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Module 2 (AQA)

Energetics
Enthalpy Change
Definition: Enthalpy Change (H) is the heat energy exchange with the
surroundings at constant pressure.
Reactions
During Exothermic Reactions heat energy is released to the
surroundings.
o !his "eans that the change in te"perature (!) is positive#
o $ut the enthalpy change (H) is negative %ecause heat energy
has %een lost %y the reaction to the surroundings.
During Endothermic Reactions heat energy is ta&en in 'ro" the
surroundings.
o !his "eans that the change in te"perature (!) is negative
o $ut the enthalpy change (H) is positive %ecause heat energy
has %een gained %y the reaction 'ro" the surroundings.
Standard Enthalpy Changes
(tandard enthalpy changes are notated as H) "eaning the enthalpy
change that ta&es place under standard conditions i.e. *++&,a and a
stated te"perature. !here are two standard enthalpy changes we
need to &now a%out-
Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion:
Definition: !he (tandard Enthalpy o' Co"%ustion (H)
c
) is the energy
change when one "ole o' a su%stance is %urned co"pletely in
oxygen under standard conditions and in its standard state.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation:
Definition: !he (tandard Enthalpy o' .or"ation (H)
'
) is the energy
change when one "ole o' a su%stance is 'or"ed 'ro" its
ele"ents in their standard states under standard conditions.
Calorimetry
Calculating Enthalpy Changes
!he heat energy change (Q) in the surroundings can %e calculated using the
'ollowing 'or"ula-
Q / mc!
0here-
m is the mass o' the surroundings that experience the te"perature
change
c is the specific heat capacity o' the surroundings
! is the temperature change ('inal te"perature 1 initial
te"perature)
Example
Addition o' an excess o' "agnesiu" to *++c"
2
o' 2.++ "ol d"
32
Cu(4
5
(a6)
raised the te"perature 'ro" 2+.+)C to 78.+)C. .ind the enthalpy change 'or
the reaction-
Mg(s) 9 Cu(4
5
(a6) Mg(4
5
(a6) 9 Cu(s)
(peci'ic heat capacity o' solution (c) / 5.*: ; g
3*
<
3*
Density o' solution / *.++ g c"
32
(!E, *- .=>D !HE HEA! E>E?@A CHA>@E-
Q / "c!
Q / B
" / *++g
c / 5.*: ; g
3*
<
3*
! / 58.+)C
Q / *++ x 5.*: x 58 / "##"$ %
!his is the energy gain to the surroundingsC there'ore the loss 'ro" the
reactions is &"##"$ %.
(!E, 2- .=>D !HE M4DE( !HA! ?EAC!ED-
A"ount ("oles) o' Cu(4
5
that reacted / 2.++ x *++ / +.2++ "ol
*+++
(!E, 2- (CADE !HE QEA>!=!=E(-
.ro" wor&ing a%oFe- +.2++ "ol o' Cu(4
5
/ H o' 3*::*+ ;
!here'ore * "ol o' Cu(4
5
/ H o' 3*::*+G+.2 / 3H5+8+ ;
/ 3H5.* &I "ol
3*
(2 s.'.)
Simple 'pplications of (ess) *a+
Definition: HessJ Daw states that the total enthalpy change 'or a reaction
is always the sa"e regardless o' which route is ta&en.
.or exa"ple-
$
C
Enthalpy H
?eactants
$y 'ollowing the arrows 'ro" reactants to products we get two routes-
?4E!E *- A 9 $ 9 C
?4E!E 2- D
$y HessJ Daw the total enthalpy change is the sa"e 'or each route
there'ore- A 9 $ 9 C / D
And there'ore i' three o' these enthalpy changes are &nown the 'ourth can
%e 'ound.
0hen using (,
c
data to 'ind an enthalpy change 'or a reaction use
-R.D/C!S 0 RE'C!'1!S2
0hen using (,
f
data to 'ind an enthalpy change 'or a reaction use
RE'C!'1!S 0 -R.D/C!S2
3ond Enthalpies
Definition: $ond Enthalpy is the enthalpy change re6uired to %rea& and
separate one "ole o' %onds in the "olecules o' a gaseous
ele"ent or co"pound so that the resulting gaseous species
exert no 'orces upon each other.
