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1
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
2. THE COMMON
ELEMENTS OF SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
Control System Technology 2.01 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
1. Introduction
- Five control system components (phn t): electrical (in), mechanical (c),
liquid flow (lng), gas flow (kh), or thermal (nhit)
- Four behavior elements (c tnh): resistance (tr khng), capacitance (dung
lng), inertia (qun tnh), and dead-time delay (thi gian tr)
- Four elements are defined in terms of three variables (thng s)
1
st
variable: quantity of material (lng vt cht), energy or distance
2
nd
variable: driving force or potential that tends to move or change the quantity variable
3
rd
variable: time
- The three variable used to define the four elements for each type of components
Control System Technology 2.02 The Common Elements of System Components
3/15/2011
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
1. Introduction
- Resistance
an opposition to the movement of flow of material or energy
being measured in terms of the amount of potential required to produce one unit
of electric current, liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, heat flow rate, or velocity
- Capacitance
the amount of material, energy or distance required to make a unit change in potential
being measured in terms of the amount of material, energy, or distance required
to make a unit change in potential
- Inertia/Inertance/Inductance
an opposition to change in the state of motion
being measured in terms of the amount of potential required to increase electric
current, liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, or velocity by one unit per second
- Dead-time delay
the time interval between the time the signal appears at the input of a
component and the time the corresponding response appears at the output
the effect of dead time is to delay the input signal by the dead-time delay


Control System Technology 2.03 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
2. Electrical Elements
1. Electrical resistance is that property of material which impedes the flow of electric
current. Good conductors have a low resistance; insulators have a very high
resistance
Control System Technology 2.04 The Common Elements of System Components
=

() =

()
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
2. Electrical Elements
- Example: An electrical component is known to have a linear volt-ampere graph.
A test with 24 applied to the terminals of the components resulted in a
measured current of 12. Determine the resistance of the component
Solution: The volt-ampere graph is a straight line, so
=

=
24
0.012
= 2000

- Example: A light bulb is an example of an electric component with a nonlinear
volt-ampere graph. Determine the resistance of a light bulb at 6 from the
following information: 5.95 results in 0.5 and 6.05 results in 0.504
Solution: The electrical resistance of a nonlinear component can be
approximated
=

=
6.05 5.95
0.504 0.500
= 25
Control System Technology 2.05 The Common Elements of System Components
2. Electrical Elements
2. Electrical capacitance is quantity of electric charge, (), required to make a unit
increase in the electrical potential, . The unit of electrical capacitance is
()
=

()

= =

= =


Note if =

= = sin ( + 90
0
)
= sin ( + 90
0
)
the current leads the voltage by 90
0
in a capacitor
Control System Technology 2.06 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
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2. Electrical Elements
- Example: A current pulse with an amplitude of 0.1 and a duration of 0.1s is
applied to an electrical capacitor. The voltage across the capacitor is increased
from 0 to +25 by the current pulse. Determine the capacitance, , of the
capacitor
Solution:
=

= 0.1 10
3

0.1
25 0
= 0.4 10
6
(/) = 0.4
3. Electrical inductance is voltage required to produce a unit increase in the electric
current each second. The unit of electrical inductance is ()
=

()
Note if =

= = sin ( + 90
0
)
= sin ( + 90
0
)
the voltage leads the current by 90
0
in a inductor
Control System Technology 2.07 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
2. Electrical Elements
4. Electrical dead-time delay is the delay caused by the time it takes a signal to travel
from the source to the destination. The electrical signals travel at tremendous
speeds (2 10
8
~3 10
8
/), therefore in most control systems, the effect of
electrical dead-time delayed is negligible

()
Control System Technology 2.08 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
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2. Electrical Elements
- Example:
a. Determine the dead-time delay of a 600 long transmission line if the velocity
of propagation is 2.3 10
8
/
b. Determine the dead-time delay of a signal from a space vehicle that is located
2000 from the earth station receiving the signal. The signal travels at
3 10
8
/
Solution:
a. The dead-time delay of a 600 long transmission line

=
600
2.3 10
8
/
= 2.61 10
6
= 2.61
b. The dead-time delay of a signal from a space vehicle

=
2 10
6

3 10
8
/
= 0.67 10
2
= 6.7
Control System Technology 2.09 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
2. Electrical Elements
Summary electrical equations

