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What rrirdsels dictatc our dc(isionrndrnrg?


Is the world losing its faith in democracy?

iii .1.' ;irliilir

Do clcctions reallv tuarautce fiecdorn
and cqualilv in socicrj ?

, :.-.r\'i iri: iiil :iil i:


lf,lP lss:rj s.rLc rll .Lb,rt ilr!.urneit.Ltior. \{e pick sor rri ofthlr best n )ol,ies lhNt
wh] isthatt|c
$ hY i\ that tliL une nrpnilh"r
one el, depict total itadanism. theocm.y.
is missirs ho{t cl,' essa\s?
rDg in noststudcnt romnrurisnr aDd capitalisnr.



Orn r'1 iters square olTon lhcissueof$hellcr
govemrr€nts hn\.e rhc dghtto inLedire i
i l.i Ll i' , , l r , l i :
, ,
:-lir\l il''. i l,l! ll
1 ,
-, :


Do€s orc lend to the other'? Wc look,r how
dilterFIt L,uIrflr, :r l,r\\td rlrcLr icl-",,1r)5. i. frIeet some ofth€ bcst aud
\hatF rhfir fF\p,,n\" t,r dnrc tr.rfirekirlr. Norst politicLLl leadcrs of
SAtds in,l s€tr r.rtisn, our world's Iist(nt.

Five Ideologies that

Shape Governance
The Cold War made it look like governments were eithel democratic or communist but
the ideologies that llovern us all are a little more varied than that. Bv xiaochins Ling


deologies can be thought of as different ways of looking at

i,lil lj t i ll 'l/llLllll things. An ideology is like a comprehensive vision of how society
should work (i.e. the ends) and the best methods to achieve this
ideal arrangement (i.e. the means). Most countries do notjust
subscribe to one singular ideology but a mixture of ideologies in order
to sketch out a political, economic and cultural blueprint to build our
ideal societies from.

02 BR0ADIR PIRSPTOvts the leak\t! issue

clPlTtLtu\4 l flutoPta?

1 2
t(onomi5l thni6obre

norker ln tlhiopio. Hn

GRxED IS GOOD? / oD thc left side oi the political EQUALITY l]OR LL / The i98os and r99os tlMlllDtfiS toRAfRttA
sp€ctrun, capitaiisn is a dirly word. The list of marked aglorjous asc ofvictory lbr Denocracy: thc
problens creatcd by capitalism is well-documented: B-rlir' t^,,11 l.ll. r\" ".Fdt Curnmun. . , rnt, p hslks/ tie',! /idl56
the unfair dist.jbution of iyealth aDd fower. the crumbled lik€ a domino chah after corbachev
tendency to$'ards creating a nionotoly or oligopoll inttodrccd percrl,?ika(restnchrnrs) and glasnost
of elites and the exploitation ofth. poserless for (openness) to the Soviet Union md clerla'here people
profit's sake. river on thc risht wjng side of the rcrc calling fbr fiee elections and celebrating ftee
spectrom, sone monothcistic fairhs act!ally oppose speech. Denocracy will alirays ha!€ its appe in tlre in r rill( o thin(ing,
lha,o.l-' i',oi r'1.-e.ld\ rn.ll-i.,,1. B, l.Jt J r{r workl becaNe it speats to the most fen€nt impulses ideo lsm ond publir
has becone thc defining ideolos) of the $orld for !h€ in the human imaginalion:the desireto sce all rnan
siniple reason that jt has outlaste.l and outpcfomred qulik \1,itred ond
equalry treated,l|e hope that the elite will lool< out
all otho alterna Live ecoDomic slstenN in ternrs ofits 'o'rr1, s.rl 1rd rhp oFli, I tr.,r ,acf one ot .r.:s
ability to efilciently create liugc amounis olwealth, nmately capable and wise enoush to guide and guard
a fact dral no modem statc is blind to. Even stauDchb cac.h o ther without beins forced to do so. In tlie face
Comnunist states lik China and Russia ha!€ evolved olsuch appealing idcals, itis no wonder that so naly
their former comnand econor es for a systcm tiat monnchis and theocracies have been tranplcd under
allores capitalist gain.IncreasiDg GDP pcr capita the feet ofthc eager mass€s. Tlie nain issuc about
natuMllyb ngs about inprcved standards ofli\ring, denbcracv is not so nuch its goals but the $'ayit is
bettcr healtbcare, public iDfrastrucLure and be rg.\ac,rled. lbo n,rrD propl. ,.h.vp deno.r .ips
otfoftunity lbr upward socjal rnobilitv. Economists i Jr. r ,d . op., -s io i.l rs i.' .lF.r'on. or rrfl
liteMiiton ltiednun al€uethat capitalisn is a pre' speech. Fea' ant to do the hard iork ofrunnins a
req sit€ for {r'eedom. Lilte it or !ot, the profit r€al democracy: upkeeping the .ule of law,
notive sccms to pronote iDdepcndent seu nui rinins transparenc!', instillins responsibility
o.sanisation and crealivib like no othcr.It and enforcins accoun tability for all- It

03 ERolDtR PIRSPIOIVIS t|le idealottlt issue

TIJF,O(]RACY s()cIAt,tsllI

. la roo work for {.ges, ,? it;

. ll soods rrd i.nic.i rru $ld itr
. m.rl.tplr.. with . vi€w to
. li th. w.rld i. divid..l lnto
i'ti.ns. it it tdt to.ttlbn.
. lf th.t. k .nY tind ol govirn-
n.nrover pcopl. rr iJ ro' 5"/,'sd
. u"ress ati trunanr cveqwhert
h.v. rF.2...rt !o.ll goodi tnd t'F
ti@s, it is nor io.i.titn'

.iVORKIRS IN POWtrR As capitalisrn

IN GOD \vI l
RUST / Theoc.acics atc ra.e in / !,re\v nr
lodavs nrcreasnrgu s.cutarn'orld bul thc lii{ states nrflucn!e ar:d e.oDomic inequ.litv became nore
thaL archoldiDg out a!P.artobe quite.esolutc an.l prcnotrDc.d. people bcgan a.lvocaling that lrrperty
unchingnrg about it. Morcovcr. iD .eacLion to the and dist bution ofNealth sholld be subi.ctto conhol
secularisrtion oftlie roJd. ihe p{ssiolr lo lrold onto F, 1: l"r'll ,l ' '"1f . \rr'^
religious bclicfs as rdellningplitical ideologl nright clites. l hus bcgaD the nrovcmcnt ofso(ialism the
j st grow cyctr Dore intcnsc. The P'escni-dal root ideolo$ rrhicli orgalised hbour
iheocracies also all adhere b motrotheisli. bclicfs
n,olemei,ls. rrid. rurions and ftrnn nisn. Post
(,ILrdrisnr, Ch stirnityand lslan,$'liich liare rro\c'1
\\', rld \\ . ls , "r:lr r' ro' l:"f r ' .i 11...i'
' " ir'41. b r'r.i,rlFlr.^i,:,
political chan8.. lrcscntly, no .bsolute theocrrq n,an! impove.ished AficaD, Asitn and Lati
r.'\.,l.."oll.-'rr. Anerican counties esltciall," iD !je\! ofihc aPPrrcDt
aspccts. s cl.ctcd falls uDde. lhc
lra. nrccess ofthe So\iel Drodci. llone!e.. rhc Soiet
strpcnisior olt|. Suprene Leadcr oflran and lh. leNnr. of socialisn laded nr nrfluence on.c n$vs of
CuArdian Council, tlo positions in thc governnent ho\! the Soyict strtes liced shortages ill consu'ncr
'| | a r- 'F,.r ..r,r \l r\l ilrl'lri, goods rnd supprcssion of riShts to rssembll 3"'l
SaLrdiAubir is bolh r thcocracy is Nellrs a nnDr(I) s|ccch spreld. Iodr\', socialisn }rs trkcn on rran!
$'i]h dr. Emir in absohltc po$'er bLrl thc Qudn as lb rs.I!Latin ,\. edci, Vcnezuela d IIugo
,e .r Lrrrtltiun ,1, .,.. ..J/ rtrJ,ti ,r .' I. I i. Chn!.7 and Boh,ian PrcsideDt l:]lo \'loraics Push
legjsl.iioD) as h$. lhc Isrxcli state identifics itsell populist .coDomic loljci.s tlut aid tbe porcst. The
rs lhe Jdrish llorreln.d(fiosc Law ol Rctlu granls
!n\ Jei{ tlrc rislit to becomc au lsReLi citizcn iD $'haL
I'r'. ' i-lr | . ' _
Christiu Socialisni - a blar.l of soci^lisrr that dri'ls
is seen as thc lonrcland give. to thcm bl
Gd. Lren morc iDt guiitu is Uount in Crcccel
' 'i .'l or '
d r. \t . | ,...,, .".... o, .r.,t ,-F, ,.1,,l .ic"
aD autonomons countN ded icatcd n) ^tlros
the vitgii IIa'-T '" '
thrt onll perniis Ortho(lor Christiu nirles to bc ard.arc n)r the toor. \'orknrs class. L
tcrnuDenlr.sidcnts. It

04 BR0ADtR PIRSPItTlVtS l/ic t./,rtog, Nsxf

5 Monarchics are obsolcte.

lRUE 1{] SOMD EXl l.tNT. Rule b1 a singtc

nroDarch ls olc ol rhe oldesr - and \omc sn) nnrsr
arctiajac of go\ern.)ent. Sirce the
lDlishiennient and thc rise of secntar.Lrtruc. fe$,
Dbdcnr citi?ens ca. accept tle coDcept of r m.rn
chnnins to nrle because ofihc$ill ofcod(s) orbecausc
hc isr dirine ircanrar€.'\s a r€nitr. most moDaJllics
ha!e be.D dismantled, ovc lrrown or traDslormcd
into repnblics. Nl.n! oftodarrs bclored ro]'ahigurcs
Lhe Bdtish, Danishand Jalancs. orats for i$tance

arcjust (rNtitutidral nroDrrchs i{ithoul .ert polver

ov.r national polic\'. T|et'ewabsolut. Dr.,narctrs \!Lo
stjll retanr coNi.tcr.ble decisioljnaling poNer (an
bclb!nd !r Jo.dan, Morocco, BhutaD. B.unci. Saudi
Arrbia, Q.1ar and SNazih.d. r\ftcr lhe 2oo7 mrss
IF I MORKS,.IUSf DO I'[/Conlircius, ccnghis killirg bt, Netal s suicidat crorvn priDci:. Nep.l
Klran, Nap.rleoD and Thonas Jeffoson had orr eveniurllv abolisired iis Donarchr iD 2oo8. (t
phjlosop|y in conlnor - rll beti.ved stro.slv thar
runnnrs an efficienr societr depeDdcd onthefru(tical
selection ol people based on tnlent and us.lulness.
not a sct olfincy but nltjrn atety un reaiisti. betiefs.
The Illuminati controls the world!
This plriiosophy|as e\olwd into i{har is.oi{ ln wl
asme tocraq, - r slstem that mosr no.lenr cnpitalist Ir lSF. thc Ilh Lirutidoes cxisl in.lccd irthctrle
socicties pra.tice iDformallv anywa),. Unlike lbll ,-r.. ra. Ir r r' .t,tr'a, ,1.,..
democracl which IIiDis aD optnnistic picrLre ofthe intcliectuais, poljticians and tfterarr Drcn $.as fou oded
equal caprbilitl of tlic massesj rne.itocracl sa).s. ,Be -.irus.l^, .t t.t..rrrr_1|, I,r . fi r-
rcalistic. Som. Fople aiil lahn.lly be more catabte banned under the suspicioo that lhel cxisre.t to
thaD olhers and rhey shorrld bo allowed tr,lead and i.liltrat. aDd overthrow e\istiDg Europcan
look afte. the comnDn sood.',rej1ercoD cnlie.i snch go\ennncnts, at oDe IJoirt, the o .r
Ireople the ir.tural adslocracy . Napolerrn rejc.ted still Drrnagedro arrract 2,ooo men.
rppointment bnsed on ancestrf. weatth or ethniciry, '$c group ei.n I udl) disban.tcd due
choosi g kr Bvard o.\ thoscsirh mitta.1, scic.rific
orartistic prowess. Singrpore is uDique in ctaimi,,B : to nrl€rnal successio'r issu.s. Since
moitocracy as a ccnual poliiical conceut - a stnnce th.n, coDsfiracl lheorists aDd
that Eot h$ expellcd lrom the Mrtaysian Fcderarion puh tictioD no\ellists like D.n Br!{rr
ir r965 bccause Malalsia believed in giriDg sDecial have had a fiel.l dn) portriring the
frivileges Lo the indigenous }Jitays. Whit€ IllnmiDati ,s aD all tiDowiDg
me.itooact Dainrallr briDgs successj ir can shacloi{y organisarioD t]rat
nrstitutionalise inoqLhljtyand etitisnr s.hen itre strtc,s controls world aflans ihrough
defnrition .rf hon to measure bc.omes t(r, its p fDet Sovennncnrs and$'.nd ilt-deline{l at

