into:
a+ -irst-level metaphors verb retains its basic meaning% particle has exten&e& meaning
(load up"
b+ secon&-level metaphors both verb an& particle exten& their meaning (make up"
c+ thir&-level metaphor completely i&iomatic% they even have a specific +, !ith !hich
they occur (turn over a new lea$, out on airF.
%evel o- i&iomaticit( is significant also for syntactic behaviour% not 'ust meaning# Ten&encies for
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
a+ highl( i&iomatic fronting of the particle is less possible: down they sat/away he $lew (less
i&iomatic"% =out they $ound (not possible"
b+ a&verbial insertion: usually% highly i&iomatic combinations &o not allo! it: the money he gave
happily away/*the sub'et he brought angrily up#
4. Palmer (semantic features" also !rites about i&iomaticity#
- some phrasal verbs have a literal meaning: verbs of motion 4 &irection (particle &enotes it"1 the
entire combination &enotes the reslting position (SM4 M1/ He ran the $lag up#"% but% there is a
limite& number of examples#
- not literal meaning: The work piled up. They speeded up#
- completel( i&iomatic combinations: give up#
- )ften% the position o- the particle &epen&s on i&iomaticit(# 4ll( i&iomatic combinations &o not
usually separate verb an& particle:
They overed up the rime. The overed the body up# (possible% not i&iomatic"
*He put the $ight up.*They $ound the truth out#
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Prepositional verbs
<efiniton: 2 0 prepositional particle: aount $or, deal with, believe inD
+ot 8 4 ,,S
The verb is al!ays 8t an& !e have a unit !hich is al!ays follo!e& by an +, (re.uire complementation":
He took me $or a man he knew.
They deprived the hildren o$ their rights. (t!o +,s% one is an )&% the secon& a compliment of the
,assivisation proves !hich one is !hich: set $ire to sth#
i# P5!N!%!<ICA% (stress": prepositional particle here is usually not stresse&:
He is not the person I was Qlooking at#
2tresse& only to emphasi>e the contrast: He ran Qup the hill, not Qdown# (t!o-syllable particles are
stresse&% at least one syllable must be stresse&"
ii# SDNTACTIC characteristics:
a" position o- the particle particle al!ays has to prece&e the )&:
(ook at these pitures. (ook at them. =(ook these pitures at.
b" a&verbial insertion usually possible:
He laughed heartily at the 'oke.
The pupils listened are$ully to the leturer.
c" relative clase - you can have a particle follo!e& by a relative pronoun#
The man at whom they looked#
&" Passivisation - usually not possible% but there are some exceptions:
They were being looked a$ter.
&This bed has been slept in. (Mta 'e >apravo sub'e0atob'e0at"
iii# SE=ANTIC characteristics: &ifferent levels of @<@)3AT@5@T: usually less i&iomatic than
phrasal verbs# There are &ifferent levels of i&iomaticity:
She looked a$ter the hildren# (highly i&iomatic"
He ame into a $ortune. (not so much"
:ou an ?see through@ ?his deeption@.
:ou an ?see@ ?through the glass@.
Particle6 a&verb or preposition?
They ame in. (a&verb"
They sat in the hair. (preposition"
We nee& TESTS to establish the nature of the particle:
1. P5!N!%!<ICA% (stress": possible% yet not reliable (a lot of exceptions"
a+ position o- the particle +,pronoun particle: He alled o$$ the on$erene/the
on$erene o$$. He alled it o$$/*o$$ it# ,repositional particle can only precee&#
b+ relative clase: *the on$erene o$$ whih he alled, the girl at whih he was looking
Coor&inate& particles - !e can coor&inate them !ithout repeating the verb:
He wrote it over and over. He went on and on# (emphasis an& continuation"
He swithed the light on and o$$. She was pulling her gloves on and o$$# (opposite meaning"
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Particles in phrasal verbs 9 aspect or Aktionsart *%. .rinton+
*# $rinton Herb 1artiles in *nglish J ,spet or ,ktionsart&
8erbs an& particles form cohesive meaning units# They create some syntactic an& semantic problems:
1. S(ntactic: particles can ta0e &ifferent positions#
;. Semantic: meaning of the particle an& its function# ,articles have to &o something !ith aspect%
but in a non-systematic !ay# That?s !hy the particles are calle& resultative% conclusive%
2he believes that it is important to ma0e that &istinction bet!een aspect an& A0tionsart1 particles &o not
&enote perfective aspect% but telic A0tionsart (they are relate& to telicity"# $ut this &istinction is a blurre&
one# (rammatical an& lexical opposition#
Arguments for telic A0tionsart:
1. Phasal verbs: you can use 8 4 particle !ith these:
The shoes are starting to wear out.