Resistance
=


Capacitance
=


Inductance
=


Dead-Time Delay


Control System Technology 2.10 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien



resistance,
applied voltage,
instantaneous current,
, change in applied voltage,
, change in current,
capacitance,
change in charge,
, interval time,
inductance,

dead-time delay,
distance between the input and output,

velocity of travel,/
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
1. Liquid flow resistance is that property of pipes, valves or restrictions which
impedes the flow of a liquid. It is measured in term of the increase of the pressure
required to make a unit increase in flow rate
- Liquid resistance is determined by the relationship between the pressure drop
and the flow rate as expressed by a flow equation
- Two types of flow: laminar and turbulent, depending on the Reynolds numbers
=


where, fluid density, /
3

=

=
4

2
average velocity of fluid flow, /
inside diameter of the pipe,
absolute viscosity of fluid, .
- < 2000: laminar flow, > 4000: turbulent flow
- 2000 < < 4000 transition between laminar and turbulent flows
Control System Technology 2.11 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
- The laminar flow graph is linear and the laminar resistance has a constant value
for all flow rate

(. /
3
)







- The turbulent flow graph is nonlinear and the turbulent resistance depends on
the flow rate, , and turbulent flow coefficient,


Control System Technology 2.12 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
- Laminar flow in round pipe (Hagen-Poiseuille law)
=

()
- Turbulent flow in round pipe (Fanning equation)
=

2
()

= 2

. /
3

turbulent flow coefficient
values of friction factor,







interpolation formula =

+ (

)(

)/(

)
Control System Technology 2.13 The Common Elements of System Components

=
128

4
(. /
3
)

=
8

5
.
2
/
6
/
7

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
- Example: Oil ( = 880 /
3
, = 0.16 . ) at temperature of 15
0
flows
through a horizontal tube which is 0.01 in diameter with a flow rate of
1.57 10
4

3
/. The line is 10 long. Determine the Reynolds number, the
resistance and the pressure drop in the tube
Solution:
The average liquid flow rate
=
4

2
=
4 (1.57 10
4

3
/)
(0.01 )
2
= 2 /
The Reynolds number
=

=
(880 /
3
) (2 /) (0.01 )
0.16 .
= 109.95
The flow is laminar, the resistance and pressure drop

=
128

4
=
128 (0.16 . ) (10 )
(0.01 )
4
= 6.519 10
9
. /
3

=

= (6.519 10
9
. /
3
) (1.57 10
4

3
/) = 1.0235 10
6

Control System Technology 2.14 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
- Example: Water ( = 1000 /
3
, = 0.001 . ) at temperature of 15
0
flows
through a commercial steel pipe which is 0.01016 (0.4 ) in diameter with a
flow rate of 3. 7853 10
4

3
/ (6 /). The line is 15.240 (50 ) long.
Determine the Reynolds number, the resistance and the pressure drop in the
tube
Solution:
The average liquid flow rate
=
4

2
=
4 (3.7853 10
4

3
/)
(0.01016 )
2
= 4.669 /
The Reynolds number
=

=
(1000 /
3
) (4.669 /) (0.01016 )
0.001 .
= 47440
the flow is turbulent
Control System Technology 2.15 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
Determine the friction factor by interpolation






=


= 0.035 + 0.028 0.035
47440 10
4
10
5
10
4

= 0.032088
Control System Technology 2.16 The Common Elements of System Components
3/15/2011
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
Turbulent flow coefficient

=
8

5
=
8 (1000 /
3
) (0.032088) (15.24 )

2
(0.01016 )
5

= 3.6614 10
12
.
2
/
6

The resistance of flow and pressure drop

= 2

= 2 (3.6614 10
12
.
2
/
6
) (3. 7853 10
4

3
/)
= 2.7719 10
9
. /
3

The pressure drop
=

2
= (3.6614 10
12
.
2
/
6
) (3. 7853 10
4

3
/)
2

= 5.246 10
5

Control System Technology 2.16 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
2. Liquid flow capacitance is defined in terms of the increase in volume of liquid in a
tank required to make a unit increase in pressure at the outlet of the tank

(
3
/)
where,

(
3
/): liquid flow capacitance
(
3
): increase in volume
(): corresponding increase in pressure
The increase in pressure in the tank depends on: the increase in level of the liquid
, the acceleration due to gravity and the density of the liquid
=
The increase in level in the tank is equal to the increase in volume divided by the
average surface area, , of the liquid in the tank
= /