05 BR0ADtR PtRSPtO/VIS th. id.obqtt iss"(

06 ER0rlUtR PtR5PlflVtl r/i, nlritot,/ |sir'
Rftr1IID i5U:!


Y0LltLlr]l tH !


vol(h?v=lNetbf db42(&le

THI R 5I AND fAtIOf Tl][



Aihorr dlp !bo!r lhe &erlln



See the orislno BBC rewi

07 BR0ADIR PtRsPtOvts th. i.leol.yv 6suc


FI:TI, (}II SOI]ND AND FURY. to matter little to the decision making democratic principles and one thai proljder
SIGNIFYINC NOTHING/ The first process. America's embittered and clnical decent quality oflife while conpronising
answer may offend our nost outwardly etectorate has become weary ofall thinss sone freedoms, the rnasses will alwals pick
expressed norions of equality. Lilte it or not, old and auious, lookins for anlthing new the latter because laymen are essentially
enough of us privately feel that putting and hopetul instead.
decision nakins in the hands ofa qualified

few rather than the clLreless nasses just This is nost obvious in the case of
scems more €fficiert at getting things done 'IALK Is CIIIAP/ Denoralised by the Sinsapore, seen by many academics as a
in a comtry. To Dut it blundy, the unspoken rise of populism and the pressure of classic case of a successfut 'benevolent
fact is many of us just do not have that nucli globalisation, many have also witnesscd dictatorship'. Here, the electorate remains
that without institutional changes, indifterent to local and foreisD activists'
democracies do not guaraniee any better rcpeated attempts to galvanise a revolution
quality of sovernance. In Asia, the for freedon. PromiDent local free speech
Philippines fits the bil ofbeing a tuee-speech activist Chee Soon Juan may be commended
lovins, western sbne democracybesl Still, by denocraq advocates overseas but locatly,

In r democrac), the mip os have cone to vis their country's he is viewed by thd man on the street at best
corrupiion, poor ecoDomic growtb and as an oddity and at worst as a national
majority may make decisions that place
growins teEonst problen with ajaundiced enbanassment. Despile their comPlaints,
their interesis far above the intercsts of the
eye. Russia's dislike of democracy stems Shgaporeans are essentially conteni with
minority. In effect, the majorit] has the
paftly {ron how Russians perceive their ihe rather miraculous level of econonic
capacity to become just ds foolish, cnel and
own experimeni witli democracy in the wealth, political stability and social secunv
unjust as any despot - an issue neatly
199os asafailure an attitude seen in seveMl achieved through alnost four decades of
captured in the phrase "tyranny of the
Latin American couniries and parts of Souih doninarce by one political party in th€
Eastern E rope. Ameican politicians may elections. The loss ofcertain political and
crow about the evils Connunist leader Fidel economic freedoms - the conhol ofdk press,
Indeed, like ftee speech, fi ee elections the
castro has hflicted on Cuba but Michael the enforced CPF savings schene,
very cornerstone of a democracy can very
Moore's 2oo7 doqrnentary Sicto exposed disalowing the nakins ofpolltical films etc.
easily degenerate iDto a farce: all sound and
to America what Cubans had kno$t for is accepted as a necessary evil: a fair and
fury, sisniting nothins. Free elections are
years: the 'Evil Empire'ofCuba manased sensible trade off for having an efficiently
not so fiee after all, beins interwoven with
to provide aftbrdable, world-class univeNal run, wealthy and secure nation. In an
personal politics and metodrama. Ukraine
healthcare to its people - an accomplishment analysis of S gapore by the sustainability
only succeeded in achievins the theatrics of
that still remains ridiculously ort ofreach lnstitute, founder Dr. Donella Meadows
democratic politic rather than establishing
for many middle-class Ame caDs.^sNeu asserts that Singaporejust does not fit into
the corc instituiions of democracy. VoteN
vol/< ?l,nes columDist Nicholas Krisiof the world s categories: "It's a dictatoNhip
prcferences cnn swins erratically, bound by
noted wryly in a 2oo5 article, "Ifthe u.s. with ftee speech, no fer aDd no coruption.
their enotional, subjective desire to suppoft
had an infan! moftality rate as good as It's an economythai uses capitalistmeans
the leader that thev like best, as opposed io
Cuba's, (it) would save an additional 2,212 to atiain socialisl ends....a meritocratic,
a rational, objective assessmeDt of which
Ame.ican babies a year." 3lr,ooo Cuban elitist. Confrcianist, bureaucratic state
leader tbey trust rl1ost. Yushchenko weni
doctors wolk for free in dozens of poor whateveryou call it, by all appearaces and
quickl)' from beins Ukraine's democratic
@mtrieq sharing tltir healthcare stategies measures it works astoLrndinsly Nell - so
darling to yet another Public
atrd providing free cataract operations for
inpoverished Venezuelans, Bolivians and
ln the 2oo8 American Presidential
WHAT'S INANAME? / Denocracy has
campaign, Barack Obama's detractors argue
atso lost much ofits sheen beca se its most
that his dramatic victories state atter state
prominent advocates areseeD as arrogant,
were founded more on his youthful, good
inflexible, belliserent and h]-pocritical. To
looks and cleverly orchestrated monopoly
separate westem-style democracy film its
ofthe word "chang€" thm his actual political
unorthodox preteDders, the term "liberal
expeience. There nay be some truth there. Far ftom the pristiDe ivory towers
democracy" ltas created to describe the
After a]l, obama's trump card is that he of academia aDd the livins rooms of lhe
former and "illiberal denocracy" to define
embodies everything that curreDt President elite. what matters more to the masses is
systems where leaders were elected but
ceorge W. Bush and leadins rjval Hillary how well taken care of they are by the {reedoms remained curtailed. The p.oblem
Clinton are not young, black, charismatic goveDment - not so muci which particr ar
with the tern 'illib€ral democracy" is thal
and a ftesh face. whether Senator Hillary strain of democratic ideolo$r' their polltical
it sounds inhercndy negative, as ifdescribing
Clinion is a better debater or SenatorJohn leaders srbscribe to. Given the choice a democracy gone MoDg.
Mccain has more years of experience seen between a government p rist about

08 BR0ADIR PtRSltOlVtS the i(leolollLi isste

Italso clearly demonstrates ho$' tibeml universat democracy was unavoidabl€, you governnent tl{es its people, it is obliged to
denoc.acy is still seen by most of the might as well speed up its aril2l by pushing provide benefits in rtun: notjust supplying
Western(isedl world as the ideal politicat for regime chanse aI over the world. This the basics ofseNices, accountability, and
state that all nations n st strive to achieve political philcophy which enphasise! using sood sovernance, but guardingthe bisser
or else be seen as hopelessly backward. AmericaD foreign policy and might to ideals of libe(y and representation as weli.
establish and maintain democracy in the The problem is whetr a democratically
The label"ilibel"l democracy" has also beeD world is known as ned.onservntism eiected government fails to provide the
indiscininately applied to a whole samut hominent neoornsenative dsision nakers basics but trumpets larser ideals alone
of countries ofvarying expeiences fton like U.S. President Crorse Bush, U-S. Vice instead, it loses tl1e people's trust. America
Singapore to Nigeria to Uadimir Putint President Dick Chenex fomer World Bank has found it hard to persuade others to
Aryentha and PeNez
Russia, Hugo Chavez's President Paul Wolfowitz and former folow their lead when White House officials
Mushanafs Pakistin. To the Dost dogmatic Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld hl"ocntically disregard democratic nles
advocates of Western sB'le democracy, there believed they had a moral callins "to by making excuses for the use oftorturc and
is no niddle sround: Singapore s Minister challense regimes hostile to (Amerjca's) e)draordinary rendition.
Mentor Lee Kran Yew can wind up sharing inierests and values" and "to promote the
tlrc label "authoritarian dictator" with Noftlr cause of political aDd econonic freedom No system of government, not even
Korea'sKin Jong il, though the fomer's democracy, suarantees life, liberty or
"crimes against democracy" are quite happiness. Democracy itselfis not a one-
obviously not in the same category as the It was s ch thinking thatjustifi€d Amenca's time ev€nt but a painstakiDg process
latter's. Strch labellins is unwarranted, se of military force to €stablish democracy rcquiring the work of both sovemment and
cltlturally anosant, intellectuaily dishonest in Iraq. This idea is not new of course. The its people to take responsibility for their
and ultinately contusjng. Worse, such oveft Cold War was a 2oth ceDtury Crusades of society and to change iis institutions
cnltuMl arrogance also creates trmecessary sons with America spendins billions in a and paradisms when necessara.
tension that ruins dialogtre betlEn nations. clandestine q est to infiltrate, ov€rthrow
and conquer nations in the name of
Democracy againsi the evil' forces of THE I-AST u'ORD/ D€mocracy wjll
Comnunism and Socialism. In the 196os aiways be endlessly frustrating and
and 7os, America helped stage coups in disappointing tu practice but it remains an
Brazjl, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and ideal wolth pursunrs.
Uruguay. The fact that they never succeeded
in convertins Cuba to democracy despite To quote Sir Winston Churchill asain,
'I'HD GOSPEL ACCORDING TO the CIA'S many botched assassination "we accept in the fuliest sense oftle word
(r/r'DST E RN) DR MOC RACY/ attempts on Cuban Crmmunist l€ader Fidel the settled and persistent will of the people.
Disturbingly. as America and Western ...Many forms of covennent have been
Europe grow increasingly discomfoded wiih tried. and will be tried in this world of snr
religion and more secular at heart. the
ideology of liberal democracy has come SHOULD \\itr STILL PURSU t.]

closer and closer to beins enshrined as a I)EllOCR-AcY?/ Yet, all that has been
replacement sospel of sorts, a holy scripture said so far is not to p€rsuade us to d€spise
worth dyins (or killing) for. Since the cold denocracy and embrace dictatorship
war, Am€rica (in particular) has made benevolent or othetrise. IDdeed. fi€e fron
herserto be the world's for€nosi evanselist the taint of cultural arrosmce Dd hnocrisy,
ofihegospel ofpolitical pluralism.It is no democracy will always rciain a strong,
accident that atmost relisious like universal and perhaps eternal appeal to all
voc!$ulary is used by Ameicans to describe of us. Demo[acy celebrates a powerful,
the sacred sht to vote, freedon ofspeecli compellins vision ihal government belonss
and freedon of the press. wlile every to the people, that voting is a nivemal right,
American coin has the overtly Ch stian that all citizens are eq al, that we are
pronise "ln God We Trust" neady ensraved governed by the rule of law, that minonty
on it, the truth is that the closest thins the views are protected no matter how
United Staies has to a siate rcligjon today abhorrent to the najo ty.
js constitutional democracy.
But the ability to promote democracy
One dangerous outcome of FraDcis depends on the credibility and appeal of a
Fukuyama's theodes was that itled some working democratic golemment's example
powerful people to believe that since and the world desperateiy needs better
examples. when a democmtically elected

09 &R0AD[R P IRSP tfilvts the ideolog!] issue


Rethink Elections tlat may

We assurne that deurocracy and liee elections natulally go hand in hand but
Dotbe the case at all. ByJoselin tsau

, !i ^:
LlGR., "
, *r|,r,:r,l
i .:i



l0 ER0ADtR PIRlPitTlVts thcidealolttr issue

Y0r,lrj8[ THts

v0llNG i tcHlt{t


Dishold A(uvole lS
v0li'q mr(hine if 0

l0H ll l\rlctatN r,ll{s

"Elections equal Democracy.

