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HVAC Design Using VANTAGE PDMS

Volume 1
PDMS Version 11.6SP1








pdms1161/HVAC Using PDMS Vol1
issue 270605

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Revision History
Date Version Notes
September 2003 11.5 Updated to incorporate the Design Explorer and the
new view manipulation facilities introduced at this
version of PDMS.
August 2004 11.6 Updates for 11.6.
June 2005 11.6.SP1 Minor corrections for 11.6.SP1.

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Contents
1 Read This First 1-1
1.1 The scope of this guide..................................................................................... 1-1
1.1.1 Intended audience .............................................................................. 1-1
1.1.2 Assumptions ....................................................................................... 1-1
1.1.3 About the tutorial exercise .................................................................. 1-2
1.1.4 Further reading................................................................................... 1-2
1.2 Text conventions............................................................................................... 1-2
1.3 Terminology...................................................................................................... 1-2
1.4 How the guide is organised............................................................................... 1-3
1.5 Further training in the use of PDMS.................................................................. 1-4
2 Introducing VANTAGE PDMS 2-1
2.1 Introducing the structure of PDMS.................................................................... 2-1
2.2 The strengths of PDMS..................................................................................... 2-1
2.3 PDMS HVAC design features ........................................................................... 2-2
3 Getting Started 3-1
3.1 Logging in.......................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Using the mouse............................................................................................... 3-2
3.3 Using forms....................................................................................................... 3-2
3.3.1 Using text boxes ................................................................................. 3-2
3.3.2 Using drop-down lists.......................................................................... 3-3
3.4 The PDMS startup display................................................................................ 3-4
3.5 Using menus ..................................................................................................... 3-5
3.6 Using the tool bar.............................................................................................. 3-6
3.7 Using the Design Explorer ................................................................................ 3-6
3.8 Using the status bar.......................................................................................... 3-8
3.9 More on using forms ......................................................................................... 3-8
3.9.1 Using option buttons ........................................................................... 3-9
3.9.2 Using check boxes.............................................................................. 3-9
3.9.3 Using scrollable lists ........................................................................... 3-9
3.9.4 Using action buttons ......................................................................... 3-10
3.10 Responding to alert forms............................................................................... 3-10
3.11 Using on-line Help........................................................................................... 3-10
4 Learning about the PDMS Database Hierarchy 4-1
4.1 How PDMS stores design data......................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1 PDMS design data definitions............................................................. 4-2
4.2 Viewing the design............................................................................................ 4-3
4.2.1 Exploring the HVAC database hierarchy............................................. 4-4
4.3 Viewing the design............................................................................................ 4-4
4.3.1 Setting the scale and direction of the view.......................................... 4-4
4.3.2 Using the draw list............................................................................... 4-5
4.3.3 Manipulating the displayed view......................................................... 4-7
4.4 Saving the current design and leaving your design session............................. 4-9
5 Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components 5-1
5.1 HVAC component representation in the catalogue........................................... 5-1
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5.1.1 HVAC physical shape......................................................................... 5-1
5.1.2 HVAC variables................................................................................... 5-2
5.2 Restoring your PDMS session and starting the HVAC application................... 5-2
5.3 Setting HVAC defaults ...................................................................................... 5-3
5.3.1 Setting a default detailing specification............................................... 5-3
5.3.2 Choosing the HVAC form format......................................................... 5-4
5.3.3 Customising HVAC forms ................................................................... 5-6
5.4 Creating HVAC administrative elements........................................................... 5-7
5.4.1 Creating an HVAC system element.................................................... 5-7
5.4.2 Creating an HVAC branch element..................................................... 5-7
5.5 Creating HVAC components............................................................................. 5-9
5.5.1 Creating a fire damper ...................................................................... 5-12
5.5.2 Moving the fire damper ..................................................................... 5-12
5.5.3 Creating a composite component..................................................... 5-13
5.6 Adding more HVAC components to your ductwork......................................... 5-15
5.6.1 Creating a rectangular radiused bend............................................... 5-15
5.6.2 Repositioning the rectangular radiused bend ................................... 5-15
5.6.3 Creating a rectangular mitred offset.................................................. 5-16
5.6.4 Creating a second rectangular radiused bend.................................. 5-17
5.6.5 Adding a circular section silencer ..................................................... 5-17
5.6.6 Adding a three-way component and terminating the branch............. 5-18
5.6.7 Defining the branch tail ..................................................................... 5-19
6 Adding to the HVAC Model 6-1
6.1 The grid/tiling utility........................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 Creating side branches ..................................................................................... 6-4
7 Completing the Design 7-1
7.1 Filling ductwork gaps automatically................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Adding stiffening flanges................................................................................... 7-4
7.3 Automatic item numbering and naming............................................................. 7-5
7.4 Finishing off design details................................................................................ 7-6
7.4.1 Modifying joint types ........................................................................... 7-7
7.4.2 Inserting an access panel ................................................................... 7-7
7.5 Changing the view representation..................................................................... 7-8
8 Checking and Outputting Design Data 8-1
8.1 Querying data settings ...................................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Checking for design data inconsistencies......................................................... 8-2
8.3 Data check functions......................................................................................... 8-4
8.4 Checking for clashes......................................................................................... 8-5
8.4.1 Obstruction levels ............................................................................... 8-5
8.4.2 Extent of clashing................................................................................ 8-5
8.4.3 The clash detection process ............................................................... 8-6
8.5 Generating a data output report........................................................................ 8-8
8.5.1 Generating a tabulated data report..................................................... 8-8
8.5.2 Plotting the design model.................................................................. 8-11
8.5.3 Setting up a drawing administration hierarchy.................................. 8-12
8.5.4 Defining the content of a drawing sheet............................................ 8-15
8.6 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 8-18

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1 Read This First
1.1 The scope of this guide
This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by VANTAGE
PDMS for the design and documentation of interconnected Heating,
Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) ducting networks. It explains
the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and
shows how you can apply these to your own design projects.
The chapters of this guide take the form of a hands-on tutorial exercise
combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you
work progressively through the exercise, you will gain practical
experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about
the powerful facilities it provides.
1.1.1 Intended audience
This guide has been written for engineers familiar with HVAC design
practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of PDMS.
1.1.2 Assumptions
For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must
be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write
access to the project databases.
It is assumed that you know:
where to find PDMS on your computer system
you know how to use the Windows operating system installed on your
site.
Contact your systems administrator if you need help in either of these
areas.

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1.1.3 About the tutorial exercise
All the steps of the exercise are numbered sequentially throughout the
guide. The start and end of each part of the exercise is marked by lines
across the page to separate them from the general information sections,
like this:

1.1.4 Further reading
You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices
of this guide.
1.2 Text conventions
This guide uses the following text conventions:
Serif for the majority of the text.
Bold to highlight important information, and to introduce
special terminology.
Serif italic to denote internal cross references and citations.
Sans-serif to denote keys on your keyboard.
Sans-serif bold for menu names and options, and for the names of forms.
Typewr i t er for text within a form, including text that you enter
yourself using the keyboard.
1.3 Terminology
You can switch rapidly between the different parts of the program, so
that the distinctions between them become almost imperceptible, but you
need to recognise what is happening when you select from the different
functions available to you from the various menus.
The following terms are used throughout this guide to describe what
action to carry out:
Enter Type text into the specified dialogue box, then press the
Enter (or Return) key to confirm the entry.
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Click Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then
quickly press and release the designated mouse button. If
no button is specified, use the left-hand mouse button.
Pick Click on the required item to select it.
Drag Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then press
and hold down the required mouse button while moving
the cursor to a second specified point. Release the button
over the second point.
Double-click Place the mouse cursor over a specified point, then click
the left-hand mouse button twice in quick succession.
1.4 How the guide is organised
This guide comprises two volumes divided into chapters and appendices,
as follows:
Volume 1 (this volume):
Chapter 1 introduces this guide and summarises its scope.
Chapter 2 gives a general overview of the main design facilities
provided within the HVAC application.
Chapter 3 gives you a general guide to using the PDMS graphical
user interface, including an explanation of how to access
detailed on-line help. A running example is used from
this chapter on, to illustrate essential concepts.
Chapter 4 explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you
how to organise your data.
Chapter 5 demonstrates the key features of HVAC design using
PDMS and shows you how to build up a ductwork
sequence component by component.
Chapter 6 shows you how to extend the basic ductwork sequence by
adding side branches to form a more complex network. In
doing so, it introduces a useful facility for creating a
reference grid which can be used to position ceiling tiles
for locating HVAC grilles etc.
Chapter 7 explains some ways of finishing off the design details by
using some automated facilities provided by the
application.
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Chapter 8 shows how to check your design for clashes, and how to
generate reports and plots directly from the design data.
It concludes the worked example.
Volume 2:
Appendix A shows the complete hierarchy of all options available
from the application bar menus, pull-down menus and
submenus in a convenient quick-reference format.
Appendix B summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to
store your HVAC design data.
Appendix C contains annotated illustrations of all of the HVAC
components which are provided in the catalogue database
which forms an integral part of the product.
Appendix D contains some examples of the types of HVAC layout
plots which can be produced easily by using PDMS
Appendix E identifies other sources of information which supplement,
and expand upon, the brief details given in this guide.
The guide concludes with an index, allowing you to refer back to any
specific topics about whose details you need to be reminded.
1.5 Further training in the use of PDMS
This guide teaches you about the key features of using PDMS for HVAC
designs only.
If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS,
AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses, covering all levels of
expertise and all design disciplines. For details of courses, and to arrange
course attendance, contact your nearest AVEVA support office (see the
copyright page at the front of this guide for our web address).

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2 Introducing VANTAGE PDMS
This chapter introduces:
the structure of PDMS
the strengths of PDMS
HVAC design features.
2.1 Introducing the structure of PDMS
PDMS comprises the following functional parts:
modules
applications.
A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific
types of operation. This guide covers the following modules:
Design, which you use for creating the 3D design model
Draft, which you use for generating annotated and dimensioned
drawings of your design.
An application is a supplementary program that has been tailored to
provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular
discipline. The application you will use for HVAC design work in this
guide the HVAC Designer.
You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.
2.2 The strengths of PDMS
In VANTAGE PDMS, you have a powerful suite of facilities for the
creation, analysis and documentation of interconnected HVAC ducting
networks.
The emphasis is on maximising both design consistency and design
productivity:
The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent
intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the
consequential effects of many of your design choices. This allows you
to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of
effort.
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You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage
without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, because data
consistency-checking is an integral part of the product. PDMS
automatically manages drawing production, material take-off
reports, and so on, by reading all design data directly from a common
set of databases, to prevent errors from being introduced by
transcribing information between different disciplines.
The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work
progresses. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection, so
the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final
documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level.
The applications are controlled from a graphical user interface. This
means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated
by selecting choices from menus, and by entering data into on-screen
forms. For ease of use, you can select most of the components you
require by picking them from a set of diagrammatic representations,
and many common actions are represented by pictorial icons.
On-screen help is available to assist you whenever you need help.
2.3 PDMS HVAC design features
VANTAGE PDMS has been designed by HVAC engineers for HVAC
engineers. The HVAC application offers the following key benefits:
The HVAC Designer application lets you build up and detail complex
ducting networks simply by selecting components from standard
catalogues. By using standard default settings, a conceptual layout
can be created and analysed rapidly, leaving the design details to a
later post-approval stage.
The application provides facilities for creating rectangular, circular
and oval cross-sectional items. Individual design components can be
selected from over 100 parametric catalogue items covering all likely
requirements, including a range of auxiliary items such as stiffening
frames, access panels, splitter plates etc., all of which will be
accurately detailed in the design model. The catalogue also includes a
range of inline plant items such as centrifugal and axial fans, air
handling units, silencers, dampers etc., each ready for insertion into
the design model in a single operation.
User-definable detailing specifications, such as those for construction
materials, ductwork gauge, flange dimensions etc., define precise
manufacturing requirements. User-definable default settings ensure
compliance with company standards and a high level of design
consistency throughout the project.
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Accurate geometric representation of all design items ensures
reliable clash checking during the design process, leading to good
space management and the early elimination of positional errors.
Explicitly positioned design components are interconnected
automatically with implied ductwork as the design of the ductwork
sequence is built up. An autofilling facility is provided which can
then calculate the optimum use of standard ducting straights to
complete the material take-off list for the entire network.
Several design aids are incorporated, including a facility for creating
horizontal grids which can be used to position ceiling tiles. This can
greatly aid the layout of building services in an architectural
environment.
HVAC elements may be named in accordance with a predefined set of
rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always
obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design
process.
The applications user interface can be tailored readily to suit the
level of experience of any individual user. In particular, graphical
illustrations of all catalogue items can be displayed if required to
simplify component selection and dimensioning.
You can carry out multi-disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the
design, thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which
could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. This is
particularly important where different features of the design model
are under the control of different designers.
At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified
data from the current database. You can specify a standard report
template, so you can derive lists of commonly-required information
very quickly, or you can design a one-off report format to suit special
needs. The resultant output, which can include data from any design
discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on
your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).
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3 Getting Started
This chapter explains:
how to log in to PDMS
how to use the windows, menus and forms that comprise the PDMS
graphical user interface
on-line help.
3.1 Logging in
This is the first step of the tutorial exercise. If you do not know where the
PDMS program is stored on your system, you will have to contact your
system administrator at this point.
Exercise begins:

1. Start PDMS by double-clicking on the PDMS icon.
The VANTAGE PDMS Login form that appears requires you to specify
a number of details at the outset of your session.