4n order to find the enthalpy change of a reaction using bond
enthalpies5 use the follo+ing formula:
( 6 78enthalpies of bonds bro9en: & 78enthalpies of bonds formed:
Example
Ese the data giFen to 'ind the enthalpy change 'or the 'ollowing reaction-
C
2
H
5
(g) 9 24
2
(g) 2C4
2
(g) 9 2H
2
4(g)
,roducts
A
D
?eaction ,athway
$onds $ro&en- C
2
H
5
/ (* x C/C) 9 (5 x C3H) / 7*2 9 (5 x 5*2) / 2275
24
2
/ (2 x 4/4) / 2 x 5HK / *5H*
!otal 6 ;;<= > "=?" 6 @ABB
$onds .or"ed- 2C4
2
/ 2 x (2 x C/4) / 2 x (2 x K5+) / 2H7+
2H
2
4 / 2 x (2 x 43H) / 2 x (2 x 572) / *:82
!otal 6 ;?<$ > "#B; 6 =#";
( 6 78bonds bro9en: & 78bonds formed: 6 @ABB 0 =#"; 6 &"$BA

Cinetics
Collision !heory
Definition: ?eactions can only occur when collisions ta&e place %etween
particles with (E..=C=E>! E>E?@A.
Data
Bond
Mean
bond
enthalpy
C-H 413
C=O 740
O=O 497
O-H 463
C=C 612
C-C 347
Dax+ell&3oltEmann Distribution
!he Dax+ell&3oltEmann distribution sho+s the distribution of molecular
energies in a gas at a constant temperature
Characteristics of the Dax+ell&3oltEmann Distribution
Dost gas molecules have energies +ithin a comparatively narro+
range2
!he curve +ill only meet the energy axis at infinity energy2 1o
molecules have Eero energy 8curve starts at the origin:
!he area under the curve gives the total number of gas molecules2
.nly those molecules +ith more energy than the activation energy
of the reaction are able to react2
Factors 'ffecting Reaction Rate
ConcentrationF-ressure and -hysical State
ConcentrationF-ressure:
=' the concentration o' a reactant (or the pressure 'or gases) is increased-
!here are "ore particles present per Folu"e
More collisions ta&e place each second
More collisions exceed the actiFation energy eFery second
!here'ore the rate of reaction 41CRE'SES
>u"%er o'
"olecules with
a giFen energy
Energy
E
a
!his diagra" shows distri%ution curFes 'or two concentrations C
*
and
C
2
where C
2
L C
*
.
=n the two curFes the proportion o' the total "olecules exceeding E
a

is the sa"e %ut %ecause there are "ore "olecules oFerall 'or C
2

there are "ore "olecules which exceed the actiFation energy.
!here'ore the rate o' reaction increases.
Surface 'rea:
.or reactions inFolFing solids the reaction rate can %e altered with
sur'ace area.
=n the diagra" a%oFe the two curFes represent two reactions
inFolFing solids with di''erent sur'ace areas where (A
*
L (A
2
.
Energy
>u"%er o' "olecules
with a giFen energy
E
a
C
2
C
*
Molu"e o'
@as
eFolFed
!i"e
(A
*
(A
2
As the diagra" shows the larger sur'ace area eFolFes the sa"e
a"ount o' gas 'ar 6uic&er than the s"aller sur'ace area.
!here'ore as surface area increases5 the rate of reaction
41CRE'SES2
!emperature
As the te"perature o' a reaction is increased-
!he "olecules "oFe 'aster and haFe "ore &inetic energy
!here are "ore collisions eFery second
!he increased &inetic energy produces "ore energetic collisions
A greater proportion o' the "olecules exceed the actiFation energy.
!here'ore the reaction rate is 41CRE'SED2
!he diagra" a%oFe shows two curFes 'or a sa"ple o' gas at two
te"peratures !
*
and !
2
where !
2
L !
*
.
At !
2
the proportion o' "olecules that exceed the actiFation energy
is greaterC there'ore the rate o' reaction increases.
1232
'ctivation energy is the minimum amount of energy re6uired to start a
reaction.
Energy
>u"%er o'
"olecules with a
giFen energy
E
a
!
*
!
2
Most collisions do not lead to a reaction as they do not haFe su''icient
energy caused %y the energy o' the particles or %y the angle in which they
collide.
A s"all increase in te"perature can lead to a large increase in rate o'
reaction %ecause +ith a small temperature rise5 many more particles
have sufficient energy for a reaction2
Catalysts
Definition: A catalyst speeds up the rate o' a reaction %y lowering the
actiFation energy %y proFiding an alternatiFe route 'or the reaction without
getting used up.
EGuilibria
!he dynamic nature of eGuilibria
Many che"ical reactions are reversible.