THIU.S fttcfl0 l

_o(iden,olly leokj

NOT TRUE / ln the Nakc of the wo.ld's nyiad nhjle still holdins sham elections condenned by
rnulti coloured protests and rcvolutios mdAmcdca's iDternational rnonitors.
attempts to denocratise the Middle East, elections
hale more than ever becone the byword for L Fftra. our.o1ra.l-.'\" Lppn Ino.€rJ qAl o) r\Jr cp
denocracy. Ho$'cver, this is rooted iD the.edLrctive and conrption, and rcsults nsged, bought or isnored.
and eroDcous assumptiotr that ticking a small bor Opponents runDing for elections in corultries like
will cnable a courltr)' to rnake the magical Eilypt and Russia cncounter jnstrmountaue leilal
EnJolm rioninrorlih"ra dp1loird.r.(.rl,mrnhr g and technical hurdtes and their political participation
only offers too Darrow a definition ofdemocracy and is oft curbed byintimidation and prcssure. Protests
provides impossibly bigh expectations of whar arc lioleDd]'suppressed dd diss€ntins voices silenced.
electioN alone caD bdnit. Elections b). thcnsetves are 'll r iu,d^ li.tot,o,.rsrril...rvFl"fliorrr'ctp
not a panacea; they cannot reniedy ail a counrrr's a farcical process$'heD itsupposedly represents the
problems norbring inDediate pcace and order in a will and desire of drc people.
democratic transition. Democrac.y does Dot takc a
linear cause and effeci approach and we forgctthal Unfohnateiy, elections are no guamntee of their ox11
il\"d i"r:n,rrr"l oi\ oofrimpto,l-\, upa,d ,rvF. , ur.ti1u.d cvi\lelc m.hh F. dnnocrari, FhJvju.rr
o! part of the goverrmeni. Tlrc precise effectiveness
A scan of world hisiorv reads like a manual ofhorvto of dcmocratic processes dcpends heavily on ho$'
steal an elcction. ElectioDs have been blatantly elections are sed and conducted. The country's
tnaDipulated to legitimise dictators and crininrls ard political eDviroDnent and legal noms can easil)
proions inc!mbent rule. The Big X{en" of African inllueDce this fractice. Elections are at best an ea.iy
stales like Zinbabr{c, Conso and Ansola habiiually ,rro lo a.r rd.v dnd ll qo-s. d l,lank chF,, ts ur
emplo) coercjve tactjcs and bribes to stay in Doner .1'n abu.p\ ol ou$rr.

ll BR0lDlR PIRSPIOIVIS the ideoloou iss11e

\et Fa r-a,\nru.l\' troparlvut,\' 4 ' a 'rr ,liorl nl
-.- r''
'l-p u.qri',:\ ri|o d.r'' " rn ..,ro l'r'.,
co Dtry. The electoral lrocess broa.lens politic{L
involvement and rwar€ncss and allo$s the citizcDs
voiccs to beh.ard. DLecliorN are also thc ke) plndorn
bt' lrhicli fu!uc den.,c.atic rcfornrs arc generar.d
and affects how ihe staLe accounts lbr itself to Lhe
p,,blr . I -.r or.. d ro- d, lr\"r tFl rr ' ,oi.F
apathy and rcsignation will sel nr, halting dcDroc.r I i.

So what js.ceded to.nsure lhc virbilitv anci

" The
equitability of clcctiotis thcn? Countrics need a snf.
and transparent flaying lield where civil societv, a
rr-1,p .,l-rn. ^lr'v .no "_ rldPp-nd r'l' li':r
present. Nlinori! risht! and freedom ofspee.ll
is Always
and $oruhip Dce.l to be fri)tected OD]I ilhen ciiizens
arc arva.e of iheir riiahts and
and,rc given the
lreedom to consciouslY asscrt
their political will and Pref
Nill democrao proper
cone inLo bcnis. Only when OF COURSE NOT/ The thought soes likc this: if
soci aDd legal iDstilulions are elcctions and refe.endunis are mcantto eiprcss the
built, people arc inyoLved aD.t \illof thepeople,t dif aDNjoriLyof peoplebcliele
empo$'ered, and the slate can r 'c...,.d,'-g. 'r"uF n'ir .l- orili^r'
be held rublic\ accourtable fot i,lh" ibr . u.,". Ln, Kir: dr .1,. V,prr'r R'\olJ i^n
broken elcctouL promises, only and th. French ltevolltion can hishliSht !cr,r- .litrerent
theD will dcmocratic dcvelop aDswers. The nasses freed to dctemine thcir oivn
fate were supposed tobrirg about societies Lruilt on
Dobie ideals. Brt \!lil€ onc revolution brcught libertj
Since 2ooo, cxperir eDts $'ith electoral denrocracv and freedom. the otlrer brought the l'.rror'
andmnlti padl clections havcbeconle more frequcnt
Despitc unslea dy progrcss, ihere is still a Botswana TherciD lies one ofthe ironic facets of democracv:
for everl KeDya. Thc fact that Hanas can $'ir an rllowiDg tlie mass.s to erftcss themsclves Irlav
election over a conuft and incffcctual Fatah. that actually .Ddanger libcltl rnd iiccdorn. fih !]us o e
indepeldcnt iudges can uphold the deman.l for ferc€nt of the population tnal agree oD a snbjcct hn l
.l..ti,)ns iD Pakistan. tliat ,nonks car lead rD itdoesnot mcan the.y got it dght So$'hiLea maio tv
uncrpecled though ill fatecl protcst agajnst tlre opiDio! maybe iDthe mostliteral s.!se democratic,
Myanma. military junta, thai there is rvorldwid. the noiion nrat fan out in unp,latable rlais in so.ictr
condonnutior of clectoral ftall.l in Kenva tll this Violent and unfair episodes jn history hare hinsed
. r"... rl a . ra ir,lnJl ul rl" l. Lo ,' , : r.
on the.rasses belicving lhnt dr. errtli s'as flst, lhat
uDdiininished, that tlie citizenry of tlie wo d are nol slalerr was risht and iDter racial nar.iage wrong
conplacent about lhc deno$atic nnpljcatnus r,l History is full o{ trcubling e).amplc's ol tbc'ttunnv
of the majoritv" trarnPling on Dritiorit! rights or
playins op eihnic and rc'ligious divides. Hiiler's
'lhe clccioral proccss can rrcl€r be takcD for grartcd, triumfhaDl sLnge iDpopular support reflected how
\e r"u'.-.1, 1.-'lru, .'r ,. L,,ul trnbl,'rl s ccessflilly he was .ible to tap on the .nger, fear and
denocratic pincidcs nay be casyr supportins and frustraiion of illioDs ofC€rmrns ald tun the,n
promotnrg tlie lolloi{-through afte. the votes rre
counted is thc realchallcnge.It

l2 ERoADtR PtR5Ptfi VtS ti. id.ol.rsv iss|,1


Ttlt WAR ROO]1i1

8i t iroi , h! ll,

ol course there rre functioning rnd lrcaltht Thc ibilllr. ol rde'rl poliLi(iairs at nraniPiating rld
denocucies \.herc a coniDstogcthd ofthc najodq p.ndeJinu lo fopulist sentimentran also strengtllen
docs Dot l.dd to gnillotircs aDd mass hvsterir. lle Lh€ elile or authoritaian hold oD po$'er. Prcsi.lcDt
I r^'r,.Jl .r'rt .r^r I'l-,,rr.r ^.r. \to,r',F.-r ,i. L {r, \..'. l . ., .rrr, t:, \rJ,
si.L,u,l. , t\4
or fa i.inenl,i.!] ternpe.s the rule ofthe r lr'r l|r , id q, . '., r' r, ^' i,l ' . di |g
nrob ill sorue $urs. lNtead olvoling dirtctlv on issucs, aithnr thc connht.ln tinresolrnce ainlr,i.dc]laos.
lhe\'lole ir relresentatires to makr sucli choiccs for mosr votos ivill .liDg lo $ial b.irgs order arcl
I'rr..l.i ..l' 'l-I. h-'r"l ."" r'.rr''9, Li i -\''ilIlr.r'pLJ.,'!
chaDnrllcd irlto chosiDg thc bcsr pcoflc for tubli. on othe. feolle s ris|is tu needoms. Tliis onlv
officc. Hoiv8tr, such r.sronsiblc bclalioul te ds lo |. 1" -.'. ir ..r,1! ,'.r ,3
bc hrd lcaDt i.d .ir lik. e long tlNe in (onriuE.

l)€ oc.iL(J is lbunded oI] lhe implicit beli€fthrt Is Churchill fonrtcd out. js lIe
electorates \!ill act responsibl\ aDd rrtjonrlh. Bnt slstcm c\cqn for all t|c |esl. l)emocracl dries lot
elections slir u! r lot offeNour aDd arc noi ahmvs antomatical\' .on1i r $isdonr o. goodness ulon t|e
ihe nost rational of expcicnc.s. Thc tol.tility of Sonrelirr€s ele(toral (hoices are not ideal
voters cln ${iDg on manl thnrgs: fcar, sbo{ lerm a d other tjues the voleE get itwroDg. But it is still
r.. r L -ll'i- rr.
rgn 'r..,. 9 '
o'i,,' l lp o. , is best placed to offer a range ofchoiccs to th. $
.nd .v.n the hrnlteridg lirr a stro g lealer. r\fter all. ${ath of thc potulatjon. T|c prolif.r.tioD ol new
xcnorhobes, dcmasognes. ieo Nazjs hi\ e all maDrsed niedi! lnd a b rgconing citiz.njourDalis.r nrovenre.l
lo swa) p! lrlic opirion and get elected e\€n ir Nrdcm nrlkc it casi.r to cnlig|t.D the populace \o Lhat thel
can nral<. Drorc intormed choires ldr lherrselves and
societr'rl larBe. Becnuse liisto$ is liltered i{ith too
' |\ 'i,.11. o'\- Lr ' , I r'. .

irn!errtive that elrN irldilidLral votcr trcats thc

power thev potcntialll hold \ith lrorc.antion rnd

l3 BR0ADIR PfRSPtCTVtI /hr t.[1)/"qv issr!


For the Sake

of Argument
The key skill behind each good General Paper essay. Bv Tong Yee

ver the course of the past year that I have written

for this column, I have mentioned multiple times
that we really live in a very different world. One of

the most important changes most people do not

notice is the development in how information is being presented
and received. While it is still mostly tme that newspaper articles
remain objective anil balanced, many editors have had to weave
in slants to their news to offer a differing viel^,point that enables
them to distinguish their news from others. To achieve a basis of
credibility, all se ous publications have to get their facts correct,
but to be outstanding, their facts would have to be frameil in an
opinion driven argument. In a world where we can get the same
facts ftom almost every media source, aren't our opinions and
perspectives the only way to differentiate ourselves from one

t4 BR0ADiR Pt[SPttTlvts the ideology itsue
Students of this era have to recognize this trend
to be true. And very real. If we continue to
perceive our education to be a learning of facts
and reiteration of information, then we might as
well still be living in an age where there is no
Internet, no giobal media, and most markets
driven by labour intensive working drones.