Ignore any entries currently shown in this form. The next section
describes how to complete the boxes, and the exercise continues
afterwards.

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3.2 Using the mouse
You use the mouse to steer the graphics cursor around the screen and to
select or pick items by using the mouse buttons. The buttons perform
different tasks depending on the type of window, and the position within
the window, where the cursor is positioned. The appearance of the cursor
changes according to the type of display item that is underneath it.
The left-hand mouse button has three functions:
On a graphical view, clicking the left-hand button with the cursor
over a design element results in that element becoming the current
element (that is, the design item on which you want to carry out the
next operation).
In a sequence of menus, dragging with the left-hand button activates
the command represented by the highlighted menu option when the
button is released.
On a form, the effect varies according to what you select.
The middle mouse button is used primarily to manipulate a graphical
view; the right-hand button (which gives a shortcut menu) is used to
access the menu options specific to the graphical view window.
3.3 Using forms
Forms can include any of the following:
text boxes
drop-down lists
option buttons
check boxes
scrollable lists
action buttons.
Text boxes and drop-down lists are explained below; the remainder are
explained later in this chapter.
3.3.1 Using text boxes
Text boxes are the areas where you type in alphanumeric data such as
names or dimensions. A text box will usually have a label to tell you
what to enter.
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When you first open a form which contains text boxes, the first text-box
on the form is current and a text editing cursor (a vertical bar) is
displayed in the box. A text-box often contains a default entry (such as
unset ) when first displayed. Some text boxes accept only text or only
numeric data, and entries with the wrong type of data are not accepted.
To enter data into a text box:
Click in the box to insert the text editing cursor.
Type in the required data, editing any existing entry as necessary.
(You may need to delete the existing entry first.)
When you have finished, confirm the entry by pressing the Enter (or
Return) key. Any text box with an unconfirmed setting is highlighted
by a yellow background.
3.3.2 Using drop-down lists
Drop-down lists let you choose one option from a multiple selection. The
list will usually have a label to tell you what you are setting and will
show the current selection.
They typically have the following appearance:

To change the setting, click on the down arrow or button face to reveal
the full list of available options, then pick the required option.
Exercise continues:

2. Click on the VANTAGE PDMS Login form to make it active.
3. Give the name of the Pr oj ect in which you want to work: enter SAM.
4. Give your allocated User name: enter HVAC.
5. Give your allocated Passwor d: enter HVAC.
6. Give the part of the project Mul t i pl e Dat abase (MDB) you want to
work in: enter HVAC.
7. Give the name of the module you wish to use: select Desi gn.
Make sure that you leave the Read Onl y box unchecked, so that you
can modify the database as you work.
8. You must specify which files to load at startup. You can choose either
the application default settings (Load f r omMacr o Fi l es) or a
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customised setup saved during an earlier session (Load f r omBi nar y
Fi l es). Select Macr o Fi l es.
When you have entered all the necessary details, the form looks like
this:

Click .

3.4 The PDMS startup display
When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks like this:

Title Bar
Main Menu Bar
Main Toolbar
3D View Toolbar
3D Graphical View
Status Bar
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As labelled above, the display comprises the following:
Title Bar
This shows the current PDMS module, and its sub-application if
applicable.
Main Menu Bar
This is the area you use to make menu selections.
Main Tool Bar
This has a number of icon buttons and drop-down lists that offer
shortcuts to a selection common PDMS operations and standard
settings.
Design Explorer
This shows your current position in the PDMS database
hierarchy. To move to a different point in the database, you click
on the appropriate item in the list. Section 3.7 below explains
more about how to use the Design Explorer.
3D Graphical View
This is the window in which you display the design model
graphically as you build it. A pop-up menu (which you access
with the right-hand mouse button) enables you to control how the
model is represented. This window also has its own tool bar.
Status Bar
This displays information about the current status of your
operations.
You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using
standard window management facilities.
3.5 Using menus
Menu options in pull-down or pop-up menus can be in any of three
formats:
Standalone options initiate an action immediately.
Options followed by three dots display a form.
Options followed by a pointer, display a subsidiary
menu that offers a further range of options.
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Throughout this guide, related selections from menus are abbreviated
form using the > symbol as a separator. For example:
Select Position>Move>Distance means:
a) Select Position from the bar men.
b) Select Move from the resulting pull-down menu
c) Move the cursor to the right and select Distance from the
resultant submenu.
3.6 Using the tool bar
The tool bar is displayed immediately below the main menu bar in the
application window. It contains a number of icon buttons which let you
carry out common tasks without searching for the options in the menus.
The actions of the buttons are explained in the on-line help. If you pause
the cursor over a button, a tool-tip pop-up box will remind you of the
function of the button. To activate a button, you click on it.
Note: The tool bar can be switched off, or displayed with larger icons. To do so,
select Settings>System from the main menu bar and then set the required
options on the resulting System Settings form.
3.7 Using the Design Explorer
The Design Explorer presents a hierarchical view of the PDMS databases
and makes navigating around the Design Database quick and easy.
The figure below shows a typical example of the information the Design
Explorer displays:
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To expand or collapse any branch of the tree, click on the or icon.
You can reduce the amount of information the tree displays by ticking
the filter checkbox and selecting one of the predefined core filters from
the drop-down combo-box list. If you want to narrow the view down even
more, you can change the settings in the Explorer Settings, which you
can access by selecting Settings>Explorer from the main menu.
If you place the mouse-pointer over an element, you will get a ToolTip
that gives the elements name, type, and description; clicking-the right
mouse-button while the cursor is over an element will bring up a context
menu from which you can choose to perform various actions. What
actions are available depend on which DB and module you are using.
You can drag-and-drop elements within the Design Explorer to copy
them, or you can drag-and-drop from the Explorer to add elements to the
3D view and My Data.
The Current Element is highlighted in the tree view and the Current
Element will change to follow selections made elsewhere, even if the
Explorer is not the active window. If you set the Expand to CE check box in
the Explorer Settings, the tree will automatically expand to show the
Current Element if it is not currently in view.
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The Current Element is also the displayed in the History List, which you
will find by default on the main menu bar. The figure below shows the
History List.

You can make another element the Current Element using the History
List by:
typing the elements name into the combo box;
selecting a previously typed in element from the combo-boxs pull-
down list. Note that if you dock the window vertically, it will not
display the combo-box.;
navigating through the history one element at a time using the
backwards and forwards buttons;
selecting elements from anywhere in the History List using the
drop down lists on the backwards and forwards buttons.
3.8 Using the status bar
The status bar displays messages telling you what actions the
application is carrying out. You should look at it frequently, especially if
the system appears to be waiting for you to do something, since it will
always prompt you for any input or action which is required to carry out
the next step of your current activity.
If the prompt lets you repeat a task an unspecified number of times, such
as picking a selection of items using the cursor, you must press the
Escape key when you have finished to indicate that you are ready to
move to the next operation.
3.9 More on using forms
Forms are used both to display information and to let you enter new
data. Forms typically comprise an arrangement of buttons of various
types, text-boxes, and scrollable lists. Input to a form is usually via a
combination of mouse and keyboard.
While you have access to a form, you can change a setting, return to the
initial values, accept and act on the current data, or cancel the form
without applying any changes, according to the nature of the form.
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You were introduced to text boxes and drop-down lists in Section 3.3; this
section describes the remaining boxes, buttons and lists:
option buttons
check boxes
scrollable lists
action buttons.
3.9.1 Using option buttons
Option buttons are used to select one, and only one, from a group of
options. The selection is mutually exclusive, so that selecting one option
deselects others in that group automatically.
They typically have the following appearance:
Option selected
Option not selected
To change the selected option button in a group, click the required
button.
3.9.2 Using check boxes
Check boxes are used to switch an option between two states, typically
set and unset. Unlike option buttons, they do not interact, so that you
can set any combination of check boxes at the same time.
They typically have the following appearance:
Set
Unset
3.9.3 Using scrollable lists
A scrollable list is displayed as a vertical list of options within the form,
with vertical and horizontal scroll bars along its sides. To select an
option, click on the line you want. The selected line is highlighted.
Some scrollable lists let you make only a single selection, so that
selecting any option deselects all others automatically. Other lists let you
make multiple selections, with all selected options highlighted
simultaneously. You can deselect a highlighted option in a multiple-
choice list, by clicking on it again (repeated clicks toggle a selection).
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3.9.4 Using action buttons
Most forms include one or more action buttons. You use these to tell
PDMS what to do with the details you have entered in the form.
The common action buttons are:
Tells PDMS to accept the current form settings, and closes
the form.
Cancels any changes you have made to the form, and closes
the form.
Tells PDMS to accept the current form settings, and leaves
the form displayed for further use.
Cancels any changes you have made to the form, and leaves
the form displayed for further use.
Closes the form, keeping the current settings.
Some forms contain more specific types of action button which carry out
particular instructions. The action is indicated by the name of the button
(such Add or Remove).
3.10 Responding to alert forms
Alert forms are used to display information such as error messages,
prompts and requests for confirmation of changes. You respond to these
by carrying out the task prompted for, or by clicking on one of the action
buttons on the form (usually an OK or Cancel button).
3.11 Using on-line Help
Most bar menus end with a Help option. Where available, on-line help
gives detailed instructions on how to use the forms and menus from
which you control each application.
Choosing one of the Help options will bring up the Help window. The
picture below shows a typical example of what you will see:
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The pane on the right shows by default a clickable image of the main
PDMS Design window. If you click on an area of the image, the image
will be replaced by text that describes the part of the image you clicked
on.
The left pane contains a set of tabs that allow you to use Help in different
ways. Choosing one of the options described below activates the relevant
tab for you so it is at the front when the Help window comes up.
The Help option gives you the following choices from its submenu:
Help>Contents
This displays the Help window so that you can find the required topic
from the hierarchical contents list.
Help>Index
This displays the Help window with the Index tab selected, so that you
can browse for the topic you want to read about from the alphabetically-
arranged list. You can locate topics quickly by typing in the first few
letters of their title.
Help>Search
This displays the Help window with the Search tab at the front so that
you can find all topics containing the keywords you specify.
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Help>About
This displays information about the current operating system on your
computer and about the versions of PDMS and its applications to which
you have access.
Pressing the F1 key at any time will display the help topic for the
currently active window.
Exercise continues:

9. Experiment with each of the Help options until you understand the
search and navigation facilities for finding specific items of
information. Use the Help>On Context option to read the help texts for
any forms which you can currently see on your screen.
10. When you are ready to continue, close any forms which you have
been experimenting with as follows:
If a form has a Dismiss button, click this button.
If a form has its own menu bar, select Control>Close from that
menu.
Close any Help windows which are displayed by double-clicking in
the control box in the top left-hand corner of each window.
Do not close the Design Explorer or the 3D View windows, because you
will use these in the next parts of the exercise.