.or a reaction in dyna"ic e6uili%riu" although the concentrations o'
reactants and products re"ain constant %oth 'orward and reFerse
reactions are still proceeding at the same rate.
Qualitative effects of changes of pressure5
temperature and concentration on a system in
eGuilibrium
*e Chatelier)s -rinciple
Definition: De ChatelierJs ,rinciple states that i' a syste" in dyna"ic
e6uili%riu" is su%Iected to a change processes will occur to oppose and
"ini"ise this change and restore e6uili%riu".
-ressure
A change in the pressure can alter the position o' the e6uili%riu" o' a
syste" involving gases.
!he direction 'aFoured depends upon the nu"%er o' gas "olecules on
each side o' the e6uili%riu".
E2g2
>
2
(g) 9 2H
2
(g) /// 2>H
2
(g)
Change: =ncrease the pressure
Effect: $ecause there are "ore "oles o' gas on the le't o' the e6uation
the syste" will try to oppose the change and decrease the pressure %y
shi'ting to the right
!emperature
A change in te"perature alters the rates o' the 'orward and reFerse
reactions %y di''erent a"ounts which results in a change in the
e6uili%riu" position.
!he direction 'aFoured depends upon the sign o' the enthalpy change.
E2g2
>
2
(g) 9 2H
2
(g) /// 2>H
2
(g) H) / 3H2 &I "ol
3*
Change: Decrease the te"perature
Effect: !he syste" will try to oppose the change and increase the
te"perature %y producing "ore heat energy. !here'ore the position shi'ts
to the right in the exother"ic direction.
Concentration
A change in the concentration o' a reactant will alter the rate o' the
'orward reaction and a change in the concentration o' a product will
alter the rate o' the reFerse reaction. $oth o' these situations will
result in a change in e6uili%riu" position.
E2g2
>
2
(g) 9 2H
2
(g) /// 2>H
2
(g)
Change: =ncrease the concentration o' either >
2
or H
2
Effect: !he syste" will try to oppose the change and decrease the
concentration %y shi'ting to the right to produce "ore product.
Catalyst
!he addition o' a catalyst has no e''ect on the e6uili%riu" position.
HoweFer it speeds up %oth the 'orward and reFerse reactions and so
e6uili%riu" is reached 6uic&er.
4mportance of eGuilibria in industrial processes
!he effect of temperature:
=' the sign o' ( 'or the 'orward reaction is positive (i.e. endother"ic) an
increase in temperature causes the e6uili%riu" position to shift to the
right (the endothermic direction is 'aFoured) and a decrease in
temperature causes the e6uili%riu" position to shift to the left (the
exothermic direction is 'aFoured).
=' the sign o' H 'or the 'orward reaction is negatiFe (i.e. exother"ic) the
opposite is true.
Compromises:
.or "any industrial processes the yield can Fary considera%ly depending on
the conditions. =n deciding the conditions the 'ollowing "ust %e considered-
!he aFaila%ility o' the starting "aterials
!he e6uili%riu" conditions re6uired to ensure a good yield
?ate o' reaction
Cost and expenses ta&ing into account energy "aterials and
e6uip"ent
(a'ety
EnFiron"ental e''ects
!hese 'actors "ust %e co"pared to arriFe at co"pro"ise conditions e.g.
although the yield "ay %e i"proFed %y using Fery high te"peratures and
pressures this can %e i"practical due to cost and sa'ety.
!he (aber -rocess:
>
2
(g) 9 2H
2
(g) /// 2>H
2
(g) H) / 3H2 &I "ol
3*
Ra+ Daterials:
?aw "aterials should %e readily aFaila%le. !he Ha%er ,rocess uses-
Air as a source o' >
2
.
>atural gas (CH
5
) and water (H
2
4) 'ro" which H
2
is extracted.
.ptimum eGuilibrium conditions:
$y considering De ChatelierJs ,rinciple-
!he 'orward reaction produces 'ewer "oles o' gas so a high pressure
is 'aFoured.
!he 'orward reaction is exother"ic so a lo+ temperature is
'aFoured.
Finding Compromise Conditions:
!he adFantages and disadFantages o' each o' the opti"u" conditions "ust
%e considered to arriFe at co"pro"ise conditions-
(igh -ressure:
AdFantages- 3 E6uili%riu" yield o' a""onia is high
3 !he concentration o' gases is high which increases the
rate.
DisadFantages- 3 Energy costs are high 1 expensiFe to co"press gases
3 (a'ety 1 e6uip"ent "ust %e a%le to withstand high
pressures and any wea&nesses cause danger to the
enFiron"ent and to wor&ers.