We live nr a ncr{ ag. w|ere lacts, althoush still fund.menlalll, necessrr\', arc rcadil!
{vaihblc, aDd cven cheap tslt opinioDs and idcas, especiill} $.eLl rvitter aDd a cll ar sLred
oDcs, arc a rare a d lized connnodity that will tetcl tirp dol]rr. Th. skill r| ar d riles rhis
prcs.ntalion of opinion is xhat is enrbodied in alnost rll cP cssavs an arsurnent.

It took us sorne time to hclp our students come to this rcalization. Io many of
lhem, conteDt rvas kinA. ll liey learnt evetl fact, statistic and the nost Derrs
about ourdcvclopm.nls nr scjence and teclinology, rncdia and e vionmental issucs thc,v
$urld acct|c exams. tsut theydidDl. Tbc contusion and specuLrtion escalatc.iwhen sonre
othcr tiiends did score $,ell- How coxld itbe Lhat ther studied thc samc Dores.:rnd learnt
thc same iacts, but tlie res lts dilTcrcd so mucli:) This stafted a Drad soarnble ro expand
their vocabulary. to get morc notes. to watch nore ne$s. Ali t|csc efiorrs dir€cted thern
awn! lioDl tlie masteN of rrgu ent as they dedicat.d thcnrselves to the mastery of
i fbrniation accun l.tion.

Yet, if we were to study the top essays pubiished in srhools' cP brllctins, all
ofrbch are typical ofgood argumcn!. fhe bindnrg snnihit} in them all is a
prcsentaiion o1 their opiDi(D (stand) t|iough a well usued de! elopmcnt of ideas. Sonretnnes
t|ere is nothiDg truly remalkable in theirexanples perse. Dm$I liom lhe same knowledge
bank as anJ tvpical tccn, thev Lrse inlorniatjoD from pof culiue. their histo$, textbooks,
or even their oi{n obseNalior oft.ends. What is rcnrarlable horsever is tlen- .l.v.r ns.
oftliese othcNrise nrundaDe examplcs aDd plachg thern in pe.fect syDergy $'it| their

Wc will be focusing on rhis in this week's issre ofcssay makeover. Xlarcus
brought liis essry to us askilg fo. a malteover and it $?s guilq, ofexactlr $,hat rve $'aDted
lo discuss this Dronth. Fnll ol iacls, m.ratives ofhistoN, and peNonal obsenation, Nlarcus
failed to build an aruunent tbr his essr) cvcn tuorn the sta.t. lte passed his essav olcrall
but ifhc had filnred all his poiDts in a convincins push towuds a mearfistul ofnrioD r|er
hc r{ould have dole muchbettcr. This rnonlh we sho$ hirn- aDdrou. howto do rhis

l5 8R0lD[R PtRlPttllvtS r/i( irl.ology 6sr.


ln w.iLing his essal, Nlarcus eaplains lo ns ho\t we lake carc of our nrino ties i! Singaporc'
He explains thc history, gives prcsent dal la.ts aDd offeN his opitiion Lowardstlie end oleach
paragraph. lhere is howeYer very little in this essay that we do not aheadv knorv llijs
.esults in aD essay lhat is predictnblc. Although it lvill suffice in answciDg the qo€stion, tlie
information preseDted does not bring any real value to the rcader' You will also find lhai thcrc I
arc logical gaps bcttteen his sentcnces that do not allorv a snrooth flow belwccD iders and
therelorc $r rercL disjointed sentenc€s that do not contribute to an argument More importaDtlv

Iou$ill llld that there isnt a core argument that Marcus inicDds to con\incc !s ofthaL crnics
throughout the 3 paragralhs $€ prcsent here.


Consider how well your country

takes care of its minorities.
a. . rt;f /-../'r' -* r1).-,t er .-'n31 -'f . rm.itt .-ad,.;, ..r t"'2/" /4'? t'/rtr /"a fA'
aih Ja.a-at.tA). -f . .-..nry q-^' .--// ,1 !.'1"1,f -t.".,a.. 1," 'e 3 'f ;13 't"tt1e""
z/1,a,1"01".--E th. .-,n,13 f;1/ili -r 5t,:."33 O* .,tA .;,,.at/" -t';'''' 't''.'ra"n 'aki/
/- ..t1 1,--t.r) ,-A,.A -t.3 e.r.1"t . . ..2:r/ .-htr'.1 /L//.'."1 14!. ;..e.'1-. 1' teV.'/e
I,,!-.e.r, n-- /e/ k. t'-tzs .'. l-!- :a,.1tldc) t1.4"t;.;,:l lre 3d" '/tt tt. .;rt :;"cf',))
r4ft 4;1h;1.4'.-rt'c5 i.r."r,1 "rt/,1 le iif" 1.1r;.1 th1 ';,tq-re /|br/4r 3a./t ):;:'!c'
L,."! -. /3 /-^..r;-" . L -,t -f'ri-., A'1' r"'t fa't /f
a,/A .d1.;. a;,-.i1;as .2.A tL. h-za3e\u./., '/"t 1t)a e .re ./ // 5ane'-/!tr'at' n .ai1/ 'l'tf. 1,'1 'te
2-./1 t"h,tt,,l// -.//
<'.r,./ ai.-r,les . ar4r.-,- a"-,./// A,^k L"", '-'// 1.k, -"e a/ 2-rt t:'/a"/ tia3j'de 4''t
a-" -tlle -..ti,|3 /,;t4? ,1;.. "-tr,i -" -/ ) /-/;,,t /.a'./ 9r-??t;" 3a.1,..a'l 'r'l tiE A.a tu./d/ 1- 1,,/J...a/E.n'" d,n -).nn'/ 3-':Et'/' !'E,ai'1 tr'l 1"3 ":'3"'t ''/ /L)
'aa,v-.i.-, r-;'tt"t::tthe c/1""'"
-, -,--;, ,.1;/ /t, i. //)" /e,, t u. 5,5":-.a . f tt lLoi "/r
,;;1 ,-,ii .--.";r,l/" 1/t,t the.a ,--a/.r ::--, eaerf tL ;'n:a-E ,r;.vi 1/ 1"1'!e" 1,"
"'here ""r
a1A". r'. e.t,".1tr) f re ,t 3t.t t / . tt-'a. 4.2it "\,.1"11'.1" 1," f' 'l/' a '{ r 3' r "|i'"d-'
1,e1,,ee. 1^" \{e. ::;,!f-r" t4"", -,,! a.- 1"t^.', ,... lh -. /he .c't"l } n""1"'"tt' *"- -'
/.'., ,,{-n" -.*r. -'y ,.r thea'"/r". /)1ol-'.1 ;- 14e;t :2a.1 .anJ rtt.la3 !'1 -rrat 1' }cad"
r,:.1,a)r.1i-\ "Lt; h -.3 ..nt.ter i rr" rt3.,,/4..1 .j i,*1.,f;1y |. Q'J /t
r7l.;tilttl 'rt'a"r..a1/ '1:'''1irta '-f 'r)
1/t" qa/ ..a" L//.,-//t./"-,!.-/.|e. -".1.1tt/1.5 ?/'rt'
blir--.--tt'.,/ ..,// /> r'ti'/ 4.r.t..y 1ar,l, ar,fi.r" '..;ic 1'. t.,': ':2rc/;13 et )/3 '!tt12r'/
riat;tt .t,, tha. ,t a.a.-n,.\1//f r,,i/" t.1A" h,hri;/5 .'/ t.. ,J a;.i-);1f .l.reJ/, t 1.r'ar. h..:i
,.!c. !t" at 1 -e//, .i/h-a1, th"t- 4.,r" l-'-'- . t",,1/ 4'."'t,"3 1/" "'v'
l"-?/Et--,",:."11d-"t-.i./,tia"a|',|t"-r"tt"..a-"s;.al1rec\:".a.l"t;t1 4"t'3'\t"/
a;D,1r, lltt 3 11 ,,.. 1.k" . tt"'/ ,."""i a/ e/lctt t't !:|"7'a''r"
3t-a,.1 " ""'-'t4'1't" "'".""t,.tj,.t;;1e?hei4.4,t4r41Lt/.attErtct.a"-1ritrf1"'/r""1't'/1r
1- th,3 -r.-tt1t,r :;)/\,rate ,.;l "-1 k ,l/" 1.'.?t-'j,".tr 'f ;13 .--t4./.n r. ..r1'1f ": tcir'1"l 1-
t.:i. 1|").A;',ra,(n.t.61..1-1tLLG,,^tL3;!.t;qa"llt:"1.!f i/t" "/'1 r;t4'
-/ h-a-3e,?.</-., ). 1n,/ a1./,," .+,,i t. .t,.t -7"-.:l 1.t t1. ai.!re13 .,rr r)"'-' . d'et 1'. k"?
./2 -;1, --r- /;1-r.,/ .-2.4r,--. 1;te 1/E ./ril"t !.1dca ar-, :1a' -.8 'td!11:: 1Ae rc'iltE':; '-| :";'tt'a) -'
.ai"t . -.erliry t\ea ,Zr )hrt'dc, thct-' ,:: . ta.1t ar!.r d4 ''L"/ r;r"':/ '" "
/.le ,-1, rltr 1; 1h|3 a..11e., /'...e.! -h tha 3 a!/e t.t:/ tAt,t t.!f-n r. // "''1/)
"'1 /et'./;-e
1r h'a'3"\/f i
h.--,.d.u.iz,,ti,q.i I7de/be ti.,].rde r.. f"/ ta1.!c.,i" "f l,c rc.t"t

l6 BR0ADtR PtRSPtOVIS tht i.1.aL\tu issrc

We suggest that Marcus begnr his essay with tlie eDd in Inind. A rcconnnerded irguDlent wonl.l be
to coDvince lhe rcader ofthc Frspectire thar Sinitap.,re lias donc lvell in proriding for the needs
ofallcitizeN, regardlcss ol .ice, rcligion orserual orientation.yel rhisprovision alrhough adequai.
iD rneetinsthc snNi!al.rnd sec itv needs ofaI Snrgaporeans, whethcrthc),l)e nrinorities or noL,
lias bccn less adequate nr addressi g specific nccds olninoiti conr nu n iLies. rrch Daraaraph can
t|.. lal' out how i{c do nreet the criticalnc€ds
olminori\ groufs. but lr.gucihar lve car do n)rc
in openiDg t a!.nu€s llrgreatcrprolisilnr fo.their spccific needs. tfi{. wcrc nr sug8est r concllNioi,
\e $'ould conrplenent this argnmen( bI raisiDg liDirrtions ir the fmrision ol those spccific reeds
or \c Da) choose to dct.rnin€ thrt responsibilitr does not Dcccssirril\, tie iD thc hands ot Lhe stat/,
bu( sonietimcs $it| the itulividurl.


Consider how well your country

takes care of its minorities.


1 We claified the trusition of ideas

in the first 3 senteDces to state
that there was a plight of
minorities, explaining why the
plight existcd and the need to
address it- This connection of
ideas is nrissing in tlie orisinal
tert and is aseriotrs nistake.

2. We also made the examples raised

(not ertircly recomnended to
raise in an introductiorl) nore
relevant to the argunent \re
lvanted to preseDt.