You are advised to make full use of the on-line help facilities whenever
you want clarification of any operations during the exercise.

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4 Learning about the PDMS Database
Hierarchy
Although this guide is about the design of HVAC ducting networks, in
practice you will usually route your ductwork with reference to
predefined design items such as the framework, floors and ceilings of a
building. You will therefore learn how these other items are defined in
PDMS as well as learning how to route sequences of HVAC components
and ducting within them.
In this chapter, you will:
learn how PDMS stores design data
see how the design model can be viewed and manipulated.
4.1 How PDMS stores design data
All PDMS data is stored in the form of a hierarchy. A PDMS Design
database has:
a top level, World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*)
two principal administrative sublevels, Site and Zone.
The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the
specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. For HVAC
design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS
abbreviations) are:
HVAC (HVAC)
Branch (BRAN).
Each HVAC can represent any portion of the overall ducting network.
Each Branch within an HVAC represents a single sequence of
components running between two, and only two, points:
Branch Head
Branch Tail.
The data which defines the physical design of the individual HVAC
components is held below Branch level.
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To represent the parts of the building within which you will route your
ductwork, you use an administrative level below Zone; Structure (STRU)
level.
The physical design of each part of the building is represented by a set of
basic 3D shapes known as Primitives, held below Structure level:
Primitives are used to represent physical items
Negative Primitives are used to represent holes through items.
During the exercise, you will use rectangular BOX primitives for ducting,
and negative boxes, NBOX primitives, where HVAC ducting is to pass
through the walls.
Together, these hierarchic levels give the following overall format:
WORLD (/*)
SITE
ZONE
HVAC
BRANCH
Design data defining individual HVAC components
SITE
ZONE
STRUCTURE
Design data defining structural shapes (primitives)
and and negative primitives)
(straights, bends, offsets, threeway connectors, inline plant etc.)

4.1.1 PDMS design data definitions
All data is represented in the database (DB) as follows:
Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element.
Each element has a number of associated pieces of information
which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as
its attributes.
Every element is identified within the database structure by an
automatically-allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-
specified name. Additional items of information about an element
which can be stored as attribute settings include the:
element type
element physical dimensions and technical specifications
element physical location and orientation in the design model
element connectivity.
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Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a
new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS.
When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are
creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes),
you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within
the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current
element (usually abbreviated to CE).
In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the
attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be
applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you
must understand this concept and always be aware of your current
position in the database hierarchy. The Design Explorer displays this
information continuously.
The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the
database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The
element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly
linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their
owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can
have only one owner.
You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing
the current element, by following the owner-member links up and
down the hierarchy.
4.2 Viewing the design
The sample database provided as the starting point for your HVAC
routing exercise, contains a number of predefined elements that
represent a simple building constructed from sets of box shapes.
In this and the following section, you will look at the hierarchic structure
and 3D representation of this model.
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4.2.1 Exploring the HVAC database hierarchy
The Design Explorer holds the design element hierarchy currently present
in the HVAC multiple database. This hierarchy is collapsed by default.
Exercise continues:

11. In the Design Explorer, expand the elements in the HVAC database,
and navigate up and down the hierarchy by clicking on the various
elements. You can see that there is already:
a Site (HVACSI TE) that owns
a Zone (HVACZONE) that owns
a number of Structures, each of which is the owner of one or more
Boxes.
Together these elements represent the building that will hold your
HVAC ducting network.
Note: If you or other users have accessed this database before, the list may also
contain other elements.

4.3 Viewing the design
So that you can see what the design model looks like, you will display it
in a 3D View window, and learn how to manipulate this display.
You will:
set the scale and direction of the view
specify which design elements you want to see and how you want
them to be represented
experiment with the view.
Having your design in a 3D View window also enables you to identify
design items by simply pointing to them rather than having to navigate
to them in the Design Explorer,
4.3.1 Setting the scale and direction of the view
Exercise continues:

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12. Click on HVACZONE in the Design Explorer.
13. In the 3D View tool bar, click on the Limits CE button, . This
adjusts the scale of the view automatically such that it corresponds to
a volume the right size to hold the chosen element(s); in this case, the
Zone.
14. To set an isometric view direction, position the cursor in the 3D View
window and hold down the right-hand mouse button to display the
pop-up menu. Select Isometric>Iso 3 from it.
15. If the graphical view background colour is not already black, select
View>Settings>Black Background from the 3D View menu.

4.3.2 Using the draw list
To view the Draw List, select the option Display>Draw List from the main
menu bar.
You specify which elements of your design you wish to display, by adding
them to or removing them from the draw list.
The sample database associated with this exercise represents the whole
of a simple building. To route your ducting network, you need to be able
to see the floors, walls, columns and beams of this building, but not the
roof. You will display the required structures in different colours.
Exercise continues:

16. Select Display>Draw List from the main menu bar. You should see the
Draw List come up in a separate floating window. If you wish, you
can dock this window.
17. Make sure that in the Design Explorer you have expanded HVACZONE
to display the structures below it.
18. Pick the HVACFLOOR Structure from the design element hierarchy,
right-click the mouse and select 3D View>Add. This adds HVACFLOOR
to the Draw List:
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Alternatively, you can click the right or left mouse-button and drag-
and-drop the element into the 3D View.
19. On the Draw List, click on the HVACFLOOR element. You can now use
the controls in the Draw List to set the colour from the popup palette.
Make the floor Bl ack. (See the online help for the Design Explorer for
details of how to do this).
20. Now pick the HVACWALLS Structure from the design element
hierarchy and add it to the draw list in the same way. Set the colour
of the walls to aquamar i ne.
21. Use the same method to add:
HVACCOLS (columns) in gr een
HVACBEAMS in blue.
Do not add HVACROOF at this stage.
Your building now looks like this:
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22. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions from the Look
and Isometric menu options provided by the 3D View shortcut menu.
Revert to Iso>3 when you have finished.

4.3.3 Manipulating the displayed view
You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The
three view manipulation modes are:
Rotate the view
Pan the view across the display area
Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view.
The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom
of the 3D View window, and is currently set to Rot at e, as shown in the
previous illustration.
To change the view manipulation mode, look at the Middle Button Drag
options on the 3D View shortcut menu. By pressing and holding down the
middle mouse button with the pointer within the 3D View, the view can
manipulated in the selected way simply by moving the mouse. The
options of interest are Zoom Rectangle, Zoom In/Out, Pan and Rotate.
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Alternatively, you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of
the function keys, or by using the View Manipulation tool bar buttons,
thus:
F2 or selects Zoom mode
F3 or selects Pan mode
F5 or selects Rotate mode
(Try these selection options and observe the effect on the Middle Button
Drag shortcut menu; a tick appears against the selected option).
You can also choose the view manipulation mode from the options on the
View>Middle Button>Drag menu.
Exercise continues:

23. Select .
24. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse
button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching
the effect on the displayed model.
The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears
to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observers
eye-point to move across the view.
25. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the
mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observers eye-
point appears to rotate up and down around the model.
26. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Ctrl key. Note
that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of
rotation is increased.
27. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the key.
Note that the word Sl owappears in the status line and that the rate
of rotation is decreased.
For an alternative way of rotating the model, try dragging the
horizontal and vertical sliders to new positions along the view
borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless
of the current manipulation mode.
28. Select .
29. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse
button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions.
Note that it is the observers eye-point which follows the mouse
movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that
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the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the
mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view
which you want to see.
30. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to
increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the
panning speed).
31. Select .
32. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse
button, then move the mouse slowly up and down.
Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively
magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms
out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by
changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a
camera lens); they do not change the observers eye-point or the view
direction.
33. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Ctrl key and
then the key.
34. Position the cursor at the top of one of the corner columns and click
(do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view
changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view.
Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current
manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Set the centre of
interest to the grille in the front wall, then zoom in for a close-up
view. You will find this a very useful technique when making small
adjustments to the design.
35. To restore the original view when you have finished, make sure that
your current element is HVACZONE and click on the Limits CE button,
and reselect View>Isometric>Iso 3.

4.4 Saving the current design and leaving your design
session
Even though you have not yet made any changes to the design database,
this is a suitable point at which to demonstrate how to store the current
design at any stage of a PDMS Design session and how to record your
screen layout so that you can start your next design session in exactly
the same state that you ended the current one.
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It is good practice regularly to save your work. This avoids the need to
start all over again in the event of loss of work due to an unforeseen
interruption, such as a power failure.
Exercise continues:

36. Update the database to store changes to the design model so far by
clicking on , or selecting Design>Save Work.
37. You should also save your current screen layout and display settings,
so that next time you use the application you can easily pick up your
design as it stands. Do this by selecting
Display>Save>Forms & Display.
38. You can now leave PDMS and return to the operating system. Do this
by selecting Design>Exit.
Ordinarily, if you had made any changes since your last Save Work
operation, an alert form would ask whether you want to save those
changes; this time, you are just asked to confirm that you want to
leave PDMS.
39. Click OK.

In the next chapter, you will install a simple HVAC ducting network into
the building model.
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5 Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components
In this chapter you will learn:
more about how the design data is stored and accessed in PDMS;
how to route an HVAC network between the grilles in the building
walls;
how to position a selection of HVAC components within the ducting
runs.
5.1 HVAC component representation in the catalogue
Each HVAC component is represented in the PDMS catalogue by the
following types of data:
physical shape
variables.
5.1.1 HVAC physical shape
The physical shape of a component is defined by a set of geometric
primitives.
So that a component can be manipulated and linked to adjacent HVAC
items, all principal points needed to define the component position,
orientation and connectivity are identified by uniquely-numbered tags.
These tags, which have both position and direction, are called p-points:
Each p-point is identified by a number of the format P0, P1, P2 and so
on.
P0 always represents the components origin position.
The principal inlet and outlet points are also identified as p-arrive (PA)
and p-leave (PL). P1 is the same point as p-arrive, and P2 is the same
point as p-leave. The reason for this is that the logical flow statement is
not true for HVAC (only Piping flow).

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5.1.2 HVAC variables
The settings of all variables needed to distinguish a component from
others with the same geometry and p-point sets are defined by
parameters. The values of these are defined to suit the specific design
requirements.
For example, a rectangular three-way component (or branch connector)
might be represented in the PDMS catalogue as follows:
P2
P0
P3
P1 (P-arrive or PA)
(P-leave or PL)
(origin)
(branch connection)

the two curved duct sections form the component geometry set
the four p-points form its point set
p-point, P3, enables you to control the direction of the branch
connection arm when you incorporate the component into your
design.
The dimensions of the component, and other constructional details, are
represented in the catalogue by parameters whose values are set to suit
the design requirements.
5.2 Restoring your PDMS session and starting the HVAC
application
You can now go back into PDMS Design.
Exercise continues:

Note: It is assumed from now on that you know how to use the OK, Appl y,
Cancel and Di smi ss buttons on forms, so they will not always be
mentioned in the rest of the exercise.
40. Restart PDMS and enter the Design module as you did at the start of
the exercise, but this time set the Load Fr ombutton on the PDMS
Login form to User s Bi nar y.
When loading is complete, your screen should look the same as it did
when you saved the layout in the previous chapter.
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(If you intend to continue from where you finish at the end of any
PDMS session, it is always quicker to use the Display>Save>Forms &
Display option so that you can reload the binary files in this way,
rather than to reload the applications from their source macros each
time you use the Design module. You can revert to the most recently
saved layout at any time by selecting Display>Restore>Forms &
Display.)
So far, you have been working in PDMS Designs General application
mode, where the menus and facilities available are common to all
engineering design disciplines. You can now start the HVAC-specific
application, which tailors the functionality of the PDMS Design
module to suit the explicit needs of the HVAC designer.
41. Change from the General application to the HVAC application, by
selecting Design>HVAC Designer.
The menu bar for the General application is replaced by that for the
HVAC application. The menu bars for both applications look very
similar, but the latter gives you access to options with specific
relevance to creating and manipulating HVAC components.
5.3 Setting HVAC defaults
To minimise the complexity of this exercise, you will set some defaults for
your HVAC Designer exercise:
a default detailing specification
the format of the HVAC form
customised HVAC forms.
5.3.1 Setting a default detailing specification
The constructional details of components that you select from the HVAC
catalogue are determined by the current detailing specification, which is
shown on HVAC application menu bar. The current detailing
specification is automatically set to TUTORI AL here.
The TUTORI AL specification gives access to a range of catalogue
components that are suitable for use with this exercise. Although you
can, if you wish, choose select a different specification for each HVAC
branch, you will use the same specification throughout the design
exercise.
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5.3.2 Choosing the HVAC form format
All the principal functions for creating, positioning, orientating and
connecting HVAC elements are available from within a single form, the
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) form (generally referred to as
the HVAC form).
The HVAC form has two display formats:
the brief form, the default, uses drop-down lists to show the elements
available for selection when you are creating a design.
the full form uses scrollable lists to show the elements available for
selection, and also offers more complex positioning options.