(
3
/)
Control System Technology 2.18 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
- Example: A liquid tank has a diameter of 1.83 and a height of 10 .
Determine the capacitance of the tank for each of the following fluid:
a. water: = 1000/
3
b. oil: = 880/
3

c. kerosene: = 800/
3
c. gasoline: = 740/
3

Solution:
Determine

2
/4

=
(1.83 )
2
/4
(9.81 /
2
)
=
0.268


Applying for the liquid
a. water:

= 2.68 10
4

3
/ b. oil:

= 3.05 10
4

3
/
c. kerosene:

= 3.35 10
4

3
/ c. gasoline:

= 3.62 10
4

3
/
Control System Technology 2.19 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
3. Liquid flow inertance is measured in terms of the amount of pressure drop in a
pipe required to increase the flow rate by 1 unit each second

/
(.
2
/
3
)
where,

(.
2
/
3
): inertance (): pressure drop in the pipe
(
3
/): change in flow rate (): time interval
The force will accelerate the fluid in the pipe
= = / with = and =

(.
2
/
3
)
- Example: Determine the liquid flow inertance of water ( = 1000 /
3
) in a
pipe that has a diameter of 2.1 and a length of 65
Solution:

2
/4
=
(1000 /
3
) (65 )
(0.021 )
2
/4
= 1.88 10
8
.
2
/
3

Control System Technology 2.20 The Common Elements of System Components
3/15/2011
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3. Liquid Flow Elements
4. Dead time occurs whenever liquid is transported from one point to another in a
pipeline

()
where, (): distance between the input and output , (/): fluid velocity
- Example: Liquid flows in pipe that is 200 long and has a diameter of 6 . The
flow rate is 0.0113
3
/. Determine the dead-time delay
Solution:
Average fluid velocity in pipe
=

2
/4
=
0.0113
3
/
(0.06 )
2
/4
= 4 /
Determine the dead-time delay

=
200
4 /
= 50
Control System Technology 2.21 The Common Elements of System Components
3. Liquid Flow Elements
Summary of liquid flow equations
Reynolds Number
= /
Averagre Velocity
=

=
4

2

Laminar Flow Resistance ( < 2000)
=
1

2
=

=
128

2

Turbulent Flow Resistance ( > 4000)
=
1

2
=

= 2

=
8

5

Control System Technology 2.22 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
fluid density, /
3

average fluid velocity in pipe, /
inside diameter of the pipe,
absolute viscosity of fluid, .
flow rate,
3
/
cross-sectional area of pipe,
2

pressure drop from inlet to outlet of pipe,

1
pressure at inlet of pipe,

2
pressure at outlet of pipe,

laminar flow resistance, . /


3

length of the pipe,

turbulent flow coefficient, .


2
/
6

turbulent flow resistance, . /


3

friction factor
surface area of liquid in tank,
2

gravity acceleration, /
2

inertance, .
2
/
3

dead-time delay,
distance from inlet to outlet of pipe,
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3. Liquid Flow Elements
Summary of liquid flow equations
Capacitance


Inertance


Dead-Time Delay



Control System Technology 2.23 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
fluid density, /
3

average fluid velocity in pipe, /
inside diameter of the pipe,
flow rate,
3
/
cross-sectional area of pipe,
2

pressure drop from inlet to outlet of pipe,

1
pressure at inlet of pipe,

2
pressure at outlet of pipe,

laminar flow resistance, . /


3

length of the pipe,
absolute viscosity of fluid, .

turbulent flow coefficient, .


2
/
6

turbulent flow resistance, . /


3

friction factor
surface area of liquid in tank,
2

gravity acceleration, /
2

inertance, .
2
/
3

dead-time delay,
distance from inlet to outlet of pipe,
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
1. Gas flow resistance is that property of pipes, valves or restrictions which impedes
the flow of a gas. It is measured in term of the increase of the pressure required to
produce an increase in gas flow rate of 1 /
- Two types of flow: laminar and turbulent, depending on the Reynolds numbers
= 4/
In laminar flow, the pressure drop varies directly with the gas velocity (linear)
In turbulent flow, the pressure drop varies directly with the square of the gas
velocity (nonlinear)
- In practice, gas flow is almost always turbulent, and the common used equations
apply to turbulent flow
- If the pressure drop less than 10% of the initial gas pressure, the equation for
incompressible flow gives reasonable accuracy for gas flow
=
1

2
=

= 2

(. /)