3. findly we staied \€rt' cleruly wlut

our opinion was of the issre. we
will a€uing for tlis ofinion in
subsequent pansmphs.

l/ ER0ADIR PtRsPtOlVtS 1r. i(/(toqv Nsx.

ill:;il:l lir,iril.llir : i


1. UIe tightencd up the topic

scnteDce and renoved all
unnccessarr iDfornation in
subscquert seDtcnces so
as to strcamline inlotnation
toward our argurnent drat all a'ht.,i./:a;2c,/ A/,fat.i;-11.. c;t./ ::c^.'1;,1;.::, t,it:'.,/ a,'-r'l;e'.
Sirgaporeans in spite of race ih t:,h,ttfar€ h,.f" ,1"..n,//,,, 1"". lr",t1.J .,"1/' ::;;a'li 1- .f"rf
have had lbeir needs pro\ided for.
-llEr arrytde.. f a i/.;/J i.-h"s'r" m./1, tti.,,l td;.1,//:/1,L
:. It $'as also \'ery importn l to t..-rl// c^-1. e a;,,{.,|,-i".; --.-h-a;, rni,/,1f ih 1r€ /.'3 r/,t t/E
defi ne and periodical\' cmphasise
the prolision ofneeds as \eI as
/,.'s1-,-"t -t-t"t--t".1 /tan 1- l" a,hgk/ .'/'.t"'.1'''J "?11"./
expand thc scope of needs, e""a'' t'tca 'ln' 't'/'""1 ':t;3'''/;lr '/)
"f't11th;1'ca ''r '//
be)'ond just the pliysical The ;^t-ac t:-.//J lt ;Jhlen 1/1" f"t,:";r.,,r ;.,..t1/ ;/'. " l"t,--." l/t" ',"'"s
faMsraph wot d hare olheftise -Ilr;3
bccr .try. lhis was Dot donc 9;G5 thc ,J-r"r.-t"./ .. 31r-I tca.-h t- 1,t kl" lr.,iJ 't"J
enough in the original te\t as iz/t.t ,..3r* Lt a/:e-"/" ,./ ::'-9--i. ,.-/l . 'Ih€ ,/:fu.tut:.-'
there sccned to bc a pre
-/ aet ; 1.'. ttit'/ I il1 1/ter ..1) e,9l /t,"J 1 /t" ;'r, * ;,-/" 1 ltttl r,//
-occupation aith the detailiDg of
history. You will also noiicc tliat'1n. .)-tt/J ha/e -r7-r1";1'et 1' "'t"/ - "h''n": '1//:l
$'e re ovcd niost sfccific ;h st;/" -t r,,." tL.! .t-.5.?/k.l/rt h"/:"J ./i na'":; z/,tet.ttihJ
rcferences to racial grcups. Thcse
1rtl 1lt.r, ,,. f,1,,1 t-/. t;lzi'nq 1.' ::;h'j..r')e 'i
did not add tothe argunenL and "/+/e!
was laden with potentiallY . 1..: ca 3 ie.;t' t c a" 1 !,tt,..
1 i 1'. t./ ., 1/ - 1 - -,,t..,,1 h.. "'.t, t /t"
oftensivc lardmjnes. A sereraL a.r,l-.ra.;. L.,J41;-h.. -. ,r/ticlt :i'.+.r.-r" " 4 L//1 '!nc
discussion on racial minoiries
e.<'/t t.c;./ jt-1!/,J;rty..,t -"'het../tir -/"t 1r"'t /,r"5 '.,,/ tlE
.:..//e, t'fe t1t1/tre -t'5,,4'V-t" 3 /rtr ;, / .ni;,t 1tt" .ttt/t'-
3. Our coDcluding statement wantcd /'.. J ; h1 t".. 1 3,.1 :.;,! t".n e s t.r:'.'./ -t,'.: r ; 1 ; e r t, -,. / r t/. a *e h
1o specifically add.ess tIe "t " "

question as well as tie up lhe it s.t,.'1r//, t::j ;1 ;t . ati/:/:pt -{ 3-.,-:-),1'..,/ :;1,1;'ilf,/,.

ov€rall foint of the paragraph. 1/11..t 'a;'-r1,r'1 1r.11 L..-;1 .)ei

l8 ER0ADfR PIRSPIOvll r/r. ni.11.(/r/ iss!.

-J!L tlj ' l\.r
i .ri



1. The primary cluDge we made to

the text in this paragraph lras to
soften the use of language aDd
make it more sensitive to the issue
h€ was discussing. Compare the
changes between the onginal ten
and this one and you wiil see that
ire present Sinsapore in a fairer
light and sound less accusatort'.

2. we then deleted large mmunls of

text that were not Decessaryand
replaced them with sentences
that nore clearly defined the
argunent that we wanted to

3. The final stand we take is bold

but shows respect to the homo
sexual commuDity while
still drawing out important
linitations in our ability to meet

l9 BR0ADtR PIRSPt0]VI5 //r. i.tuo1oq! iss!r



lJhat voLl
,{.uJ to Kea/ise
The easiest s.lf-assessrnerrt ihat stlde Ls can adopt tor themsclv.s
tlie ilriLing ofGP essays is b}cthcr they feelthcy arc reixtirg long
narratives of intbnnatid. lfyou ar. doitlL this. gi\iDg facts and not
arguneDt fo.long protracted parts oflour essa). belicvc ne when
I iell you that )ou a rc goitlg to lail tbc assigDment; the oDly caleat
,, t',,/ ;. /,a)//P to this beiDg thnt th. question that acturlly wants facts
1., \,../t it.-L,€rer, which docs happen onc. in a$hile in (he Gl c\am atjon
;:. ,.../.j -.;,;-h
TNstus. As malkeN, there $ill rarelybe pieces ofnrfomution that
/.. J.. ,..'l pt.',' /1.,-. $'e will be lasciDate.t by. which is i{liv at this lcv.l, GP is more
interested in lh. prcscDtation ofofinioDs. We know how rnd whl
- . /,).,; )-./.7 t., 1

2/h t,. .-./r,h . .!::; .'j' thc Kyoto Prolocol $'as established. \Ve luoiv aboui ilre Fluran
Cenonc Prcject nnd thc LCII partic.le accclcntor set ul bI CER\'.
We kno\rthese thinus bccause tliey are facts. r\id to put it bluntly,
facts jn this dal ard age ar€ chcap.'Ieachers hat noadlantag€o\cr
studeDts and vicc lersa ilr a comfctitioD oI lvho kDoi{s more Thc
InterDel has lclcled rnuclr ofthc Plaling neld Dot just b€tween
tcache$ and siud.ntsbut also lbranyPrfi oftheNo d with access
to this anuzitg tool. Teachers nray froccss information faste. a d
havc better ne tnl to remcnber wliat we lcad but tll
ti/ti , lt .'t "'"" these skills can be sinilarll acquired b\'lou if you commit tine to
ncre .".1',1t:r1 '.': ;/ ,rrtt
+tnz,r : ,.rt/.1 .::ttt,.t r.r'-
\/:t or ct. -- . ,r.4 What is uniquc to you however, is your opinion l{e do ot l<noi{
/t"i:, 2..: .:,e" 1/r,..:: horv you think and $'hat yoo tlan to coDvirce trs of whal woLtld

,r t ,.,+, ,, " /tr'e n-t brins a snile may be r w€ll arsucd erp.ession of vour ideals or
III KI]O\'ER ..:".,, .1"i.r.. totrihful optirnism. what ivould brins eleD rnore dclight is ifyour
opinion could shed nelrlisht on ou. own and help (rs scc thinss in
/r/./1. 1....d a way we have not seen bcfore. the good ${iters do this Thel
| ,1"1 :; .1,-, ./j,.; . add v.rlue to our lives not bccause the] Lell us Drore of tlre samc but
rather theytakcwhat ilelavc al{n) s vie\ded thc sane and makc it
differeDt, Lrniquc and iNighLtirl.

Do this aDdyour CP grades, vour uniwrsity educatioD, idpossiblv

even your careerconldiake a ver d rasiic and pleasantly surprising
h,rn ior thc better. at

20 BR0ADIR PtRsPtfilVtS rfi. i.iltlorlt/ tsslr


Does the Government

have the Right to Interfere ABOUITHTS

in Our Lives? coLuMN /

Nobody likes the idea ofsomeone telling us what to do, how to do it and who we can
do it to. But that is precisely what the government does for us. THE BABY BOOX4ERS
and THE MILLENNIAL GENEIv\-TION grew up in relatively difterent political eras
with different cultural values - what would they think ofthis questiol? Our wliters get
under their skins to find out.


CONI]1Xr'/ A]l democratically run societies accept DXAMPLIS /

(he lact LhaL Lhen heeli' elecred leadeN have io inpose a) lssue olPrivacy and civil tiberties: Post 9 ir.
c€rtain laws on all of Lrs in order to protect our Lhe PaLriot AcL became part ol America's la$,
fre€doms. l he stnte has a respr,nsibility to ensu.e we allorving the State to search the !ri!ate ,r COMMON
all getto liv€ safe, well provided for and stable lives. comtnuDication and finaDcial records E)GMPLES /
Thjs neccessjtates interfereDce in our pivate ljves of in.tividtrals $'ithout warraDt - all ir the Dane of
and curtailins somc of our frccdoms ahcD they aDtiicrroist action.
infdnge upon other people\ rig|ts or stand in the b) Issue ofSexual Frcedom: In Sinsapore's lesal
sayolthe securilvofour nation. Butwhen does the co,lp 54-ion 7 i rrili^F.,r'il."r i.l\'rB
control e,o loo la.? How do we decide when lhe that acts ol homosexunlity are criminal acts.
govemment has become too i trusive and dictatorial c) 'r'he phenomenor ofprivaretives offered to
in its.ontr.l.!er ou. Iives? the public domain via the InterDet.
d) Isstre ofRelisious Freedom: snice the infanous
Scopcs Monkcy Tial of 1925, thc US Suprcme
( o'll -rn\ rr rFd ll Jl lpnchirg ca a.ior r'rr i,

,ttor&s irl o4.i,rsl r/r. BurnPse aa& n ntent. PHoTo CRTDIT/ ro.oLs,,.li.i. O".ri.. Co,nrons

2l BR0ADIR PtRsPt(TlVtS the i( isslLe


A Baby Boomer Answers

What will 55 year old Boston-born and raised Rachel Sanyer -
ageing hippie, card-carrying Democrat, contemplating retirement
from her white-collar managerial job, with her eldest son in college
- think of the government's role in our lives? -{s conceivetl bv Erica ran

Does the Govcrnment have the Rightto lnterfere in Our Lives?

AIJOU'I'THF] t s election r'.ar, and mlch as I n wilhotrt co rt o er, is deeplv troubling. r\nd all
exciicd about t|c coniirg eleclions, I those rcforts of immigraDts being detahed
can t h.lp but Lel lcss than optinristic ilithout tti , based on unproven suslicioDs of
about th. f tLrre. l {e livcd through th tcroist iI\olvcmeDt, simllIshoi{ that the U.S. is no
Cold War, ih. Vietnarn Wrar, \{atersate, longer the iand of Lhat it used to be.
a d no$. the war in Itaq. l've se€n ho$'all
gove,innenis eventually default oD tlieir pro'niscs n) Al l€ast.though, therc arc still rrens in ourlives thal
the people. You can never bc too cyniral aboui thc' 1"",o, .r".",u., r^1F,1\-i-
{i ,".,,,o. J , 1rr'r. rr" r rq'r
governnrent, no matter ro's in chargc nl
': ' r r- ru dr i rb
Thanksgi!ing last yerr- we lalt.d about the dehir.
W|cn I wrs in I was deeply inspired bl tlrat ivas raging nr SiDsapo.e at that time $4rel|er
Thorear's Ciil Disobedicnc.'. andto thisday.I stud lo r.tcal Section 377,\ ofthe PeI) al Codc prohibitinC,
by his \ic$'that the besl golcrDDreDt is lhe onc thrt honros.xual acts neD. Apf.r.ntly, sone
governs Lhelcast. Ofcoufse,$c all adnit the n.cdfor SirgaforcaDs rvere arguing tliat it !v.s s'roDg to
governance in thc public sPhcr.. But as lir as our crir inalisc apivate, personal choice rradebct$'eeD
pirate lives ar€ concerned, $e s|oul.l be given thc consenting adults. fhe Singapore golernmcDt,
frccdon to mal<e thc dccisiors Lhatbcst accoftl\!il| however, irsistcd on retaining 377A, clainring drat
our indiridual values aDd conscienccs, i{ithout thc 'conserraLile majority was noi rcadl for such a
go!ernmcntiDte erence. chrDgc. I think lhat it was illogicalfor SirgaPore t.)
keef a lai{ it carnot cnforce. Xlore fuDdanenttllv,
lvli.rt upsets Drc about the.uucnt admi islmtion rs such mattcrs should not fxll tithiD tlte lunics'ofthe
tlnt ithasiakcD aN.L) our constirutionlly Sttte. \'li scr life is my blrsiness, period. Thark
rishts aDd ci!illibcrtics, aI nt the namc ofliomeland {oodness our go!ern'n.nt respecls that
secrit!. Ofcourse,I nDdctstaDd the nc.d for vigilalrce
alterdrc Septenber rr attacks.I lost o.e ofml closest Thcsane rppliesro tclisioD.As hr as Im concemed.
f.iends. andl carsee$h) sonctlitig like lhc Patriot Nhrt I b.iieve about ihc universe and Dry place itr iL
is my or!1 rffair 'l'hc govennenL has Do right t.)
erl.rce laws that woLrld force rny kind ol tclisious
But I cannot acccpt the ill encon{assing !o$'.r it rrI. rar' '. lr
giv.s the go\eflrrncDt to !$,into rni Priv{te lif€. rlrF the IrS. l|e.. is still dehate about whether
thought that rn' linancial records, enrail and elen crea(ionism can be taught as a sciencc i schools.
phone calls c{D be sc.eencd at {Dy lirneb} thc FBl,