It is preferable to use the full form while you are learning about PDMS,
so this guide uses examples of the full form only.
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Exercise continues:

42. Display the HVAC form by selecting Create>HVAC.
43. Display the HVAC settings form by selecting Settings>Ductwork Defaults.
You will see a form like the one below:
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44. Select Style>Use Full Form from the HVAC Defaults form menu.

5.3.3 Customising HVAC forms
You can customise the appearance and behaviour of the forms for
creating and modifying HVAC components. This enables you to modify
forms to suit, for example, your preferences, or the type of design work
you are doing.
You will apply settings that provide you with the support you need as
you learn about the HVAC application.
Exercise continues:

45. Select Style>Style Options from the HVAC Defaults form menu.
46. On the HVAC Form Style form:
Set the Show Local Vi ews check box. This displays a small 3D
graphical view showing the current component in its design
context.
Set the Local Vi ews Shade check box. This shows local views in
colour-shaded (as opposed to wireline) representation.
Set the Show Pi xmaps check box. This automatically displays
diagrams showing component geometries to help you select items
from the catalogue.
Set the Show For ms check box. This displays a create/modify form
automatically when you add a new component to the design, so
that you can adjust the default dimensions and/or orientation as
required.
Leave the OK/ Cancel For ms check box unset. This gives
component create and modify forms Appl y and Di smi ss buttons
(instead of OK and Cancel buttons), so that they remain available
for repeated use until dismissed explicitly.

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47. Click Di smi ss.
48. Select Control>Close from the HVAC Defaults form menu.

5.4 Creating HVAC administrative elements
You are now ready to create administrative elements which govern the
positions of individual HVAC components within the database hierarchy.
The first elements are:
an HVAC system element
an HVAC branch element (the branch head).
5.4.1 Creating an HVAC system element
Exercise continues:

49. Make sure that your current element is HVACZONE.
50. In the HVAC form
From Categories, select PDMS Branches.
From Available Types, select HVAC System Element.
51. In the displayed Create HVAC form, enter HTESTHVAC in the HVAC
Name text box
52. Click Appl y to create the element, then Di smi ss to remove the
Create HVAC form.

5.4.2 Creating an HVAC branch element
There are two types of HVAC branch element:
main branch
side branch.
These differ only in the way they are added to the design:
a main branch requires you to position and orientate its head
explicitly
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a side branch takes its head position and orientation from a branch
connection point (P3) on an existing three-way component.
Your first HVAC branch element will be a main branch element, the
branch head.
Exercise continues:

53. In the HVAC form, with Cat egor i es still set to PDMS Br anches,
select Mai n Br anch El ement from Avai l abl e Types.
54. In the displayed HVAC Main Branch Element form:
Enter Branch Name: HTESTB1.
Set Br anch Head Shape to Rect (rectangular).
Set Head Di r ect i on to N (this is the direction looking along the
ductwork run from the head position towards the first
component).
Set the Arrive A dimension, Duct wi dt h AA to 1000.
Set the Arrive B dimension, Duct wi dt h AB to 500.
Select I nsul at i on Thi ckness to 50 mm(this adds 50mm of
insulation automatically to each surface of all components and
ducting owned by the branch).
Select I D Desi gn PPoi nt from the Head St ar t drop-down list:

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Your last selection, I D Desi gn PPoi nt , enables you to specify the
position of the Br anch Head by picking a p-point. You will pick the
p-point at the centre of the hole in the front wall of the building.
55. Leave the HVAC Main Branch Element form as it is, and go to the 3D
View.
56. In the 3D View tool bar, click , and zoom in on the hole in the front
wall of the building .
57. Now go back to the HVAC Main Branch Element form, and click
Appl y.
You are prompted by the status bar to I dent i f y desi gn ppoi nt .
58. Position the cursor on the edge of the box representing the hole and
press and hold down the left-hand mouse button. The p-points appear
as dots. Move the cursor around the box, continuing to hold down the
left-hand mouse button. Each time the cursor is over a p-point, the
p-point is identified in the status bar.
59. Locate p-point P5 in the centre of the southernmost face of the
negative box representing the hole in the wall, and release the mouse
button over it.
60. Di smi ss the HVAC Main Branch Element form.
You have now defined the branch head.

5.5 Creating HVAC components
Starting at the branch head, you will now build up your HVAC design.
You will add individual components sequentially, and position and
orientate each of these as you proceed.
You will be creating the following overall HVAC configuration:
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N
Branch
he ad
Branch
tai l
straight
square bend with deflector vanes fire
damper
radiused
bend
radiused
bend
radiused
bend
fire
damper
square
to
round
round
to
square
circular
silencer
three-way connector

Exercise continues:

61. The first component required is a rectangular straight, to be aligned
with the hole in the southernmost wall:
N
Straight will be
created here
Straight will be
moved to here
Branch head is here
Branch head will be moved to here

Note: The diagrams used throughout this exercise are for illustrative purposes
only and are not to scale.
62. In the HVAC form, select Rect angul ar from the Cat egor i es list.
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63. In the displayed HVAC Rectangular Ductwork form, click on the
St r ai ght diagram in the top left-hand corner of the palette.
This displays the Rectangular Straight form which has data fields for
all the parameters needed to define the component. The initial data
settings on component definition forms are determined by a set of
default values.
64. To see what the parameters mean in terms of the component
geometry, click the Pi ct ur e button on the form. This displays the
HVAC Component form containing a dimensioned and annotated
diagram showing how the component is defined in the catalogue.
Compare the data categories on the Rectangular Straight form with
the diagram, to see how these are related.
Note: There is a full set of component geometry diagrams in the appendices
of HVAC Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Volume 2.
65. Close the HVAC Component form.
66. Click Appl y on the Rectangular Straight form to accept the default
parameters, then click Di smi ss.
The rectangular straight is created and positioned with its p- ar r i ve
at the branch head, so that it is inside the building (as shown in the
above diagram).
To move the straight to the required position, you need to move it
south 5000mm and down 96mm.
67. Go to the POSI TI ON : - area on the HVAC form. In the text box next
to the Move by button, enter the required displacement; S5000D96.
68. The straight is moved as soon as you press Ret ur n to confirm the
data.
69. You can check that the straight is in the correct position by selecting
Query>Position>Origin from the main menu bar. The position, shown
in an HVAC Command Output window, is:
E 3048 mmS 5125 mmU 3300 mm.
70. To reposition the branch head so that it coincides with the PA of the
straight, go to the drop-down lists in the bottom row of the
CONNECT: - area on the HVAC form:
Set HVAC Branch to Head
Set to First Member.
This connects (and therefore repositions) the head of the current
branch to the PA of the first component, the straight (the only branch
member so far).
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Note: You could have positioned the branch head here when you first created
it, but this would have required you to calculate its coordinates
explicitly. It is usually easier, as here, to position a new item relative to
an existing design point and then to move it later.

5.5.1 Creating a fire damper
The next step in the construction of your HVAC design is to create a fire
damper at the position where the ducting will pass through the hole in
the wall.
Exercise continues:

71. The last operation made the branch head the current element. Each
new component is created immediately after the current component
in branch list order. So to create a component after the straight, you
must navigate back to the straight. To do this, click on the straight in
the 3D View.
72. In the HVAC form:
from Categories, select Inline Plant Equipment
from Available Types, select Rectangular Fire Damper.
73. On the Rectangular Fire Damper form, name the component FD1.
Leave all parameter settings at their default values, and click Appl y
to create the fire damper.

5.5.2 Moving the fire damper
The fire damper is automatically positioned so that its PA is coincident
with the PL of the preceding straight. You will now move it so that it fits
within the wall.
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N
Fire damper
created here
Fire damper
moved to here

Exercise continues:

74. In the POSI TI ON : - area of the HVAC form, set Thr ough to I D
El ement .
75. You are prompted to identify an element; pick any part of the
southernmost wall.
The fire damper is moved northward along its axis until it lies in the
plane of the wall, and you are now no longer able to see the fire
damper in the 3D View, because it is hidden within the negative box
that represents the hole through the wall.
The gap between the straight and the fire damper is filled
automatically by a length of implied ducting in the 3D View. Note that
implied ducting is not shown as an element in the Design Explorer.
76. Change the 3D View direction to Plan>North, so that your view
appears similar to the diagrams shown here.

5.5.3 Creating a composite component
The HVAC components you have created so far have each been
represented by a single PDMS element. Some HVAC components,
however, composite components, are represented by more than one
PDMS element.
You must be particularly careful that you are at the correct position in
the Design Explorer when you want to refer to such a component. The
next part of the exercise shows you how composite components are
represented within the PDMS hierarchy.

Exercise continues:

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77. Use the HVAC form to create a Rect angul ar Squar e Bend:
set Leave Direction to W
leave all other settings at their default.
78. Click Appl y.
79. A message appears warning you that the hierarchy has been affected
by the creation of this component. OK the warning message.
80. The bend is created as follows:
N
PL of
bend
Note : I mplied ducting shown by lighter
shading than HVAC components in all
diagrams

The Design Explorer now shows two new elements:
BEND 1 represents the bend ducting
SPLR 1 represents the set of air deflectors within the bend
(created because a square bend requires turning vanes).

The message you saw when creating this component was warning you to
be careful when you attempt to navigate to this component because the
component itself comprises more than one PDMS element.
If you navigate to the square bend simply by picking it with the cursor,
you are almost certain to select the element representing the outer
ducting. The deflector set that also forms part of the component, follows
the bend in branch order (as you can see in the Design Explorer). You
must make sure that, if you wish to create a component to follow the
bend in the branch order, you must click on the element that represents
the deflectors.
Branch members:
. . .
previous component
bend ducting (BEND)
deflector set (SPLR)
next component
. . .
PL
PA

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To see the deflectors inside the bend, switch the 3D View temporarily to
wireline mode (use the Settings>Shaded option on the 3D View pop-up
menu, or press F8, to toggle between colour-shaded and wireline views).
5.6 Adding more HVAC components to your ductwork
5.6.1 Creating a rectangular radiused bend
Exercise continues:

81. Using the Design Explorer, make sure that the deflector set of the
rectangular square bend (SPLR 1) is your current element.
82. Use the HVAC form to create a Rect angul ar Radi used Bend:
set Inside Radius to 100
set Leave Direction to N
leave the defaults for all other settings.
83. Click Appl y.
N
Radiused bend


5.6.2 Repositioning the rectangular radiused bend
You need to position the new bend in the plane of the westernmost wall.
Exercise continues:

84. Position the new bend in the plane of the westernmost wall by using
POSI TI ON : - Thr ough I D El ement on the HVAC form. Pick the
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wall, or rather, because you are using a plan view, pick the beam
above it.
85. Now move the bend to fit just inside the wall, and downwards so that
the ducting leaving it passes under the beam across the building roof.
Enter POSI TI ON : - Move by E800D150. The result is:
N
Duct to pass
under beam
Broken line here shows
components are now misaligned

5.6.3 Creating a rectangular mitred offset
Because you have moved the radiused bend downwards, its inlet (PA)
is not vertically aligned with the outlet (PL) of the preceding
component. This is indicated in the 3D View by a broken line between
the components, rather than implied ducting. To correct this
problem, you will insert a mitred offset section between the two
components.
Exercise continues:

86. Remember that a new component is always added immediately after
the current element, so navigate back to the deflector set (SPLR1) of
the square bend.
87. Create a Rect angul ar Mi t r ed Of f set .
88. PDMS has a powerful facility that can calculate the length and
amount of offset needed to fit the new component automatically into
the available space. Simply click the Fi t button on the Rectangular
Mitred Offset form. The calculated data is entered into the parameter
data fields: note, for example, that the A Of f set is now set to 150.
You may wish to zoom in close to the mitred offset and view it from
different angles to see how it has been adjusted to fit between the
two bends.

