Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

The nervous system

the Nervous system of vertebrates:


Two major divisions:
central nervous system (CNS)
peripheral nervous system
Central nervous system
Its composed of:
encephalon: protected by the sull
(cranium)
spinal cord: protected by the
vertebral column
!ncephalon
It has three parts:
Cerebrum: controls the sensibility and motor activity " thinin#" intelli#ence"
memory" vision" speain#$
Cerebellum: controls the balance" the coordination of
movements$
%edulla oblon#ata: controls the breathin#" heart beat" blood pressure$&
(involuntary responses)


cerebru
m
medulla
oblon#ata
Spinal cord:
Center of refle'es
the Peripheral nervous system
Its made of nerves:
() pairs of cranial nerves
*( pairs of spinal nerves
it connects the CNS to the rest of the body
N&+:
Stimulus: chan#e in the environment" si#nal
receptor: receives the stimulus and transforms it into a nervous messa#e&
There are two types: e'ternal (sense or#anes) and internal
!ffector: mae a response e': muscle" #lande
nerve cell: the neuron
it transmits the nervous messa#e&
Its formed of :
, a cell body" containin# the nucleus
, two types of cytoplasmic prolon#ations:
dendrites and a'on
spinal cord
stimulus
prolon#ations
cell body
- dendrites: short prolon#ations: Carry messa#es to the cell body
- a'on: lon# prolon#ation: Carry messa#es away from the cell body to other
neurons&
Some a'ons are covered with myelin sheath
N&+: a'on and dendrites are called nerve fibers
other structures of neuron

Structural classification
bipolar neuron
multipolar neuron
unipolar neuron
.unctional classification



/lia
Nervous cells which
doesnt conduct the
nervous messa#e&
They play a role in
protection" re#ulation
of the medium"
Support" pha#ocytosis
of dead cells" form the
myelin sheath $
!': oli#odendrocyte"
micro#lia" astrocyte" schwann cell $&
sensory neuron
motor neuron
inter-neuron
%yelin sheath
Its a lipoid insulatin# layer that
accelerate the transmission
of the nervous messa#e&
its made by the Schwann cell
and0or oli#odendrocyte
Its interrupted by node of
1anvier
the spinal cord
Its composed of :
, #ray matter
, white matter

the #ray matter
Its composed of the cell bodies of neurons
(motor neuronrs) 2 interneurons
#ray
matter
white matter
dorsal side
ventral side
white matter
#ray
matter
cell bodies
The white matter
Its formed of the
myelinated and amyelinated
nerve fibers&
Its white due to the
presence of myelin sheath
The nerve
Its a bundle of nerve fibers (dendrites and0or
a'ons)
e': spinal nerve 3 455 555 nerve fibers
Types of nerves:
Sensory nerves: formed only of sensory nerve
fibers
e': optic nerve" olfactory nerve$
%i'ed nerves: formed of sensory and motor nerve fibers
most of nerves are mi'ed
e': spinal nerve
myelin
sheath
nerve
fiber
bundle
of fibers
a'on
myelin
sheath
blood
capillarie
s
connective
tissue