22 BR0ADtR PtR5PtCTVEI rh! iddolo./V iss!.



iv t uEtRItt5


rHr 8rG rlIu(r983)

nrugqhwlh,(0klr rad05s(

tru!9 e vllh mdrdonding

rhis is l icrous. becausr crcrtn)nism is basc.l on I'!c sc.n oftlrcblogs aDd Faccbook profilcs
soDrc W\{W R[PIAI3//4.(OM
r.ligi(Ns faith. Dot scicDiific clidcncc. AnI attdnfl that youn8 pcoplc ptrt Ip onlinc posuig nr aI \V\{r\|([tP3/7A t0M
n) tclch ii as asci.Dcc is actxallt r disgtris.d thei. se.ri .od€ illory, rvliining rbout thei. bosses
to irDtoRr a C]rristian i!.rldliew or \oung sludenls tr|d colleagues. These people doD'tseem to nin.l the
Nho don l kno$ rn) bctlrr', hlud inu lhe lire bel$ee! J .' .l ll'r.rr. J" rg " r'r'r1..... .. 11 ir
slal shorld.e.rair lersolal and ilhat can be
enLrced Lr) 1he golenneDt.
Bli Ndrats the.t nre .ot Jnistaken, alter all. X'la!be
Bri malbc all ihcsc qtrlllN I Ia!. rbont drawing a nrr lile isn-L as !ri\rte as I lilte to thn ( it js alier
ljnclct{ccn $'hrt is f vatc and what is fnlli. are all, I shop orhre lrnd all niv purchases and leNoml r180UlTPlilnltll
siDflt sigDs t|rt l m losiJ)g louch {i1h lhe \ou,,uer prefe.ences are recor.Led iD the databases ofthes. Dt.d Ls.d ro D. (
g.n.rrlio.. Aller rll, Dl chikl.en seenr to Lre !e ectly online stores. Mavbethe problenis tliat thc $orl.l is !ib.,\l hnt th.t rt!1
llapp) Nitlr llarils their personal .letails splashed '' rJr ,. lr l'.rId \'.\1".-" l.l 'l'", r'
not$ith th.n. but with m.. (t dl ol{? d!rc. Slrc linrls
thal soutrnnlcnts atc

23 ER0ADtR PtR\PtOlVt5 l/rf i(tuo1oqrr iss!r


A Millennial Answers
What will r9 year old Singapore-born and London-raised Tanita
de Souza - Youtube-obsessed, Facebook-addicted, studying
philosophy and gender politics in a liberal arts college - think of
the government's role in our lives? .c." by Kehin Korl
CENERNI'ION/ Does the Government have the Right to lDterfere in Our Lives?

t is tite thal ;n onr communities Lodi!, thc ,nile nreil comnuDicaLio.s aDd anci.l
govcrDmeDt illlel.fcrcs with our Lives. T|ai and other r.cords. Consider Iow whcn te.rorists
bcnrg the case, ard .oDsidcfirg lioi! s., disNpt socialordo aDd tlirealen a r.tu tothe"state
is limctidrirs adequalely (ifnot ilellJ, il does ofDrture. cilizeDs gladl) haDd theirprivacvand ciliL
ore v mcanirutul to qucstion $'hether the libclties over to the stai..
golennert has t|c ight to irnerlere in our lives.
That is mv pRgnrntist fcrspcctive, an)wa]. thal said, docs it realLr" nratlcr? Does it realll rnl]tt.r
th:lt $,e let thc govemnent !nto our liles? Ure al'eadr-'
Nelelrhclcss. Ies, it does secm that the gove ] let aDrone \{ho $'ants irr xanAri M)Space.
has (he rightto interlere wiL]] ourlites. Eette. nrinds Faceboolt. lllickr, Blogspot aDd YouTubo
tlian nrl o$rr havc been put to ihis. ID 1651. tiDgiish Brcxknrg up like wc mean it eans chaDgirlg our
philosopher ThoDras Hobbes publishcd Ied?tft dn, Faccbookstatus lmnr'In a rclatioDsbip io "SiDgle".
titlcd after the biblical /,ertdtndn ( 74:r3 14J. Quite Read: 'Hcllo \{o.ld {esDecially vou, Lx), I D doDc
sinrplr'', the Leriathan is rn eDornous $.ith the Ex andback in the scenc. Uie becotne lLrblic
''Leliathan" is also the Hobbcsian reference to ihc figures t|e lroDrcDt ile Log onto Blogspot. Atlenlion

'r,'t" or th' g '.-rirn-r. BFr^ .1 .. u r."r' l ' r notshunned. l iue, ihcrc are Pererls
is to be relis]]ed,
ILn$es said. meD lile the \ ofD{tue." llobbes outthere. Rot h r-', "Dont go to NewYork, )oull Set
rrrote thal duing lsuch al tirre nr.n lilc i{ithout a mnssc'dl Ln nrg onlinc is soDiethnrg to bc cn$ruced.
.n|'Iu|!,i\., ' '. 1'r, L r as .\ 1.' -.rr Iflouarc attmcted lo somcone filrn list night's parry,
thatcoDdition wLici is.allcdi{rriud suc.I. $'ar as vou can gct iD tNch noi too fori{ard brl not too
is ol clcr-a m$ agiinsl r\cNman'. Life is solirary, coy. I heardthat soneone$'as offcred an nrLer.ship

!oor. nast!, brutish and sholt." This beiDg so, by a nasaznrc's cditor iD ch ief.ftcr he rerd li€. onlinc
!r.rg,n atic sclf-interest d iclales that people cede th.n' profile. PLlblicit! briDSs opporlu nitics fionironianLic
indiridual rights to the sovereigD state, iD etchange to professional. Bctt.r to do )ouro\fr lrbljciB bef.,re
for the p.oLectio. ofa socictY. This is Lhe somcoDe else does it for t ou.
soci{l contract i|at \rc enter inLo i{ith ilic state.
Wh.rl .boui lettiDg the govcnuneDt irnerlere with
His thcsis is conyincins. ThiDk aboul Lhe kncc jcrk r€ligion? On March 13th, r925, the^rne canstrlcof
reaction to the Septe.rb.r 11th rttacks: Lhe USA Tennesse. passed the BLrllcr Act. forbjdding th.
Patriot Act [UDitiDg rrid ShcrgthcDilgArnern]a br'' .- "ni ,. ' I r' ...1," ', or I \.',r1 l,l 'l , i"
Providing Atprcpriate tools Rcquircd to lnterceft tlie storr olthc DiviDe Creation ofman rs taughl in
and Obstn,cl Tcnnisn dmosL comicllv Onlellianl. thc Bible.'
Thc Loose.ed thc lcash on law enfotcement
agcncics, ircreasi g lhen po$trs to l.lcthone

24 8ROAD{R PIRSPIO VtS thc idl(togtr' 6sxc


flvtI t EtRT t5



llndoulm eobo!llodor!
m6l b rilllo rr Gemrr Y

ieod*s ond vhrt tfey ore

do rq to dorqe the word.

€ WA]CH]lII5


A hotrow ns look ol frd1 o

rnorher mk pover s5ly m os

rr brsh' Gar Y* duuglrrer

rlag!ler wirh g.0vin! W n(

wld olpremor ro qx, druss

I! legnl lroceedings ergjneered to test tiie Butlcr FiDallv. rlc coDsid.r ilrc golcmm.nts fomls into t|e
Act (hence the Scopes Monkey Trial ),2.{-rear- bcdrooDr. Thc Pcnal Codc ofSingalFrc, iD Scction
old teacher John Scopes rgreed to staDd trial for 377A, |ro\i.lcs for riril senlence {)1!p to (\!o )ea$ (I05,Tl]IINIIRNfl
tc'achjng cvoluti{D in Cld* Colurt} Higb School. Th. s|o ld . man be iound Lo hrre co unitted an act of
Suirrenrc Court of nfIcld lhe ''gross jndec€rc) \!ith uother nan. ,\fter srne
constiiLrtioDrlit_v ofthc Butl.r Act (bul sel rside Lhe lirelv debate anoDgcitizens, the goverDment optcd
cor\iciion on r t.chni..lil\). l his js unsatjsiacto._r. to .etail the section $'lile tr^iding !s ruccs that
Que'_!, ho$t\ olsrch govemnent
er, I he ellecli!eness it \!ill not br enforcc.l. Bottom linci ga) mcn can
i.leNenlio. lodar whe! Wikipedia gnes us the lo$' sodonisc.ach othcr iD fcrcc aDd wit|oul
., r , ur l, rr:n ll- urilir ,. {t, ... int. crcncc. Qnit. satist.ctoN. I lhiDli. An\niore
On the other liand. the statc-iDstitutcd obstaclcs sald is wasled breaLh. (t rNIUTtHtLlli i,l
$hich NlalalsiaD Muslims trcc ir convcrtina (.rr,tr.dts r,hir. rt.. IslaDr arc lcNrcal. dn.? sts u,,d.'r',n
1/. udnts r. s.rr rr.

?5 BR0ADtR PtR5PttTVti .i. &l.dlr)av iJr!r

Ideology & Practice:
Does One Lead to the Other?
Ilow diliercnt c rtrtntrics' irleologics inlluencc tlleir bchavirlrtr iu cliffelent cirurrnstalcts'
ll) Lorraine Lec

r Et0aDllPll5Ptot ri, I i,rr i l




.51!rer He en P'eicon

r lmed 0dober29,2004.