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5.6.4 Creating a second rectangular radiused bend
Exercise continues:

89. Navigate back to the last component in the branch, the radiused
bend.
90. Create a second radiused bend with:
the default I nsi de Radi us (0. 5 means 0.5 x duct width)
Leave Di r ect i on E, in the following position:
N
New bend
here

91. Position the bend in the plane of the northernmost wall (use
Thr ough I D El ement and pick the wall or beam above it)
92. Move the bend South by 1500 mm (use Move by : S1500).

5.6.5 Adding a circular section silencer
To include a circular section silencer in your rectangular ductwork, you
need a transformation piece either side of the silencer.
Exercise continues:

93. In the HVAC form:
from Categories, select Transformations
from Available Types, select Square to Round
set Duct Diameter to 750.
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94. Position the transformation piece in line with the first beam reached
in the branch-creation direction, shown striped in the preceding
diagram
95. Move the transformation piece 300 mm east.
96. Back in the HVAC form:
from Categories, select Inline Plant Equipment
from Available Types, select Circular Silencer
name the component SI LE1
set Outer Diameter to 950.
You will now add another transformation piece to revert back to
rectangular ducting. However, instead of specifying this from first
principles, you will create a copy of the existing transformation piece,
and reverse it to achieve the desired round-to-square result.
97. On the HVAC form, click the Cr eat e Copy I D button. When
prompted, pick the square-to-round transformation that you want to
copy.
98. On the Square to Round Transformation form, set the Fl i p
Ci r c/ Rect option to Yes. This interchanges the PA and PL points
reversing the components direction.
Your HVAC layout now looks like this:
N
Square
to round
Round to
square
Circular
silencer

5.6.6 Adding a three-way component and terminating the branch
A three-way component enables you to connect one branch to another.
You will need a three-way component so that you can connect a side
branch into your existing main branch later in the exercise.
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Exercise continues:

To create a three-way component:
99. In the HVAC form:
from Categories, select Rectangular
from Available Types, select Square Threeway
set Duct Wi dt h LA (leave A dimension) to 800
set Second Wi dt h (for the branch connection) to 800
set Leave Direction to S.
You require a gap of 1500 mm between the three-way component and
the preceding component (the round-to-square transformation). The
Di st ance operation on the HVAC form enables you to do this by
allowing you to specify the gap between the PL of one component and
the PA of the next, thereby avoiding the need for you to calculate the
movement required to reposition it.
100. Move the three-way component along the branch axis by setting
Di st ance to 1500.
101. You can make sure that the gap is correct; navigate back to the
round-to-square transformation and select Query>Gap to next from
the main menu bar.
102. Return to the square three-way component and create a
Rect angul ar Radi used Bend with default dimensions and Leave
Di r ect i on East .
103. Align the bend with the hole in the easternmost wall using the
Thr ough I D El ement option. Pick the edge of the box outline on
this wall.
Note: The current branch direction (the PL direction of the previous
component) was changed to Sout h by the three-way item, so the bend
moves south until it is aligned with the picked element.
104. Create a second Rect angul ar Fi r e Damper , give it the name FD2,
and position it through the hole in the easternmost wall.

5.6.7 Defining the branch tail
You complete the definition of your main branch by defining the branch
tail.
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Exercise continues:

105. Connect the Branch Tail to the fire damper (the last member of the
branch):
Select Tai l from the HVAC Br anch menu at the foot of the HVAC
form.
Select Last Member.
This uses the same method that you used to connect the branch head in
Step 70.)

The final HVAC configuration is:
N
Branch
head
Branch
tai l
straight
square bend (inc.
deflector vanes)
fire
damper
vertical
offset
radiused
bend
radiused
bend
radiused
bend
fire
damper
square
to
round
round
to
square
circular
silencer
threeway
connector
1500
unconnected
P3
ready to attach a
side branch

106. Save your design changes.

That completes the creation of your main branch. In the next chapter,
you will add some side branches and demonstrate a convenient utility for
representing ceiling tiles which incorporate ventilation grilles. You will
also replace all of the implied ducting with appropriate standard
straights.
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6 Adding to the HVAC Model
In the last chapter you created a sequence of components to form the
main branch of your HVAC ductwork. In this chapter you will:
learn how to position tiles using a working grid
extend your model by adding some side branches.
6.1 The grid/tiling utility
You begin by using some facilities for setting out a working grid and
positioning ceiling tiles within it, so that you can then use these tiles as
references for positioning HVAC grilles.
With reference to your existing design model, the next part of the HVAC
ducting network which you are going to design will feed two ceiling
grilles above the small room in the north-east corner of the building. In
order to position these grilles, you will use a facility which lets you set
out a horizontal grid and a ceiling tile layout based on a specified datum
point.
There are three stages to tiling:
Specify a setting-out point (SOP) to represent the datum from
which grid line positions are to be calculated.
Create grid lines at specified intervals, referenced from the SOP,
in a horizontal plane.
Add tiles at specified positions in the plane of the grid.
Exercise continues:

Note: If your screen is cluttered, you may wish to dock the HVAC form to one
side of the window and then unpin it.
107. Navigate to the zone which owns the design model, HVACZONE. The
grid/tiles are created below this hierarchic level.
108. From the main menu bar, select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid
Layout>Setting Out Point. This displays the HVAC Grid Setting Out
Point form:
Enter S. O. P. Name: HTESTSOP1.
Enter Set t i ng Out Poi nt Hei ght : 2700 (the elevation of the
ceiling in which you will eventually position the grilles).
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Click OK.
You are prompted to pick the SOP position using the cursor in a plan
view.
You want to position the SOP at the exact centre of the rooms
ceiling. Rather than trying to pick this point precisely, you will pick a
random point in the ceiling plane as the SOP, and then move this
point to the exact position required.
109. Pick a point.
110. To move this point to the centre of the room, select Position>Explicitly
(AT) from the main menu. Enter the coordinates E15000 N9000
U2700 on the Explicit Position form (ignore the Positioning Control
form).
The SOP appears in the 3D View as a small sphere, and is
represented by a DISH element in the PDMS hierarchy.
111. You will next define a grid in the plane of the ceiling (a horizontal
reference grid) through the SOP datum, with the grid lines spaced
out from the SOP in both directions.
Select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid Layout>Grid from S.O.P.. This displays
the HVAC Layout Grid from SOP form.
Leave the East / West and Nor t h/ Sout h Gr i d Spaci ng separations
set to the default of 600.
112. Click OK. You might be prompted to identify the SOP from which the
grid line positions are calculated (unless it is already the current
element): if so, pick the SOP which you have just created. You must
now define the horizontal rectangular area which represents the grid
boundaries. You are prompted to pick first the south-west corner and
then the north-east corner in a plan view. Pick the corresponding
corners of the room (the intersections of the beams at these corners).
Since your room is 6000 x 6000 mm, the 600 mm grid line spacing
gives you 10 grid squares in each direction within the ceiling area,
like this:
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N
= S.O.P.
Pick SW
corner first
Pick NE
corner
second
= Ti le s to
be adde d

Note: If the room were not rectangular, you could build up an overall grid by
using abutting rectangles based on separate setting-out points.
To complete this part of the exercise, you will create two tiles in the
ceiling grid where you want to install HVAC grilles (as shown by the
shaded and striped grid squares in the preceding diagram).
113. Select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid Layout>Apply Tiles in Grid. This
displays the HVAC Apply Tiles in Grid form.
Leave the East / West and Nor t h/ Sout h Ti l e Wi dt h dimensions
set to the default of 600. (They do not have to be the same size as the
grid squares, but are usually so in practice.)
114. Click OK.
You are prompted to identify the SOP with the grid for to positioning
the tiles. Even though there is only one, pick the SOP to confirm your
intentions.
You are now prompted to identify the locations at which you want to
insert tiles.
115. Pick the grid squares marked and in the above diagram (the
picked points snap to the nearest half tile, so you dont need to be too
precise). Then press the Escape key to indicate that you have
finished adding tiles.

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6.2 Creating side branches
You next want to create a side branch which runs from a start point on
the main branch and which passes between the tile positions. You will
then add two more side branches, each running from a point on the first
side branch to the tile positions (remember that you need a separate
branch for each length of ducting between two points).
You will complete the ducting network by adding a fourth side branch,
leading to an angled outlet mesh, from the unconnected arm of the
square three-way component.
To start with, you must insert a suitable connector into the main branch
so that you have a point to which you can connect the side branch head.
Exercise continues:

116. Navigate to the existing three-way item. You will insert another
branch connector immediately after it in the branch sequence.
117. If you unpinned it earlier, re-display the HVAC form by hovering over
the HVAC tab.
118. Use the HVAC form to create the next component:
from Cat egor i es, select Br anch Connect or s
from Avai l abl e Types, select Fl at Oval A Boot .
set Boot Wi dt h to 610
set Boot Dept h to 152
set B Of f set to 100
set Boot Direction to E.
119. Click Appl y.
N
P3 of boot connector
aligned with SOP
Boot connector with
flat oval side outlet
P3
P3

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You want the oval ducting to pass along the centreline of the ceiling,
so position the current component so that its outlet is aligned with
the SOP datum at the ceilings centre.
(using the Thr ough I D El ement facility on the HVAC form):
120. In the HVAC form:
from Cat egor i es, select PDMS Br anches
from Avai l abl e Types, select Si de Br anch ( of f mai n) .
121. From the HVAC Side Branch Element (Connected to Main) form:
Set Br anch Name to HTESTB1. 1 (showing that it is a side branch
of main branch HTESTB1)
Set Insulation Thi ckness to 50 mm
Leave Speci f i cat i on set to the current default (the same
specification as the main branch)
Because you are creating a side branch, it is assumed that you
will connect its head to a free P3 point on an existing component.
Set Connect Head t o Br anch Connect or to show the type of
component to which this connection is made.
Click OK. When prompted, pick the flat oval boot connector.
Note: You can pick any part of the component; the new branch head will always
be connected to its P3 point.)
122. Create a Fl at Oval St r ai ght as the first member of the new side
branch. Set its Wi dt h Di r ect i on to N.
You are now going to create two circular boot connectors from which
to route outlets to the two tile positions. You will create these and
position them before you create the straight to which they are
connected, so that the boots can be positioned relative to the tiles and
the length of the straight can then be adjusted to suit the boot
positions.
123. Make the oval straight as current element.
124. In the HVAC form:
from Cat egor i es, select Br anch Connect or s
from Avai l abl e Types, select Ci r cul ar Boot
set Boot Di amet er to 150
set I nner Ext ensi on to 76
set Di st f r omLeave to 100
leave Boot Direction set to N.
This boot is positioned 100 mm back from the PL of the straight on
which it is mounted (which is only implied at this stage).
125. Move the boot so that it is aligned through the northernmost tile
(shown as in the diagrams).
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126. Create a second circular boot as follows:
from Cat egor i es, select Br anch Connect or s
from Avai l abl e Types, select Ci r cul ar Boot
set Boot Di amet er to 150
set I nner Ext ensi on to 76
set Di st f r omLeave to 700
set Boot Direction to S.
This Di st f r omLeave dimension positions the boot 700 mm back
from the PL of the previous boot. Since the previous boot was set back
100 mm from its PL, the difference between the boot positions
corresponds to the 600 mm offset between the two tile positions. The
result is as follows:
N
100
700
oval
boot
first circular boot
second circular boot
PLs of both
circular boots
are here
mai n
branch
si de
branch
straight
ti le
ti le

