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5.

1 Design of Sanitary Wastewater Manholes

Purpose of Calculation : The purpose of this calculation is to determine the size of manholes,
thickness of wall, cover slab and base slab.
Assumptions:
1. Assume water table is 1 meter below finish grade.
Diagram:
T
w
T
w
T
s
T
w
H
T
w
T
b
Assume manhole size
B = 1.20 m T
s
= 0.25 m
W = 1.20 m T
w
= 0.30 m
H = 2.20 m T
b
= 0.30 m
Design Parameters
Unit weight of concrete ( y
c
) = 24
kN/m
3
Unit weight of submerged soil ( y
s
) = 10.5
kN/m
3
Unit weight of dry soil ( y
s1
) = 18
kN/m
3
Unit weight of water ( y
w
) = 10
kN/m
3
Soil Bearing Capacity ( SBC ) = 100 kN/m
2
Angle of internal friction ( f ) = 30 deg
Coefficient of friction bet soil & conc ( m ) = 0.4
Compressive strength of concrete ( f'
c
) = 27.58 MPa
Yield strength of rebars ( f
y
) = 414 MPa
Live load surcharge ( s ) = 10 kN/m
2
W
B
PLAN SECTION
t
)
W
mh
= Weight of manhole = W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
W
1
= Weight of slab
= ( y
c
) ( B W T
s
) = 8.64 kN
W
2
= Weight of walls
= ( y
c
) [ ( 2 B H T
w
) + ( 2 W
1
H T
w
) ] = 95.04 kN
W
3
= Weight of base slab
= ( y
c
) ( B
1
W
1
T
b
) = 23.33 kN
W
mh
= 127.01 kN
W
w
= Weight of water
= ( y
w
) ( B W H ) = 31.68 kN
W
t
= 158.69 kN
Actual soil bearing pressure ( q
a
) ( Full of water )
q
a
= W
t
/ A A = W
1
B
1
= 3.24
m
2
q
a
= 48.98
kN/m
2
<
100
kN/m
2
( SAFE )
Factor of safety against uplift ( empty )
FS = W
e
/ F
u
F
u
= (y
w
) [(B + 2 T
w
) (W + 2 T
w
) (H + T
b
- 1)]
2.61 > 1.2 ( SAFE ) = 48.60 kN
Design of slab
Considering 1 meter strip of slab
DL = y
c
T
s
= 6.00 kN/m
LL = 3.60 kN/m
2
= 3.60 kN/m
w
u
= 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL = 14.52 kN/m
M
u
= w
u
L
2
/ 8 L = 1.20 m
= 2.61 kN-m
Required Depth ( d )
d = M
u
f =
0.90
f b R
u
b = 1000 mm
R
u
= r f
y
[ 1 - 0.59 ( r f
y
/ f'
c
) ] f'
c
= 27.58 MPa
r = 0.75 rb
f
y
= 414 MPa
rb =
0.85 f'
c
b 600 = 0.02848
b =
0.85
f
y
( 600 + f
y
)
r = 0.02136
r
min
= 1.4 / f
y
= 0.00338 < 0.02136
R
u
= 7.170 MPa
d = 20.12 mm < 165 mm ( SAFE )
Reinforcing Bars
A
s
= M
u
f =
0.90
f d f
y
[ 1 - 0.59 ( r f
y
/ f'
c
) ] b = 1000 mm
= 52.43 mm d = 165 mm
As
min
= 0.0018 b T
s
T
s
= 250 mm
= 450 mm

< As f'c = 27.58 MPa
Using 16 mm diameter bar;As
16
= 200 mm fy = 414 MPa
S = 444.44 mm r = 0.02136
Use 200 mm on center M
u
= 2.61 kN-m
top and bottom
Design of wall
Pressure Coefficients: Active pressure
K
a
=
( 1 - sin f ) / ( 1 + sin f )
K
a
= 0.33
Considering 1 meter strip of wall
Lateral pressure on wall (submerge soil)
Height of surcharge, h = surcharge / density of soil
h = 0.95 m
Submerged soil
F
1
= (1/2) K
a
y
s
( H + h )
2
( 1 ) = 17.39 kN
Sea water
F
2
= (1/2) K
a
y
w
H
2
( 1 ) = 8.07 kN
25.46 kN (govern)
Lateral pressure on wall (dry soil)
Height of surcharge, h = surcharge / density of soil
h
1
= 0.56 m
Dry soil
F
3
= (1/2) K
a
y
s1
( H + h
1
)
2
( 1 ) = 22.78 kN
0.95 surcharge
2.20 F
1
F
2
M =
0.128 F
1
( H + h ) + 0.128 F
2
H
= 9.29 kN-m
M
u
= 1.7 M = 15.79 kN-m
Required Depth ( d )
d = M
u
f =
0.90
f b R
u
b = 1000 mm
d = 49.47 mm < 215 mm R
u
= 7.17 MPa
( SAFE ) M
u
= 15.79 kN-m
(1/2) K
a
y
w
H
2
(1/2) K
a
y
s
(H+h)
2
Reinforcing Bars ( vertical )
A
s
= M
u
d = 215 mm
f d f
y
[ 1 - 0.59 ( r f
y
/ f'
c
) ] T
w
= 300 mm
= 243.11 mm f'c = 27.58 MPa
As
min
= 0.0018 b T
w
fy = 414 MPa
= 540 mm

< As r = 0.02136
Using 16 mm diameter bar;As
16
= 200 mm
S = 370.37 mm
Use 200 mm on center each face
Reinforcing Bars ( horizontal )
As
min
= 0.0025 b T
w
= 750 mm

< As
Using 16 mm diameter bar;As
16
= 200 mm
S = 267 mm
Use 200 mm on center each face
Design of base
Considering 1 meter strip of base
1.20
48.98
M = qa L
2
/ 12 L = 1.20 m
= 5.88 KN-m
M
u
= 1.7 M = 9.99 kN-m
Required Depth ( d )
d = M
u
f =
0.90
f b R
u
b = 1000 mm
d = 39.35 mm < 215 mm R
u
= 7.17 MPa
( SAFE ) M
u
= 9.99 kN-m
Reinforcing Bars
A
s
= M
u
d = 215 mm
f d f
y
[ 1 - 0.59 ( r f
y
/ f'
c
) ] T
b
= 300 mm
= 153.82 mm f'c = 27.58 MPa
As
min
= 0.0018 b T
b
fy = 414 MPa
= 540 mm

< As r = 0.02136
Using 16 mm diameter bar;As
16
= 200 mm
S = 370.37 mm
Use 200 mm on center top & bottom
bars bothways