Death Penalty for Drug Trafficking

GoverDmcnts arc restonsible 'l he dmg tlade nl hdonesia is lalued at US $4billion
for thc livcs .nd lvell bei0g ol a yerr aDd nore than 15,ooo dcaths cac| year are
their ci(izens but the nethods :ttribuied to dmg abusc. The Indonesian gove.nnrent
lhet use to sa{egur that can is coDsidcriDs thc riAhts ofl|e maioriLy o!e. those of
difter quite srertly. Atrstralia thc mnroi\'r{ho will desL.oy lives Ib. a profit.
and lDdonesir had to face up to
this .titrerence $'hcn Indonesia Beyond the di h
the practice of thc dcath
senteDced 6,\ustmliaDs ti) death for drugt.amcking penalty, this case sliows the .tiffereDce bctwccn a
iD the Bili Ninc casc. nore Westenised, liberal idcologl focusilg on the
rishts of individuals cs|oused by Auslrnlia and
ANtrali. s liberal iradition and the lictthatthe dertli Irdoncsia s mo.c Asian. conservatne ideology of
l)enalllhas been nbolished in theircountrysiDce 1973 social justice. lvhile bolh a.e democracies aDd
meant thatpublicseDtinents.anhighiDresponscto capitalist nalions, dillerclces start to show natters
the seDtencing. The AustraliaD golcrnrncnt r{as olrighls.,l tlie indi\idral rnct.jslits ofthe majoriry.
lresnEd to voice its staDd againstthc death penall!
'r'd i.l nr' .. .it /.,, l,.l 1lI $hile r".1, Urhat has madc Austfalia's fosition on capiLal
indoncsi.'s risht to rn its own lustice srstern. To the p,r ,Ll rn',,Ir"\"r 'Jt' qrli ' L hp\'. ili_l
Austlalia.s, the riglrs ol the indivnLual aDd the Federal policc snpplied Indonesian police with the
sarclityolhu.ran lile extendto dmg traffickers {nd iDfonnation lcadirg Lo the arests ofLhe BaLi NiDe rs
their governnelt is erpected to protect these rights thcy i{ere going to snn,gBle 8.3 kg ofheroin otrt of
ev€D beyondAustralia's bo ers. Bali lo Australia. fhis strggests that they intentjonally
e\posed thei citizens to the risk of bcnrg scDtcnced
Paradoxicallv. \rhilc Australia seehs Lo protect its to death. ID addition, thc Australia sgovernnent has
citizcDs the dealh penalLv, lndonesia enforces expressed its saiisfaction at dre death penaltjes meted
rl d"rr-r pFla- ! s , sd. ur .,rur . ri.,J .1. I .J .n r ,, Bil \n ,lpF wl o Lgpl,,l q,..tri tidn :n
popLrlation. produclion, tratricknig and usage thcir attacks. While Le orisnr di ers ltom d.trg
have becone a serious prlblen thrt the golcmmcDt ttafUcl<ing, Lhe lnck ola consistert reiectior ofthe
is dealing rvith thro gh liarsh dNg laws thatinclude deatl penalty despite it beins abolished in Australia,
a clarse tliat dr gs "scvcrcly darnage and cause shows that prirciples and bcli.fs do not ali{ays
significaDt dango to hDman lile, the communit}' traDslatc into ]tactice. f,
,routh, tbc nation, culture and nalioI)al securit!'.

27 BR0ADIR PtRsPtOVtS tfi. iileol.rril 6su.



-tIt NTlrlrMI0f
SARS {t''lr

i l]drs (or! in 2003.


The Spread of SARS

ln 2oo3, thc S,\RS epjdeDric hi seekirg lo protcct its reputation C|ina damaged
alle.tcd manl counl.ies and its credibiiitr with the irternatiodal comnuritY
tesled uovcnnncDts' abilit) to instcad, reiDlbrcing tcrccttions ol llre ConrnNnist
haDdle a major pllHic health govcDments terdenc.l to ofcMte in secrec!.
threat. China and SiDgapo.e
i{cr. seen rs llvo e\hcmcs ir Sin!,aporc on tlie other hend.lros. to disrlose
hoa thel hrndled lic flow of nrlo n.rlion tublicl\'through lh. mcdia.lvith daily
nrfonnation aod sork.d i{ith the World H.altlr r ' -. I 'r'\ 'rlLi.,l u l,a ,l r' . r \' I b- :
organisation (uJllO). neilslipers Dd otr TV. It rlso Nort.d closcly wilh
lVHo in s|aring nrfomration about lhe sl'cad ofthe
Chjda and Sinsapore's Eo\ernntnrs are quite sirnilar discase, the slnrpLonrs and trertnent ol prlients who
iD thei. contiol o\cr tlieir populatioDs.nd the media. had bccn diasrosed !vjlh SARS rnd measures tak.D
\. r.c .'lpI.'r,J r, ',ol"i'I 'i,r to p.evcnt fllrther iDlectjon, ilcludirg quaratrtines,
bchniour and in nnunrg tlie heaitlici.e systcDr. This the nalscaDDing rnd tenrpemtL!c takilg in schools
shong-huded s\'le ofgolcnun(e is d€spile thc faci and $orkplaccs. This boost€d Singatorc s credibilily
t|atChila rernains a connnuDist strte ard Singrlnrc ir benrg a s.f. flace thut was.rbl. io
hxndle the
.1, r ,. , r.,. . U' rl
" ', Jr. .l
i, ..b., .'l siturtion. ComrncDdations fron, !VHO aDd otirer
lheir coDccnN abo t the economl asd strbilit! ol' couDtric's sho$ed lhat Snrgrtore s accou dtabilit! lts
societ] Lrul eiprcss.d this iD lrital\' diftircDt $'rvs considcrcdimpo art sinceth. nature ofthe oulbrcat
\.hen faced wiLh thc Sr\Rs epideini(. that it $,!s a glob.l coDccrD aDd nol just a

Chinasought Lo cov.r uPthe S'\RS ouLb.eal inihcrr

'I F^''r''
n"c rg rrr
'-r'- r' The conlrrst in the tilo cou.lrici rcsponses sho{
i\il . 4 Dnitlis
acl alie, the illncss {t discover ed r nd th{t whil€ bolI goycrDnents valued snnilar thirgs
rhe l\tHo had issued tralcl .dvisoies againsl lik. social sLability and cconornic g.otr1h aDd had
travelling lo Sonthcrn China. Chinr srill iDsisted it similarstlles in nanaiting thcir populations and thc
i{as sale tolisit thc couDtn,tnd retofcd n mbers nredia, thcir pracLi(es can still be rery dillerdrt.
of SARS c.rses l|at $rrc much lo$er lhrD thc rcalilt. Addiiionalli. ho$.China nnd singapore hardled thc
Thc medi! $.as ketl6om r.lortirg about the ortbrcak SARS outbr.ak slio{ed thcir y!rying levels ol
aDd 1lrHO irvestie,alivc tcams wcre not lrllolved.cccss cornmitnr.nt to traDsparellc.y .nd thcir i{illing!ess
to Cuangdong, the suspect.d souce ofthe dise.rsc, r. \.orlr s'ith ll,e resi olthc$'orld. ft
or to nrdical records oflalieDts until intenational
pressu.e inocasc.l rDd lo.ced t|. gov.rDnent Lo

28 BR0ADtR PtR5PtOytS tIr i(/r110,/r/ iss!r



Separatist Movements
Pracl isiog you. ideologl 1999 du rg thc IndoDcsian occutatioD. Dtrting thc
beromes more difficult whd it latc 198os and 9os, harsh rcfrcssilc m..sures i{rj!
cornes to dealirg witli peopic takcn b! Snhafo s ccDh rl gorcrDnrenl aDd huma. volrh?v.lwMoX(95pZw
wlro do not$'rDttox to gov.r. dglrts abuses were ranrpa.l h Aciieh.
thcm. rDd halc thal t. Lr

do notlra! lvell lr€i.g it 'l lre dil1erclce iD the hlo goverDnents actions docs
|.r . Add lo rhal lhe la.l llirl ,1.rf.IrrJ lr. l N ro lsr Dr!{i0 Shm
'ul '"i 'r, 'frr]"
.cding tcnitorjcs and people \!o!ld har€ e(o onn! comDitneDtto tlic ights {)fin.ligcDous fcotl.s. This
a.d olher siunilicaft loirg tenn reueressions, lDd it is becauschisto crl cv.nts fla\rd a biggcr rol. th.n
is uo {order that golennnenti rctids havelarselv idcologv in shatiDg bodr go\'.rnme.ts
been sinilar resar.lless diffcrcni b.1icfs. Brit.inonlvgMrled indeperde (€readil] rIte.rears
ol suppressirg hdia's push lo. Ddependerce. This
Histoicall!, s.luratist mov.Drents h.!e lcen \iolent $as largeh because it needed to djrect its rttenti(Ds
aDd go\crnmcnts h.\. r€spo.dcd lo theriolencewith irLtenallvrnd it recognisedtiut m{n! ofits col{mial
h sh .rersurcs. Njahatm.r Gindhi s use olpeacetui /!r.l 'r \"Jh l{! r)r ;. ,h B1., l

ciyil disobedience ir llie lndian Independence lost its stxtrrc ihrNgh its ivar dcfcats. Snnila ]. dr.
iUovement stands out as (De of thc fel'cranflcs of isunami of D.c.nrb.r 26. 2o0.1 brcuilhl leace arld
non-vnncDt. Dcspit. Nhat GaDd|i.dlocatcd, srealer autono,!\ lo Acheli alter :r9 lears of 1.or
violcDc.. rioting lDd acts of sabotxgc !vc.e .rDied l.lasl Linror, Ure r993 Asirn l.hancialCrisis affected
out bl fcoflc agitatiDg for indetdxlence, and as su(h lndoresja s decisiorto :rlloi{ a Lai-NpeNisedpopular
thc scfrratist nrovcment Nas .ot {hollr peacelirl. relerendun held oD r\ugust 3o, 1999 to choosc
qiiI p o 'l .r1.,' F\li'^U r'rn.,'r.. rn.r' beti{ecn Sfccial Antonont' i{ithin IDdoD.sja.nd
out miss detentiors, elen Lrsngt'brce ni.Lc'ahrg rith IndctcDdcncc. I'Iajor cv.Dts that m.dcth. need lbr
the\ioleDce ard nutinythrtbrckc o t. Dcspitc t]ris. tcace rat|er lha. corLinLred liithtnrg a d €rueDse
Britanr is laryclv rmcn$cr.d forgning iI ]r...rbl! c11,cjal Lo B.jlain and I!(loDesia's well beirg, $.ere
in thc cnd. ID fact. nr gradurllv DrakiDg frovisions lbr ' lr ',,.,u.F .11, r i l.l.' r. .1.;' r J..'1 " I' i
nrany oft|cir colonnrs to l).codre indefendenL aJier
$I\\iII. ofter siihool !iolen( aitilaLior on tbe pad of
lhe colo.ies, Briliiu is cre(lited {ith benrg peaceabie It can bc lrgucd that ihc cnd ofthc Suhafo pcdod
and erlightened in hoi{ the! hxndlc{ separatist xnd thc c]rang.hl.adcNlit lo B.,L Hebibie
rDd la1er Preside.t Srsilo Ba lrang Yud ho] ono \!i1o
rvcre nro.e liberrl. sl,o$s tIat ileolog\' jluides
Gian thai thc coloDial cra cndcd on a t..c.tirl nol., go!e ir'ert ncLions. Slill, considerirg the 1 ct that
thc us. of \,iolcrc. in snfpressi.g separaList lltbibje coDtjnued war h A(heh i{hile grantirg East
,^!' ',,r.lit' ,p,'il ,'r, , r'-,. , l,r : Innor nxleper.Lence, perhaps ideolog,v i{as not thc
jnDasL linro.( oi! laro{n as linor Leste) and,\clieh rc rrson.Itis quit. saf. to sat that$'|cn it comcs
seenr to be a step backwa s. ,\ detailed statisiical to sovcrcign\,, Dationalistic Ui.l., rnd lalurble na I Lrml
-p'r frl.' lt'-ll' t 'r ,,..^,i^ R.. '' like land, people illd oil. ideolosv olien
Truth and RcconcihaiioD in Easi l" .' I "." r, i rr, l,r, ..'..icj
aplro{matc\' 18,6oo killnrgs and 84,2oo excess t'brce thrt .lrives govemmcnt actiinis. at
dcarhs fionr hungcr and illness i. lhe period r97.1

CONCLUSION / In thc liglrt oft|. t|rcc snrdies, il wo!ld app€ar that ideologr can play a part ir
inflncncing govcnnr.nt .ction bul lhat go\erlm€rns lo nol ali{ays pmctice i{hat the} lreach. cilcn th.
conrfle\ities ol lhe Noild lve lne i! anl the maN competing claims goveDmcnis havc to coDsidcr, it is quitc
a Lallorder lo e\pecr thenr to.