She ontinued tearing up the letter#(if particles !ere &enoting perfective aspect (!hole"% this
structures !oul& not be possible"
2# The strctre: Take some time to. It took her a year to use up the supplies# (proof that it is telic
(achievement or accomplishment" =8en&ler?s tests "
6# In an hor: They arried out the order in an hour. (again% this is a proof that it is telic (behaves
li0e ach or acc""
C# Almost: They almost voted down the proposal# (starte& but &i& not finish"
,articles &enote telicity% not perfect aspect#
;o!ever% there are t?o problems:
A# ach1acc *telic+ 0 particle *&enotes telicit(+ 9 !hy a&& a particle to something that is alrea&y telic7
We haven?t foun& out the ans!er re-emphasi>es telicity:
The party is breaking up.
The speakers o$ that language are dying o$$# (use& in the progressive% has &istributive
meaning% gra&ually happening"
$# on6 along6 a?a( - &o not &enote telicity% but continuation:
We drove on/along.
:ou should arry on with your work. (sometimes they &enote continuative A0tionsart"
States an& particles particles !hich &enote telicity are not combine& !ith stative verbs# @t?s another
argument for telicity# ,articles &enote telicity% but states are not telic#
I had some $riends over# (here it?s not a stative verb% it has a &ynamic meaning"
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
Easen#a =iFeta-.ra&ariG6
Kontrastivna analiza engleskih sloenih glagola i njihovih prijevodnih ekvivalenata
1" <efinitions an& terminology
2" T?We&&e& ,airs??
6" 3ost fre.uent verbs an& particles
C" 8ariety of meanings an& collocations% !ith ,AT )+% <) A,% ,@5U A,
E" 8ocabulary becomes richer% or too many ambiguities create&7
H" Translations% transitivity% aspect
2F SloPeni glagol a verb in combination !ith a particle (a&verbial or prepositional" !hich represents a
ne! lexical unit an& has a &ifferent meaning than the components it consists of1 the verb is usually short%
fre.uent an& has a general meaning ((ET% TAUE% ,AT etc#"1 sometimes &iscontinuous#
@nformal% every&ay speech:
He ame into the room, piked up a book, looked at it asually, put it down and went out.
He entered the room, sei-ed a book, e.amined it, disarded it and departed.
Terms: phrasal verbs% verb-particle compoun&s% &iscontinuous verbs% t!o-!or& verbs% compun& verbs etc1
Particles: a&verbial an& prepositional% ambiguities:
He got over the idea#
a" phrasal: manage& to communicate
b" prepositional: manage& to forget
Two ators made up#
+ot every combination of a verb an& an a&verb is a phrasal verb: EAT A, vs# EAT )AT% ;E TA9+E<
)PP T;E *@(;TT;E 9)A<#
5ombinations are not freely forme&:
,AT A, W@T; - =,AT <)W+ W@T;)AT
;+ @EDDED PAI,S: closely lin0e&% verb &oes not exist !ithout the particle% e#g#:
a" peter out to become smaller% less intense
The traks petered out a mile or two later.
b" clutter up pile up
The room was luttered up with books.
c" keel over fall si&e!ays
=ne o$ the athletes keeled over and was rushed to hospital.
&" auction off sell at an auction
e" cave in collapse in!ar&s
The eiling aved in...
f" dole out &istribute
She doled out the sandwihes.
g" jot down - !rite &o!n
6" The most fre.uent verbs an& particles:
a" verbs: bring, ome, do, get, go, put, take% turn1
b" particles: up, down, in, out, on, o$$, over.
English verb system contrastive approach 2
Written exam
C" <ifferent meanings (up to 1E"% &epen&ing on the collocation (+, !hich follo!s":
PBT !N a ap/'aket/glasses, per$ume/makeup, a C%/%H%, a show/e.hibition/play, a lamp,
o$$ee/steak, a new lok, weight, speed, put the money on sb, emphasis, a tattoo, airs, the dog
(behave in a gran&% unpleasant !ay"#
D! BP a house (repair"% $ae, hair (ma0e ti&y"% a book/dress (put together"#
PICC BP a book/bag, the newspaper/phone, somebody, a habit, signals, in$ormation, speed, the
word, the piees, the Duestioning, top assignments#
H+ Translation sometimes a prefix:
- burn up i>goreti
- wear out istroMiti
Transitivit(: sometimes it is change& after the a&&ition of the particle:
- give% vt give in% vi
- look% vi look up% vt
,articles an& aspect: ingressive (set out, bring up"% per-ective (eat up, use up"7