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Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division


Development of HTS Cables for DC Power
Transmission and Distribution
J oseph V. Minervini
Leslie Bromberg
Makoto Takayasu
Christopher Miles and Nicholas R. LaBounty
MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Eighth Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference
Doubletree, Oak Ridge, TN ~ November 12 13, 2008
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Outline
HTS DC Advantages
Cable Design Concepts
Chubu-MIT HTS DC Cable Collaboration
Long Length Cooling
Current Lead Cooling
Potential Near Term Application
Conclusions
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
DC Superconducting Transmission Line
Advantages:
No DC resistive losses
No AC inductive storage
Low or no AC losses
Long range transmission of high currents, including undersea
Very high power ratings including transmission of several GVA
Fault currents limited by fast acting inverters at AC/DC and DC/AC ends
of the line
Low voltage transmission, if desired, limiting the need for high voltage
transformers
Simplified cable design, more amenable to using HTS tape geometry
Cable coolant also used to cool solid state inverters increasing capacity
and reducing high temperature aging degradation
Disadvantages: Invertors can add substantially to cost
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
HTS DC increases efficiency for long distance transmission
Opens other advanced technology opportunities:
Direct connection of alternative low-carbon or carbon-free power
sources:
Wind
Solar PV
Fuel Cell
Microturbine
other
Connection of advanced energy storage devices
Flywheel
Battery
Supercapacitor
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
other
HTS DC Applications
}
Grid independence
}
System
Stability and
Power
Quality
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
HTS DC Transmission
Cables
DC-to-AC Power Conversion
Off-Shore Wind Farm Power
Transmission
Using HTS DC Cable
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Solar Photovolatic or Concentrated Solar Thermal
Power Transmission Using HTS DC Cable
Solar PV
CSP
Solar and Wind
DC Power
Transmit DC before conversion?
DC Super c onduc t i ng Pow er
Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne Ex per i ment i n
Chubu Uni ver si t y
&
Col l abor at i on w i t h MI T
Prof. Satarou Yamaguchi
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
yamax@isc.chubu.ac.jp
Center of Applied Superconductivity
and Sustainable Energy Research
(CASER)
Experimental Device in Chubu University
Parameters
current > 2.5 kA
voltage > 20 kV
length ~ 20 m
Sumitomo Bi-2223 cable
coolant; LN2
equipped with pump and
cryogenic cooler
72 K - 77 K
SC Cable
made by
Sumi t omo
i nsul at i on l ayer
HTS Tape
f or mer
c opper w i r es
i nner spr i ng
c ent er hol e
f or c ool ant pat h
Phot o of c r oss-sec t i on
40
i nsul at i on
30k VDC
ear t h l ayer
f or mer
c opper w i r es
HTS Tape x 39
Side View
Tape conductor
1st layer; 19
2nd layer; 20
Bi-2223/ 100A
grade
Insulation Volt. DC20kV Insulator, PPPL
Outer radius 40
Center hole 14
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
MIT High Current HTS
DC Cable Designs
Multiple Layers
Triplet
Carpet Stack
Twisted Triplets
Wedge Stack
Twisted
Triplets
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Use Basic Carpet Stack
tapes can be insulated or soldered
Square or rectangular stack
Base element former can be
conducting
non-conducting
Structural
Tape shape requires relatively long twist
pitches
AC losses not an issue for DC applications