*o+ !emperature:
AdFantages- 3 E6uili%riu" yield o' a""onia is high
DisadFantages- 3 !he reaction ta&es place Fery slowly as less "olecules
haFe su''icient energy.
/sing a Catalyst:
A catalyst speeds up the rate o' %oth the 'orward and reFerse reactions so
less ti"e is needed 'or the syste" to reach e6uili%riu". !he increase in
reaction rate allows lower te"peratures to %e used. !he use o' lower
te"peratures also has the %onus o' %eing one o' the opti"u" conditions 'or
this process increasing yield o' a""onia.
Compromise conditions:
!he co"pro"ise conditions 'or the Ha%er ,rocess are as 'ollows-
!e"perature is high enough to allow the reaction to occur at a
realistic rate %ut not too high that it giFes a "ini"al yield o'
a""onia.
A high pressure is used %ut not too high to %e i"practical.
!he reaction rate is increased %y using an iron catalyst with potassiu"
hydroxide added. !his ena%les the process to ta&e place at lower
te"peratures saFing energy costs.
Economic considerations:
Much o' the cost 'or econo"ic processes goes on energy. ?ecent research
"eans that the Ha%er ,rocess can now %e carried out using lower
te"peratures (greater yield and less energy re6uired 'or heating) and
lower pressures (less energy re6uired to co"press gases).
Redox Reactions
.xidation and Reduction
.xidation is the loss o' electrons
Reduction is the gain o' electrons
.xidation
4s
*oss
Reduction
4s
Hain
.xidation states
1umber Rules:
Species .xidation 1umber Examples
Enco"%ined ele"ent + CC >aC 4
2
Co"%ined oxygen 32 H
2
4C Ca4
Co"%ined hydrogen 9* >H
2
C H
2
(
(i"ple ion Charge on ion >a
9
(9*)C Mg
29
(92)C Cl
3
(3*)
Co"%ined 'luorine 3* >a.C Ca.
2
Hroup I445 the (alogens
!rends in -hysical -roperties
(alogen 'tomic
1o2
.uter
Electrons
'tomic
Radius
Radius of J
&

ion
3oiling
-oint 8C:
Electronegativity
. H 2s
2
2p
8
+.+K* +.*22 :8 5.+
Cl *K 2s
2
2p
8
+.+HH +.*:+ 22: 2.+
$r 28 5s
2
5p
8
+.**5 +.*H8 222 2.:
= 82 8s
2
8p
8
+.*22 +.2*8 58K 2.8
3oiling -oint
!he halogens exist as diato"ic "olecules e.g. .
2
where these "olecules are
held together %y Man der 0aalsJ 'orces. !he ato"ic radius increases down
the group and the nu"%er o' electrons increases which causes the Man der
0aalsJ 'orces to increase in strength causing the %oiling point to rise.
Electronegativity
!he ato"ic radius increases down the group "eaning that there is "ore
shielding and that the outer electrons are 'urther away 'ro" the nucleus.
!his "eans that there is a wea&er nuclear attraction 'ro" the nucleus on
the %onding electrons and so the electronegatiFe power decreases. !he
increase in nuclear charge is outweighed %y these 'actors.
!rends in Chemical -roperties
.xidising -o+er of the halogens
(alogen Displacement Reactions
1aCl 8aG: 1a3r 8aG: 1a4 8aG:
Cl
;
8aG: >o reaction AellowGorange colour o'
$r
2
seen-
2$r
3
9 Cl
2
/ 2Cl
3
9 $r
2
$rown colour o' =
2
seen-
2=
3
9 Cl
2
/ 2Cl
3
9 =
2
3r
;
8aG: >o reaction >o reaction $rown colour o' =
2
seen-
2=
3
9 $r
2
/ 2$r
3
9 =
2
4
;
8aG: >o reaction >o reaction >o reaction
!he oxidising power o' the halogens DECRE'SES down the group. 0hen
they act as oxidising agents they are reduced and so gain electrons. !he
ease with which they gain electrons decreases down the group due to
increasing ato"ic siNe and "ore shielding so the oxidising power decreases.
Reducing -o+er of the (alide 4ons
Reactions +ith concentrated sulphuric acid
Solid (alide .bservations -roduct !ype of Reaction
>a. (.