29 ER0ADIR PtRSPtOWl t'h. ith\l.oit i.!trtt


Ideology at the Movies

Sone grcat comics ancl movies h ighlight rezrll,v interesting insights irto differcnt political
slsLems arouncl thc rvorkl. n1'ltaaia lTatr

7984 Persepolis
TOT]\]-ITARIAN / rgal is secn by nanl 'IHEOCRA.CY / Xlade irrto aD anirDatcd
as the urdispuled Grandfather of all film nr 2007 which drerr conDlaiDts from
dystopirD lorels thc nrost oFlellirn ofrLl lhe lmnian gorernDle t, Pos.poltsbegrn
O.{cll s loveLs. A lier all, \ithout 1984, how as iD rutobhsraphical g.athic novcl by
corld we hrve eve. co.teilcd thc fhrases tranirn born Nlrrjane Salrapi.
'nronght Police or Itig B.oLher? Nightmarish rnagazire..llcd it onc of "Dn"
2oo:J s best cornics
.rnd dcprcsslrg. this classic lellsth. storyof lorS.rlrari'S nrighttul perspectire o. $tat
one nran's purs it of a dooned lolc alTair it \!as lilie to gro$'np as r rnjs(hieloLrs,
asainst thc backdrop of warri.e natioDs aDd uJeslernised girl duriDg the Islatrl.
i lolalita an state that rel.tins absoht. Revolutior Nh.D IraD sri{ tlie olerlhroN of
conl.ol ovcr Dot jtrst irlor alioD b i the old monarchy and ihc $rensior ol,r
indn idual ihorght, feelins rnd !lemoi) itsclf . fundr!ientalisl thcocratic govenrne t.
r984 lresenls a blcak pictLrre ol holv a Rlised by.adical [{a*ist rarents, \'our1g
dictatorial so!.rDmcnt caD effectirel) and Saimti secreth listens to Anc can heal-a
relentlesslr' crrtsh truth, hrppitress, mctal niusic aDd hoardes Nikc shocs while
indivicLualjly aDd thc huDraD spirit out ol' irow the rres'rcginrc $'as more
$cietl il gilen i}c ofportunitr to do so. coDrolliDg rn.l unliir l|an thclast.

V for Vendetta Goodbye, Lenin!

/\\'ARCll)_ / l l];s poftrlar 2.)06 rction CONIIIUNISM/ This lilcable I msi.onrcd
ih licr nade bl the Wach.lvski lrothers is sel in Conrnrtrnisi Erst Berlin ln 1989
devirtcs a fair bit lioln lhe odgiDal 198()s i{hen cernr.rnt was still div ed. Aler
AIan lIoorc comic. Moo.e crcatcd dr. K.rDer is il a st.aDsc bird - liis die ha.d
Draslied ligilaDt. ^]rD
rclolutioDary V-lo he a Cornnnurist noth€r'has fallcD ilio a conra

charnpiol lor anarchy atr ideolo$ thaL belor.thc B.rlin Walllell, on\'to a$'aken
rcjccis all forrns olso\orrDrcDt xDd fa'ours ir nes'llu.ificd Gem n).IQe. to Uotcct
thc absolLrte libe.L! ol lho indivntual. 'r'h€ his Iai] nroihcr fron the slrock oflosins
..mi. is set i. , {ulr.e Brit.iD that hrs her belored conDtry',Ilex mainlai.s lIe
adottcd totalitarianis . Having ha.lliis ilhsion lhat Conndunism slill lrerails
liL deslr.r).d bvthe dictatolship, V"s.ts b,!foBing the (€rner fanilt to rctrh their
out otr a grandiosc aDd extreDrel) !iolent old drab clothes, lurnishins aDd food.
campaign to 1ea. doim all fonns! Horvelcr, tlrc irretence gets |.rdcr aDd
oorc stated thaL the cornicltrs crcrted iD harder to upkc.p as giganljc Coca Colaads,
reactidi to what he desfised about tlien BM\\s and IKEA f!rnisl) b.giD
B tish Pljme MjDister Xl arga rct Thatchcis rppeari.g all rroNrd the Deislibourhood.
rlg 0 UT THt ,'lRlltR aurhoritarian stlle ol soverDmcnt. Th. The wesL is laintly satiisc.i connnunism
Wachowskis, howcvcr, ilanted Lo cliLicisc nay have beconre a rcprcssite force, but
TI P.eside.l Bos| so thcvnade "v-'i oa l|c cmbracirg ol lhe new connnoditr
.|.ninion of liberalism
cl cullure hrs lcd to an iiie\.itible alicnation
.onseN.tive ri)reii drent

30 BR0ADIR PIR5PIITVtS r/r. td.ol.rqv issr.


CAPITAUSM / Thjs 2ooo Arneican movie
centres around the Dhenornenon of
disrcputable brokerage firms t]rat cheat their
clients ol a lot ofmonel'. such fims were
also loown as "boiler rooms . UDfolding the
worst e{cesses and impulses of a capitalisr
society, aoilel Rdon shows how brokers
create artificial demand lbr the stocks ofa
f*e conpe)' and then seDing their stalG in
The Elders
the conpany to cash in once the stock price HERO / Initiated by radjcal entrepreneur Sir tuchard
rises. only when faced with the nioral Branson, activist/musician Peter Gabriel and former
dilenma of having to cheat a cNtomer who South Atrican President Nelson Mandela, this group
caDnot affold to lose money does the hero
of world leaders believes their collective experience
of Boiler Roon take steps to leave the
and wisdom should be used to address the world's
company and his iucrative career behind.
toushcst problems. Chaired bv former South African
Boiler.Roon is often compared to clenrrdnv
Gler Ross and Wal/ Streer two other novies Afthbishop Desnond Tutu, th€ sroup offers a sood
that sum up the nasty truih that in a representation of gender and cultural difierences:
capitalist socjeq, creed is cood" (to quote inclrding powerful women tlilG lbrner Iris} Presid€nt
W'll Street's infamoDs villain cordon ceckol- Mary Robinson and Mozanbican acuvist Graca
Machel), adivists (like Graneen Bank lbunder
Muhanmad Yunus and Indian trade union leader
Ela Bhatt) as well as retired political heaqryeishts
lil€ lbrn1er tn'I Secretary General Kofi Annan, fonner
Jimmy Carler, retired Brazilian Presideni
The Storv US President
Frrn!ndo Cirdo.o rn,l rormer.hinFse lorFiBn
of Qiu Ju Mirister Li Zhaoxing. Wi$ their substantial clo t,
the Elders can dmw attentioD to world issues tlat are
COMMUNISM/ Qiu Ju, a sinple peasant isnored by thc mainstream prcss while lvorkins boih
wonan sets out on a $rest for compensation pubticly and behind the scenes on whatei'€. diplonatic
ftom the siate when her husband Sets kicked 2.tions need to he Laken. ft
in the sroin by the local vi ase chiet h her
scarch, she uncovers a legal system rife with
red tape. Qiu ft reveals the laby lthine,
bur€aucratic nishimarc that all gov€rnmcnis George W. Bush PHOTO
notjust the Communist Chinese one - CREDIT/
can evolve into once they lose sight oftheir VTT,LATN / So mn.i hrs rlre,dv been s,id
purposetoseNe the people. The movie also about present U.S. PresideDt Bush's
Fovides profound nEight irlto lbw the citiaD incompetence that it almost seems trite to say
hinselfmaylose his moral compass wher more. The fervent embrace of Pr€sidential
he becomes self rishteous. Obscssed with hopeful Barack obama s seductive call for
justice to the poini ofvengeance, Qiu Ju finds "Change" testifies to how embittered the
herself suing and polentially disgracing a AmericaD electorate has become to Bush's
civil se ant who she has found to be lesacy a possible recession, a poorcr niddle
senuinely kind and helpful (instead of the class and a trail of ill-feelins ]eft behind by a
orisinal \'ilase chie0 to nake her point. belligerent fbreign poUcy. It

3l ER0ADIR PtRSPtOlVts the iss e

REB00T Y0tiR iii!iltl

The Good, The Bad & The Ugly

From the tumultous u,orld of icleological clashes, get to kno\\'iust eight villains and heroes
from our political history. By Nadja NIah

to Liciol-a aganrst thc Ii
Po/ Pot
llauist Punrc Nlinisrer olCambodia
cst.blishnrg the Pcoplc s RepnblicofChnra.
(197a, 19791$ho l.d comnnnGtsroup
Contror€rsialfigurc: \rcneriicd nr Chnra
!s a grerr relolLrtionary .nd srrrr€gistbnt
arorceircd rcstutifg oa CnnbodiaD
rcvil.d b!donesric and loicign critics lir the
.nnlisarnm in "vcf zero ' by for(d
iailLrrc ofhis thr m.!or
relocatnD ofcity daelleF to wo.k
programs, rhe Grcat Leap Forward andrhe
c'lfirr,l Revolution. that led lo Dillions ol
Singledortall nrtell.ctu.lstnd bourg€ois
c cmies_tornruder Slavclibou., poor
IIaDJ historians renain criticalol1lIao, often
r.di.ri c,re. mal rtdlionand nrass
oompadnglrim to Stahr and Hillc,
cx.ctrtions Lillerl an estun.lcd r.7 million

J-dt 4mtn
Military dcspot; President ol Usanda

Cl..ged wirh politicil reDr€ssnm,

ethnic p€rsccution, mass mude.
and human rishts ibus€s.
A snlrem€ egoist rlio dlDled hnns€lf
''His EycellencJ", lile and
drost nra.nonsly
Nhrrdcred high
_Kng ol Scolhnd

trofile political.nenies
nllLdidg i fonner LJgandan primc
ministcrs, rn archbishop, a chi.ljrFrice
\ and his o!!n ..bnret nnrisrcrs.
Socialist Prcsdcnl olYuaoslavia

(rharged Nith oFuption, ablst of

Douer and embczzlem€nt
Brought to lntenalioDal Cfi rnul
Trilunrl ro srmd tnaL Ior \'iolainrg
O.ncv. Conl€Dtions and coJnnritnrg
gc.ocide .grnrsr Serbi.r II!s]nns dning

32 ER0ADtR PtRSPt(IlvtS r/rri.l.' 1,,r,

J;-oy Cc,rler
Ch.istinn, SocillistrP.cs cnt ofAm€ ca
(1977 - r98t Nh! ndvocrtcd holdnrg -dnenca s
bchdviour to the moralstanda otChrist.
Bc.rmeunpop ar becans€ olpoor
hudlins ol IraD hostaae disis a.d Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan.
(cr,fisue aDdlollnteer behnrd.espected
NCO Iiabitat for Humanity.
Nobel Peace P zewinnerin 2oo2lor
contlid rasolutior, health..rc.f dhunrn glls
adro.a.) $ork donc rlr.olgli Ca.ler Ccntr(.

Christian, Denro.rarici hesident of South
A6ica h99,1 - r999) hno becadr.n
nrternrtionrl i.on of arcedom and cquxlity
fo. his apa.theid.
hnpdsoned for:7 yea.s bclore wimins
thepresirlcrc! through his policy of
reconciliation and ncgotiation that sas
inspntd by G.ddlii doals ofnon violence.
NobclPecc P zc wimrd nr 1993lor
hi\ \rorl ir p+rhlishirs: nnrlri r,.irl,rvif S.rrh Afii.r

Ch.istian. Democratici war rnne Prnre

Ministc. ol Unit€d KinAdom (19sr r gss)

IDspirnrA omtor whose sliltul use.f
h fight or ard not
rhetonc coDlinced Bntanr
bachdoM ard negodare l)eaccad tc ns {it}r

R€cei!€d Nobel P.ize forl,;lc.aturc lor

I.'r il{ilt{il1\\l tititr Ktm

xlrEhn KingofJordan h952 - r999J
(luided ,ro.drn suc.essfullv thrcugh th.
tensions of rhe rab-Isr.cli.onnicL
Exlelled lle Palcstine Libcration
O.sanisation lrom Jo.daD ior t.1iDs to

N.aoli.lcd pcacc tr(dty $ith lsrael.

33 BR0ADIR PtRsPtfl\,tS tlle idealoq! issu?



;1-i o



;;a a

!i )!





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