=
8

(.
2
/
2
)
Control System Technology 2.24 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
- Example: The graph of mass flow rate () versus pressure drop (). Determine
gas flow resistance as the point where the mass flow rate is 0.6 /
Solution:
Gas flow resistance is the slop of the
tangent line to the curve at the operation
point

=
52 10
3

0.72 /

= 72.222 . /
Control System Technology 2.25 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
- Example: A smooth tube is supplying 0.03 / of air ( = 1.8110
5
. , =
1.22 /
3
) at a temperature of 15
0
. The tube is 30 long and has an inside
diameter of 4 . Find the pressure drop and the gas flow resistance. The outlet
pressure (
2
) is 102 , find the inlet pressure (
1
)
Solution:
The Reynolds number
=
4

=
4 (0.03 /)
(1.8110
5
. ) (0.04 )
= 5.28 10
4

Friction factor
=

= 0.03 + 0.018 0.030


5.28 1
10 1
= 0.023
Turbulent flow coefficient

=
8

=
8 (0.023) (30 )

2
0.04
5
(1.22 /
3
)
= 4.469 10
6
.
2
/
2

Control System Technology 2.26 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
The pressure drop
=

2
= 4.469 10
6
.
2
/
2
0.03 /
2
= 4.02
The gas flow resistance

= 2

= 2 4.469 10
6
.
2
/
2
(0.03 /) = 263 . /
The inlet pressure

1
= +
2
= 4.02 + 102 = 106.02
Control System Technology 2.27 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
2. Gas flow capacitance is defined in terms of the increase in the mass of gas in a
pressure vessel required to produce a unit increase in pressure while the
temperature remains constant
= =
10
3


where,
absolute pressure of the gas, volume of the gas,
3

number of moles of gas, universal gas constant = 8.314/.
absolute temperature,
0
mass of the gas,
gram molecular weigh of the gas, /
=

10
3

10
3


Gas flow capacitance

10
3

(/)
Control System Technology 2.28 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
4. Gas Flow Elements
- Example: pressure tank has a volume of 0.75
3
. Determine the capacitance if
gas is nitrogen ( = 28.016 /) at 20
0

Solution:

10
3

=
( = 28.016 /) (0.75
3
)
10
3
(8.314/
0
. ) (293
0
)
= 8.6 10
6
/
Control System Technology 2.29 The Common Elements of System Components
4. Gas Flow Elements
Summary of gas flow equations
Reynolds Number
=
4


Resistance-Low-Pressure Drop
=
1

2
=

= 2

=
8


Capacitance

10
3


Control System Technology 2.30 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
gas mass flow rate, /
absolute viscosity of fluid, .
inside diameter of the pipe,
pressure drop from inlet to outlet of pipe,

1
pressure at inlet of pipe,

2
pressure at outlet of pipe,

turbulent flow coefficient, .


2
/
2

gas flow resistance, . /


friction factor
length of the pipe,
fluid density, /
3

gas flow capacitance, /


gram molecular weigh of the gas,
/
volume of the gas,
3

universal gas constant = 8.314/
.
absolute temperature,
3/15/2011
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
1. Thermal resistance is that property of a substance that impedes the flow of heat. It
is measured in terms of the different in temperature required to produce a heat
flow rate of 1 (joule per second)
Normally heat flow occurs through a wall that separates two fluids (liquid or gas) at
different temperatures. Heat flows through the wall from the hotter fluid to the
cooler fluid
The heat flow rate, , from the outside fluid to the
inside fluid
=

()
Total resistance of the entire wall

(/)
=

()
Control System Technology 2.31 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
- The wall separation two fluids is a composite, consisting of several layers, each
contributing to the resistance of the wall
The unit resistance of the film

() =
1

(.
2
/)
The unit resistance of the inner layer

( ) =

(.
2
/)
The unit resistance of the wall

() =
1

1
+

2
+
1

(.
2
/)
The total resistance of the wall

=
1

1
+

2
+
1

(/)
Control System Technology 2.32 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
- Film coefficients
+ Natural convection in still air
Horizontal surfaces facing up Horizontal surfaces facing down
= 2.50

0.25
= 1.32

0.25






Vertical surfaces
= 1.787

0.25

where,

is the temperature difference between the main body of the fluid


and the wall surface ,
0

Control System Technology 2.33 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
+ Natural convection in still water
= 2.26