3
) (tea"y .u"es H. Acid3$aseGdisplace"ent
reaction
>aCl (Cl
3
) (tea"y .u"es HCl Acid3$aseGdisplace"ent
reaction
>a$r ($r
3
) (tea"y .u"es H$r Acid3$aseGdisplace"ent
reaction
$rown @as
Colourless @as
$r
2
(4
2
4xidation o' $r
3
?eduction o' H
2
(4
5
>a= (=
3
) (tea"y .u"es
$lac& solidG,urple gas
Colourless @as
Aellow (olid
("ell o' $ad Egg
H=
=
2
(4
2
(
H
2
(
Acid3$aseGdisplace"ent
reaction
4xidation o' =
3
?eduction o' H
2
(4
5
?eduction o' H
2
(4
5
?eduction o' H
2
(4
5
?educing a%ility 41CRE'SES down the group. 0hen they act as reducing
agents they are oxidised "eaning they lose electrons. !he ato"ic radius
increases down the group leading to "ore shielding and less nuclear charge
on the outer electrons "a&ing it easier to lose electrons 'ro" the outer
shell. !his causes the reducing a%ility to increase.
!esting for halide ions
Reactions of halide ions +ith Silver 1itrate
(alide 4on -recipitate Colour Solubility
.
3
>o reaction
Cl
3
AgCl 0hite (olu%le in dilute a""onia (a6)
$r
3
Ag$r Crea" =nsolu%le in dilute a""onia (a6)
(olu%le in concentrated a""onia (a6)
=
3
Ag= Aellow =nsolu%le in concentrated a""onia (a6)
/ses of Chlorine and Chlorate84:
0hen Chlorine is %u%%led into water the 'ollowing e6uili%riu" happens-
Cl
2
(a6) 9 H
2
4(l) /// H4Cl(a6) 9 HCl(a6)
Hcl4 (chloric acid) acts as a %leach and i' an indicator is added the initial
red colour 'ro" the acids disappears as the %leaching e''ect ta&es place.
("all a"ounts o' chlorine are added to drin&ing water to &ill %acteria that
would "a&e the water unsa'e to drin&.
$leach can %e 'or"ed when Chlorine is reacted with cold dilute a6ueous
>a4H-
Cl
2
(a6) 9 2>a4H(a6) >aCl(a6) 9 >aCl4(a6) 9 H
2
4(l)
!his is a disproportionation reaction in which chlorine is %oth oxidised (to
chloride Cl
3
in the >aCl) and reduced (to chlorate(=) Cl4
3
in >aCl4).
!he (odiu" Chlorate (>aCl4) is used as a %leach.
Extraction of Detals
Reduction of Detal .xides +ith Carbon
=ron is extracted 'ro" its ore hae"atite (.e
2
4
2
) in a continuous process in
the %last 'urnace-
*. Hot co&e reacts with air to 'or" Car%on Monoxide-
2C(s) 9 4
2
(g) 2C4(g)
2. !he car%on "onoxide reduces "ost o' the iron (around *2++)C)-
.e
2
4
2
(s) 9 2C4(g) 2.e(l) 9 2C4
2
(g)
2. =n hotter parts o' the 'urnace co&e reacts directly with the iron oxide-
2.e
2
4
2
(s) 9 2C(s) 5.e(l) 9 2C4
2
(g)
!his e6uation represents the oFerall reaction 'or the process.
Di"estone is added to the %last 'urnace in order to re"oFe acidic i"purities
such as silicon dioxide ((i4
2
). !his reaction produces a slag o' calciu"
silicate which can %e re"oFed-
CaC4
2
9 (i4
2
Ca(i4
2
9 C4
2
!he "olten iron collects at the %otto" o' the 'urnace and is run o'' as Opig
ironP which is Fery %rittle containing a%out 5Q car%on as well as Mn (i ,
and (.
!he "olten iron is puri'ied %y using the $asic 4xygen ,rocess-
(ulphur i"purities are re"oFed 'irst %y adding "agnesiu" powder to
the "olten iron which reacts with the sulphur to 'or" "agnesiu"
sulphide in a Figorous reaction-
Mg 9 ( Mg(
4xygen is %lown into the "olten iron under pressure and reacts with
the Car%on and ,hosphorus to 'ro" oxides which can %e ra&ed o''-
C 9 4
2
C4
2
,
5
9 84
2
,
5
4
*+
!he oxygen also reacts with other i"purities such as (i and Mn.
Di"e is added to react with any acidic i"purities to 'or" a slag-
Ca4 9 (i4
2
Ca(i4
2
!here are Farious enFiron"ental pro%le"s with using car%on reduction 'or
the extraction o' "etals-
(ulphide ores 'ound in the "etal ores produce sulphur dioxide which
contri%utes to acid rain.