You can now replace the implied ducting between the circular boots
with a straight component. Because the boots are subcomponents,
you must first navigate back to the existing straight in this side
branch.
127. Navigate back two positions (to STRT1 in HTESTB1.1) in the Design
Explorer.
128. Create a second Fl at Oval St r ai ght , and use the Fi t button to
achieve the required length between the PL of the first straight and
the PL of each circular boot.
The calculated Lengt h is 2525.
129. To complete this first side branch, add a cap to close the end of the
last straight; navigate to the last component of HTESTB1.1 in the
Design Explorer (the southernmost circular boot) and create a Fl at
Oval Cap End.
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(Remember that the PL of this boot is as shown in the above diagram,
and not within the boot volume itself, so that the cap should be
positioned correctly and appear in the correct list order.)
130. Connect the HVAC Br anch Tai l to the Last Member of the branch
(the cap).
Your second side branch will run from the northernmost circular boot
to a grille in the adjacent tile.
131. Navigate to the first side branch (HTESTB1. 1) and create a new side
branch named HTESTB1. 1. 1 with 50 mm insulation thickness.
Connect the head of the new side branch to the circular boot
connector.
132. Create a Ci r cul ar St r ai ght with Lengt h set to 750.
133. To see what types of leave joint are available, click the Choose
button next to the Leaj oi nt field. From the resulting Choose Joint
form, select Mal e Socket & Spi got J oi nt and click OK. The
Leaj oi nt field is updated to show MALE.
134. Create a Ci r cul ar I nt er nal Damper with default settings.
135. Create a Ci r cul ar Fl exi bl e Bend with its Leave Di r ect i on set
to D (down). Position the bend so that it is aligned through the
appropriate tile. (You will adjust the dimensions of this bend later in
the exercise.)
136. Use the HVAC form to create a circular to rectangular spigot box:
from Cat egor i es, select Tr ansf or mat i ons
from Avai l abl e Types, choose a circular to rectangular spigot
box by selecting Spi got Box.
Set the following parameters:
duct wi dt h LA = 300
duct dept h LB = 300
Rect angul ar Box Hei ght = 75
Ci r c Ext ensi on = 50
Ci r c J nt = MALE.
137. From the I nl i ne Pl ant Equi pment category, create a
Rect angul ar Gr i l l e i n l i ne. Set the parameters as follows:
Name = GRI L1
End wi dt h = 400
End dept h = 400
Gr i l l e Lengt h = 50
A Ext ensi on = 0.
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You want the grille to fit within the tile volume, so set the Posi t i on
At option button on the HVAC form to I D El ement and, when
prompted, pick the tile. The origin of the grille is positioned at the
origin of the tile.
Note: At this stage the PL of the spigot box and the PA of the grille have
become misaligned, so you see a broken line between them rather than
a length of implied ducting.)
Having positioned the grille correctly, you will now go back along the
current side branch and adjust the other components to fit, starting
with the spigot box, which you will position directly on top of the
grille
138. Navigate to the spigot box (PLEN 1 in the Design Explorer).
139. Select Posi t i on At Next from the HVAC form positioning options.
140. Navigate to the flexible bend and click the Modi f y CE button on the
HVAC form so that you can adjust the dimensions of the flexible bend
so that it fits correctly between the internal damper (at its PA) and
the spigot box (at its PL).
141. Click the Fi t button on the Circular Flexible Bend form to recalculate
the dimensions necessary for a correct fit. (The calculated Ar r i ve
Ext ensi on becomes 120 and the Leave Ext ensi on 225.)
142. Complete the definition of the side branch by connecting its tail to
the grille.
Looking towards the west, the side branch HTESTB1. 1. 1 now looks
like this:

cross-section of
oval side branch
/HTESTB1. 1 circular boot
connector
circular straight
control damper
inside straight
flexible
bend
spigot
box
grille
He ad
Tai l

143. Use the method given above to create a similar side branch, named
HTESTB1. 1. 2, from the second circular boot to a grille (GRI L2)
positioned in the other tile. (Remember to navigate up to the level of
branch HTESTB1. 1 first.)
The overall layout of the HVAC ducting in the vicinity of the room
now looks like this (the different shades in this diagram show the
branch hierarchy):
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N
mai n branch
/ HTESTB. 1
si de branch
/ HTESTB1. 1
si de branch
/ HTESTB1. 1. 1
si de
/ HTESTB1. 1. 2
fourth side branch will go here

You can now complete the network by connecting an angled outlet
grille to the side arm of the square three-way component (top left in
the preceding diagram). To do so, you must create a fourth side
branch.
144. Navigate to the three-way connector.
145. Create a si de br anch named HTESTB1. 2 with insulation thickness
50mm. Set the Connect Head t o option button on the HVAC Side
Branch Element form to Thr eeway I t emand, when prompted, pick
the three-way component.
146. Create a Rect angul ar Radi used Bend.
147. Because you want the bend to turn in the B direction (click the
Pi ct ur e button for clarification), click the Tr anspose wi dt h/ dept h
button. The Duct wi dt h AA becomes 500 and the Duct dept h AB
becomes 800.
148. Set the Angl e to 135, the I nsi de Radi us to 100, and the Leave
Di r ect i on to D.
149. Create a Rect angul ar Radi used Spl i t t er which fits inside the
bend (it is a subcomponent of the bend). Set the Spl i t t er Radi us
to 200. If you are using a colour-shaded view, switch to wireline
mode (Graphics>Shaded or F8 key) to see the splitter.
150. Create a Rect angul ar Mesh End, using default settings, to
complete the branch. Connect the branch tail to the last member in
the usual way.
This side branch now has the following configuration (looking
towards the East):
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135
radiused
bend
radiused
splitter
mesh end
main branch
square
threeway
Head
Tail

To complete the network, you will insert two sets of air turning vanes
into the square three-way component to control the air flows (similar
to those which you saw in the square bend).
151. Navigate to the square three-way component and switch to wireline
view (if not already set) so that you can see what happens next.
152. Create the first set of Rect angul ar Tur ni ng Vanes. Change the
Duct Wi dt h AA to 500 and leave the other settings at their
defaults. Note in particular that the Leave Thr oat is 150 and that
the Di r ect i on t owar ds l eave radio button is selected.
153. Create a second set of Rect angul ar Tur ni ng Vanes. This time set
the Duct Wi dt h AA to 500, the Leave Thr oat to 650 and select
the Di r ect i on opposi t e l eave option button.
The result, and the significance of the settings used, are illustrated
in the following diagram:
PA and PL of both deflectors
P3 of three-way
150 from leave throat
650 from leave throat
Direction opposite leave
(second set)
Direction towards leave
(first set)


This completes the conceptual design of the basic HVAC network. In the
next chapter you look at some ways in which you can enhance this design
further.

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7 Completing the Design
In this chapter you will look at some facilities for enhancing the basic
HVAC design model. The main features described are:
Automatic replacement of implied ducting in gaps by catalogue
straights.
Automatic addition of stiffening flanges to ductwork items.
Automatic item numbering of HVAC components.
7.1 Filling ductwork gaps automatically
When you created the main branch, HTESTB1, you concentrated on
specifying components with specific functions, such as bends, side
connection points, silencers and dampers. Most of the gaps between these
components were left undefined and were filled by lengths of implied
ducting to complete the representation shown in the 3D View.
To enable the design to be prefabricated, it is necessary to specify the
fixed lengths of ductwork (ductwork straights) required between these
components, so that a full material take-off list can be generated. The
HVAC application is able to calculate the optimum combination of
standard and non-standard straights needed to fill each gap and then
create the corresponding components in the design database
automatically.
Exercise continues:

154. Navigate to the main branch HTESTB1.
155. To identify what gaps exist in the branch, select Utilities>Autofill with
Straights>Show Gaps.
156. Click Appl y on the Highlight Implied Ductwork form.
For each gap in the named branch, the scrollable list area of the form
shows the:
location (the preceding component)
length
calculated combination of straights needed to fill it.
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All corresponding lengths of implied ducting are highlighted
simultaneously in the 3D View.
The HTESTB1 list shows seven gaps:

Compare this list with the items highlighted in the 3D View:
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157. Make sure you are still at HTESTB1, then select Utilities>Autofill with
Straights>Fill Gaps.
This displays the form Autofill with Straights.
158. Click Appl y.
A list of all identified gaps, is again displayed as before, but this time
the specified straight lengths are created automatically to replace the
implied ducting. Look at the Design Explorer to see the new elements.
159. To make sure that the autofilling operation was carried out correctly,
repeat steps 155 and 156.
The message No Gaps To Showconfirms this. There is no need to
dismiss the form immediately because you still need to make sure
that there are no gaps in any of the four side branches.
160. To do so, navigate to each in turn, click the CE button at the top of
the Highlight Implied Ductwork form, then click the Appl y button. In
each case you should see the No Gaps To Showmessage. (If not, go
back and correct any errors in your design before proceeding.)
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7.2 Adding stiffening flanges
PDMS provides a utility for calculating the optimum numbers and
positions of stiffening flanges needed to support ductwork items. The
configuration of the flanges is tailored to suit the component geometry in
each case. You can then create and position such flanges automatically.
Note that, in the branch membership hierarchy, they are treated as
subcomponents of the straight.
Exercise continues:

161. Add flanges to your ductwork in branch order, starting at the branch
head; navigate to the first straight in the main branch (the
southernmost straight) to make it the current element.
162. Use the HVAC form to calculate the number of stiffeners needed for
this length of ducting:
from Cat egor i es, select Rect angul ar
from Available Types, choose Stiffening.
The stiffening requirements are calculated, and displayed in the
Rectangular Stiffening form. As you can see, PDMS calculates that
this component has a Spec Requi r ement of 5 stiffening flanges.
163. To create all five stiffening flanges, click the Appl y t he Spec
Requi r ement button. The flanges are created and positioned
automatically.
164. Navigate to the next straight and stiffen it in the same way; this
straight is shorter, and requires only four flanges.
165. Proceeding along the branch, add stiffeners in turn to the:
square bend
mitred offset
radiused bend.
The stiffening flanges are configured to suit each different component
shape.
Note: Different shading identifies individual components; heaviest lines
show flanges joining components together:
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N
first straight
(5 stiffeners)
second straight
(4 stiffeners)
square bend
(4 stiffeners)
fire damper
radiused bend
(2 stiffeners)
mitred vertical offset
(1 stiffener)


7.3 Automatic item numbering and naming
The item numbering facility automatically allocates sequential item
numbers to all HVAC components and gives each item a name of the
format /PREFIXnumber, where /PREFIX is a user-definable string and
number is the allocated number. Subcomponents (air deflectors, stiffening
flanges and so on) are numbered as decimalised subsets of their owning
components.
Inline plant items, which are usually named, do not have their names
changed.
Exercise continues:

166. To autonumber all HVAC items in your current design model,
navigate to the owning HVAC element, HTESTHVAC.
167. Select Utilities>Automatic Itemising from the main menu. This displays
the HVAC Itemising form:
enter Nami ng Pr ef i x: / HTEST/ I TEM
leave St ar t Number set to 1
Click Appl y.
The HVAC Command Output window that is displayed, lists all HVAC
items and their allocated numbers.
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When you compare the entries in this itemising list with those in the
Design Explorer, you can see that each item (except any inline
component) is now named in the Design Explorer using the specified
prefix /HTEST/ I TEMsuffixed by the item number. For example, the
first two straights in the main branch, and their stiffening flange
subcomponents, appear as follows (the numbers like =15312/160 and
so on are internal database reference numbers, which you can
ignore):