+ 34.3

0.5

where,

is the water temperature ,


0

+ Natural convection in oil
=
7.0

0.5

0.4

where, is the absolute viscosity, .
+ Forced convection for air against smooth surfaces and inside straight pipes
=
4.54 + 4.1

4.6 /
7.75

0.75

> 4.6 /

+ Forced convection for turbulent water flow in straight pipes
=
20.093(68.3 +

0.8

0.2

where, is the inner diameter of pipe,
Control System Technology 2.34 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
- Example: The wall has two inner layers: a steel plate 1 thick (
1
= 45/
. ) and insulation 2 thick (
2
=
0.036/. ). The inside fluid is still water.
The difference between the water
temperature and the surface temperature is
estimated to be

= 10
0
. The outside fluid
is air, which has a velocity of 6 /. The
water temperature is

= 45
0
and the air
temperature is

= 85
0
. The wall
dimensions are = 2 , = 3 . Determine
the unit resistance, the total resistance, the
heat flow, and the direction of the heat flow.

Solution:
The area of the wall section
= 2 3 = 6
2

Control System Technology 2.35 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
The inside film coefficient

= 2.26

+ 34.3

0.5
= 2.26

+ 34.3 10
0.5
= 566.7 /
2
.
The outside film coefficient

= 7.75

0.75
= 7.75 6
0.75
= 29.71 /
2
.
The unit thermal resistance

=
1

1
+

2
+
1


=
1
29.71 /
2
.
+
0.01
45 /.
+
0.02
0.036 /.
+
1
566.7 /
2
.

= 0.5912 .
2
/
The total thermal resistance

=
0.5912 .
2
/
6
2
= 0.09853 /
The total heat flow
=

=
85 45
0.09853 /
= 406
Control System Technology 2.36 The Common Elements of System Components
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HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
5. Thermal Elements
2. Thermal capacitance is defined in terms of the increase in heat required to make a
unit increase in temperature

(/)
where,

thermal capacitance, /
mass,

heat capacity, /.
- Example: Determine the thermal capacitance of 8.31
3
of water
( = 1000 /
3
,

= 4190 /. )
Solution:

= 1000 /
3
8.31
3
4190/. = 3.48 10
7
/
Control System Technology 2.37 The Common Elements of System Components
5. Thermal Elements
Summary of thermal equations
Resistance

=
1

1
+

2
+
1


Film Coefficients
1. Natural convection in still air
Horizontal surfaces facing up
= 2.50

0.25

Horizontal surfaces facing down
= 1.32

0.25

Vertical surfaces
= 1.787

0.25

Control System Technology 2.38 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien

unit thermal resistance, .


2
/

outside film coefficient, /


2
.

inside film coefficient, /


2
.

thickness of layer ,

thermal conductivity, /.

inside film coefficient, /


2
.

total thermal resistance, /


heat flow rate,

0
outside fluid temperature,
0

inside fluid temperature,


0

area of the wall surface,
2

film coefficient, /
2
.

temperature difference between the


main body of the fluid and the wall
surface ,
0

water temperature ,
0

absolute viscosity, .

thermal capacitance, /
mass,

heat capacity, /.
3/15/2011
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5. Thermal Elements
Summary of thermal equations
2. Natural convection in still water
= 2.26(

+ 34.3)

0.5

3. Natural convection in oil
=
7.0

0.5

0.4

4. Forced convection for air against smooth
surfaces and inside straight pipes
Air velocity,

4.6 /
= 4.54 + 4.1


Air velocity,

> 4.6 /
= 7.75

0.75

5. Forced convection for turbulent water
flow in straight pipes
=
20.093(68.3 +

0.8

0.2

Capacitance


Control System Technology 2.39 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien

unit thermal resistance, .


2
/

outside film coefficient, /


2
.

inside film coefficient, /


2
.

thickness of layer ,

thermal conductivity, /.

inside film coefficient, /


2
.

total thermal resistance, /


heat flow rate,

0
outside fluid temperature,
0

inside fluid temperature,


0

area of the wall surface,
2

film coefficient, /
2
.

temperature difference between the


main body of the fluid and the wall
surface ,
0

water temperature ,
0

absolute viscosity, .

thermal capacitance, /
mass,

heat capacity, /.
6. Mechanical Elements
1. Mechanical resistance or friction (ma st) is that property of a mechanical system
that impedes motion. It is measured in terms of the increase in force required to
produce an increase in velocity of 1/