!he "ain gaseous product is car%on dioxide which is a greenhouse gas
and contri%utes to the greenhouse e''ect.
!here is a general li"itation o' car%on reduction %ecause with so"e "etal
ores (e.g. !i) "etal car%ides are 'or"ed which "a&e the "etal Fery %rittle-
!i4
2
9 2C !iC 9 2C4
Reduction of metal oxides by electrolysis of melts
Alu"iniu" is extracted using electrolysis. =ts "ain ore is %auxite which
contains Al
2
4
2
. ,uri'ied %auxite is dissolFed in "olten cryolite at HK+)C
%e'ore electrolysis happens. $y using the cryolite the "elting point o'
alu"iniu" oxide is decreased which reduces energy re6uire"ents.
!his electrolyte o' alu"iniu" oxide dissolFed in cryolite is then electrolysed
in a steel3lined tan& with graphite electrodes-
Cell reactions-
At the cathode- Al
29
9 2e
3
Al
At the anode- 24
23
4
2
9 5e
3
Car%on (graphite)
(olid crust o' electrolyte 'loats on top
Anode (9)
Cathode (3)
(teel tan& lining
Electrolyte
Molten alu"iniu" is drawn
o'' at interFals
!he graphite electrodes o'ten need to %e replaced %ecause the anodes
o'ten react with li%erated oxygen.
!he process re6uires a lot o' electricity %ecause it is used to "elt the Al
2
4
2
as well as during the electrolysis.
!he process is only econo"ic where electricity is relatiFely inexpensiFe.
Reduction of metal halides +ith metal
!he "ain ore o' titaniu" is rutile which contains titaniu"(=M) oxide (!i4
2
).
!itaniu" is "anu'actured in a two3stage %atch process-
*. ?utile is conFerted to titaniu"(=M) chloride using chlorine and co&e at
around H++)C-
!i4
2
9 2C 9 2Cl
2
!iCl
5
9 2C4
2. !he titaniu"(=M) chloride is puri'ied 'ro" other chlorides (e.g. those o'
iron silicon and chro"iu") %y 'ractional distillation under argon or nitrogen.
2. !he chloride is reduced %y a "ore reactiFe "etal such as sodiu" or
"agnesiu"-
!iCl
5
9 5>a !i 9 5>aCl
!he sodiu" is held at around 88+)C %ut the te"perature rises to
nearly *+++)C during the reaction.
An inert at"osphere o' argon is used to preFent conta"ination with
oxygen or nitrogen.
!he sodiu" chloride product is washed out with dilute HCl leaFing the
titaniu" as a granular powder.
!here are Farious econo"ic 'actors which haFe to %e considered in the
extraction o' titaniu"-
Chlorine and sodiu" haFe to produced 'irst %y electrolysing "olten
>aCl which is a Fery expensiFe process.
High te"peratures haFe to %e used in %oth stages o' the process
,recautions haFe to %e ta&en in the handling o' !iCl
5
which reacts
rapidly with water
An argon at"osphere has to %e "aintained to preFent oxidation o' the
titaniu".
Economic Factors and recycling
!he "ethod o' extraction chosen depends upon seFeral 'actors-
!he cost o' the reducing agent-
3 A reducing agent that is naturally aFaila%le (e.g. car%on) is
cheaper than a reducing agent such as sodiu" which has to %e
prepared 'irst.
!he energy costs 'or the process-
3 !he lower the te"perature the lower the energy re6uire"ents
and there'ore the cheaper the process
!he purity re6uired o' the "etal-
3 =t is expensiFe to produce a "etal with Fery high purity. !here
needs to %e high de"and 'or the "etal i' this expense is to %e
Iusti'ied.
Metals are Falua%le resources and o'ten recycling is used instead o'
disposal-
=ron-
o =ron is recycled %y collecting scrap iron which is "elted down.
o !his "eans that the earthJs reserFes o' iron are saFed
o !he energy re6uired to "ine iron ore transport it and s"elt it
is seFeral ti"es greater than the energy re6uired to recycle
scrap iron.
Alu"iniu"-
o $ecause it is Fery resistant to corrosion used alu"iniu" can %e
as good as new alu"iniu"
o ?ecycling conserFes the earthJs supply o' alu"iniu".
o Electrolysis re6uires high te"peratures and large a"ounts o'
electricity.
o ?ecycling is a lot cheaper than "ining %auxite and the
electrolysis used to extract the alu"iniu".