7.4 Finishing off design details
You can now complete design details for the ductwork straights you have
recently created to replace implied ducting. To do this, you will:
modify joint types to suit the final design
insert an access panel into the side of a length of ducting.
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7.4.1 Modifying joint types
When the lengths of implied ducting leading to the two fire dampers
were replaced with straight components, the connecting joints will have
been assumed to remain as default flanged joints. In fact, the fire
dampers require raw edge joints, such that the ducting simply fits over
the damper inlet and outlet.
Exercise continues:

The inlet joint for the damper is, in both cases, the leave joint for the
straight that precedes the damper.
168. To modify either one of these joints, navigate to the preceding
straight.
169. On the HVAC form, click the Modi f y CE button. On the resulting
Rectangular Straight form (in Modi f y mode), click the Leaj oi nt
Choose button and, from the Choose Joint form, select Raw Edge
J oi nt , sl i p over 40mm. The leave joint field is now set to RE40.
170. Click Appl y.
171. Use the same procedure to modify the inlet to the other fire damper.
172. To modify the outlet joint between the first damper and the square
bend (the arrive joint of the bend), navigate to the bend and click
Modify CE. On the resulting Rectangular Square Bend form, click the
Arrjoint Prev button. The arrive joint field is set to RE40 by
automatic reference to the previous component, namely the fire
damper. Apply the change.
To modify the outlet from the second damper, connect the branch tail
to the last member in the usual way.
7.4.2 Inserting an access panel
The final component of your HVAC ducting network is an access
panel in the end straight of the main branch.
173. You will now insert an access panel, whose catalogue definition
includes a predefined working volume, into the side of the last
straight. (The reason for doing this will become clear when you look
at clash checking in the next chapter.)
174. Navigate to the appropriate straight. (This is the short one, named
HTEST/ I TEM21 by the itemising utility, and connected to fire damper
FD2.)
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175. Use the HVAC form to create the access panel:
from Cat egor i es, select Rect angul ar
from Avai l abl e Types, choose Access Panel
from Sel ect Si ze options, which show all panel sizes available
in the catalogue, select 400x350
click the first Tr anspose wi dt h/ dept h button to give the
required configuration (350 Wx 400 H).
176. Click Appl y.
When created, the panel appears in the 3D View as a rectangular
plate standing slightly proud of the ducting surface. In the next
section you will look at its hidden geometry in more detail.
177. Run the automatic itemising utility again so that the access panel is
included in the item list.

7.5 Changing the view representation
You have already seen how to control which design elements appear in
the 3D View by using the Drawlist to add or remove items as required. You
have also seen how to control the viewable volume and the viewing
direction by using the options from the 3D Views shortcut menu. You will
now see how you can further refine the view by specifying different levels
of detail for the items being displayed.
Exercise continues:

178. The amount of detail shown in the 3D View for different types of
component is controlled by the current representation settings. To
see what these settings are, select Settings>Graphics>Representation
from the main menu. This displays the Representation form. You will
look at just two of its options here.
The geometric representation of a catalogue component can include,
in addition to its normal physical shape, an obstruction volume which
represents the space around the component needed for maintenance
or operational access. The access panel created in Step 175 is an
example of such an item. To see what the obstruction volume looks
like, set the Obst r uct i on option to Sol i d on the Representation form
and click OK.
Zoom in close to the access panel and see how its appearance has
changed. The effect, exaggerated here for emphasis, is as follows:
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access
panel
obstruction
volume

To reset the normal view, redisplay the Representation form and set
Obst r uct i on to Of f and click OK.
179. The holes through the walls, where the fire dampers are situated,
may be shown either as boxes (specially shaded to show that they
represent negative boxes, holes) or as true holes. So far you have
used the shaded box representation so that you could pick the holes
graphically to identify them. To switch to a more realistic
representation, select Hol es Dr awn and click Appl y.
Look carefully at each hole in turn. You are now able to see the
ducting and fire dampers where they penetrate the walls.

That completes the introduction to the basic HVAC routing operations.
In the following parts of the exercise you will look at some ways of
checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from
the database settings
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8 Checking and Outputting Design Data
In this chapter you learn about:
methods of checking for errors and inconsistencies in the HVAC
layout
checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements
how to output a design data report derived from the piping model
how to generate an isometric plot.
Note: Most of these facilities are available from all Design applications, so you
can readily check and output data from any combination of design
disciplines.
8.1 Querying data settings
First, you will look at some ways in which you can query specific data
settings as you build up the design model, so that you can check detailed
design points at any stage.
Exercise continues:

180. Navigate to the square three-way component and then select
Query>Item Details>Brief Description from the main menu. This
displays the summary showing the components type, key dimensions
and joint specifications, like this:

Repeat this operation for some other components (and
subcomponents).
181. Navigate to the first (southernmost) straight and select Query>Item
Details>Item Number. The resulting output, labelled I t emNumber 1,
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is appended to the output from the previous query. Compare the
result with the data illustrated at the end of Section 8.4.
182. At any component, select Query>Item Details>Insulation Depth. The
resulting output should always say I nsul at i on 50 mm, since you
specified this insulation thickness when you created each branch.
183. Use the following Query options for several different types of
component:
Query>Position>Origin
Query>Position>Position PA
Query>Position>Position PL
Compare the results with the catalogue definitions for the
corresponding components, as illustrated in Appendix C of Volume 2
of HVAC Design Using VANTAGE PDMS.

8.2 Checking for design data inconsistencies
The data consistency checking utility reports the following types of
occurrence (and other similar errors) in the design:
Branch head or tail reference not set
Branch head or tail reference type not valid
Adjoining components have incorrectly ordered PA and PL points; for
example, one component may have been flipped while its neighbour
was not
Distance between a component and a connected neighbour, or
between a component and the branch head or tail, is not valid
Neighbouring connected components, or a component and the branch
head or tail, have their PA/PL misaligned
Arrive or leave joint has wrong connection type
Exercise continues:

184. To check your design for data consistency errors, select Utilities>Data
Consistency. You will see a Data Consistency Check form. You use the
default settings for all data checking operations.
You can send the error report either to your screen or to a file. You
will view it on screen, so select Out put : Scr een.
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The Check: list lets you specify how much of the design model you
want to check in a single operation. You will check each branch
separately, so select Br anch from the list.
185. Navigate to any component in the main branch HTESTB1 and click
Appl y to initiate the data checking process.
The resulting diagnosis is shown in the scrollable text area at the
bottom of the form.

These two messages remind you that the head and tail of the branch
have not been explicitly terminated and are not connected to any
external items. (Each branch end would normally be connected to,
say, an air handling unit or to some other ductwork in an adjacent
design zone.)
186. Repeat the check for each of the side branches in turn (for the
purposes of this exercise, ignore any messages which you receive as a
result).
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Note: For the purposes of this exercise, you can ignore any messages that may
appear.

It is good practice to run a data consistency check whenever you have
created or modified any significant amount of the design, typically before
you choose Design>Save Work.
8.3 Data check functions
Further checking can be carried out using the Data Checker facilities
available from the Utilities>Data Checker pull-down menu, giving the
Checker form. These functions include a customised class of checks
specific to the HVAC function:

See the online help for full details of the Data Checker functionality. You can
extend/change these functions using AVEVAs PML2 facilities, see the Plant
Design Software Customisation Reference Manual for a full description of PML2.
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8.4 Checking for clashes
The types of clash identified depend on two factors:
The obstruction levels of the clashing elements
The current touch and clearance tolerances
8.4.1 Obstruction levels
All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction
attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the
primitive represents:
A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable
object, such as a steel beam or a plant vessel.
A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid
but which needs to be kept clear for access.
Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and
is ignored for clash checking purposes.
8.4.2 Extent of clashing
As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items, the
checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them,
depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each others allocated
space. These categories are:
A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a
specified amount. This usually means that a definite interference
exists.
A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount
needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less
than a specified distance. This may simply mean that one item is
resting upon another as intended, or it may indicate a problem.
A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by
more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a
specified clearance distance. This represents a near miss, which you
may want to investigate.
These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications:
Touch limits: 5mm overlap to 2mm gap
Clearance limit: 8mm
so that the following criteria apply:
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If the items overlap by more than 5mm, a clash is reported
If the items overlap by less than 5mm, a touch is reported
If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm, a
touch is reported
If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm, a
clearance is reported
If the items are separated by more than 8mm, no interference is
found
overlap >5mm overlap <5mm 2mm <gap <8mm
a physical clash touches a clearance
gap <2mm

8.4.3 The clash detection process
Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry
checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a
current obstruction list. Items which are not in the obstruction list are
ignored during the clash checking operations. By default, the obstruction
list includes all elements in the database, so that each element to be
clash checked is tested against every other element. To control the
amount of checking carried out in a large database, you can restrict the
obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D
volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be
confined.
To highlight the locations where clashes are found, the clashing and
obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view
(two shades of red, by default).
Exercise continues:

187. You will use the default values for all clash checking settings. To see
what these are, select Settings>Clasher>Defaults to display the Clash
Defaults form. Think about the meaning of each setting shown (refer
to the preceding introduction); then Cancel the form.
188. You will check all your HVAC components for clashes against the
building structure. The default obstruction list (all elements in the
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current design database) includes both structural and HVAC items.
To edit this, select Settings>Clasher>Obstruction>List. This displays
the Add/Remove Obstruction Items form. Remove all current entries (if
any) from the Obst r uct i on Li st by selecting Al l from the
Remove l i st and then clicking Remove. Then Add the structural
design data only (HVACFLOOR, HVACROOF, HVACWALLS, HVACCOLS
and HVACBEAMS). (To see these first click HVACZONE in the left-
hand list. See the online help for full details of using the Add/Remove
Obstruction Items form.)
189. Navigate to the element holding all the HVAC design data which you
want to check (/HTESTHVAC) and select Utilities>Clashes. This displays
the Clash Display form. The left-hand side of this form controls the
clash checking process; the right-hand side consists of a 3D view in
which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. Select
Control>Check CE from the forms left-hand menu bar to run the clash
checking process and, when completed, study the Clash List which
shows any clashes found.
In your case this should show one clash only, with the description
1 SH CLASH HACC 1 of BRAN / HTESTB1
This identifies a soft-hard (SH) clash between the obstruction volume
associated with the access panel (which you added in Step 175 and
which is illustrated in Step 178) and the adjacent wall. To see this
properly in the forms 3D view, set the graphics representation to
show obstruction volumes (as explained in Step 178) and zoom in
close to the access panel. Notice how the clashing items are
highlighted in shades of red (if they are not, repeat the Check CE
operation to regenerate the clash data). See the online help for full
details of using the Clash Display form.
190. To see more information about the clash, select Query>Clash>Detail
from the Clash Display forms menu bar. This displays the Clash Detail
form as follows:
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Obst r uc t i on
vol ume f or
Ac c ess Panel
Adj ac ent Wal l
Loc at i on of
c l ash

Checking and Outputting Design Data


Note: If the Auto Clash button (in the main menu bar) is in the on state ( ),
each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the
design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many
new elements, but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to
an existing design which has already been checked for clashes.
8.5 Generating a data output report
This section describes two ways of outputting design data derived from
your design model.
generating a tabulated report showing the material required to build
the design
creating an isometric plot showing the design layout and associated
manufacturing data.
8.5.1 Generating a tabulated data report
The reporting utility lets you read selected information from the
database and present the output in a tabulated format. Each report can
be customised by specifying some or all of the following:
Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for
printing).
An introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the
report.
The page length (if the report is to be paginated).
The page layout, including number and positions of columns, column
headings, and so on
Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of
each page.
The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be
included in the report.
Once such a report has been designed, its specification can be saved for
future use in the form of a report template file. The ways in which you
define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond
the scope of this exercise, but you will look at the results of the process by
using a pre-prepared template which outputs a material take-off list
showing the length of tube needed to build your design. (You will
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probably use your companys standard templates for most reports
anyway, in which case this is the method you would normally use in
practice.)
Exercise continues:

191. Select Utilities>Reports>Run to initiate the reporting process. This
displays the File Browser listing all files in the current reporting
directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the
project setup procedure).
192. Navigate to the . . . \ REPORTS\ TEMPLATES directory by clicking on it in
the Sub- di r ect or i es window. All files with a .tmp suffix are report
templates.
193. Select hvac_l i st . t mp, which has been designed to produce a list of
the principal components (omitting subcomponents and branch
connectors) in the HVAC design.
194. Click OK on the File Browser.
The Report Details form that appears requires you to specify:
where the report is to appear
what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting
the required types of data.
195. Complete the Report Details form as follows:
Leave the Fi l ename text box empty (this sends the report
automatically to the screen).
In the Hi er ar chy text box, enter HTESTHVAC (this lists the
components for the whole of the HVAC network).
Click OK to run the report.
A tabulated report output is displayed in a Command Input & Output
window which is opened automatically:
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The report lists all principal components in the specified network
(the whole of your HVAC design model) in branch head-to-tail order.
The type and key dimensions for each component are tabulated as
predefined by the template.
Note: Your report may differ from the example shown above. Your template has
been predefined by your template designer, who may have included other
properties, or sorted the sequence into a different order of priority.