= =

(. /)






where,

mechanical resistance, . / mechanical resistance, . /


force, velocity, /
change in force, change in velocity, /
Control System Technology 2.40 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
21
6. Mechanical Elements
- Example: Mechanical resistance
Control System Technology 2.41 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
A mechanical part with resistance provided by a dashpot Resistance due to laminar flow in a dashpot-viscous friction
Resistance due to turbulent flow in a dashpot Resistance due to both viscous friction and coulomb friction
6. Mechanical Elements
- Example: A dashpot is used to provide mechanical resistance in a packaging
machine. A test was conducted in which a force of 98 produced a velocity of
24 /. Determine the mechanical resistance






Solution:
The mechanical resistance

=
98
24 /
= 4.08 . /
Control System Technology 2.42 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
22
6. Mechanical Elements
- Example: A mechanical system consists of a sliding load (Coulomb friction) and
a shock absorber (viscous friction). The force
versus velocity is shown in the figure. The
following data were obtained from the system


Determine the resistance,

, and the Coulomb


friction force, (

) . Write an equation for the


force, (), in terms of the velocity, ()
Solution:
The resistance

= =

=
9.60 7.10
15.75 9.60
= 0.476 . /
The Coulomb friction force
=

= 7.1 0.476 . / 10.5/ = 2.1


Equation for the force
=

= 2.1 + 0.476 ()
Control System Technology 2.43 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
6. Mechanical Elements
2. Mechanical capacitance (c dung/th nng) is defined as the increase in the
displacement of a spring required to make a unit increase in spring force

=
1

(/)
where,

mechanical capacitance, / change in displacement,


change in force, spring constant, /
- Example: A spring is used to provide mechanical capacitance in a system. A
force of 100 compresses the spring by 30 . Determine the mechanical
capacitance and the spring constant
Solution:
The mechanical capacitance and the spring constant

=
0.30
100
= 0.003 /
=
1

= 333.3 /

Control System Technology 2.44 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
23
6. Mechanical Elements
3. Mechanical inertia (qun tnh) is measured in terms of the force required to
produce a unit increase in acceleration

()
=

()
where,

average force, mass,


change in velocity, / increment of time,
/ rate of change of velocity, /
2

Control System Technology 2.46 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
6. Mechanical Elements
3. Mechanical inertia (qun tnh) is measured in terms of the force required to
produce a unit increase in acceleration

()
=

()
where,

average force, mass,


change in velocity, / increment of time,
force, / rate of change of velocity, /
2

- Example: Automobile has a mass of 1500 . Determine the average force
required to accelerate A from 0 27.5 / in 6 . Automobile required an
average force of 8000 to accelerate from 0 27.5 / in 6 . Determine mass of
Solution:
The required average force for

= 1500
27.5 /
6
= 6875
The mass of
=

= 8000
6
27.5 /
= 1745
Control System Technology 2.45 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
24
6. Mechanical Elements
- Example: Automobile has a mass of 1500 . Determine the average force
required to accelerate A from 0 / to 27.5 / in 6 . Automobile required an
average force of 8000 to accelerate from 0 / to 27.5 / in 6 . Determine
mass of
- Solution:
Automobile

= 1500
27.5 /
6
= 6875
Automobile

8000 =
27.5 0
6
= 800
6
27.5
= 1745
Control System Technology 2.47 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
6. Mechanical Elements
4. Mechanical dead time (thi gian tr) is the time required to transport material from
one place to another

()
where,

: dead time delay, ; : distance, ; : velocity, /


- Example: A belt conveyor is 30 long and has a belt speed of 3 /. Determine
the dead-time delay between the input and output ends of the belt. Write the
equation for the output mass flow rate

() in terms of the input mass flow rate

()
Solution:
The dead-time delay

=
30
3 /
= 10
The equation for the output mass
flow rate

10
Control System Technology 2.48 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien
3/15/2011
25
6. Mechanical Elements
Summary of mechanical equations
Resistance

= =


Capacitance

=
1


Inertia


Dead Time


Control System Technology 2.49 The Common Elements of System Components
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Nguyen Tan Tien

mechanical resistance, . /
mechanical resistance, . /
force,
velocity, /
change in force,
change in velocity, /

mechanical capacitance, /
change in displacement,
spring constant, /

average force,
mass,
increment of time,
/ rate of change of velocity, /
2

dead time delay,


distance,