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
25 kA at T = 65 K - 77 K
Carpet Stack triplets have highest J
e
Allows for smaller cryostat and lower heat leak
Carpet Stack and wedge base conductors allow many
variations on cable patterns and total tape number
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Potential Opportunity
Data Server Centers
In 2006, electricity consumed by servers in U.S. data
centers (including cooling and auxiliary infrastructure)
represented about 1.5 percent of national electricity
use*.
Internet data center consumes ~ 12 kW/m
2
.
10 MW-50 MW+ total capacity in new centers
DC may be preferred
Minimizes conversion losses
~7-10% energy savings migrating to DC
No reactive power
Power multiplier: for 1 W dissipation saved, 1.5 - 2 W
cooling eliminated
Google datacenter near The Dalles Dam
*Report to Congress on Server and Data Center
Energy Efficiency, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Aug. 2, 2007
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Technology & Engineering Division
Expected Data Server Center
Power Growth
G. Lawton, Powering Down the Computing Infrastructure, Computer, IEEE, 40, issue 2, p 16-19, Feb. 2007.
DC Distribution Demonstration Developed by
LBNL and Industry Partners
William Tschudi, LBNL
Measured Best in Class AC System Loss Compared to DC
~9-12% efficiency improvement measured by elimination of transformer
and second AC/DC conversion
PSU
ASD
Ballast
AC Distribution
Electronic
loads
Lighting
loads
Motor
loads
AC/DC
AC/DC
VR AC/DC
DC/DC
AC/DC DC/AC
DC/AC
DC/AC
60 Hz AC
480V
AC/DC DC/AC
DC/AC
DC
300-
400V
PV
FC
Benefits of 400Vdc
Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel
PSU
ASD
Ballast
Facility Level
Electronic
loads
Lighting
loads
Motor
loads
AC/DC
AC/DC
VR AC/DC
DC/DC
AC/DC DC/AC
DC/AC
DC/AC
60 Hz AC
480V
AC/DC DC/AC
DC/AC
DC
300-
400V
PV
FC
Benefits of 400Vdc
Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
ASD
PSU
Ballast
400V DC facility with DG
60 Hz AC
480V
Electronic
loads
Lighting
loads
Motor
loads
VR
DC/DC
AC/DC
DC
300-
400V
DC/AC
DC/AC
Benefits of 400Vdc
AC/DC
DC/DC
DC/DC
Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel
ASD
PSU
Ballast
400V DC facility with SC Bus
60 Hz AC
480V
Electronic
loads
Lighting
loads
Motor
loads
VR
DC/DC
AC/DC
DC
300-
400V
DC/AC
DC/AC
Benefits of 400Vdc
AC/DC
DC/DC
DC/DC
Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division 4400 Ampere Cable Sizes
1.75Diameter cable
325 A per cable
14 Cables
35 lbs/ft
0.605Diameter cable
133 A per cable
33 Cables
8 lbs/ft
1.75Diameter
up to 30 Conductors
up to 200 Amps per Conductor
1 Cable
2.0 lbs/ft
Copper - Air cooled Copper - Water cooled
HTS- LN2 Cooled
Very High Power Density is
Achievable with Superconductors
x 10 = 4000 A @ 0 Voltage
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Schematic 10MW, 400V, 25 kA
Data Center Layout
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Technology Needed to Implement
SC Distribution
As opposed to transmission, there are a large
number of secondary spurs, with relatively
high density (depending on application)
Refrigeration losses dominated by leads, not
by distributed cryostat or AC losses
Need to address the problem of
Electrical connections through low-loss leads
Cooling manifolding
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:
http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf
Power Dissipation with Standard Leads (kW)
Summary of Preliminary System Analysis
MIT Energy Initiative Seed Fund - 2008
Current lead loss is 0.05 W/A-lead

Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2007)
Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2008-2011)
Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2012-2016)
Power Loss
All Cu

HTS Leads 10 10 10
HTS Cryostat 0.45 0.225 0.225
HTS Cold
Power Total
10.450 10.225 10.225
Refrigerator
Wall Power
300 177 118
Copper Bus 16 16 16 250
Total Electrical
System Power
316 193 134 250

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:
http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf
Power Dissipation with Optimized Leads (kW)
MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)
Current lead loss is 0.025 W/A-lead achieved by intermediate cooling stage
Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2007)
Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2008-2011)
Power Loss
HTS +Cu
(2012-2016)
Power Loss
All Cu System

HTS Leads 5 5 5
HTS Cryostat 0.450 0.225 0.225
HTS Cold
Power Total
5.450 5.225 5.225
Refrigerator
Wall Power
157 90 60
Copper Bus 16 16 16 250
Total Electrical
System Power
173 106 76 250

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:
http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf
Capital Costs (k$)
MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)
Capital Costs
HTS +Cu
2007
Capital Costs
HTS +Cu
2008-2011
Capital Costs
HTS +Cu
2012-2016
Capital Costs
All Cu
HTS Tape 2,800 560 112
HTS Cryostat 200 130 44
HTS
Refrigerator
1,050 640 260
HTS Total 4,050 1,330 416
Copper Bus 11 11 11 160
Total Capital
Cost
4,061 1,341 427 160

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Operating Costs of Power ($/Hr)
Electricity cost = $0.10/kW-Hr
MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)

Operating
Costs
2007
Operating
Costs
2008-2011
Operating
Costs
2012-2016
HTS (standard leads) 31.69 19.27 13.38
HTS (optimized leads) 17.26 10.62 7.61
All Copper 25.07 25.07 25.07
HTS Payback Period
(standard leads)
Never 23 Years 2.6 Years
HTS Payback Period
(optimized leads)
57 Years 9.2 Years 1.75 Years

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and J oseph Minervini.
Technology & Engineering Division
Summary
Use of HTS could open innovative opportunities in
datacenters for decreased power consumption, flexibility and
easy of construction
Application to data server centers is a near term application
with potential large efficiency gains
Short time scale implementation allows further development
for other MicroGrid applications with similar technology
Establishes technology for:
Bringing large-scale power to land from offshore wind farms
Combining large-scale solar PV or solar thermal systems to the grid
Long distance power transmission and/or grid interconnects
Optimized DC cable, cryostat and current leads require
development program