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8.5.2 Plotting the design model
The drawing module PDMS Draft provides powerful facilities for
generating annotated and dimensioned plots of all or part of your design
model. You will use Draft to produce an isometric plot of your HVAC
layout using default settings only.
Exercise continues:

Before you can plot your design mode, you must, while still in PDMS
Design, set the Function attribute of the parent Zone to apply rules for
representing HVAC items.
196. In the Design Explorer, click on HVACZONE. Select Modify>Attributes to
display the Modify Attributes form which lists the settings for the
Zone.
197. Select the Funct i on line. This displays the Function form showing
the current setting (unset ).
198. Change the Funct i on to Heat i ng. OK/Appl y the changes.

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8.5.3 Setting up a drawing administration hierarchy
You need an administrative hierarchy to define how plots are to be
stored. This will be in the following format:
DEPARTMENT
REGISTRY
( REGI )
( DEPT)
DRAWING
( DRWG)
SHEET
( SHEE)
LIBRARY
( LI BY)
Standard symbols, annotations etc.
VIEW
Design database elements to be drawn
LIBRARY
( LI BY)

Note: In a real project, the administrative hierarchy would probably have been set
up for you already.
You set up your administrative hierarchy within the PDMS drawing
module, PDMS Draft.
Exercise continues:

199. Switch from PDMS Design to, PDMS Draft by selecting
Design>Modules>Draft>Macro Files.
PDMS Draft application loads, and the screen changes to show the
DRAFT General menu bar and an empty 2D view window, the Main
Display (which is analogous to the 3D View window in PDMS Design):
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Drawing Sheet will be displayed here
200. Create a Department element:
Select Create>Department.
Give the Department the name HVACDEPT.
Click OK.
This displays the Department Information form. Attributes set at
Department level are cascaded down to all lower levels.
201. Click At t r i but es on the Department Information form.
202. On the displayed Department Attributes form:
Select A4 drawing sheet size (this sets Wi dt h and Hei ght
automatically).
Leave all pen definitions, hatch patterns and terminators at their
default settings.
From the Rul eset Ref er ence options, select
/ DRA/ PRJ / REPR/ GEN/ HVAC.
Set Backi ng Sheet Ref er ence to Ref er ence
Select /DRA/MAS/BACKS/MET/A4_Land. This applies standard
borders and data areas to all drawings created in this
Department.
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The settings now look like this:

203. Click Appl y on the Department Attributes form, then Di smi ss.
204. Back in the Department Information form, make sure that the Cr eat e
Regi st r y button is set to On and OK this form.
205. In the Create REGI form now displayed, name the Registry HVACREGI
and click OK. This displays the Registry Information form.
All attribute settings for the Registry have been copied from the
owning Department.
Note: You can, if you wish, overwrite any cascaded attribute.
206. In the Registry Information form:
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Select Cr eat e Dr awi ng.
Select Expl i ci t l y.
Click OK.
207. In the Create DRWG form now displayed, name the Drawing
HVACDRWG and click OK.
208. In the displayed Drawing Definition form, enter the Ti t l e: HVAC
Vi ew. The Dat e and Dr awn By entries are derived automatically
from your system log-in data.
209. Click Appl y, then Di smi ss.

Your drawing administration hierarchy is now complete.
8.5.4 Defining the content of a drawing sheet
When you have a drawing administration hierarchy available, you can
define the content of a drawing sheet ready for viewing and plotting. To
do this you will:
create a sheet
create a single view on your sheet
resize the default view area to fill the sheet
add to the draw list the part(s) of the design model you want to plot
set the drawing scale so that the plotted model representation fits
sensibly into the area available on the sheet
Exercise continues:

210. To create a sheet, select Create>Sheet>Explicitly, and OK the displayed
Create SHEE form.
The Main Display view shows the backing sheet specified earlier.
211. In the Sheet Definition form now displayed, all attribute settings have
been cascaded down from Department level. Click Appl y, then
Di smi ss.
212. Detailed design data from the Design database is applied to the sheet
in the form of individually-defined Views, of which you require just
one. To create your first, and only, View select Create>View>User-
defined and OK the resulting form.
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A User-Defined View form is displayed, and a default rectangle is
added to the Main Display to show where the design data for this view
is plotted.
213. To resize the default view area, select Frame>Size>Cursor from the
User-Defined View form menu.
Use the Point Construction Option form now displayed to identify
the extremities of the required area. Choose the 2D Cur sor Hi t
method, and pick points just inside the top-left and bottom-right
corners of the drawing area within the backing sheet layout.
214. Back in the User-defined View form:
Enter Ti t l e: I SO3 Vi ew
Set Vi ew Type: Gl obal Hi dden Li ne
Select Di r ect i on: I SO3 (using the middle Di r ect i on option
list).
215. From the User-defined View form menu, select Graphics>Drawlist. Go
to the Ref er ence Li st Member s list of the displayed Drawlist
Management form, select HTESTHVAC, and then click Add.
216. Again, back in the User-defined View form, click on Aut o Scal e. The
scale is precisely calculated and displayed in the adjacent text box.
217. Now modify this value to the nearest smaller standard scale, by
clicking the Near est button.
218. The chosen standard scale is now displayed (for example 1/150). Click
Appl y to implement the new scale calculation.
219. The final settings in the User-defined View form look similar to this:
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Select the Updat e Desi gn button and click Appl y to plot the
drawlist element(s) in the Main Display at the chosen scale:
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This is as far as you go in this exercise. The full range of 2D drafting
facilities available is extensive, allowing you to add dimensioning and
labelling data derived directly from the design model, and to add any
other specific 2D annotation which you require.

8.6 Conclusion
This concludes both the tutorial exercise and this introduction to some of
the ways in which PDMS and AVEVA applications can help you in your
HVAC design work. You should now have an insight into the potential
power of PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more
advanced options on your own.
For further technical details, refer to the sources of information listed in
the last appendix.
If you have not already done so, you are strongly advised to attend one or
more of the specialised PDMS training courses, which will show you how
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to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working
environment (see section1.5 ).
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Index
3D view.................................................3-5
Air turning vanes ..............................6-10
Application
definition................................................ 2-1
loading.................................................... 5-3
Attribute
definition................................................ 4-2
Branch
definition................................................ 4-1
main and side branches ........................ 5-7
side ......................................................... 6-4
Branch head
definition................................................ 4-1
Branch head/tail
connecting............................................ 5-11
Branch tail
definition................................................ 4-1
Button
control .................................................. 3-10
radio ....................................................... 3-9
toggle...................................................... 3-9
CE.........................................................4-3
Check box.............................................3-9
Clash
definition................................................ 8-5
Clash checking
checking process .................................... 8-6
clash limits............................................. 8-6
extent of clash........................................ 8-5
obstruction levels................................... 8-5
obstruction list....................................... 8-6
Clash limits ......................................... 8-6
Clashing extent ................................... 8-5
Clearance
definition.................................................8-5
Control button................................... 3-10
Copying existing components........... 5-18
Current element
definition.................................................4-3
Data consistency checking
principles ................................................8-2
Database hierarchy
Design data.............................................4-2
Draft data .............................................8-12
Default specification........................... 5-4
Design data
checking..................................................8-2
Design database hierarchy................. 4-2
Design Explorer .................................. 3-5
Design parameters.............................. 5-2
Design session
ending ...................................................4-10
Detailing specification........................ 5-3
Display
restoring..................................................5-3
saving....................................................4-10
Draft applications
loading ..................................................8-12
Draft database hierarchy ................. 8-12
Draft module ..................................... 8-12
Ducting
implied ..................................................5-13
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Element
definition................................................ 4-2
Ending design session.......................4-10
Escape key/button ...............................3-8
Forms and display
saving ................................................... 4-10
Function attribute
setting for DRAFT............................... 8-11
Gaps between components
measuring ..................................... 5-19, 7-1
Geometry set................................ 5-1, 5-2
Graphical view.....................................3-5
Grid
for tiling ................................................. 6-2
Hard obstruction..................................8-5
Head ............................. See Branch head
Help, on-line...................................... 3-10
Holes
representation ....................................... 7-9
HVAC Designer application
loading.................................................... 5-3
HVAC element
definition................................................ 4-1
Implied ducting..................................5-13
Insulation
querying ................................................. 8-2
Isometric view......................................4-5
Item details
querying ................................................. 8-1
Item naming ........................................7-5
Item numbering...................................7-5
Item numbers
querying ................................................. 8-2
Itemising..............................................7-5
Leaving design session......................4-10
Limits
setting for view............................... 4-5, 4-9
List
scrollable.................................................3-9
Member
definition.................................................4-3
Menu
pull-down................................................3-5
Menu bar ............................................. 3-5
Module
definition.................................................2-1
Mouse buttons
functions .................................................3-2
Naming
automatic................................................7-5
Numbering
automatic................................................7-5
Obstruction levels ............................... 8-5
Obstruction list ................................... 8-6
Obstruction volume
representation........................................7-8
On-line help.......................................3-10
Option button...................................... 3-3
Owner
definition.................................................4-3
P<#106>arrive..................................... 5-1
P<#106>leave...................................... 5-1
P<#106>point
definition.................................................5-1
p<#106>arrive ........................................5-1
p<#106>leave..........................................5-1
point set ..................................................5-2
Panning view....................................... 4-7
Parameters
catalogue components............................5-2
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Physical clash
definition................................................ 8-5
Plotting facilities ...............................8-12
Point set ...............................................5-2
Position
querying ................................................. 8-2
Primitive
definition................................................ 4-2
geometry set.................................... 5-1, 5-2
Project selection...................................3-3
Prompts................................................3-8
Pull-down menu...................................3-5
Radio button ........................................3-9
Reports
generating.............................................. 8-8
principles................................................ 8-8
templates ............................................... 8-8
Representation
holes ....................................................... 7-9
obstruction volumes .............................. 7-8
Rotating view.......................................4-7
Save work facility ................................4-9
Saving design changes ........................4-9
Screen layout
restoring................................................. 5-3
saving ................................................... 4-10
Scrollable list .......................................3-9
Setting out point (SOP) .......................6-1
Side branch..........................................6-4
Site
definition................................................ 4-1
Soft obstruction....................................8-5
Specification
default .................................................... 5-4
detailing ................................................. 5-3
Status bar..................................... 3-5, 3-8
Structure
definition.................................................4-2
Submenu ............................................. 3-5
Tail.................................. See Branch tail
Text box ............................................... 3-2
Tile
positioning ..............................................6-3
Title bar............................................... 3-5
Tool bar......................................... 3-5, 3-6
Touch
definition.................................................8-5
View
3D/graphical ................................... 3-5, 4-4
centre of interest ....................................4-9
panning...................................................4-7
rotating ...................................................4-7
zooming...................................................4-7
View direction ..................................... 4-5
World
definition.................................................4-1
Zone
definition.................................................4-1
Zooming view ...................................... 4-7
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